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  • 451.
    Eliasson, Thommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Fuktsäkerhetsarbete på NCC i Umeå2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Problemen med fuktskador i byggnader är många och kostnaderna för att åtgärda problemen är stora. ByggaF är en metod som riktar sig till hela byggprocessen och den dokumenterar, kommunicerar samt säkerställer fuktsäkerheten genom hela den processen. NCC använder sig idag av en egen metod för att säkerställa fuktsäkerheten och den metoden jämförs i detta arbete mot ByggaF. Arbetet inriktar sig mot produktionsskedet av byggprocessen vilket innebär att fuktsäkerhetsarbetet är granskat i det skedet.

    Syftet med detta examensarbete är att NCC i Umeå ska få en bättre kännedom om vad ByggaF är och hur den metoden kan användas inom byggproduktion. Ytterligare syfte är att visa hur arbetet kan ske för att förebygga fuktskaderisken genom att använda metoden ByggaF, en metod för fuktsäkert byggande.

    Arbetet är utfört på NCCs byggnation på Öbacka strand etapp 4 och det bygget har fungerat som referens för NCCs fuktarbete. Undersökningen har utförts genom observation ute på byggarbetsplatsen, granskning av den upprättade fuktsäkerhetsplanen samt frågeställning till berörda.

    Resultatet som redovisas i denna rapport visar att NCCs fuktsäkerhetsarbete är genomtänkt och upplägget liknar ByggaF. Viktiga punkter som finns upprättade i fuktsäkerhetsplanen är till exempel: krav som beställaren har ställt, mätningar i trä utförs och dokumenteras, materialet förvaras på ett bra sätt samt att åtgärder vid avvikelser fanns formulerade. Där NCC mest skiljer sig i jämförelse med ByggaF är att uppföljning av fuktsäkerhetsplanen inte sker. Enligt ByggaF ska specifika fuktronder utföras med ett visst intervall för att säkerställa att fuktsäkerhetsplanen följs. Fuktronder utförs inte på referensobjektet och det finns inte angivet i NCCs egen metod för fuktsäkerhetsarbete.

    En fuktrond utfördes på referensobjektet för att kontrollera hur fuktsäkerhetsplanen följs. Fuktronden visar att fuktsäkerhetsplanen används vilket är positivt ur fuktsynpunkt.

  • 452.
    Elin, Hörnfeldt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Designing a visual regression testing tool: Decrease fear-driven development and enhance the quality assurance2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Testing a software is important to maintain the quality of the application. There are many ways of testing functionality of an application but not so many for testing the interface. When reusing CSS is a common approach, one change in the CSS can cause many visual changes on the interface. Not testing these changes, visual errors might occur which can decrease the quality of the application. Also, not knowing where the change is affecting, fear-driven development, i.e. the developers feels fear when changing code, can arise for the developers. In this thesis, a pre-study was made to investigate if any current feardriven development existed among developers. Then a visual regression testing tool was created, using a rapid prototyping process, to help the developers testing the interface during the evolving process of the application. The tool’s primary purpose is to show images of the visual changes that have occurred for the developers and as a result, the fear-driven development can decrease for the developers and the quality can be improved. The tool was implemented using AngularJS, NodeJS and ResembleJS and was tested on UI developers. The developers got a case where they had made CSS changes and then wanted to see how the changes affected the site they were working on. All of the developers felt, often or sometimes, fear when changing code. After using the tool, their feelings of fear-driven development was decreased and they all saw the tool as helpful when finding visual errors that might occur when CSS or web components are changed.

  • 453.
    Elinge, Ingrid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Energitillförselsystems inverkan vid val av energieffektiviseringsåtgärd utifrån ett LCA-perspektiv2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Renovations meant to make buildings more energy efficient is a considerable economic investment that requires a thorough collection of data before a choice regarding a specific solution can be made. At present, around a fifth of Sweden’s total use of energy goes to provide heating for buildings. Only around one percent of the total collection of property consists of new constructions, therefore the ones that stand for the majority of the energy usage are the already existing buildings. The national goals that have been set regarding energy efficiency and a decrease of greenhouse gases are therefore more applicable with the existing buildings. Since around a third of them are going to be in need of renovations within the next few years it is therefore of importance to examine which energy efficient renovation that is most suited based on an environmental perspective.

    This project is based on a reference building located in Umeå where four different kinds of renovation strategies have been examined. They have been: change of windows and balcony doors, extra insulation of the façade, extra insulation of the attic, a combination of the previously mentioned renovations as well as installation of solar panels. These renovation strategies have then been combined with different energy supply systems. The studied energy supply systems have been: geothermal heat pump, district heating, electric heating and a pellet stove. The method that has been applied have been a simplified lifecycle analysis (LCA) that has looked at the extraction of raw materials, production and transport of the finished product from manufacturing to Umeå. Both the amount of energy required and the emission of greenhouse gases from the process have been taken into account. The scope of this project has been to give property-holders an idea of which renovation stages that is most sustainable for their specific building. The goal has been to acquire values of the amount of energy used and the amount of greenhouse gases released for each renovation stage, as well as the pay-back time required after implementation.

    The result of this study shows the importance of investigating the environmental savings for a longer time period. Otherwise it can give misdirecting conclusions. As well, it is important to include the effect that transportation has on the environment. Generally speaking, it can be said that the higher the emission factor is for a buildings energy supply system the higher incitement there is, based on an environmental perspective, to carry through a renovation, so that its energy requirements are lessened. At present electricity has the highest emission factor and installment of solar panels would make the biggest reduction of released equivalent carbon dioxide if it weren’t for emissions made during the transportation of them. But it is not possible to get back the emissions released during a whole lifetime. Regarding individual renovations, a change of windows and balcony doors was the most suited based on both views. Extra insulation of the façade had earned itself in immediately, based on the decrease of equivalent carbon dioxide. That is because the façade to be made of wood was required. That renovation is therefore in need of more studies in order to find a definite conclusion.

    The study has only been done on one reference building which has previously undergone a renovation with the purpose of making it more energy efficient. Thus, the results that are presented here could differ if they were made on a building that was still in its original form.

  • 454.
    Elvelind, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Mönsterigenkänning och trendanalys i elnät: Prognostisering av elkvalitet samt effektuttag inom industrin2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Interest in power quality has increased as electrical equipment, such as inverters, nowadays emits more disturbances. Electrical equipment has also become less tolerant to disturbances, while industries have become less tolerant to disturbances in the production. Traditionally, fault diagnosis and handling have been performed when the fault has already arisen and has been based on historical data. Through its application PQ4Cast, Metrum have introduced pattern recognition to forecast power quality parameters and active power, and thereby contribute to proactive maintenance. The application creates a forecast for the coming week based on data for the last few weeks. Under development is also a function for trend analysis of, among other things, power consumption and voltage level.

    The objective with the implementation of PQ4Cast is to achieve higher availability and minimize costs for maintenance and unplanned interruptions. A second objective is to increase the control over variations in power consumption. The aim of this thesis is to determine which deviations are important for Sandvik, develop methods for evaluating the application’s functionality and provide a basis for how forecasts from the application should be managed. The aim is also to determine the usefulness of the trend analysis function.

    For Sandvik, the greatest benefit is seen in gaining control over future values for active power, reactive power and variations in the RMS value of the voltage. Of these, variations in active and reactive power should be most suitable for PQ4Cast to identify. For examination of the conformity between prognosis and actual outcome, the use of correlation coefficient, determination coefficient and significance level of five percent is recommended. Use of MAPE, Mean Absolute Percentage Error, is also recommended to quantify the forecast error. In the event of good conformity, the forecasts for active power from PQ4Cast are recommended for weekly forecasts to the electricity trading company, Statkraft, in combination with temperature forecasts and forecasts of production following week.

    The trend analysis function shows MAPE at a few percent for the active effect. Further investigations of the function are recommended and in case of good conformity, the prognosis is recommended as the basis for forecasts given to Statkraft and as the basis for new power agreements with Vattenfall in combination with production forecast. For analysis of the trend for the voltage's RMS value, the deviation from the forecasted value is only a few tenths of a percentage. Here further studies are recommended and then specifically at area in the grid where installation of solar power is planned.

    The application PQ4Cast and the trend analysis function are expected to lead to economic benefits, such as reduced costs for purchase of electricity, reduced electricity grid charges and significant savings if disturbances that may lead to interruptions can be detected and prevented. Disturbances of short duration, such as voltage dips, are however hard to detect with the current setup of the application.

  • 455.
    Emil, Ceder
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Detect misconnected Telia customers in the network2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The project consists of creating a program that can detect fiber customers that has been misconnected on the switch connecting them to the Telia network. The program will be able compare what customer is configured on the port against the customer who has received and the Telia router connected to the port. If there is a mismatch then there is a chance the customer has been misconnected.

    The comparison can be done because the unique serial number of the Telia router is both registered in the session database over active Telia routers and also in the database of products delivered to customers. This will only work on customers with Telia routers, but it will still be helpful as it would give an indication of what switches might have misconnect customers. If there is one misconnected customer on a switch there is likely to be more.

    The program was created with MySQL and PHP in the form of a web tool. The program can be run against certain switches or the program can be run against all active Telia routers and look for mismatches.

    To make the program work it required access to the session database over active Telia routers, the database over customer configuration on the port and the database over Telia routers sent to customers. These are three different systems and because of the time constraint only a part of the data was used or retrieved from testing environments.

    With the available data the program could do the comparison against 8627 customers and of those 303 customers had a mismatch in the comparison. This does not necessarily mean that all of them are misconnected. In most cases it was another person in the household receiving the Telia router than the person that was signed up on Telia services. This could be sort out by ensuring that the person receiving the Telia router also was signed up to a Telia service. This left 57 customers out of the 303. Out of those 57 customers a part of them had special services and some had split the services on two persons in one household. After sorting them out manually there was around 15 customers left who was likely misconnected

    There is still no way to be certain those 15 customer are misconnected, however there a possibility they are and if there are several mismatches on a single switch it is certainly worth investigating further as it is a large possibility there are misconnected customers.

  • 456.
    Emil, Rönnmark
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Energikartläggning av Kopparhuset i Skellefteå2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 457.
    Emilia, Stjern
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Konsekvenser av ett omfattande elavbrott inom äldrevården2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A long term large-scale power outage would have a big impact on the society, not least for the elderly and sick people. The Swedish hospitals are well prepared for a power outage. How the municipal healthcare chain would cope with a large-scale power outage is not as well investigated.

    The purpose with this report is to increase the knowledge about what consequences a power outage would cause at the elderly care homes and how they could prepare for a scenario like that. The goal is to produce a report to ease the planning of emergency power solutions to the elderly care homes.

    To re-establish the power supply in case of a power outage the most common solution today is a diesel generator. An elderly care home was chosen as a reference to be able to calculate how big efficiency that is needed to supply necessary equipment with enough power. The result showed that the diesel generator need to be able to deliver 640 kVA. A model of the elderly care home was built in the simulation software IDA ICE. A simulation was made to decide how fast the temperature inside the building is sinking in case of an interruption in the district heating system. According to the result the temperature inside the building would be 11 ºC after 48 hours with an outside temperature at almost – 20 ºC. During a day with high temperatures can the inside temperature rise to 29 ºC.

    A power outage could cause big problems for the elderly care homes if there are no access of diesel generators. A diesel generator which would supply an elderly care home with electricity will consume a big amount of diesel. To facilitate the distribution of diesel in case of an emergency is it important to establish a plan for how much diesel that would be consumed over a day and how to secure the delivery to the most important places. 

    If the power outage occurs during a period with unusually hot or cold weather the vulnerability increases because the elderly people appear to be more sensitive of overheating or hypothermia. To know which buildings that would be prioritized in case of an interruption in the district heating system ore cooling system, would it be an advantage to document the buildings time constants.

     

  • 458.
    Enestam, Sonja
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi.
    Boman, Christoffer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry.
    Niemi, Jere
    Metso Power.
    Boström, Dan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry.
    Backman, Rainer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry.
    Mäkele, Kari
    Metso Power.
    Hupa, Mikko
    Åbo Akademi.
    Occurrence of zinc and lead in aerosols and deposits in the fluidized bed combustion of recovered waste wood:  Part 1: Samples from boilers2011In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 1396-1404Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Combustion of recovered waste wood (RWW) has led to increased fouling and corrosion of furnace walls, superheaters, and economizers. These problems have been associated mainly with chlorine, zinc, and lead in the deposits but also with sodium and titanium. The presence of lead and zinc compounds, especially lead and zinc chlorides, has been shown to increase the corrosivity of the deposits even at relatively low metal temperatures (230−450 °C). The present work determined experimentally the distribution and speciation of zinc and lead compounds in aerosol particles and deposits in the fluidized-bed combustion of RWW. Measurements were conducted in both a full-scale (20 MWth) plant with as-received RWW and in a pilot-scale (2 MWth) setup with as-received RWW and RWW doped with zinc and lead. The results show that the amount and speciation of zinc and lead in the deposits vary depending upon the fuel composition, flue gas temperature, and metal temperature. Both lead and zinc chlorides are found in temperature ranges typical for the primary superheater area. A caracolite-type compound [Na3Pb2(SO4)3Cl] was identified in deposits from the economizer area and K2ZnCl4 in the sub-micrometer aerosol particle fraction.

  • 459. Enestam, Sonja
    et al.
    Mäkelä, Kari
    Backman, Rainer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry.
    Hupa, Miko
    Occurrence of Zinc and Lead in Aerosols and Deposits in the Fluidized-Bed Combustion of Recovered Waste Wood. Part 2: Thermodynamic Considerations2011In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 1970-1977Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work, which is the second part in a series of two, multi-phase, multi-component equilibrium calculations were used to study the chemistry and deposition behavior of lead and zinc in the combustion of recovered waste wood (RWW). Particular attention was paid to the deposition behavior in different parts of the boiler under varying flue gas and material temperature conditions. In addition, the influence of fuel composition was considered by studying three different fuel compositions. The results from the calculations were compared to experimental results from two measurement campaigns, whose goal was to experimentally determine the distribution and speciation of zinc and lead compounds in aerosol particles and deposits in the fluidized-bed combustion of RWW. The results from the experimental work are presented in part 1 (10.1021/ef101478n) of this work.

  • 460.
    Enevold, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Development of light-emitting electrochemical cells for novel applications2011Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The work intended to make progress towards the objective of fiber-shaped light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs). LECs comprising a film of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly (styrenesulphonate) (PEDOT:PSS) cast from aqueous dispersion as the sole transparent anode were produced and characterized. It was shown that it is possible to achieve uniform yellow-green light emission at an efficiency of 0.96 cd/A from such LECs fabricated by spin coating at low rotational speed. Implications of using different cathode metals and varying the order of deposition of the films were studied and shown to have significant influence on device performance. Lastly, a novel fiber-like LEC in a coaxial geometry was produced, which promises bright prospects for new applications due to the flexibility of the used materials.

  • 461.
    Enfros, Filip
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Konstruktion av tiltmekanism: Tiltmekanism för slaga2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 462.
    Engberg, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Kommunikation mellan olika märken av växelriktare och tredjepartsprogram2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns en mängd olika tillverkare av solcellssystem idag och dessa säljer sina egna programvaror och övervakningsmöjligheter. När en produkt är ny och i sin linda kan det vara oklart vilken teknik som skall bli ledande och därför väljer ett företag att satsa brett och sprida sina risker. Samtidigt som det är en fördel blir påföljden ofta vissa kompabilitetsproblem. Genom att kartlägga Umeå Energis solcellsanläggningar, sammanställa olika växelriktares protokoll och kommunikationsvägar kan en gemensam standard urskiljas. Målet med denna rapport är att föreslå en lösning på loggning och datainsamling genom att hitta ett gemensamt protokoll eller plattform. Det kommunikationsprotokoll alla växelriktare i denna rapport kan använda sig av är Modbus RTU. Men för att bygga ett framtidssäkert kommunikationsnät rekommenderar författaren Modbus TCP.

  • 463.
    Engebro, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Konstruktion av pressfixtur: För sidoplåtar till gripare G40HD2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor thesis was made for Cranab in Vindeln. Cranab manufactures grapples for the mechanized forestry, which are used to collect and move harvested timber. A grapple consists of two main parts, the gripping claws and a cradle. The cradle is made up by several different parts, whereof two side plates, a right and a left side plate. The side plates are cut in a laser cutting process and are then bent in a press machine, before they are welded together. In the present situation the side plates are feed in to the press machine manually, which takes a long time and the risk is that result is not consistent.This work was to develop a design proposal of a press fixture to Cranab. By creating a fixture the pressing step can be performed more quickly and with higher quality to the final product. This contributes to making Cranabs production more efficient and flexible. The fixture has to be adapted to the existing press machine and must be able to handle both side plates.When designing a fixture there are many parameters to consider, the design must be adapted to the existing machinery and meet the set requirements for both quality and work environment. Consultation with the production staff were carried out to take advantage of their practical experiences and opinions. The final design proposal is a clear improvement over the current handling and meets the stated requirements and demands.

  • 464.
    Englund, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Donor UX, applied guidelines: Donors user experience and user journey guidelines for charity organizations2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Those living in cities in the age group of 20-30 years contribute the least to charity. This, in combination with decreasing use of physical cash, calls for a revision of charity organizations’ approaches on raising funds. How should charitable organizations’ update their current procedures? This thesis explores user experience by observing and analyzing the entirety of the user journey, resulting in guidelines dedicated to those trying to make the world a better place.

  • 465.
    Englund Sandlund, Emil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Energibesparingspotential i belysningssystem2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 466.
    Engman Reed, Martina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Plan for evaluation of Austin Energy Green Building’s Multifamily Rating Program2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Austin Energy Green Building (AEGB) started their multifamily rating program in 1999. It is a green building program where participants can receive different ratings, 1-5 stars, depending on how many requirements the building fulfills. AEGB wants to evaluate the projected energy and demand savings from the multifamily program to be able to report to Austin Energy at the end of the fiscal year.

    Buildings going through the multifamily rating program can either use a prescriptive approach or a performance approach. For the prescriptive approach the savings are evaluated with the help of a deemed savings value. For the performance approach the participant needs to turn in an energy model of the proposed buildings with modeled projected energy and demand savings.

    The purpose of this degree project was to develop a plan for evaluation of the projected savings from the multifamily rating program.  AEGB will need to be able to compare the projected energy and demand savings with the actual energy and demand savings from the buildings that have gone through the program. Focus has been on finding a suitable evaluation approach, based on the available data. Criteria for inclusion were determined. Evaluation of all buildings is not be possible and therefore a sample size needed to be determined for the population. The projected energy savings data was analyzed. A way to account for apartments without full year use data was studied as well as common criteria for uncertainty analysis.

    It was suggested that one year of full energy use data was enough as criterion for buildings to be a part of the population to be evaluated, which gave a population size of 29 buildings.  of the buildings received a 1-3 star rating and they account for about  or  of the projected energy savings. If a simple random sample is used with a confidence level of  and  relative precision the sample will be 21 buildings. If the relative precision is changed to  the sample will contain 11 buildings. Another option is to use stratified random sample, and sample sizes were calculated by star rating and size of the buildings. A number of different ways of accounting for vacant units were found however the latest vacancy rate for multifamily buildings in Austin was . This corresponds to about  in lost projected energy savings for the buildings that have gone through AEGB’s multifamily program. Lastly, post occupancy evaluation (POE) will be recommended for this evaluation effort of AEGB’s multifamily program.

  • 467.
    Engström, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Investigation and evaluation of high-rise buildings: A comparison of ECO Silver House in different climates2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is a part of the project “Energy Efficient demo multi residential high-rise buildings” (EE-HIGHRISE) within the 7 Framework Program by the European Union which has started to contribute to the EU energy and climate change policy. A demonstration house called ECO Silver House is currently under construction in Ljubljana in Slovenia and is planned to reach the European passive house standard.

    The main aim of this thesis is to investigate the model of Eco Silver House in different climates to see where in Europe ECO Silver House can reach passive house standard. In order to do that national regulations and recommendations needs to be taken in consideration.

    To perform the simulations two different simulating programs were used. Those were Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) and IDA Indoor Climate and Energy (IDA ICE).  In PHPP the model of ECO Silver House was tested for the climate of five cities around Europe. Those cities were Stockholm, London, Rome, Buzet and Vienna. In IDA ICE, ECO Silver House was simulated in Ljubljana and Stockholm because of the limitation of time. After the investigation of the energy demands in the different countries the study continued with evaluating the model.

    A literature review on attitude in different European countries towards high-rise buildings was also conducted and some other high-rise buildings around Europe were investigated. 

    According to the PHPP analysis, ECO Silver House is fulfilling the European passive house requirements in London, Rome and Buzet. The passive house requirements is when the annual heating demand is below 15 kWh/(m2·year) or the heating load is below 10 W/m2 and the primary energy is under 120 kWh/(m2·year). In Ljubljana, Stockholm and Vienna the requirements are not met. It is possible to achieve the passive house standard in Vienna and Ljubljana through additional energy saving measures. However, in Sweden the building cannot achieve the passive house standard with energy saving measures such as a better heat exchanger and thicker insulation of the ambient walls.

    Also in IDA ICE ECO Silver House does not fulfill the passive house requirements in neither of the simulated countries. The results are very similar to the ones in PHPP with only the primary energy for Stockholm that differ noticeable.

    There are some other high-rise passive houses around Europe that proves that they are possible to build. Both in Sweden and Austria high-rise passive houses has been built in the recent years and an old conventional high-rise building has been renovated into passive house standard in Germany. When it comes to the acceptance towards high-rise buildings around Europe it shows that in the South and East part of Europe they have a more positive attitude towards it. In the North and West Europe they have a more skeptic view towards high-rise living. In central Europe they have for a long time had a negative attitude but today many high-rise projects in Switzerland and Germany are built which may change that attitude.

  • 468.
    Enmark, Lisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Personalisering för mobila användare med avseende på användarvänlighet: Personalization for mobile users in terms of usability2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Umeå universitet håller i nuläget på att utveckla ett nytt intranät som är tänkt att användas av anställda på Umeå universitet. Detta intranät har ett inloggat och utloggat läge. Det utloggade läget är öppet för allmänheten och det inloggade är tänkt ska vara en personaliserad del där den anställde ska kunna anpassa sitt inloggade läge efter behov. Denna inloggade del kommer till stor del bestå av sociala forum, såsom aktivitetsflöde där man kan läsa statusuppdateringar eller delade dokument från andra anställda på Universitetet som användaren prenumererar på. Det ska också gå att bilda grupper kring projekt, kunna samtala och ha samarbetsytor för gemensamma dokument. För att den inloggade mobila versionen ska fungera bra på mobilen krävs det att det finns ett uttänkt gränssnitt som är baserat på hur användaren resonerar. Vikten av att den mobila versionen är situationsanpassad, det vill säga att den är designad utifrån var användaren kommer att använda det mobila intranätet är stor. För att kunna tillgodose användarens behov har i detta projekt en mobil prototyp skapats för att se hur ett intranät i mobilen skulle kunna se ut, och hur denna ska skapas för att användaren ska behöva fundera så lite som möjligt vid interaktion. Efter att ett flertal olika typer av prototyper skapats har det slutligen blivit en kvar. Denna prototyp är helt och hållet baserad på de olika designregler som finns att utgå ifrån. För att användaren ska kunna känna igen sig finns det också vissa exempel på delar som påminner om utseendet på webbplatsen. Eftersom det är viktigt att det dock finns en skillnad mellan webbplatsen och mobila gränssnittet har jag försökt att skala av så mycket som möjligt för att få fram en mobil prototyp som fungerar för någon i farten, där användaren ska kunna göra snabba ärenden men också för längre läsning om man så önskar. Strukturen för menyn är uppbygd på ett sådant sätt där det finns möjlighet att lägga in många steg och därför kunna rymma all relevant information. 

  • 469.
    Enqvist, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Utformning av cisternpark: Föreskrifter och allmänna råd med hänsyn till miljö och säkerhet2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental issues play an increasingly central role in our legislation. Environmental targets drawn up by companies and governments issue regulations that help to prevent potential environmental disasters. Today there is knowledge about what emissions and by-products from industrial facilities leads to nature, man and animal life, and from that create solutions that are designed to prevent future emissions and safety risks.

    This report should serve as a basis for how the harbor, Skärnäs Terminal can be planned in the future and show how surfaces can be utilized for a new tank farm. The report shall show the design in relation to regulations issued by authorities and its general counsel. This report also discusses equipment needed for the work environment.

    The work will result in a planar map and an sketch of the tank farm. The plan map will show the position with regard to the environment in the port area and the sketch will give a draft picture of how the park can be designed interior, with the requirements. This should then serve as a presentation map and hopefully form the basis for a future installation of a tank farm on Skärnäs Terminal.

  • 470.
    Enström, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Effektivisering av arbetet med rumsbeskrivningar2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To be able to take the construction industry to the next stage of development, thenatural step is by integrating BIM. In theory, it seems like many of the solutions thatcomes with the implementation of BIM are simple to understand and develop. Inpractice, however, the technical solutions are far from being completely implementedin the industry. In the making of different types of descriptions within a constructionproject, the development and progress using BIM has been idle for a long time. Asthere is no general way to utilize a BIM model's data to fill various descriptions, oneproblem to be resolved is the efficiency of the way the data is being handled. The reportintends to create a work flow for people involved in various construction projects todeal with descriptions of rooms and information in a more efficient way. Through ananalysis of which information that is essential for the different types of descriptions,information is being exported from and imported back to an Autodesk Revit model.The data is then distributed to room descriptions. With the help of the model and thevisual programming using Dynamo, conclusions are drawn that the way the systemwith descriptions works today is an inefficient way of working that requires a technicalupgrading. A lot of the information that is being established in the descriptions areavailable in the Revit model, but today it is mostly left unused and stuck in the modelas to why an approach to streamline this presented.

  • 471.
    Ericson, Carl
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Kontroll och uppdatering av AB Vimmerbyhus byggsystem2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 472. Eriksson, A. C.
    et al.
    Nordin, E. Z.
    Nyström, Robin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Pettersson, E.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Swietlicki, E.
    Bergvall, C.
    Westerholm, R.
    Boman, Christoffer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Pagels, J. H.
    Particulate PAH Emissions from Residential Biomass Combustion: Time-Resolved Analysis with Aerosol Mass Spectrometry2014In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 48, no 12, p. 7143-7150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Time-resolved emissions of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and total organic particulate matter (OA) from a wood log stove and an adjusted pellet stove were investigated with high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometry (ANIS). The highest OA emissions were found during the addition of log wood on glowing embers, that is, slow burning pyrolysis conditions. These emissions contained about 1% PAHs (of OA). The highest PAH emissions were found during fast burning under hot air starved combustion conditions, in both stoves. In the latter case, PAHs contributed up to 40% of OA, likely due to thermal degradation of other condensable species. The distribution of PAHs was also shifted toward larger molecules in these emissions. ANIS signals attributed to PAHs were found at molecular weights up to 600 Da. The vacuum aerodynamic size distribution was found to be bimodal with a smaller mode (D-va similar to 200 nm) dominating under hot air starved combustion and a larger sized mode dominating under slow burning pyrolysis (D-va similar to 600 nm). Simultaneous reduction of PAHs, OA and total particulate matter from residential biomass combustion may prove to be a challenge for environmental legislation efforts as these classes of emissions are elevated at different combustion conditions.

  • 473.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Energikartläggning av fastigheten Brage 62012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 474.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Torkning av flis med restvärme: Metoder för att sänka återledningstemperaturen2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study has been to evaluate whether a Low temperature bio-mass dryer could be integrated with the local district heating system in Malå. The aim is to increase the thermal efficiency of the cogeneration plant in Malå, by lowering the temperature of the cooling medium. Another benefit that comes from this is improved combustion efficiency at the power plant, since drying the fuel causes an Increase of the heating value.

    Simulations has been made in Excel, and with use of linear regression, to find out if it is profitable. Data for this purpose has been supplied by the power company Skellefteåkraft and furthermore SMHI.

    The result of the Calculations shows that a very efficient bio-mass dryer is needed, if yield of investments should be made possible. An Investment of 4,27 Mkr, in a dryer, could at a such criterium return 60000 kr/year, if the price of the biomass is 190kr/MWh. Furthermore this also demands that the time of instalments is set to 25years, and that electrical power can be used at the cost of 0,30kr/kWh.

    Calculations also shows that it could be quite profitable, If wood chips instead were to be made, with use of the Bio-mass dryer. In a such case the income could be 2,5 Mkr/year even if the investment of the dryer would be 10 Mkr. This demand that the time of instalments is set to 25 years and that biomass can be purchased at he cost of 170kr/MWh.

  • 475.
    Eriksson, Anton
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    3D-laserskanning och ytors egenskaper: En studie om semi-transparanta ytor, glans och de vanligaste felen vid skanning2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    3D laser scanning is a useful tool in manufacturing and is being used more and more. It can be hard to use the tool without any experience in scanning.

    This projekt investigates some of the common mistakes that are made by a beginners in scanning. It also examines some materials and their properties in scanning.

     

    The work has been done cooperation with Sliperiet at Umeå University through tests and studies on a handheld laserscanner, the HandyScan300 from Creaform.

     

    The project has resultet in a manual to help beginners in 3D-scanning. A comparison between four different semi-transparent plastic materials and their tendencies to be scanned under the surface. An analysis of glossy surfaces during scanning has also been made.

  • 476.
    Eriksson, Anton
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Analys av en bärande stomme i Dlubal RFEM och en undersökning av interoperabilitet med Tekla structures: Analysis of a supporting frame in Dlubal RFEM and a study of interoperability with Tekla structures2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    A building today is constructed using one or more virtual models. These different models can have different purposes and can be done in different programs. For example, a model in Tekla structures can be used to create an accurate depiction of the building's supporting frame with all the information needed to build it. A model in Dlubal RFEM can be used to analyze the supporting parts of a design to ensure that they can withstand the loads and stresses they will be exposed to. This project is carried out in collaboration with Wood Träkonstruktion Botnia. TK Botnia uses both Tekla and RFEM in its daily operations. At present, they draw a model in each program. Interoperability means an opportunity to exchange data and information between software in order to save time.

     

    The purpose of this thesis is partly to get an understanding of how the analysis and dimensioning of a load-bearing framework takes place in RFEM. This is by comparing results between RFEM and simpler methods such as Statcon and hand calculations. The purpose is also to examine an opportunity to save time not having to model the same design twice in two different software programs, in this project Tekla and RFEM.

     

    An example frame was first designed using Statcon in combination with hand calculations. Then an analysis model of the frame in RFEM was created to compare with the previous result. The frame was then modeled in Tekla to carry out tests on transferring the model to RFEM and investigating whether it can be used for analysis.

     

    The results show that an analysis of a frame in RFEM can give some other results when dimensioning than simpler methods such as Statcon and hand calculations. In this case, it primarily showed a chance to further optimize the frame in the form of cross-sections with smaller dimensions. The report also shows an opportunity to use a model created in Tekla for analysis in RFEM. This could save time in the project planning.

  • 477.
    Eriksson, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Kontinuitetsmetoden: Metod för kontiunitetsmätning av jordlinor i högspänningsnät2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The electricity supply is of great importance as a society function. In case of long or largeinterruptions it can generate extensive disturbances. If 130/220/400 kV-grid is not working asshould it can result in great consequences since it is the “heart” of the power system.Therefore it must be ensured that the grid is reliable, stable and secure. The regulations in thisline of business states that operation and maintenance controls should be executedperiodically and preventively. Measuring of grounding systems is a control, which should bedone since it is very important for function and facility safety, however controls of continuityare not included. If continuity does not exist the facility can lose its intended function and thatcan generate extensive disturbances. In SS-EN 61936-1 it is described that it should bepossible to execute continuity measurements on facilities, however that text is not reoccurringany other way in regulations, advice or instructions. Therefore it is neither an established nora conscious control in this line of business. That is why it needs to be highlighted.Continuity measurements have been executed on a total of 5 truss poles distributed on two400kV-grids. The instrument, CS3 Site Continuity Meter, is a new instrument for the Swedishmarket. It measures in powered plants. It is manufactured in Australia with conditions for thatspecific country, as an example the environment temperature for a measurement should be 0-50°C.Continuity measurements should be mandatory before commissioning of a new facility. Thenthe next measurement can be compared to it, which gives the best result when it comes toreviewing if the continuity has changed.Reviewing continuity based on measured values in comparison with theoretical values isuncertain since the theoretical calculations are based on a supposition of the ground line,length, material, conductor area and placement in ground. To find eventual connections, a lotof measurements and theoretical calculations based on documented information regarding theground line is required. To determine if continuity exists or not is easier to decide upon, bylooking at the measurements that are executed in its own range, for example around orbetween poles. If the values harmonize with each other and are under 250 mΩ then continuitycan be presumed existing in spite of noise and interruptions.Standardization of all components and their position on poles should exist. That wouldenhance quality and reduce the risk of inaccuracy in general measurements anddocumentation and especially in case of execution with different entrepreneurs. Purposeaccordant protocols should exist, preferably digital ones since that also should result inenhanced quality associated with registration of data. An early draft of a protocol in thecalculation software Excel has been started, a print-out on paper can be found in the appendix.Development and implement of a simple and safe business method regarding continuitymeasurement needs to be preceded by an investigation of business advice and standards,development of instrument and documentation and last but not least execution of moremeasurements to find distinct regulations. There are some parts that should be standardizedand established, although that needs to be investigated thoroughly since regulations also caninhibit development in this area.

  • 478.
    Eriksson, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Designing a surrounding environment for a mobile application creation editor2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The SATIN project has the aim to enable end users to create their own mobile applications without prior programming experience, and in this way assist non programmers in the transition to the digital society. In this thesis an environment has been designed anddeveloped, that surrounds the existing SATIN mobile application creation editor, with thepurpose of supporting the developers and facilitate collaboration. Based on the theory of End User Programming, a web-based environment built inDjango, a Python framework, was developed and the existing editor was adapted to functiontogether with this environment. The resulting environment is to be seen as a proof ofconcept for the future progress of the SATIN project.

  • 479.
    Eriksson, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Utredning om förekomsten och inverkan av övertoner i Umeås centrala elnät2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Elmiljö och elkvalitet är något som har fått ökat fokus de senaste åren, en av parametrarna som kontrolleras för att erhålla en tillfredställande elkvalitet är övertoner. Den senaste tidens teknikutveckling har gjort att mer övertoner går ut på elnätet, samtidigt som utrustningen blir allt mer känslig mot störningar. För att minimera utbredningen av övertoner har en ny standard tillkommit där kraven för tillåtna nivåer har skärps.

    Projektet uppkom eftersom bostadsområdet Forellen i centrala Umeå översteg gränsvärdet för övertoner två gånger under 2012. Under projektet har gränsvärdet dessutom överstigits fyra gånger i Umåkers fördelningsstation.

    En litteraturstudie om elkvalitet och övertoner har genomförts. Information från de mätarna med fast installation har analyserats och kompletterande mätningar har genomförts för att erhålla en överskådlig bild av övertonernas förekomst. Det har även genomförts simuleringar med övertoner för att öka förståelsen kring olika övertonsproblem.

    Övertoner uppkommer främst av apparater som drivs på likström. Likriktaren använder bara en del av strömkurvan, vilket skapar övertoner. Enfaslaster sänder främst ut den 3:e övertonen, som summeras i nolledaren vilket kan leda till att nolledaren överbelastas. Trefaslaster sänder främst ut den 5:e övertonen, dessa övertoner sprids relativt obehindrat genom transformatorn och kan skapa resonans med kondensatbatterier. Frekvensomvandlare som saknar filter anses vara den mest problematiska störningskällan eftersom den släpper ut väldigt höga nivåer av övertoner samtidigt som de ofta används vid större effekter.

    Ett problem med övertoner är att nolledaren överbelastas, vilket kan leda till att ett spänningsfall i nolledaren uppstår eller i värsta fall att den förstörs. Övertoner skapar även ökade förluster i transformatorer och motorer.

    Störningarna som gjorde att gränsvärdet för övertoner överstegs i Umåkers fördelningsstation kommer från en större fabrik. Även störningar i bostadsområdet Forellen visade sig komma från samma fabrik, eftersom fabriken har möjlighet att koppla över till Tegs fördelningsstation som matar till Forellen. I samband med att fabriken matades från Tegs fördelningsstation och ett resonansfenomen i ett kondensatorbatteri så spreds störningen till bostadsområdet. 

    Simuleringarna som är gjorda visar att spänningsövertonerna sprids mellan kunderna, samtidigt som strömövertonerna sprids mot strömkällan (transformatorn). Detta betyder att strömövertonerna ska undersökas när en störningskälla ska lokaliseras i nätet. Simuleringar visar även vikten av att ett starkt nät med låg impedans främjar en bättre elkvalitet.

    Överlag anses inte övertoner vara något större problem i Umeås centrala elnät. Störningar som överstiger gränsvärdet kommer från en större kundanläggning och inte från en sammanlagring av många mindre störningar. Ett bostadsområde anses inte kunna överskrida gränsvärdena för övertoner samtidigt som största delen av övertonerna fastnar i transformatorns deltalindning.  Eftersom övertoner sprids relativt obehindrat i nätet erhålls en bra överblick av förekomsten av övertoner genom att mäta elkvaliteten i fördelningsstationerna.

  • 480.
    Eriksson, Dennis
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Energilagring i hushåll och nätstationer: En utredning med fokus på hur energilager kan appliceras i hushåll och i nätstationer, samt vilka effekter detta ger på effekttoppar och användarkurvan2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present powergrid is currently undergoing a modernization, developing into a smarter grid with more and more renewable energy sources being connected every day. To successfully manage to fully liquidate the use of fossil energy and nuclear power, it’s demanded by their successors to keep the same reliability and capacity. Energy storage systems can play a great role in enabling this transition, partially to decrease the losses on the power grid but also to maintain the reliability and increase the flexibility.

    This study has been conducted with the main focus on load leveling households and substations, but also to locate which applications an energy storage system may have in the future and explain the benefits and disadvantages that rises from it. This study also presents a survey on different kinds of battery technology and the future of batteries.

    Simulations have been carried out on load leveling with energy storage system in households and substations. The simulations on households have been carried out both with and without power input from solar panels. The data is taken from Hållbara Ålidhem, substations Masten, Ön norra, Tomten and Valfisken. Data from four different households in Umeå has been used to act as an average household to conduct economical calculations on load leveling with an energy storage system.

    The study also presents a theoretical chapter, discussion and examples of optimizing dimensions of an energy storage system with solar panels, the financial aids and the laws and regulations of energy storage systems.

    The simulations indicate that regardless of the size of the energy storage system improvements can be made, provided an efficient power control. The improvement found from the simulations are reduced peak-power bought from the grid, and in the real world installing an energy storage system would also mean decreasing electrical losses. The simulations also indicates that the maximal power peaks over the household or substation can be reduced with the maximum output power from the energy storage system, provided an efficient power control. The most important factor in optimizing an energy storage system is considered to be the control of input and output power from the batteries.

    The economical calculations indicate that in the current situation there are no economic benefits from investing in an energy storage system as a private householder, but the study also presents different scenarios where an energy storage system could have an economic benefit over its lifespan. 

  • 481.
    Eriksson, Douglas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Energiberäkning på Sjösäkerhetsanordningar: Energikartläggning och beräkningsverktyg för ljus2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    On behalf of the Swedish marine authority this report has been carried out with the purpose of partly making an energy survey on existing lightning devices, but also creating a user-friendly calculation program. 600 pcs. of light devices (light bouys and light dots), that all use alkaline unchargeable batteries, was used in the energy survey. All devices are located around the Swedish fairways. The calculation program was created on the basis of specific terms regarding calculating light intensity, as today’s method is deficient and inconsistent.

     

    As result a calculation program was developed which makes it possible for the user to calculate, with known input data, the specific capacity needed for a battery regarding the period of time in use. The same method used in the calculation program was also used in the energy survey. With reference to the survey a large part of the purchased battery capacity is not being used. Batteries worth around SEK 800,000 are annually purchased and the report shows that, with a marginal for change of 3 months, a total saving of SEK 300, 000 could be made annually.

     

    As of today the amount of unchargeable battieris purchased are to high, which the figures above shows. In order to reduce the usage of batteries better planned routes, increased knowledge about energy and better tools for calculation is needed. This work has contributed to the increase of knowledge and a user-friendly calculation program.

  • 482.
    Eriksson, Emil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Self-Balancing Robot Control System in CODESYS for Raspberry Pi: Design and Construction of a Self-Balancing Robot using PLC-programming tools2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Department of Applied Physics and Electronics at Umeå University offers education and conducts research in the field of automation and robotics. To raise the competence in automation in the CODESYS development environment it’s proposed to build a remote controlled self-balancing robot as a testing platform which is then programmed using CODESYS for Raspberry Pi.

     

    The chassis of the robot consists of laser-cut plexiglass plates, stacked on top of each other and fixed using threaded rods, nuts and washers. On these plates the robots’ electrical components, wheels and motors are attached.

     

    The control system is designed as a feedback loop where the robots’ angle relative to the gravity vector is the controlled variable. A PID-controller is used as the system controller and a Kalman Filter is used to filter the input signals from the IMU board using input from both the accelerometer and the gyro.

     

    The control system is implemented in CODESYS as a Function Block Diagram (FBD) using both pre-made, standard function blocks and customized function blocks. By using the in-built web-visualization tool the robot can be remote controlled via Wi-Fi.

     

    After tuning the Kalman Filter through plot-analysis and the PID-controller through Ziegler-Nichols method the robot can stay balanced on a flat surface.

     

    The robots’ performance is tested through a series of test scenarios of which it only completes one out of four. The project ran out of time before further testing could be done.

     

    For future work one could improve the performance of the PID-controller through more sophisticated tuning methods. One can also add a steering-function or test different type of controllers.

  • 483.
    Eriksson, Filip
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Onboarding Users to a Voice User Interface: Comparing Different Teaching Methods for Onboarding New Users to Intelligent Personal Assistants2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    From being a fictional element in sci-fi movies, voice user interaction has become reality with intelligent personal assistants like Apple’s Sir iand Google’s Assistant. The development opens up for new exciting user experiences and challenges when designing for these experiences. This thesis has aimed to investigate the user experience of different ways of onboarding new users to intelligent personalassistants. The process has included interviews with experienced users, a test of a Google Home for three months and a wizard of oz (WOZ) test. The interviews and the long term test was done in correlation with a literature study to determine how users interact with an intelligent personal assistant (IPA) their flaws, benefits, what added value they have etc. The goal of the WOZ test was to compare two different teaching methods during the onboarding of a new user. The methods were a voice tutorial by the IPA and a visual interaction on a mobile device. The outcome was to see if the users memory retention was different between the two methods for features learned during the test as well as the users opinions of the two different methods. The results from the interviews show that the benefits of using an IPA is in situations where it reduces friction, e.g when both hands are occupied. They also showed that there are still issues with IPAs and there is a long way to go before they can a accomplish a more human-to-human like conversation. In the WOZ test the results showed that there were no significant difference in user remembrance of learnt features between the two teaching methods. However the user insights showed that the majority of users would like to have a multimodal interaction, a combination of voice and visual interaction when being taught to use an IPA.

  • 484.
    Eriksson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Umeå, Sweden.
    Boman, Christoffer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry.
    Bergsten, Urban
    Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Umeå, Sweden.
    Bergström, Dan
    Forest Planning and Operations Management, Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Umeå, Sweden.
    Fuel characterization of pellet chips2011In: Forest products journal, ISSN 0015-7473, Vol. 61, no 2, p. 143-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small hardwood chips, known as pellet chips, were characterized and combusted in two different pellet burners, installed in a residential boiler specially designed for pellet combustion. The average particle mass was about 10 percent of the mass of an 8-mm pellet, with a similar surface-to-volume ratio. The bulk density of pellet chips was 160 to 170 kg m<sup>-3</sup> at 10 percent moisture content (about 25% to 35% of 8-mm pellet bulk densities). The combustion performance was good, with average O<sub>2</sub> and CO values (by volume) at 17.6 percent (SD, 0.6%) and 200 ppm (SD, 210 ppm), respectively, for the bottom-fed burner and 14.2 percent (SD, 1.1%) and 330 ppm (SD, 93 ppm), respectively, for the top-fed burner. Thus the study indicates that pellet chips produced with commercially available equipment can be used in ordinary pellet combustors, provided that the fuel feeding rates are increased and the moisture content well below 20 percent. More accurate market assessments will require the investigation of the performance of different types of combustion equipment with fuels of different qualities.

  • 485.
    Eriksson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Forest Resource Management, S-90183 Umea, Sweden.
    Grimm, Alejandro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Skoglund, Nils
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry.
    Boström, Dan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry.
    Öhman, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Combustion and fuel characterisation of wheat distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS) and possible combustion applications2012In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 102, p. 208-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present transition to a sustainable global energy system requires that biomass is increasingly combusted for heat and power production. Agricultural fuels considered include alkali-rich fuels with high phosphorus content. One such fuel is wheat distiller’s dried grain with solubles (wheat DDGS) from wheat-based ethanol production. Further increases in ethanol production may saturate the current market for wheat DDGS as livestock feed, and fuel uses are therefore considered. Fuel properties of wheat DDGS have been determined. The ash content (5.4 ± 1.6 %wt d.s.) is similar to many agricultural fuels. In comparison to most other biomass fuels the sulphur content is high (0.538 ± 0.232 %wt d.s.), and so are the contents of nitrogen (5.1 ± 0.6 %wt d.s.), phosphorus (0.960. ± 0.073 %wt d.s.) and potassium (1.30 ± 0.35 %wt d.s.). To determine fuel-specific combustion properties, wheat DDGS and mixes between wheat DDGS and logging residues (LR 60 %wt d.s. and DDGS 40 %wt d.s.), and wheat straw (wheat straw 50 %wt d.s., DDGS 50 %wt d.s.) were pelletized and combusted in a bubbling fluidised bed combustor (5 kW) and in a pellets burner combustor (20 kW). Pure wheat DDGS powder was also combusted in a powder burner (150 kW). Wheat DDGS had a high bed agglomeration and slagging tendency compared to other biomass fuels, although these tendencies were significantly lower for the mixture with the Ca-rich LR, probably reflecting the higher first melting temperatures of K–Ca/Mg-phosphates compared to K-phosphates. Combustion and co-combustion of wheat DDGS resulted in relatively large emissions of fine particles (<1 μm) for all combustion appliances. For powder combustion PMtot was sixteen times higher than from softwood stem wood. While the Cl concentrations of the fine particles from the the mixture of LR and wheat DDGS in fluidised bed combustion were lower than from combustion of pure LR, the Cl- and P-concentrations were considerably higher from the wheat DDGS mixtures combusted in the other appliances at higher fuel particle temperature. The particles from powder combustion of wheat DDGS contained mainly K, P, Cl, Na and S, and as KPO3 (i.e. the main phase identified with XRD) is known to have a low melting temperature, this suggests that powder combustion of wheat DDGS should be used with caution. The high slagging and bed agglomeration tendency of wheat DDGS, and the high emissions of fine particles rich in K, P and Cl from combustion at high temperature, mean that it is best used mixed with other fuels, preferably with high Ca and Mg contents, and in equipment where fuel particle temperatures during combustion are moderate, i.e. fluidised beds and possibly grate combustors rather than powder combustors.

  • 486.
    Eriksson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Division of Energy Engineering, Department of Applied Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Luleå University of Technology.
    Hedman, Henry
    Energy Technology Centre, Piteå, Sweden.
    Boström, Dan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry.
    Pettersson, Esbjörn
    Division of Energy Engineering, Department of Applied Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Luleå University of Technology.
    Backman, Rainer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Öhman, Marcus
    Division of Energy Engineering, Department of Applied Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Luleå University of Technology.
    Combustion characterization of rapeseed meal and possible combustion applications2009In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 23, no 8, p. 3930-3939Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A future shortage of biomass fuel can be foreseen. The production of rapeseed oil for a number of purposes is increasing, among others, for biodiesel production. A byproduct from the oil extraction process is rapeseed meal (RM), presently used as animal feed. Further increases in supply will make fuel use an option. Several energy companies have shown interest but have been Cautious because of the scarcity of data on fuel properties, which led to the present study. Combustion-relevant properties of RM from several producers have been determined. The volatile fraction (74 +/- 0.06%(wt ds)) is comparable to wood; the moisture content (6.2-11.8%(wt)) is lows and the ash content (7.41 +/- 0.286%(wt) (ds)) is high compared to most other biomass fuels. The lower heating value is 18.2 +/- 0.3 MJ/kg (dry basis). In comparison to other biomass fuels, the chlorine content is low (0.02-0.05%(wt ds)) and the sulfur content is high (0.67-0.74%(wt ds)). RM has high contents of nitrogen (5.0-6.4%(wt) (ds)) phosphorus (1.12-1.23%(wt) (ds)) and potassium (1.2-1.4%(wt) (ds)). Fuel-specific combustion properties of typical RM were determined through combustion tests. with an emphasis oil gas emissions, ash formation, and potential ash-related operational problems. Softwood bark was chosen as a suitable and representative co-combustion (woody) fuel. RM was added to the bark at two levels: 10 and 30%(wt) (ds). These mixtures were pelletized, and so was RM without bark (for durability mixed With cutter shavings, contributing 1%(wt) of the ash). Each of these fuels was combusted in a 5 kW fluidized bed and an underfed pellet burner (to simulate grate combustion). Pure RM was combusted in a powder burner. Emissions of NO and SO, were high for all combustion tests, requiring applications with flue gas cleaning, economically viable only at large scale. Emissions of HCl were relatively low, Temperatures for initial bed agglomeration in the fluidized-bed tests were high for RM compared to many other agricultural fuels, thereby indicating that RM could be an attractive fuel from a bed agglomeration point of view. The results of grate combustion Suggest that slagging is not likely to be severe for RM, pure or mixed with other fuels. Fine-mode particles from fluidized-bed combustion and grate combustion mainly contained sulfates of potassium, suggesting that the risk of problems caused by deposit formation should be moderate. The chlorine concentration of the particles was reduced when RM was added to bark, potentially lowering the risk of high-temperature corrosion. Particle emissions from powder combustion of RM were 17 times higher than for wood powder, and the fine-mode fraction contained mainly K-phosphates known to cause deposits, suggesting that powder combustion of RM should be used With Caution. A possible use of RM is as a sulfur-containing additive to biomass fuels rich in Cl and K for avoiding ash-related operational problems in fluidized beds and grate combustors originated from high KCl concentrations in the fuel gases.

  • 487.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Tillvaratagande av förlustvärme från frekvensomformarstationer2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    För effektmatning av den elektrifierade järnvägen krävs att spänningens frekvens omformas från kraftnätets frekvens på 50 Hz till 16,7 Hz. Detta sker i dag med två olika metoder. En metod där frekvensen omformas på mekanisk väg då en motor på gemensam axel driver en generator som genererar elkraft av rätt frekvens, detta kallas för en roterande frekvensomformare. Den andra metoden ändrar spänningens frekvens med hjälp av kraftelektronik, detta kallas för en statisk frekvensomformare. Gemensamt för båda dessa metoder är att de har värmeförluster. För de roterande omformaraggregaten så är förlustvärmen till stor del luftburen medan de statiska frekvensomformarna har både vätske- och luftkylning. I många fall ser det i dagsläget ut så att förlusterna kyls bort mot omgivningen.

    Syftet med detta arbete är att bestämma huruvida dessa värmeförluster kan nyttjas för uppvärmning av stationsbyggnaderna där omformaraggregaten finns på ett lönsamt vis.

    I arbetet har två frekvensomformarstationer undersökts. En station med enbart roterande frekvensomformare i Gällivare samt en station med enbart statiska frekvensomformare i Boden. Båda omformarstationerna har idag energisystem för uppvärmning baserade på direktverkande el.

    I simuleringsmodeller och mätningar har de båda omformarstationernas energibehov för uppvärmning fastställts. För Gällivare omformarstation rör det sig om en specifik energiförbrukning för uppvärmning motsvarande ca 300 kWh/m2. För Bodens omformarstation är den sammantagna specifika energianvändningen 204 kWh/m2.

    Genom ytterligare mätningar har delar av frekvensomformaraggregatens effektförluster fastställts och analyserats med hänsyn till storlek och tidsvariationer. Rapporten fastslår att förlustvärmen från luftkylningen av de roterande omformarna räcker för att täcka stationens uppvärmningsbehov. Rapporten fastslår även att tomgångsförlusterna från ett omformaraggregat räcker för att förse omformarstationen i Boden med tillräcklig värmeenergi för uppvärmning. De båda omformarstationernas förlusteffekter uppvisade även en regelbundenhet i effektflödet vilket möjliggör för en värmeåtervinningslösning utan behov av ackumulator.

    För Gällivares omformarstation har ett utformat förslag på en teknisk lösning för uppvärmning av omformarstationen med förlustvärme från frekvensomformaraggregaten presenterats. Detta består av ett projekterat och dimensionerat överluftssystem för uppvärmning av byggnaden med den uppvärmda luften från frekvensomformaraggregatens kylsystem. Luftflödet för att möta det simulerade effektbehovet för uppvärmning uppgår i ca 9,5 l/(s ∙m2), ett flöde som kan orsaka problem med luftdrag och ljudalstring som gör arbetsmiljön dålig. Då omformarstationen i normala fall är obemannad föreslogs en strömbrytare som inaktiverar överluftssystemet vid besök på omformarstationen av underhållspersonal. En ekonomisk sammanställning baserad på LCC (Life cycle cost) har fastställt att en investering kan vara lönsam inom 5 år. För Bodens omformarstation har ingen teknisk lösning presenterats.

  • 488.
    Eriksson, Jennifer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Horizontal natural frequency in a 10 story building: A comparison between CLT and concrete using estimate calculations2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Tall slender buildings are easily set in motion by wind and earthquakes but by estimating the buildings horizontal natural frequencies in the design phase, these motions can be kept within acceptable boundaries. There are many parameters that decides the natural frequency of a building and it can therefore be difficult to calculate it. There are a few ways though to estimate horizontal natural frequencies of tall buildings and two methods have been tested in this report. Both methods give the frequency of a clamped-free cantilever but one of them requires a single degree of freedom system whilst the other handles a multi degree of freedom system. The methods are called SDOF method and MDOF method in this report.

    A fictional building was created for this project to be the reference object in the comparison between the two methods SDOF and MDOF. The walls and floors of the building was designed with the support of both an acoustic engineer and a structural engineer to create a realistic building. A building’s natural frequency is dependent of the self-weight, stiffness and height of the building and it was therefore important to design these components with care. The fictional building is called House 1 and is a 10 story, almost square building about 20 m wide and broad and 30 m high.

    This report does not only compare the natural frequencies obtained from the two different calculation methods, but it also shows the difference in frequency in timber and concrete structures. Shear walls constitutes the horizontal stabilization system of the fictional building and both a CLT core and a concrete core is designed and compared. It is only the walls that comes in two different versions, the floorings consist of CLT boards for both structures tested.

    The horizontal natural frequencies of House 1 were about 2 Hz and 3 Hz for the CLT version and concrete version respectively. It was expected to get frequencies within that range considering the height of House 1. The CLT core having a lower frequency than the concrete core was also expected since concrete is a stiffer material than wood.

    To be able to make a fair comparison between the SDOF method and the MDOF method, House 1 was designed with the same dimensions and stiffness on all floors because the SDOF method requires that. The results from the two methods are almost identical with only 0.3 Hz and 0.4 Hz difference for the concrete and CLT respectively.

    For a shear wall structure with a consistent stiffness, weight and dimension, any of the two methods can be used to estimate the horizontal natural frequency. However, it is not realistic for a building of 30 m or higher, to have the same dimensions on the load bearing structure on all floors which makes the MDOF method more accurate in more cases than the SDOF method.

  • 489.
    Eriksson, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Inloggning på trådlöst nätverk vid Umeå Stadsbibliotek2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this project is to present a solution for the wireless network at the city library in Umeå. The new system will allow users to log on to the wireless network using their library card along with a password of some kind. There must also be a way for guests without library cards to be allowed access to the network in some way. The result of this project was based on hardware that Umeå already had access to, and certain functions in that hardware that hasn’t been explored earlier and offered a lot of potential. This solution was tested to some extent and could be implemented in a near future.

  • 490.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Konstruktionsdokumentation och samordningsproblem inom SWECO2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    SWECO structures has conducted an investigation in order to clarify the interpretation of new judicial requirements when constructing buildings and to resolve some of the company’s co-ordination problems. The judicial requirements consist of the demand to present a new form of document, a structural design documentation, meant to give a short form description of the conditions for the design, execution of the construction and the behavior of the load bearing structure. The requirements have been hard to interpret and SWECO structures wanted to determine which information is to be presented and how to design the document in a uniform way. Relating to the company’s co-ordination problems SWECO has identified the need for a coordinating head engineer whose specific tasks and responsibilities were meant to be specified. The results of this investigation were a form for the structural design documentation, a flowchart describing the work process and a list of the head engineers’ tasks and responsibilities. This report consists of an evaluation of these results where suggestions on how each individual part, the form, the flowchart and the head engineers’ tasks and responsibilities, can be improved is presented. The results have been evaluated based on how well they meet the judicial requirements and the opinions of people from the relevant fields; one property developer, one property manager, one building inspector and one head engineer from SWECO structures in Umeå. The report also contains an example of how the form for the required document can be used in future projects.

  • 491.
    Eriksson, M.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Golriz, M. R.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Radiation heat transfer in circulating fluidized bed combustors2005In: International Journal of Thermal Sciences, Vol. 44, p. 399-409Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new model for predicting radiation heat transfer in circulating fluidized bed combustors is proposed. The model assumes two phase structure, the flow at the wall dominated by streamers of clusters traveling mostly downward, interspersed with periods where there is upwards flow of a dilute suspension. Also, the model assumes the intensity distribution to be semi-isotropic in the forward and backward direction. The predictions are in good agreement with the experimental results from the literature. Finally, a parametric study is performed to show the effect of different bed parameters on radiative heat transfer. The results indicate that suspension temperature, wall temperature, wall emissivity, particle emissivity, and suspension density have significant influence on the radiation heat transfer coefficient.

  • 492.
    Eriksson, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Avvibrering av drivenhetsupphängning CV90: En studie gjord på BAE systems i Örnsköldsvik2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The noise level on CV90 has always been a big problem, loud noise and great vibrations have been a part of everyday work for the crew. BAE-systems are the developerOf CV90 have started a work with the goal to lower the noise and vibrations in the vehicle. Tests have been made witch shows that the biggest source of the problem is the track. A new track has been constructed, in rubber instead of the traditional steel track. Tests witch have been made on the rubber track shows that nest source of vibrations and noise is the engine and transmission suspension, today the transmission is mutely mounted on the body.The new suspension has been modified from the present, but it has been made bigger so a rubber damper can be fitted between the transmission and the holder. When the rubber damps 1cm it will absorb the force of 2.5G, meanwhile it must hold the force of 5G in every direction. The forces have been simulated by FEM-analysis.A new construction have been made witch fore fill the demands on forces. The natural frequency on the rubber has been calculated to 9.83 Hz, which is around 3 times less the frequency on the engine when the engine is idling(33.33Hz). The idling frequency on the engine is the lowest frequency that will affect the dampers. The transmission will have full damping effect on idling, when the speed raises will the track be the biggest source of vibrations and noise. But on idle this problem will be considerably lowered.

  • 493.
    Eriksson, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    TENSEGRITET: Flexibla strukturer med många användningsområden2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sliperiet is located in Umeå and runs an interdisciplinary project named +Project. Through this project, they want to investigate an area of flexible structures where the subject of tensegrity is included. A tensegrity structure consists of struts enclosed in a web made up of wires and is held together by a combination of compressions and stresses. There exists a ratio between the length of the struts and the length of the wire, which affects the properties of the structure. The purpose and goal of this work is thus to produce and investigate tensegrity structures, with the intention of launching the subject of tensegrity within the field of flexible structures as a part of the +Project. The work is limited to basic tensegrity structures. Three different kind of prototypes and two models are constructed based on basic tensegrity structures. The manufacturing of a third model started but was cancelled to keep the time frame for the project. Most of the goals were met and improvements that could be made in the production of the models are presented, as well as proposals for future work.

  • 494.
    Eriksson, Marcus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Produktionsunderlag för fixtur till BioProcessramar2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor thesis is made on behalf of General Electric Healthcare Bio-Sciences AB in Umea. GE Healthcare is a company that produces health care products. One of these products is BioProcess which is used in medical research and the manufacturing of pharmaceuticals. The product often have to be modified since itis soldcustomer modified. There are two different frame sizes. The frames are often tilted 90 degrees to make the modification areas easier to access. The modifications made is mostly trace grooves and holes.The project goal was to create a fixture that fits both frames and will make the modifications made to the frames easier. The fixture should reduce the bodily wear that is caused by modifying these frames. The structure of the fixture must meet requirements of functionality and safety.The result of the project is a fixture that is compatible with both frame sizes. The fixture has been dimensioned with a safety factor of 4. This safety factor was chosen because of the risks in the operations.

  • 495.
    Eriksson, Markus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Konstruktion av formatdelar: Konstruktion och materialanalys av formatdelar till APL2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a project that has been carried out in autumn 2016 for Bachelor of engineering in mechanical engineering at Umeå University. The work included 15 credits.  The aim of the project is to produce new parts for a machine that APL uses in its production. The machine in question fills bottles with liquid which is then sealed and sent on to the next station. APL makes use of several different sizes of these bottles but only have access to one size of format elements. This created a problem in that when you are working with the smaller bottles you are forced to put some extra material in where the format parts were too big.

     

    The materials that the old format parts consisted of was also an area that was investigated. This is because all parts are Heat-sterilized before they are used in the machine and during such treatment they are exposed to high temperatures. With the material used at the present time this heating process was causing the parts to lose their shape as they are not made for the temperature to which they are exposed.

    The purpose of this project is thus to produce 3d-drawings for the new format elements that are tailored to the bottles with smaller dimensions, as well as to investigate whether there are other materials that may be more suitable for the strain that parts are exposed to.

     

    To achieve this, i have examined the old parts and have taken the relevant measurements.

    The old measurements have been corrected and the new models have been drawn up in the CAD program SolidWorks. Since then, dimensioned drawings designed to serve as a manufacturing base have been made.  

    A study on material opportunities has also taken place, focusing on different plastic materials and the manufacturing processes that are relevant. Focus in terms of the materials was largely put on properties at high temperatures. Values are obtained from tables and calculations have been made, and together, this shows what material is best suited for the APLs purposes.

  • 496.
    Eriksson, Matias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Characterization of kiln feed limestone by dynamic heating rate thermogravimetry2016In: International Journal of Mineral Processing, ISSN 0301-7516, E-ISSN 1879-3525, Vol. 147, p. 31-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quicklime is a product rich in calcium oxide produced in industrial kilns. The process involves thermal decomposition of minerals with high content of calcium carbonate. The kiln feed properties vary with the geological formation from where the mineral is quarried or mined. Characterization of feed properties is necessary to achieve an optimized kiln production. In this work the decomposition of four different types of calcite ore was investigated by comparing conventional constant heating rate and dynamic heating rate thermogravimetric methods. The conclusion of this work is that the conventional method always "overshoots" the calcination temperature when continuously heating during calcination compared to the dynamic rate method that resembles the kiln by holding temperatures constant during the calcination event. This justifies the used of the dynamic rate method. By a correct experimental parameter setup the dynamic rate method can be adapted for individual kilns and feed fractions, giving new additional value to the kiln operator and increasing the high value use of limestone deposits. This new method to characterize calcination properties of kiln feed materials can be utilized in normal kiln operations and when developing new mixes of different quality limestone. The results show differences when comparing the methods and different materials even though CaCO3 is present only as calcite. In addition, the dynamic rate method is faster than the conventional method. Besides quicklime production the method can also be applied in other industries calcining limestone, such as cement clinker production.

  • 497.
    Eriksson, Matias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Sustainability measures in quicklime and cement clinker production2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates sustainability measures for quicklime and cement clinker production. It is the aim of this thesis to contribute to the effort of creating a more sustainable modus of industrial production.

    The methods used comprises process simulations through multicomponent chemical equilibrium calculations, fuel characterization and raw materials characterization through dynamic rate thermogravimetry.

    The investigated measures relate to alternative fuels, co-combustion, oxygen enrichment, oxyfuel combustion, mineral carbonation and optimizing raw material mixes based on thermal decomposition characteristics.

    The predictive multicomponent chemical equilibrium simulation tool developed has been used to investigate new process designs and combustion concepts. The results show that fuel selection and oxygen enrichment influence energy efficiency, and that oxyfuel combustion and mineral carbonation could allow for considerable emission reductions at low energy penalty, as compared to conventional post-combustion carbon dioxide capture technologies. Dynamic rate thermogravimetry, applied to kiln feed limestone, allows for improved feed analysis with a deeper understanding of how mixing of different feed materials will affect the production processes. The predictive simulation tool has proven to be of practical value when planning and executing production and full scale campaigns, reducing costs related to trial and error.

    The main conclusion of this work is that several measures are available to increase the sustainability of the industry.

  • 498.
    Eriksson, Matias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics. Nordkalk AB, Köping, Sverige.
    Carlborg, Markus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Characterization of ring deposits inside a quicklime producing long rotary kiln2019In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ring deposits are common problems in rotary kiln operations. The ring is constantly subjected to thermal and mechanical wear counteracting the growth of the ring. If the ring hardens or if the growth of the ring is too rapid the kiln needs to be shut down and the ring removed, reducing the operational time and profitability of the process. In the present study, ring deposits from a limestone fed long rotary kiln producing quicklime was sampled and characterized in detail by SEM-EDS, dynamic rate TG and XRD. This work identifies three hardening mechanisms active in the kiln, an increased densification of the ring deposits near the refractory surface, the formation of calcite and spurrite through carbonation of the ring deposits, and the intrusion of molten fuel ash and product into the refractory, resulting in a strong attachment of the deposit to the refractory surface. The work also concludes that a significant part of the ring deposit has its origin in the fuel ash, contributing to deposit mass and increasing ring growth rate.

  • 499.
    Eriksson, Matias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics. NorFraKalk AS, Verdal, Norway ; Nordkalk Oy Ab, Pargas, Finland.
    Hökfors, Bodil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics. Cementa AB, Stockholm.
    Backman, Rainer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Oxyfuel combustion in rotary kiln lime production2014In: Energy Science & Engineering, ISSN 2050-0505, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 204-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to study the impact of oxyfuel combustion applied to a rotary kiln producing lime. Aspects of interest are product quality, energy efficiency, stack gas composition, carbon dioxide emissions, and possible benefits related to carbon dioxide capture. The method used is based on multicomponent chemical equilibrium calculations to predict process conditions. A generic model of a rotary kiln for lime production was validated against operational data and literature. This predicting simulation tool is used to calculate chemical compositions for different recirculation cases. The results show that an oxyfuel process could produce a high-quality lime product. The new process would operate at a lower specific energy consumption thus having also a reduced specific carbon dioxide emission per ton of product ratio. Through some processing, the stack gas from the new process could be suitable for carbon dioxide transport and storage or utilization. The main conclusion of this paper is that lime production with an oxyfuel process is feasible but still needs further study.

  • 500.
    Eriksson, Matias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Hökfors, Bodil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Backman, Rainer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    The Effects of Oxygen Enrichment and Fuel Composition on Rotary Kiln Lime Production2015In: Journal of Engineering Technology, ISSN 0747-9664, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 30-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the impact of oxygen (O2) enrichment on rotary kiln lump lime production. A predictive simulation tool is utilized to investigate the effect of O2 enrichment on the following key parameters of the lime process: kiln temperature profile, product quality, specific energy consumption and kiln production capacity. Three fuel mixes - 100% coal, 90% coal and 10% waste derived fuel oil, and 90% coal and 10% sawdust - are simulated at three oxygen levels. The oxygen levels represent three scenarios: no enrichment (21% O2), moderate enrichment (23% O2), and moderate-to-high enrichment (25% O2). This work is a part of the on-going efforts to reduce the environmental impact of industrial production. Reducing emissions, utilizing biofuels and waste derived fuels, full utilization of raw materials, and energy efficiency are areas of importance for industry. In the long term, oxyfuel technology, i.e., combustion with recirculated kiln gases and pure oxygen, could allow for near-zero emission production and carbon sequestration from industry and power production. In the short term, emission reductions in lime production must be achieved through other means, such as energy efficiency. As a step on the path to a near-zero emission lime plant, this paper describes an investigation of the influence of oxygen enrichment in rotary kiln lime production. The simulated results show positive effects of O2 enrichment, and the simulation results have been used by the kiln operator for in-house training. Results indicate that oxygen enrichment applied to lime production can reduce energy consumption and emissions.

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