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  • 451. Hecker, Yanina P.
    et al.
    Coceres, Veronica
    Wilkowsky, Silvina E.
    Jaramillo Ortiz, Jose M.
    Morrell, Eleonora L.
    Verna, Andrea E.
    Ganuza, Agustina
    Cano, Dora B.
    Lischinsky, Lilian
    Angel, Sergio O.
    Zamorano, Patricia
    Odeon, Anselmo C.
    Leunda, Maria R.
    Campero, Carlos M.
    Morein, Bror
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Moore, Dadin P.
    A Neospora caninum vaccine using recombinant proteins fails to prevent foetal infection in pregnant cattle after experimental intravenous challenge2014In: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, ISSN 0165-2427, E-ISSN 1873-2534, Vol. 162, no 3-4, p. 142-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of rNcSAG1, rNcHSP20 and rNcGRA7 recombinant proteins formulated with immune stimulating complexes (ISCOMs) in pregnant heifers against vertical transmission of Neospora caninum. Twelve pregnant heifers were divided into 3 groups of 4 heifers each, receiving different formulations before mating. Immunogens were administered twice subcutaneously: group A animals were inoculated with three recombinant proteins (rNcSAG1, rNcHSP20, rNcGRA7) formulated with ISCOMs; group B animals received ISCOM-MATRIX (without antigen) and group C received sterile phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) only. The recombinant proteins were expressed in Escherichia coil and purified nickel resin. All groups were intravenously challenged with the NC-1 strain of N. caninum at Day 70 of gestation and dams slaughtered at week 17 of the experiment. Heifers from group A developed specific antibodies against rNcSAG1, rNcHSP20 and rNcGRA7 prior to the challenge. Following immunization, an statistically significant increase of antibodies against rNcSAG1 and rNcHSP20 in all animals of group A was detected compared to animals in groups B and C at weeks 5, 13 and 16 (P< 0.001). Levels of antibodies against rNcGRA7 were statistical higher in group A animals when compared with groups B and Cat weeks 5 and 16 (P> 0.001). There were no differences in IFN-gamma production among the experimental groups at any time point (P> 0.05). Transplacental transmission was determined in all foetuses of groups A, B and C by Western blot, immunohistochemistry and nested PCR. This work showed that rNcSAG1, rNcHSP20 and rNcGRA7 proteins while immunogenic in cattle failed to prevent the foetal infection in pregnant cattle challenged at Day 70 of gestation. 

  • 452.
    Hederos, Carl-Axel
    et al.
    Primary Care Research Unit, Karlstad, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Astrid Lindgrens Children's Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; Primary Care Research Unit, BUM VC Gripen, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Hasselgren, Mikael
    Section of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hedlin, Gunilla
    Karolinska Institute, Astrid Lindgrens Children's Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    Division for Public Health, Department of Social Sciences, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden; Swedish National Testing and Research Institute, Borås, Sweden; International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Comparison of clinically diagnosed asthma with parental assessment of children's asthma in a questionnaire2007In: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, ISSN 0905-6157, E-ISSN 1399-3038, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 135-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Epidemiological evaluations of the prevalence of asthma are usually based on written questionnaires (WQs) in combination with validation by clinical investigation. In the present investigation, we compared parental assessment of asthma among their preschool children in response to a WQ with the corresponding medical records in the same region. An International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC)-based WQ was answered by 75% of the parents of 6295 children aged 1-6 yr. Clinically diagnosed asthma, recorded in connection with admissions to the hospital or a visit to any of the outpatient clinics in the same region, were analysed in parallel. Finally, a complementary WQ was sent to the parents of children identified as asthmatic by either or both of this approaches. In response to the WQ 5.9% were claimed to suffer from asthma diagnosed by a doctor. According to the medical records, the prevalence of clinically diagnosed asthma was 4.9%. The estimated prevalence among children requiring treatment for their asthma was 4.4%. The sensitivity of the WQ was 77%, the specificity 97.5%. In the 1-2 yr age group the sensitivity was only 22%. This WQ was able to identify 54% of the children with a medical record of asthma. Forty percent of the children claimed by their parents to be asthmatic had no medical record of asthma. An ISAAC-based parentally completed WQ provided an acceptable estimation of the prevalence of asthma in children 2-6 yr of age, although only half of the individual patients identified in this manner are the same as those identified clinically.

  • 453.
    Hedlund, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Immunology.
    Stenqvist, Ann-Christin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Immunology.
    Nagaeva, Olga
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Immunology.
    Kjellberg, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Wulff, Marianne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Baranov, Vladimir
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Immunology.
    Mincheva-Nilsson, Lucia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Immunology.
    Human placenta expresses and secretes NKG2D ligands via exosomes that down-modulate the cognate receptor expression: evidence for immunosuppressive function2009In: Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0022-1767, E-ISSN 1550-6606, Vol. 183, no 1, p. 340-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During mammalian pregnancy maternal-fetal tolerance involves a number of immunosuppressive factors produced by placenta. Recently, placenta-derived exosomes have emerged as new immune regulators in the maternal immune tolerance. Exosomes are membrane nanovesicles with defined morphology, which are secreted from endosomal multivesicular bodies (MVB) upon fusion with the plasma membrane. Previously, we reported that the MHC class I chain-related (MIC) proteins A and B, human ligands of the activating NK cell receptor NKG2D, are expressed by placenta, sorted to MVB of syncytiotrophoblast and probably released via MIC-bearing exosomes. In this report, we show that the second family of human NKG2D ligands, the UL-16 binding proteins (ULBP), is also expressed by placenta. Importantly, this expression was not due to placental CMV infection. Immunoelectron microscopy disclosed that ULBP1-5 are produced and retained in MVB of the syncytiotrophoblast on microvesicles/exosomes. Using human placenta explant cultures and different assays, we demonstrate that exosomes bearing NKG2D ligands are released by human placenta. Isolated placental exosomes carried ULBP1-5 and MIC on their surface and induced down-regulation of the NKG2D receptor on NK, CD8(+), and gammadelta T cells, leading to reduction of their in vitro cytotoxicity without affecting the perforin-mediated lytic pathway. Release of placental NKG2D ligands via exosomes is an alternative mechanism for generation of bioactive soluble form of these ligands. These findings highlight a role for NKG2D ligand-bearing placental exosomes in the fetal immune escape and support the view of placenta as a unique immunosuppressive organ.

  • 454.
    Hedlund, Sebastian
    et al.
    Division of Medical Microbiology, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Persson, Alexander
    Division of Medical Microbiology, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Vujic, Ana
    Division of Medical Microbiology, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Che, Karlhans Fru
    Division of Molecular Virology, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Stendahl, Olle
    Division of Medical Microbiology, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Larsson, Marie
    Division of Molecular Virology, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Linköping University, Linköpin, Sweden.
    Dendritic cell activation by sensing Mycobacterium tuberculosis-induced apoptotic neutrophils via DC-SIGN2010In: Human Immunology, ISSN 0198-8859, E-ISSN 1879-1166, Vol. 71, no 6, p. 535-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) manipulates cells of the innate immune system to provide the bacteria with a sustainable intracellular niche. Mtb spread through aerosol carrying them deep into the lungs, where they are internalized by phagocytic cells, such as neutrophils (PMNs), dendritic cells (DCs), and macrophages. PMNs undergo accelerated apoptosis after interaction with the bacterium, and apoptotic cells are sequestered by neighboring phagocytes. Removal of aged apoptotic cells because of natural tissue turnover is described as an immunologically silent process facilitating resolution of inflammation and inhibition of DC maturation. Silencing of immune cells could be favorable for intracellular bacteria. The aim of this study was to clarify the interaction between Mtb-induced apoptotic PMNs and DCs, and evaluate whether this interaction follows the proposed anti-inflammatory pathway. In contrast to aged apoptotic cells, Mtb-induced apoptotic PMNs induced functional DC maturation. We found that the cell fraction from Mtb-induced apoptotic PMNs contained almost all stimulatory capacity, suggesting that cell-cell interaction is crucial for DC activation. Inhibitory studies showed that this cell contact-dependent activation required binding of the PMN Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) to the DC via DC-SIGN and endocytic activity involving the alpha(v)beta(5) but did not involve the scavenger receptor CD36. Taken together, this study demonstrates that the DCs can distinguish between normal and infected apoptotic PMNs via cellular crosstalk, where the DCs can sense the presence of danger on the Mtb-infected PMNs and modulate their response accordingly.

  • 455.
    Hedman, H.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Alenius, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Lundgren, E.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Defective expression of beta 1-integrins in cells with constitutively active alpha L beta 2-integrins1997In: Experimental Cell Research, ISSN 0014-4827, E-ISSN 1090-2422, Vol. 232, no 2, p. 270-276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have investigated a potential relationship between expression of beta 1-integrins and adhesiveness of the beta 2-integrin LFA-1 (alpha L beta 2, CD11a/CD18). By an approach of random mutagenesis and selection we established clones from the human acute lymphatic leukemia cell line HPB-ALL with (i) constitutively active LFA-1 and (ii) with no apparent integrin-beta 1 cell surface expression. Thirty seven of 42 clones selected for activated LFA-1 were found to have lost apparent integrin-beta 1 expression. Conversely, 7 of 21 clones selected for lack of beta 1 expression were found to have activated LFA-1. Since this pointed toward a possible coupling between beta 1 expression and LFA-1 activity, we further analyzed at which level beta 1 expression was blocked. We focused on one clone, HAP4, with activated LFA-I and no detectable beta 1 cell surface expression and found, surprisingly, that it expressed wild-type levels of beta 1 mRNA and, in Western blots of whole cell lysates, apparently normal levels of beta 1 protein. However, in addition to beta 1 of the expected molecular weight, HAP4 expressed a unique 48-kDa band recognized by the polyclonal anti-beta 1 antiserum. Immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that the epitope recognized by the anti-beta 1 antibody 4B4 was hidden or lost. The alpha 4-chain was found in its precursor form but it did not associate with any beta-chain, and it was not processed to its mature form. Instead alpha 4-chains were eventually degraded. Taken together this showed that beta 1-chains were produced but not properly processed in HAP4. From this we propose that HAP4 is deficient in a gene product required both for proper beta 1 folding and for repression of LFA-1 adhesiveness.

  • 456.
    Heed, Elias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Investigation of the effects of nanoparticle size on blood activation using a human wholeblood model2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nanoparticles are used more and more extensively in today's society, especially in the industry sector. Humans get exposed to nanoparticles daily but the effect is a topic that has not been fully explored yet and its effect on humans is still unknown.The purpose of this project was to investigate whether the size of nanoparticles is a factor that influences their effect on humans, mainly the effect on blood activation. In order to study this, nanopaticles of polystyrene with three different sizes (75, 120 and 260 nm) were selected and incubated in a human whole blood model, the Chandler loop. The samples from the Chandler loop experiments were analysed with three different ELISA's: C3a, terminal complement complex (TCC, sC5b-9) and thrombin-antithrombincomplexes (TAT).The results in this study indicate that the smallest nanoparticle has a higher potential for activating the coagulation system than the larger ones. The complement system did not seem to be significantly activated from the nanoparticles. More experiments needs to be done in order to get a better statistic value but just as it is the results look promising and there is a tendency for a higher activation of the coagulation system with the 75 nm nanoparticles.

  • 457. Heikkila, K.
    et al.
    Madsen, I. E. H.
    Nyberg, S. T.
    Fransson, E. I.
    Westerlund, H.
    Westerholm, Peter J. M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Virtanen, M.
    Vahtera, J.
    Vaananen, A.
    Theorell, T.
    Suominen, S. B.
    Shipley, M. J.
    Salo, P.
    Rugulies, R.
    Pentti, J.
    Pejtersen, J. H.
    Oksanen, T.
    Nordin, M.
    Nielsen, M. L.
    Kouvonen, A.
    Koskinen, A.
    Koskenvuo, M.
    Knutsson, A.
    Ferrie, J. E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Dragano, N.
    Burr, H.
    Borritz, M.
    Bjorner, J. B.
    Alfredsson, L.
    Batty, G. D.
    Singh-Manoux, A.
    Kivimaki, M.
    Job strain and the risk of severe asthma exacerbations: a meta-analysis of individual-participant data from 100 000 European men and women2014In: Allergy. European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN 0105-4538, E-ISSN 1398-9995, Vol. 69, no 6, p. 775-783Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundMany patients and healthcare professionals believe that work-related psychosocial stress, such as job strain, can make asthma worse, but this is not corroborated by empirical evidence. We investigated the associations between job strain and the incidence of severe asthma exacerbations in working-age European men and women. MethodsWe analysed individual-level data, collected between 1985 and 2010, from 102 175 working-age men and women in 11 prospective European studies. Job strain (a combination of high demands and low control at work) was self-reported at baseline. Incident severe asthma exacerbations were ascertained from national hospitalization and death registries. Associations between job strain and asthma exacerbations were modelled using Cox regression and the study-specific findings combined using random-effects meta-analyses. ResultsDuring a median follow-up of 10years, 1 109 individuals experienced a severe asthma exacerbation (430 with asthma as the primary diagnostic code). In the age- and sex-adjusted analyses, job strain was associated with an increased risk of severe asthma exacerbations defined using the primary diagnostic code (hazard ratio, HR: 1.27, 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.00, 1.61). This association attenuated towards the null after adjustment for potential confounders (HR: 1.22, 95% CI: 0.96, 1.55). No association was observed in the analyses with asthma defined using any diagnostic code (HR: 1.01, 95% CI: 0.86, 1.19). ConclusionsOur findings suggest that job strain is probably not an important risk factor for severe asthma exacerbations leading to hospitalization or death.

  • 458.
    Hellman, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    Regulation of IgE homeostasis, and the identification of potential targets for therapeutic intervention2007In: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy, ISSN 0753-3322, E-ISSN 1950-6007, Vol. 61, no 1, p. 34-49Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Atopic allergies have increased during the past 20-30 years in frequency quite dramatically and in many countries have reached almost epidemic proportions. Allergies have thereby become one of the major medical issues of the western world. Inummoglobulin E (IgE) is here a central player. IgE is the Ig class that is present in the lowest concentration in human plasma. IgG is, for example, 10000 to 1 million times more abundant than IgE. However, despite of its low plasma levels IgE is a very important inducer of inflammation, due to its interaction with high-affinity receptors on mast cell and basophils. IgE has been conserved as a single active gene in all placental mammals studied, and the expression of this gene is under a very stringent control, most likely due to its very potent inflammatory characteristics. IgE expression is being regulated at many levels: by cytokines, switch region length, positive and negatively acting transcription factors and suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS). In addition, the plasma half-life differs markedly for IgG and IgE, with 21 and 2.5 days, respectively. This review summarizes the rapid progress in our understanding of the complex network of regulatory mechanisms acting on IgE and also how this new information may help us in our efforts to control IgE-mediated inflammatory conditions.

  • 459.
    Hellman, Lars T.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Microbiology.
    Akula, Srinivas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Microbiology.
    Thorpe, Michael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Microbiology.
    Fu, Zhirong
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Microbiology.
    Tracing the Origins of IgE, Mast Cells, and Allergies by Studies of Wild Animals2017In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 8, article id 1749Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In most industrialized countries, allergies have increased in frequency quite dramatically during the past 50 years. Estimates show that 20-30% of the populations are affected. Allergies have thereby become one of the major medical challenges of the twenty-first century. Despite several theories including the hygiene hypothesis, there are still very few solid clues concerning the causes of this increase. To trace the origins of allergies, we have studied cells and molecules of importance for the development of IgE-mediated allergies, including the repertoire of immunoglobulin genes. These studies have shown that IgE and IgG most likely appeared by a gene duplication of IgY in an early mammal, possibly 220-300 million years ago. Receptors specific for IgE and IgG subsequently appeared in parallel with the increase in Ig isotypes from a subfamily of the recently identified Fc receptor-like molecules. Circulating IgE levels are generally very low in humans and laboratory rodents. However, when dogs and Scandinavian wolfs were analyzed, IgE levels were found to be 100-200 times higher compared to humans, indicating a generally much more active IgE synthesis in free-living animals, most likely connected to intestinal parasite infections. One of the major effector molecules released upon IgEmediated activation by mast cells are serine proteases. These proteases, which belong to the large family of hematopoietic serine proteases, are extremely abundant and can account for up to 35% of the total cellular protein. Recent studies show that several of these enzymes, including the chymases and tryptases, are old. Ancestors for these enzymes were most likely present in an early mammal more than 200 million years ago before the separation of the three extant mammalian lineages; monotremes, marsupials, and placental mammals. The aim is now to continue these studies of mast cell biology and IgE to obtain additional clues to their evolutionary conserved functions. A focus concerns why the humoral immune response involving IgE and mast cells have become so dysregulated in humans as well as several of our domestic companion animals.

  • 460.
    Henmyr, Viktor
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Biomedicin.
    Vandeplas, Griet
    University Hospital Ghent.
    Halldén, Christer
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Biomedicin.
    Säll, Torbjörn
    Lund University.
    Olze, Heidi
    Charité Berlin.
    Bachert, Claus
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Cardell, Lars Olaf
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Replication study of genetic variants associated with chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis2014In: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN 0091-6749, E-ISSN 1097-6825, Vol. 133, no 1, p. 273-275Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 461. Henningsson, Anna J.
    et al.
    Lindqvist, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Norberg, Peter
    Lindblom, Pontus
    Roth, Anette
    Forsberg, Pia
    Bergström, Tomas
    Överby, Anna K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Human Tick-Borne Encephalitis and Characterization of Virus from Biting Tick2016In: Emerging Infectious Diseases, ISSN 1080-6040, E-ISSN 1080-6059, Vol. 22, no 8, p. 1485-1487Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report a case of human tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in which the TBE virus was isolated from the biting tick. Viral growth and sequence were characterized and compared with those of a reference strain. Virus isolation from ticks from patients with TBE may offer a new approach for studies of epidemiology and pathogenicity.

  • 462.
    Henningsson, Frida
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Ding, Zhoujie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Dahlin, Joakim S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Linkevicius, Marius
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Carlsson, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Grönvik, Kjell-Olov
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Hallgren, Jenny
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Heyman, Birgitta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    IgE-Mediated Enhancement of CD4(+) T Cell Responses in Mice Requires Antigen Presentation by CD11c(+) Cells and Not by B Cells2011In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, no 7, p. e21760-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IgE antibodies, administered to mice together with their specific antigen, enhance antibody and CD4(+) T cell responses to this antigen. The effect is dependent on the low affinity receptor for IgE, CD23, and the receptor must be expressed on B cells. In vitro, IgE-antigen complexes are endocytosed via CD23 on B cells, which subsequently present the antigen to CD4(+) T cells. This mechanism has been suggested to explain also IgE-mediated enhancement of immune responses in vivo. We recently found that CD23(+) B cells capture IgE-antigen complexes in peripheral blood and rapidly transport them to B cell follicles in the spleen. This provides an alternative explanation for the requirement for CD23(+) B cells. The aim of the present study was to determine whether B-cell mediated antigen presentation of IgE-antigen complexes explains the enhancing effect of IgE on immune responses in vivo. The ability of spleen cells, taken from mice 1-4 h after immunization with IgE-antigen, to present antigen to specific CD4(+) T cells was analyzed. Antigen presentation was intact when spleens were depleted of CD19(+) cells (i.e., primarily B cells) but was severely impaired after depletion of CD11c(+) cells (i.e., primarily dendritic cells). In agreement with this, the ability of IgE to enhance proliferation of CD4(+) T cells was abolished in CD11c-DTR mice conditionally depleted of CD11c(+) cells. Finally, the lack of IgE-mediated enhancemen of CD4(+) T cell responses in CD23(-/-) mice could be rescued by transfer of MHC-II-compatible as well as by MHC-II-incompatible CD23(+) B cells. These findings argue against the idea that IgE-mediated enhancement of specific CD4(+) T cell responses in vivo is caused by increased antigen presentation by B cells. A model where CD23(+) B cells act as antigen transporting cells, delivering antigen to CD11c(+) cells for presentation to T cells is consistent with available experimental data.

  • 463. Hertting, Olof
    et al.
    Lüthje, Petra
    Sullivan, Devin
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Aspenström, Pontus
    Brauner, Annelie
    Vitamin D-deficient mice have more invasive urinary tract infection2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 7, article id e0180810Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vitamin D deficiency is a common health problem with consequences not limited to bone and calcium hemostasis. Low levels have also been linked to tuberculosis and other respiratory infections as well as autoimmune diseases. We have previously shown that supplementation with vitamin D can induce the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin during ex vivo infection of human urinary bladder. In rodents, however, cathelicidin expression is not linked to vitamin D and therefore this vitamin D-related effect fighting bacterial invasion is not relevant. To determine if vitamin D had further protective mechanisms during urinary tract infections, we therefore used a mouse model. In vitamin D-deficient mice, we detected more intracellular bacterial communities in the urinary bladder, higher degree of bacterial spread to the upper urinary tract and a skewed cytokine response. Furthermore, we show that the vitamin D receptor was upregulated in the urinary bladder and translocated into the cell nucleus after E. coli infection. This study supports a more general role for vitamin D as a local immune response mediator in the urinary tract.

  • 464. Hertzell, Katarina Brodin
    et al.
    Pauksens, Karlis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Rombo, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning i Sörmland (CKFD).
    Knight, Ann
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology.
    Vene, Sirkka
    Askling, Helena H
    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) vaccine to medically immunosuppressed patients with rheumatoid arthritis: A prospective, open-label, multi-centre study2016In: Vaccine, ISSN 0264-410X, E-ISSN 1873-2518, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 650-655Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Tick-borne Encephalitis (TBE) is endemic in south-eastern Sweden as well as in the Baltic regions, Central Europe and Russia. Ageing and immunosuppressed individuals are more prone to severe disease and neurological complications. We assessed the immunogenicity of TBE-vaccine in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients treated with tumor necrosis factor-inhibitors (TNFi) and/or methotrexate (MTX).

    METHODS: TBE vaccine, FSME-Immune(®) or Encepur(®), was administered to non-immune RA patients as well as age and gender matched healthy controls. Individuals <60 years of age were given three doses at month 0, 1, 12. Individuals ≥60 years old were given an additional priming dose at month 3, i.e. a total of four doses. Tick-borne encephalitis neutralizing antibodies were assessed by a rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test.

    RESULTS: The study population consisted of 66 patients and 56 age and gender matched healthy controls. Median age was 58.5 years. The patients were either treated with TNFi (n=16), TNFi+MTX (n=36) or MTX (n=14). After the last TBE-vaccine dose, given one year after the first, 39% of the patients compared to 79% of the healthy controls had seroprotective levels (p=<0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: Standard TBE-vaccine schedule does not confer enough immunogenicity in this group of immunosuppressed patients, who should be carefully informed about a higher risk for vaccination failure and risk of infection when exposed in high-endemic areas.

  • 465.
    Hesselmark, Eva
    et al.
    Center for Psychiatry Research, Department of clinical neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; School of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; University Health Care Research Center, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Bejerot, Susanne
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Center for Psychiatry Research, Department of clinical neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; School of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; University Health Care Research Center, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Biomarkers for diagnosis of Pediatric Acute Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS): Sensitivity and specificity of the Cunningham Panel2017In: Journal of Neuroimmunology, ISSN 0165-5728, E-ISSN 1872-8421, Vol. 312, p. 31-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Pediatric Acute Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS) and pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) are conditions marked by sudden onset of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), tics, or avoidant/restrictive food intake in combination with multiple psychiatric symptoms. A diagnosis of PANS or PANDAS may be supported by the Cunningham Panel, a commercially available set of immunologic assays currently in clinical use. However, the relationship between Cunningham Panel results and patient symptoms remains unclear. This study was done to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the Cunningham Panel in patients with suspected PANS or PANDAS.

    METHOD: All Swedish patients who had taken the Cunningham Panel prior to June 2014 (n=154) were invited and 53 patients participated in the study. Based on comprehensive psychiatric assessment (the reference standard of diagnosis), subjects were classified as PANS, PANDAS, or neither. Prior Cunningham Panel test results were collected from patient records, and new blood samples were similarly analyzed within the scope of this study. In addition, results were compared to healthy controls (n=21) and a test-retest reliability analysis was performed.

    RESULTS: Sensitivities of individual biomarkers in the Cunningham Panel ranged from 15 to 60%, and specificities from 28 to 92%. Positive predictive values ranged from 17 to 40%, and negative predictive values from 44 to 74%. A majority of the healthy controls had pathological Cunningham Panel results and test-retest reliability proved insufficient.

    CONCLUSION: Clinical use of the Cunningham Panel in diagnosing PANS or PANDAS is not supported by this study.

  • 466.
    Hesselmark, Eva
    et al.
    Center for Psychiatry Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bejerot, Susanne
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. University Health Care Research Center, Region Örebro County, Örebro, Sweden.
    Corrigendum to Biomarkers for diagnosis of Pediatric Acute Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS): Sensitivity and specificity of the Cunningham Panel [J. Neuroimmunol. 312. (2017) 31-37]2017In: Journal of Neuroimmunology, ISSN 0165-5728, E-ISSN 1872-8421, Vol. 313, p. 116-117Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 467.
    Hessle, Pontus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    IgdE homologues - a potential novel immunomodulating enzyme family of Streptococci: Proteases of high specificity linking Streptococcal species to their host organisms2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 468.
    Hesson, Jenny C.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Verner-Carlsson, Jenny
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Ahmed, Raija
    Lundkvist, Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Lundström, Jan O.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Culex torrentium Mosquito Role as Major Enzootic Vector Defined by Rate of Sindbis Virus Infection, Sweden, 20092015In: Emerging Infectious Diseases, ISSN 1080-6040, E-ISSN 1080-6059, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 875-878Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We isolated Sindbis virus (SINV) from the enzootic mosquito vectors Culex torrentium, Cx. pipiens, and Culiseta morsitans collected in an area of Sweden where SINV disease is endemic. The infection rate in Cx. torrentium mosquitoes was exceptionally high (36 infections/1,000 mosquitoes), defining Cx. torrentium as the main enzootic vector of SINV in Scandinavia.

  • 469.
    Heyman, Birgitta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Antibodies as Natural Adjuvants2014In: FC RECEPTORS, 2014, p. 201-219Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibodies in complex with specific antigen can dramatically change the antibody response to this antigen. Depending on antibody class and type of antigen, >99 % suppression or >100-fold enhancement of the response can take place. IgM and IgG3 are efficient enhancers and operate via the complement system. In contrast, IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b enhance antibody and CD4(+) T cell responses to protein antigens via activating Fc gamma-receptors. IgE also enhances antibody and CD4(+) T cell responses to small proteins but uses the low-affinity receptor for IgE, CD23. Most likely, IgM and IgG3 work by increasing the effective concentration of antigen on follicular dendritic cells in splenic follicles. IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b, and IgE probably enhance antibody responses by increasing antigen presentation by dendritic cells to T helper cells. IgG antibodies of all subclasses have a dual effect, and suppress antibody responses to particulate antigens such as erythrocytes. This capacity is used in the clinic to prevent immunization of Rhesus-negative women to Rhesus-positive fetal erythrocytes acquired via transplacental hemorrage. IgG-mediated suppression in mouse models can take place in the absence of Fc gamma-receptors and complement and to date no knock-out mouse strain has been found where suppression is abrogated.

  • 470. Hilderman, Marie
    et al.
    Qureshi, Abdul R
    Al-Abed, Yousef
    Abtahi, Farhad
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical sensors, signals and systems.
    Lindecrantz, Kaj
    Anderstam, Björn
    Bruchfeld, Annette
    Cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway activity in dialysis patients: a role for neuroimmunomodulation?2015In: Clinical Kidney Journal, ISSN 2048-8505, E-ISSN 2048-8513, Vol. 8, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) modulates inflammatory responses through the vagus nerve and the α-7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) on macrophages and immune cells. Sympathetic/parasympathetic imbalance and chronic inflammation are both linked to poor outcome in dialysis patients. The aim of this study was to investigate CAP activity in these patients.

    METHODS: Twenty dialysis patients, 12 hemodialysis (HD) and 8 peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients (12 male, 8 female; age range 47-83 years) and 8 controls (5 male, 3 female; age range 31-52 years) were analyzed for C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin-1b (IL-1b), IL-6 and IL-10 at baseline. The cytokines were then assessed after whole blood stimulation ex vivo with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (10 and 100 ng/mL) and again in the presence of 45 and 90 μmol/L GTS-21, a cholinergic α7nAChR agonist.

    RESULTS: CRP, TNF, IL-1 and IL-6 were significantly higher, whereas IL-10 was significantly lower at baseline in patients compared with controls. After LPS stimulation, TNF increased significantly more in patients than in controls but decreased to similar levels in both groups after addition of GTS-21. IL-6 attenuation was comparable with TNF and the IL-1b pattern was similar but remained significantly higher in patients. Interestingly, IL-10 increased after GTS-21 in a dose-dependent manner, but only in patients. Results in HD and PD patients did not differ.

    CONCLUSIONS: The response of immune cells after LPS exposure and cholinergic stimulation suggests a functional CAP in dialysis patients. It may thus be possible to target the α7nAChR control of cytokine release as an anti-inflammatory strategy and thereby improve outcome in these patients.

  • 471. Hilderman, Marie
    et al.
    Qureshi, Abdul Rashid
    Abtahi, Farhad
    Witt, Nils
    Jägren, Christina
    Olbers, Joakim
    Delle, Martin
    Lindecrantz, Kaj
    Bruchfeld, Annette
    The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in resistant hypertension treated with renal denervation2019In: Molecular medicine (Cambridge, Mass. Print), ISSN 1076-1551, E-ISSN 1528-3658, Vol. 25, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Renal denervation (RDN) reduces sympathetic tone and may alter the sympathetic-parasympathetic balance. The autonomic nervous system is partly a regulator of innate immunity via the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) which inhibits inflammation via the vagus nerve. Placental Growth Factor (PlGF) influences a neuro-immunological pathway in the spleen which may contribute to hypertension. The aim of this study was to investigate if modulation of renal sympathetic nerve activity affects CAP in terms of cytokine release as well as levels of PlGF.

  • 472.
    Hillerdal, Victoria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Berglund, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Transplantation Surgery.
    Boura, Vanessa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Jin, Chuan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Korsgren, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Essand, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Engineering Regulatory Cells With a T Cell Receptor for Controlled Activation2014In: Molecular Therapy, ISSN 1525-0016, E-ISSN 1525-0024, Vol. 22, p. S180-S180Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 473.
    Hillerdal, Victoria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Boura, Vanessa F.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Björkelund, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology. Ridgeview Instruments AB, Vange, Sweden..
    Andersson, Karl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science. Ridgeview Instruments AB, Vange, Sweden..
    Essand, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Avidity characterization of genetically engineered T-cells with novel and established approaches2016In: BMC Immunology, ISSN 1471-2172, E-ISSN 1471-2172, Vol. 17, article id 23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Adoptive transfer of genetically engineered autologous T-cells is becoming a successful therapy for cancer. The avidity of the engineered T-cells is of crucial importance for therapy success. We have in the past cloned a T-cell receptor (TCR) that recognizes an HLA-A2 (MHC class I)-restricted peptide from the prostate and breast cancer- associated antigen TARP. Herein we perform a side-by-side comparison of the TARP-specific TCR (TARP-TCR) with a newly cloned TCR specific for an HLA-A2-restricted peptide from the cytomegalovirus (CMV) pp65 antigen. Results: Both CD8(+) T-cells and CD4(+) T-cells transduced with the HLA-A2-restricted TARP-TCR could readily be detected by multimer analysis, indicating that the binding is rather strong, since binding occured also without the CD8 co-receptor of HLA-A2. Not surprisingly, the TARP-TCR, which is directed against a self-antigen, had weaker binding to the HLA-A2/peptide complex than the CMV pp65-specific TCR (pp65-TCR), which is directed against a viral epitope. Higher peptide concentrations were needed to achieve efficient cytokine release and killing of target cells when the TARP- TCR was used. We further introduce the LigandTracer technology to study cell-cell interactions in real time by evaluating the interaction between TCR-engineered T-cells and peptide-pulsed cancer cells. We were able to successfully detect TCR-engineered T-cell binding kinetics to the target cells. We also used the xCELLigence technology to analyzed cell growth of target cells to assess the killing potency of the TCR-engineered T-cells. T-cells transduced with the pp65 - TCR exhibited more pronounced cytotoxicity, being able to kill their targets at both lower effector to target ratios and lower peptide concentrations. Conclusion: The combination of binding assay with functional assays yields data suggesting that TARP- TCR-engineered T-cells bind to their target, but need more antigen stimulation compared to the pp65-TCR to achieve full effector response. Nonetheless, we believe that the TARP- TCR is an attractive candidate for immunotherapy development for prostate and/or breast cancer.

  • 474.
    Hillerdal, Victoria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Essand, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Chimeric Antigen Receptor-Engineered T Cells for the Treatment of Metastatic Prostate Cancer2015In: BioDrugs, ISSN 1173-8804, E-ISSN 1179-190X, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 75-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cancer immunotherapy was selected as the Breakthrough of the Year 2013 by the editors of Science, in part because of the successful treatment of refractory hematological malignancies with adoptive transfer of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-engineered T cells. Effective treatment of B cell leukemia may pave the road to future treatment of solid tumors, using similar approaches. The prostate expresses many unique proteins and, since the prostate gland is a dispensable organ, CAR T cells can potentially be used to target these tissue-specific antigens. However, the location and composition of prostate cancer metastases complicate the task of treating these tumors. It is therefore likely that more sophisticated CAR T cell approaches are going to be required for prostate metastasis than for B cell malignancies. Two main challenges that need to be resolved are how to increase the migration and infiltration of CAR T cells into prostate cancer bone metastases and how to counteract the immunosuppressive microenvironment found in bone lesions. Inclusion of homing (chemokine) receptors in CAR T cells may improve their recruitment to bone metastases, as may antibody-based combination therapies to normalize the tumor vasculature. Optimal activation of CAR T cells through the introduction of multiple costimulatory domains would help to overcome inhibitory signals from the tumor microenvironment. Likewise, combination therapy with checkpoint inhibitors that can reduce tumor immunosuppression may help improve efficacy. Other elegant approaches such as induced expression of immune stimulatory cytokines upon target recognition may also help to recruit other effector immune cells to metastatic sites. Although toxicities are difficult to predict in prostate cancer, severe on-target/offtumor toxicities have been observed in clinical trials with use of CAR T cells against hematological malignancies; therefore, the choice of the target antigen is going to be crucial. This review focuses on different means of accomplishing maximal effectiveness of CAR T cell therapy for prostate cancer bone metastases while minimizing side effects and CAR T cell-associated toxicities. CAR T cell-based therapies for prostate cancer have the potential to be a therapy model for other solid tumors.

  • 475.
    Holm, Anna
    et al.
    Umea Univ, Div Otorhinolaryngol, Dept Clin Sci, SE-90185 Umea, Sweden..
    Nagaeva, Olga
    Umea Univ, Div Clin Immunol, Dept Clin Microbiol, Umea, Sweden..
    Nagaev, Ivan
    Umea Univ, Div Clin Immunol, Dept Clin Microbiol, Umea, Sweden..
    Loizou, Christos
    Umea Univ, Div Otorhinolaryngol, Dept Clin Sci, SE-90185 Umea, Sweden..
    Laurell, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery.
    Mincheva-Nilsson, Lucia
    Umea Univ, Div Clin Immunol, Dept Clin Microbiol, Umea, Sweden..
    Nylander, Karin
    Umea Univ, Div Pathol, Dept Med Biosci, Umea, Sweden..
    Olofsson, Katarina
    Umea Univ, Div Otorhinolaryngol, Dept Clin Sci, SE-90185 Umea, Sweden..
    Lymphocyte profile and cytokine mRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis suggest dysregulated cytokine mRNA response and impaired cytotoxic capacity2017In: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease, E-ISSN 2050-4527, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 541-550Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a relatively rare, chronic disease caused by Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) 6 and 11, and characterized by wart-like lesions in the airway affecting voice and respiratory function. The majority of HPV infections are asymptomatic and resolve spontaneously, however, some individuals are afflicted with persistent HPV infections. Failure to eliminate HPV 6 and 11 due to a defect immune responsiveness to these specific genotypes is proposed to play a major role in the development of RRP.

    Methods: We performed a phenotypic characterization of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) collected from 16 RRP patients and 12 age-matched healthy controls, using immunoflow cytometry, and monoclonal antibodies against differentiation and activation markers. The cytokine mRNA profile of monocytes, T helper-, T cytotoxic-, and NK cells was assessed using RT-qPCR cytokine analysis, differentiating between Th1-, Th2-, Th3/regulatory-, and inflammatory immune responses.

    Results: We found a dominance of cytotoxic T cells, activated NK cells, and high numbers of stressed MIC A/B expressing lymphocytes. There was an overall suppression of cytokine mRNA production and an aberrant cytokine mRNA profile in the activated NK cells.

    Conclusion: These findings demonstrate an immune dysregulation with inverted CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio and aberrant cytokine mRNA production in RRP patients, compared to healthy controls.

  • 476.
    Holm, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Otorhinolaryngology.
    Nagaeva, Olga
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Immunology.
    Nagaev, Ivan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Immunology.
    Loizou, Christos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Otorhinolaryngology.
    Laurell, Göran
    Mincheva-Nilsson, Lucia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Immunology.
    Nylander, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Olofsson, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Otorhinolaryngology.
    Lymphocyte profile and cytokine mRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis suggest dysregulated cytokine mRNA response and impaired cytotoxic capacity2017In: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease, E-ISSN 2050-4527, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 541-550Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a relatively rare, chronic disease caused by Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) 6 and 11, and characterized by wart-like lesions in the airway affecting voice and respiratory function. The majority of HPV infections are asymptomatic and resolve spontaneously, however, some individuals are afflicted with persistent HPV infections. Failure to eliminate HPV 6 and 11 due to a defect immune responsiveness to these specific genotypes is proposed to play a major role in the development of RRP.

    METHODS: We performed a phenotypic characterization of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) collected from 16 RRP patients and 12 age-matched healthy controls, using immunoflow cytometry, and monoclonal antibodies against differentiation and activation markers. The cytokine mRNA profile of monocytes, T helper-, T cytotoxic-, and NK cells was assessed using RT-qPCR cytokine analysis, differentiating between Th1-, Th2-, Th3/regulatory-, and inflammatory immune responses.

    RESULTS: We found a dominance of cytotoxic T cells, activated NK cells, and high numbers of stressed MIC A/B expressing lymphocytes. There was an overall suppression of cytokine mRNA production and an aberrant cytokine mRNA profile in the activated NK cells.

    CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate an immune dysregulation with inverted CD4(+) /CD8(+) ratio and aberrant cytokine mRNA production in RRP patients, compared to healthy controls.

  • 477.
    Holmberg, K
    et al.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Neuropediatric unit, Sachs’ Children and Youth Hospital, South General Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundholm, C
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Anckarsäter, H
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Forensic Psychiatry, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Larsson, Henrik
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Almqvist, C
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Lung and allergy unit, Astrid Lindgren Children’s Hospital, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Impact of asthma medication and familial factors on the association between childhood asthma and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a combined twin- and register-based study2015In: Clinical and Experimental Allergy, ISSN 0954-7894, E-ISSN 1365-2222, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 964-973Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Asthma and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are prevalent in childhood and may cause functional impairment and stress in families. Previous research supports an association between asthma and ADHD in children, but several aspects of this relationship are unclear.

    OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to study whether the association between asthma and ADHD is restricted to either the inattentive or the hyperactive/impulsive symptoms of ADHD, to explore the impact of asthma severity and asthma medication and the contribution of shared genetic and environmental risk factors on the asthma-ADHD relationship.

    METHODS: Data on asthma, ADHD, zygosity and possible confounders were collected from parental questionnaires at 9 or 12 years on 20 072 twins through the Swedish Twin Register, linked to the Swedish Medical Birth Register, the National Patient Register and the Prescribed Drug Register. The association between asthma and ADHD, the impact of asthma severity and medication, was assessed by generalized estimating equations. Cross-twin-cross-trait correlations (CTCT) were estimated to explore the relative importance of genes and environment for the association.

    RESULTS: Asthmatic children had a higher risk of also having ADHD [odds ratio (OR) 1.53, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16-2.02]. The association was not restricted to either of the two dimensions of ADHD. The magnitude of the association increased with asthma severity (OR 2.84, 95% CI: 1.86-4.35) for ≥ 4 asthma attacks in the last 12 months and was not affected by asthma treatment. The CTCTs possibly indicate that the genetic component in overlap of the disorders is weak.

    CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Childhood asthma, especially severe asthma, is associated with ADHD. Asthma medication seems not to increase the risk of ADHD. Clinicians should be aware of the potential of ADHD in asthma. Optimal asthma care needs to be integrated with effective evaluation and treatment of ADHD in children with co-existing disorders.

  • 478.
    Holmberg, Sandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    The Role of Neutrophils in Anaerobic Environments: Periodontitis as Infectious Model2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 479.
    Holmström, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Microbiology.
    Rosqvist, Roland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Microbiology.
    Wolf-Watz, Hans
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Microbiology.
    Forsberg, Åke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Microbiology.
    Virulence plasmid-encoded YopK is essential for Yersinia pseudotuberculosis to cause systemic infection in mice.1995In: Infection and Immunity, ISSN 0019-9567, E-ISSN 1098-5522, Vol. 63, no 6, p. 2269-2276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The virulence plasmid common to pathogenic Yersinia species encodes a number of secreted proteins denoted Yops (Yersinia outer proteins). Here, we identify and characterize a novel plasmid-encoded virulence determinant of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, YopK. The yopK gene was found to be conserved among the three pathogenic Yersinia species and to be homologous to the previously described yopQ and yopK genes of Y. enterocolitica and Y. pestis, respectively. Similar to the other Yops, YopK expression and secretion were shown to be regulated by temperature and by the extracellular Ca2+ concentration; thus, yopK is part of the yop regulon. In addition, YopK secretion was mediated by the specific Yop secretion system. In Y. pseudotuberculosis, YopK was shown neither to have a role in this bacterium's ability to resist phagocytosis by macrophages nor to cause cytotoxicity in HeLa cells. YopK was, however, shown to be required for the bacterium to cause a systemic infection in both intraperitoneally and orally infected mice. Characterization of the infection kinetics showed that, similarly to the wild-type strain, the yopK mutant strain colonized and persisted in the Peyer's patches of orally infected mice. A yopE mutant which is impaired in cytotoxicity and in antiphagocytosis was, however, found to be rapidly cleared from these lymphoid organs. Neither the yopK nor the yopE mutant strain could overcome the primary host defense and reach the spleen. This finding implies that YopK acts at a different level during the infections process than the antiphagocytic YopE cytotoxin does.

  • 480. Honarvar, Hadis
    et al.
    Westerlund, Kristina
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Protein Technology.
    Altai, Mohamed
    Sandstrom, Mattias
    Orlova, Anna
    Tolmachev, Vladimir
    Eriksson Karlström, Amelie
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Protein Technology.
    Feasibility of Affibody Molecule-Based PNA-Mediated Radionuclide Pretargeting of Malignant Tumors2016In: Theranostics, ISSN 1838-7640, E-ISSN 1838-7640, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 93-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Affibody molecules are small (7 kDa), non-immunoglobulin scaffold proteins with a potential as targeting agents for radionuclide imaging of cancer. However, high renal re-absorption of Affibody molecules prevents their use for radionuclide therapy with residualizing radiometals. We hypothesized that the use of Affibody-based peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-mediated pretargeting would enable higher accumulation of radiometals in tumors than in kidneys. To test this hypothesis, we designed an Affibody-PNA chimera Z(HER2:342)-SR-HP1 containing a 15-mer HP1 PNA recognition tag and a complementary HP2 hybridization probe permitting labeling with both I-125 and In-111. In-111-Z(HER2:342)-SR-HP1 bound specifically to HER2-expressing BT474 and SKOV-3 cancer cells in vitro, with a K-D of 6+/-2 pM for binding to SKOV-3 cells. Specific high affinity binding of the radiolabeled complementary PNA probe In-111-/I-125-HP2 to Z(HER2:342)-SR-HP1 pre-treated cells was demonstrated. In-111-Z(HER2:342)-SR-HP1 demonstrated specific accumulation in SKOV-3 xenografts in BALB/C nu/nu mice and rapid clearance from blood. Pre-saturation of SKOV-3 with non-labeled anti-HER2 Affibody or the use of HER2-negative Ramos xenografts resulted in significantly lower tumor uptake of In-111-Z(HER2:342)-SR-HP1. The complementary PNA probe In-111/I-125-HP2 accumulated in SKOV-3 xenografts when Z(HER2:342)-SR-HP1 was injected 4 h earlier. The tumor accumulation of In-111/I-125-HP2 was negligible without Z(HER2:342)-SR-HP1 pre-injection. The uptake of In-111-HP2 in SKOV-3 xenografts was 19+/-2 % ID/g at 1 h after injection. The uptake in blood and kidneys was approximately 50- and 2-fold lower, respectively. In conclusion, we have shown that the use of Affibody-based PNA-mediated pretargeting enables specific delivery of radiometals to tumors and provides higher radiometal concentration in tumors than in kidneys.

  • 481. Howard, Jennifer
    et al.
    Loizon, Séverine
    Tyler, Christopher J.
    Duluc, Dorothée
    Moser, Bernhard
    Mechain, Matthieu
    Duvignaud, Alexandre
    Malvy, Denis
    Troye-Blomberg, Marita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Moreau, Jean-Francois
    Eberl, Matthias
    Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile
    Déchanet-Merville, Julie
    Behr, Charlotte
    Mamani-Matsuda, Maria
    The Antigen-Presenting Potential of V gamma 9V delta 2 T Cells During Plasmodium falciparum Blood-Stage Infection2017In: Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0022-1899, E-ISSN 1537-6613, Vol. 215, no 10, p. 1569-1579Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During Plasmodium falciparum infections, erythrocyte-stage parasites inhibit dendritic cell maturation and function, compromising effective antimalarial adaptive immunity. Human V gamma 9V delta 2 T cells can act in vitro as antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and induce alpha beta T-cell activation. However, the relevance of this activity in vivo has remained elusive. Because V gamma 9V delta 2 T cells are activated during the early immune response against P. falciparum infection, we investigated whether they could contribute to the instruction of adaptive immune responses toward malaria parasites. In P. falciparum-infected patients, V gamma 9V delta 2 T cells presented increased surface expression of APC-associated markers HLA-DR and CD86. In response to infected red blood cells in vitro, V gamma 9V delta 2 T cells upregulated surface expression of HLA-DR, HLA-ABC, CD40, CD80, CD83, and CD86, induced naive alpha beta T-cell responses, and cross-presented soluble prototypical protein to antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells. Our findings qualify V gamma 9V delta 2 T cells as alternative APCs, which could be harnessed for therapeutic interventions and vaccine design.

  • 482.
    Hoxha, A.
    et al.
    University of Padua, Italy; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Ruffatti, A.
    University of Padua, Italy.
    Ambrosi, A.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Ottosson, V.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Hedlund, M.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Ottosson, L.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Anandapadamanaban, Madhanagopal
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sunnerhagen, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sonesson, S. -E.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Wahren-Herlenius, M.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Identification of discrete epitopes of Ro52p200 and association with fetal cardiac conduction system manifestations in a rodent model2016In: Clinical and Experimental Immunology, ISSN 0009-9104, E-ISSN 1365-2249, Vol. 186, no 3, p. 284-291Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Congenital heart block (CHB) is a potentially lethal condition characterized by a third-degree atrioventricular block (AVB). Despite anti-Ro52 antibodies being detected in nearly 90% of mothers of affected children, CHB occurs in only 1-2% of anti-Ro/Sjogrens-syndrome-related antigen A (SSA) autoantibody-positive pregnancies. Maternal antibodies have been suggested to bind molecules crucial to fetal cardiac function; however, it remains unknown whether a single antibody profile associates with CHB or whether several specificities and cross-reactive targets exist. Here, we aimed to define further the reactivity profile of CHB-associated antibodies towards Ro52p200 (amino acid 200-239). We first analysed reactivity of a monoclonal anti-Ro52 antibody shown to induce AVB in rats (7.8C7) and of sera from anti-Ro52p200 antibody-positive mothers of children with CHB towards a panel of modified Ro52p200 peptides, and subsequently evaluated their potential to induce AVB in rats upon transfer during gestation. We observed that CHB maternal sera displayed a homogeneous reactivity profile targeting preferentially the C-terminal part of Ro52p200, in contrast to 7.8C7 that specifically bound the p200 N-terminal end. In particular, amino acid D233 appeared crucial to maternal antibody reactivity towards p200. Despite low to absent reactivity towards rat p200 and different binding profiles towards mutated rat peptides indicating recognition of different epitopes within Ro52p200, immunoglobulin (Ig)G purified from two mothers of children with CHB could induce AVB in rats. Our findings support the hypothesis that several fine antibody specificities and cross-targets may exist and contribute to CHB development in anti-Ro52 antibody-positive pregnancies.

  • 483.
    Hu Frisk, Jun Mei
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Kjellén, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Kaler, Stephen G
    Eunice Kennedy Shriver Natl Inst Child Hlth & Hum, Sect Translat Neurosci, Mol Med Branch, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA.
    Pejler, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anat Physiol & Biochem, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Öhrvik, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Copper Regulates Maturation and Expression of an MITF: Tryptase Axis in Mast Cells2017In: Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0022-1767, E-ISSN 1550-6606, Vol. 199, no 12, p. 4132-4141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Copper has previously been implicated in the regulation of immune responses, but the impact of this metal on mast cells is poorly understood. In this article, we address this issue and show that copper starvation of mast cells causes increased granule maturation, as indicated by higher proteoglycan content, stronger metachromatic staining, and altered ultrastructure in comparison with nontreated cells, whereas copper overload has the opposite effects. In contrast, copper status did not impact storage of histamine in mast cells, nor did alterations in copper levels affect the ability of mast cells to degranulate in response to IgER cross-linking. A striking finding was decreased tryptase content in mast cells with copper overload, whereas copper starvation increased tryptase content. These effects were associated with corresponding shifts in tryptase mRNA levels, suggesting that copper affects tryptase gene regulation. Mechanistically, we found that alterations in copper status affected the expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, a transcription factor critical for driving tryptase expression. We also found evidence supporting the concept that the effects on microphthalmia-associated transcription factor are dependent on copper-mediated modulation of MAPK signaling. Finally, we show that, in MEDNIK syndrome, a condition associated with low copper levels and a hyperallergenic skin phenotype, including pruritis and dermatitis, the number of tryptase-positive mast cells is increased. Taken together, our findings reveal a hitherto unrecognized role for copper in the regulation of mast cell gene expression and maturation.

  • 484.
    Hu, Lijuan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine, Clinical Virology.
    Uzhameckis, Dmitrijs
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine, Clinical Virology.
    Hedborg, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Blomberg, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine, Clinical Virology.
    Dynamic and selective HERV RNA expression in neuroblastoma cells subjected to variation in oxygen tension and demethylation2016In: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica (APMIS), ISSN 0903-4641, E-ISSN 1600-0463, Vol. 124, no 1-2, p. 140-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied HERV expression in cell lines after hypoxia, mitogenic stimulation, and demethylation, to better understand if hypoxia may play a role in ERV activation also within the nervous system, as represented by neuroblastoma cell lines. The level of RNA of four human ERV groups (HERVs) (HERVE, I/T, H, and W), and three housekeeping genes, of different cell lines including A549, COS-1, Namalwa, RD-L and Vero-E6, as well as human neuroblastoma cell lines SH-SY5Y, SK-N-DZ, and SK-N-AS were studied using reverse transcription and real-time quantitative PCR (QPCR). During the course of recovery from hypoxia a pronounced and selective activation of RNA expression of HERVW-like sequences, but not of HERVE, I/T, H, and three housekeeping genes, was found in the neuroblastoma cell lines, most pronounced in SK-N-DZ. In the SK-N-DZ cell line, we also tested the expression of HERVs after chemical treatments. HERVW-like sequences were selectively upregulated by 5-azacytidine, a demethylating agent. Some HERVW loci seem especially responsive to hypoxia and demethylation. HERV expression in neuroblastoma cells is selectively and profoundly influenced by some physiological and chemical stimuli.

  • 485.
    Huang, Shan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Sandholm, Kerstin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Jonsson, Nina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Uppsala University.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Gambro Lundia AB.
    Wieslander, Anders
    Gambro Lundia AB.
    Grundström, Gunilla
    Gambro Lundia AB.
    Hancock, Viktoria
    Gambro Lundia AB.
    Nilsson Ekdahl, Kristina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Uppsala University.
    Low concentrations of citrate reduce complement and granulocyte activation in vitro in human blood2015In: Clinical Kidney Journal, ISSN 2048-8505, E-ISSN 2048-8513, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 31-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:The use of acetate in haemodialysis fluids may induce negative effects in patients including nausea and increased inflammation. Therefore, haemodialysis fluids where acetate is substituted with citrate have recently been developed. In this study, we investigated the biocompatibility of citrate employing concentrations used in haemodialysis.

    METHODS:The effects of citrate and acetate were investigated in human whole blood in vitro under conditions promoting biomaterial-induced activation. Complement activation was measured as generation of C3a, C5a and the sC5b-9 complex, and granulocyte activation as up-regulation of CD11b expression. For the experimental set-up, a mathematical model was created to calculate the concentrations of acetate and citrate attained during haemodialysis.

    RESULTS:Citrate reduced granulocyte activation and did not induce higher complement activation compared with acetate at concentrations attained during haemodialysis. Investigating different citrate concentrations clearly showed that citrate is a potent complement inhibitor already at low concentrations, i.e. 0.25 mM, which is comparable with concentrations detected in the blood of patients during dialysis with citrate-containing fluids. Increased citrate concentration up to 6 mM further reduced the activation of C3a, C5a and sC5b-9, as well as the expression of CD11b.

    CONCLUSIONS:Our results suggest that citrate is a promising substitute for acetate for a more biocompatible dialysis, most likely resulting in less adverse effects for the patients.

  • 486. Huang, Shan
    et al.
    Sandholm, Kerstin
    Nilsson, Bo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Ekdahl, Kristina Nilsson
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    iC3 generation elicited by the presence of ammonia and urea in human plasma2015In: Molecular Immunology, ISSN 0161-5890, E-ISSN 1872-9142, Vol. 67, no 1, p. 145-145Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 487.
    Huber-Lang, Markus
    et al.
    University Hospital Ulm, Institute of Clinical and Experimental Trauma-Immunology, Ulm, Germany.
    Nilsson Ekdahl, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology. Linnæus University, Linnæus Center of Biomaterials Chemistry, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Wiegner, Rebecca
    University Hospital Ulm, Institute of Clinical and Experimental Trauma-Immunology, Ulm, Germany.
    Fromell, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Nilsson, Bo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Auxiliary activation of the complement system and its importance for the pathophysiology of clinical conditions2018In: Seminars in Immunopathology, ISSN 1863-2297, E-ISSN 1863-2300, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 87-102Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Activation and regulation of the cascade systems of the blood (the complement system, the coagulation/contact activation/kallikrein system, and the fibrinolytic system) occurs via activation of zymogen molecules to specific active proteolytic enzymes. Despite the fact that the generated proteases are all present together in the blood, under physiological conditions, the activity of the generated proteases is controlled by endogenous protease inhibitors. Consequently, there is remarkable little crosstalk between the different systems in the fluid phase. This concept review article aims at identifying and describing conditions where the strict system-related control is circumvented. These include clinical settings where massive amounts of proteolytic enzymes are released from tissues, e.g., during pancreatitis or post-traumatic tissue damage, resulting in consumption of the natural substrates of the specific proteases and the available protease inhibitor. Another example of cascade system dysregulation is disseminated intravascular coagulation, with canonical activation of all cascade systems of the blood, also leading to specific substrate and protease inhibitor elimination. The present review explains basic concepts in protease biochemistry of importance to understand clinical conditions with extensive protease activation.

  • 488.
    Huijbers, Elisabeth J. M
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Development of a Cancer Vaccine Targeting Tumor Blood Vessels2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A treatment strategy for cancer is the suppression of tumor growth by directing an immune response to the tumor vessels, which will destroy the tissue.

    In this thesis we describe the development of a vaccine that targets antigens expressed around angiogenic vasculature in most solid tumors. These antigens are alternative spliced extra domains of glycoproteins present in the extracellular matrix; e.g. the extra domain-B (ED-B) and extra domain-A (ED-A) of fibronectin and the C-domain of tenascin-C (TNCC).

    We show that it is possible to break self-tolerance and induce a strong antibody response against ED-B by vaccination. Furthermore, tumor growth was inhibited and the changes observed in the tumor tissue were consistent with an attack of the tumor vasculature by the immune system.

    For clinical development of therapeutic vaccines, targeting self-molecules like ED-B, a potent but non-toxic biodegradable adjuvant is required. The squalene-based Montanide ISA 720 (M720) in combination with CpG DNA fulfilled these requirements and induced an equally strong anti-self immune response as the preclinical golden standard Freund’s adjuvant. We have further characterized the immune response against ED-B generated with the adjuvant M720/GpG. 

    The ED-B vaccine also inhibited tumor growth in a therapeutic setting in a transgenic mouse model of pancreatic insulinoma in which tumorigenesis was already initiated. Furthermore, antibodies against ED-A and TNCC could be induced in mice and rabbits. We analyzed the expression of ED-A in breast tumors of transgenic MMTV-PyMT mice, a metastatic breast cancer model, with the aim to use this model to study the effect of an ED-A vaccine on metastasis. We also detected ED-B in canine mammary tumor tissue. Therefore vascular antigens might also represent potential therapeutic targets in dogs. 

    All together our preclinical data demonstrate that a vaccine targeting tumor blood vessels is a promising new approach for cancer treatment. 

  • 489.
    Huijbers, Elisabeth JM
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Femel, Julia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Cedervall, Jessica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Hein, Tobias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    Hellman, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    Olsson, Anna-Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Development of a therapeutic vaccine targeting blood vessels in primary tumors and metastases2012Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 490. Hulspas, Ruud
    et al.
    Villa-Komaroff, Lydia
    Koksal, Erin
    Etienne, Kenol
    Rogers, Patricia
    Tuttle, Matt
    Korsgren, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Sharpe, John
    Berglund, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Transplantation Surgery.
    Purification of regulatory T cells with the use of a fully enclosed high-speed microfluidic system2014In: Cytotherapy, ISSN 1465-3249, E-ISSN 1477-2566, Vol. 16, no 10, p. 1384-1389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background aims. Despite promising advances in cellular therapies, it will be difficult to fully test or implement new therapies until advances are made in the processes for cell preparation. This study describes the use of an advanced prototype of a flow-cytometry cell purification system constructed for operation in a clinical environment to prepare regulatory T cells defined as CD4(+)/CD25(bright)/CD127(neg/low). Methods. The sort performance of the Gigasort system was directly compared with available droplet sorters using mixtures of highly fluorescent and non-fluorescent 5-mu m polystyrene particles. CD4(+)-enriched cell preparations were processed with the use of a sterile, disposable fluid handling unit with a chip containing parallel microfluidic-based sorters. Results. Similar purity and sort efficiency as found with droplet sorters were obtained with the 24-channel chip sorter system. Starting with 450 million fresh peripheral blood mononuclear cells, 150,000 to 1.7 million cells that were, on average, 85% FoxP3-positive and 97% viable, were obtained in <4 h. Conclusions. This study presents a technology adapted to regulatory requirements for clinical cell purification and that achieves high throughput and cell-friendly conditions by use of a microfluidic chip with 24 parallel microsorters, providing a rapid, sterile method of purifying regulatory T cells accurately and with excellent viability.

  • 491.
    Hultgren Hörnquist, Elisabet
    Örebro University, School of Medicine, Örebro University, Sweden.
    The mucosal immune system in microscopic colitis2012In: Microscopic colitis / [ed] S. Miehlke, A. Münich, Basel: S. Karger, 2012, p. 33-39Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 492.
    Hägglund, Hans
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Haematology.
    Remberger, M.
    Ringden, O.
    Twenty-year follow-up of a randomized trial comparing intraosseous and i.v. BM transplantation2014In: Bone Marrow Transplantation, ISSN 0268-3369, E-ISSN 1476-5365, Vol. 49, no 12, p. 1541-1542Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 493.
    Häggqvist, Susana
    Linköping University, The Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Effects of different conditions of HIV-1 on plasmacytoid dendritic cells in maturation and function2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDCs) are one cellular target of HIV-1 and respond to the virus by producing type I interferons and chemokines. PDCs exposed to HIV-1 strongly upregulate the expression of maturation markers such as CD83, CD80, CD86 and CCR7, which will turn them into professional antigen presenting cells with the ability to stimulate naïve CD4+T cells. When HIV-1 binds to the CD4 receptor and a co-receptor (CCR5 or CXCR4) on PDCs, the cell takes up the virus by endocytosis. In response to this, PDCs will become activated and express maturation markers on their surface that make them able to stimulate T cells to trigger an immune response. In this thesis, studies have been performed with different forms of HIV-1, i.e. opsonized virions covered in complement and antibodies since these forms are supposed to be more similar to how HIV appears in the body. According to our results there is no significant difference in PDC maturation between the free and opsonized HIV-1.

  • 494.
    Hässler, Signe
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. CKMF.
    Ramsey, Chris
    Marits, Per
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. CKMF.
    Kämpe, Olle
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. CKMF.
    Surh, Charles D.
    Peltonen, Leena
    Winqvist, Ola
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. CKMF.
    Increased antigen presenting cell-mediated T cell activation in mice and patients without the autoimmune regulator2006In: European Journal of Immunology, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 305-317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Patients with autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type I (APS I)suffer from endocrine and non-endocrine disorders due to mutations in the autoimmune regulator gene (AIRE). Mouse Aire is expressed both in thymic medullary epithelial cells and in peripheral antigen-presenting cells, suggesting a role in both central and peripheral tolerance. We here report that Aire(-/-) dendritic cells (DC) activate naive T cells more efficiently than do Aire(+/+) DC. Expression array analyses of Aire(-/-) DC revealed differential regulation of 68 transcripts, among which, the vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) transcript was up-regulated in Aire(-/-) DC. Concurrently, the expression of the VCAM-1 protein was up-regulated on both Aire(-/-) DC and monocytes from APS I patients. Blocking the interaction of VCAM-1 prevented enhanced Aire(-/-) DC stimulation of T cell hybridomas. We determined an increased number of DC in spleen and lymph nodes and of monocytes in the blood from Aire(-/-) mice, and an increased number of blood monocytes in APS I patients. Our findings imply a role for Aire in peripheral DC regulation of T cell activation, and suggest that Aire participates in peripheral tolerance.

  • 495.
    Hårdstedt, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Studies of Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Islet Transplantation2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Clinical islet transplantation is today an established alternative treatment for a selected group of type 1 diabetes patients. The predominant technique for transplantation is infusion of islets in the liver via the portal vein. Obstacles to advancing islet transplantation include limited engraftment resulting from an immediate blood-mediated inflammatory reaction (IBMIR), a life-long need for immunosuppression and the shortage of organs available.

    In this thesis, innate and adaptive immunity were explored in allogeneic and xenogeneic settings, with the long-term goal of preventing islet graft destruction. Methods for studying immune responses to islets in blood and engrafted islets in liver tissue (intragraft gene expression) were developed and refined. The innate response to human islets and exocrine tissue in ABO-compatible blood was characterized up to 48 h using a novel whole-blood model. Physiological changes in the blood during incubations were explored and adjusted to allow prolonged experiments. Increased production of chemokines targeting CXCR1/2, CCR2 and CXCR3 was observed, accompanied by massive intra-islet neutrophil infiltration. Notably, endocrine and exocrine tissue triggered a similarly strong innate immune response.

    Two studies of adult porcine islet transplantation to non-human primates (NHPs) were performed. Expression of immune response genes induced in liver tissue of non-immunosuppressed NHPs (≤72 h) was evaluated after porcine islet transplantation. Up-regulation of CXCR3 mRNA, together with IP-10, Mig, MIP-1α, RANTES, MCP-1 and cytotoxic effector molecule transcripts, was associated with T-cell and macrophage infiltration at 48-72 h. Long-term survival (>100 days) of adult porcine islets in a NHP model was later demonstrated using T-cell-based immunosuppression, including co-stimulatory blockade (anti-CD154 mAb). Graft failure was associated with increased levels of circulating, indirectly activated T cells, non-Gal pig-specific IgG and gene transcripts of inflammatory cytokines. Microarray analysis of the response to inflammatory cytokines in cultured porcine islets identified genes involved in cell death, immune responses and oxidative stress; this gene pattern coincided with physiological changes (decrease in insulin and ATP content).

    In summary, allogeneic whole-blood experiments and xenogeneic in vivo studies underscored the importance of preventing early inflammation and cell-recruitment to avoid islet graft loss in islet transplantation. Long-term survival of porcine islets in NHPs was shown to be feasible using T-cell-directed immunosuppression, including anti-CD154 mAb.

  • 496.
    Hårdstedt, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Finnegan, Colleen P
    Kirchhof, Nicole
    Hyland, Kendra A
    Wijkstrom, Martin
    Murtaugh, Michael P
    Hering, Bernhard J
    Post-transplant upregulation of chemokine messenger RNA in non-human primate recipients of intraportal pig islet xenografts2005In: Xenotransplantation, ISSN 0908-665X, E-ISSN 1399-3089, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 293-302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    We have previously shown that pig-to-primate intraportal islet xenografts reverse diabetes, escape hyperacute rejection, and undergo acute cellular rejection in non-immunosuppressed recipients. To gain a better understanding of mechanisms contributing to xenoislet rejection in non-human primates we examined gene expression in livers bearing islet xenografts in the first 72 h after transplantation.

    METHODS:

    Liver specimens were collected at sacrifice from seven non-immunosuppressed rhesus macaques at 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after intraportal porcine islet transplantation. Following total RNA extraction, mRNA was quantified using SYBR green real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for species-specific immune response genes. Data were analyzed using comparative cycle threshold (Ct) analysis, adjusted for specific primer-efficiencies and normalized to cyclophilin expression.

    RESULTS:

    Porcine insulin mRNA was detected in all liver samples. Cluster analysis revealed differential gene expression patterns at 12 and 24 h (early) compared with at 48 and 72 h (late) post-transplant. Gene expression patterns were associated with histological findings of predominantly neutrophils and only a few lymphocytes at 12 and 24 h and an increasing number of lymphocytes and macrophages at 48 and 72 h. Transcript levels of CXCR3 and its ligands, interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) and monokine induced by IFN-gamma (Mig), significantly increased between early and late time points together with expression of MIP-1alpha, regulated on activation normal T expressed and secreted protein (RANTES) and MCP-1. CCR5 showed only a marginal, non-significant increase. Fas ligand, perforin and granzyme B transcripts were all elevated at 48 and 72 h post-transplant.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Our data suggest that CXCR3, with ligands IP-10 and Mig, is involved in T cell recruitment in acute islet xenograft rejection in non-human primates. Upregulation of RANTES and MIP-1alpha transcripts in the absence of a significant CCR5 increase suggests a possible involvement of other chemokine receptors. MCP-1 expression is associated with T cell and macrophage infiltration. Elevated cytotoxic effector molecule expression (Fas ligand, perforin, granzyme B) indicates T-cell mediated graft destruction by cytotoxic and cytolytic mechanisms within 48 to 72 h after transplantation. These results identify the CXCR3-mediated chemoattractant pathway as an immunosuppressive target in pig-to-primate islet xenotransplantation.

  • 497.
    Hårdstedt, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Center for Clinical Research Dalarna.
    Lindblom, Susanne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Hong, Jaan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Nilsson, Bo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Korsgren, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Ronquist, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Biochemial structure and function.
    A novel model for studies of blood-mediated long-term responses to cellular transplants2015In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 120, no 1, p. 28-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims

    Interaction between blood and bio-surfaces is important in many medical fields. With the aim of studying blood-mediated reactions to cellular transplants, we developed a whole-blood model for incubation of small volumes for up to 48 h.

    Methods

    Heparinized polyvinyl chloride tubing was cut in suitable lengths and sealed to create small bags. Multiple bags, with fresh venous blood, were incubated attached to a rotating wheel at 37°C. Physiological variables in blood were monitored: glucose, blood gases, mono- and divalent cations and chloride ions, osmolality, coagulation (platelet consumption, thrombin-antithrombin complexes (TAT)), and complement activation (C3a and SC5b-9), haemolysis, and leukocyte viability.

    Results

    Basic glucose consumption was high. Glucose depletion resulted in successive elevation of extracellular potassium, while sodium and calcium ions decreased due to inhibition of energy-requiring ion pumps. Addition of glucose improved ion balance but led to metabolic acidosis. To maintain a balanced physiological environment beyond 6 h, glucose and sodium hydrogen carbonate were added regularly based on analyses of glucose, pH, ions, and osmotic pressure. With these additives haemolysis was prevented for up to 72 h and leukocyte viability better preserved. Despite using non-heparinized blood, coagulation and complement activation were lower during long-term incubations compared with addition of thromboplastin and collagen.

    Conclusion

    A novel whole-blood model for studies of blood-mediated responses to a cellular transplant is presented allowing extended observations for up to 48 h and highlights the importance of stringent evaluations and adjustment of physiological conditions.

  • 498.
    Hårdstedt, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Center for Clinical Research Dalarna.
    Lindblom, Susanne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Karlsson-Para, Alex
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Nilsson, Bo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Korsgren, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Characterization of innate immunity in an extended whole blood model of human islet allotransplantation2016In: Cell Transplantation, ISSN 0963-6897, E-ISSN 1555-3892, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 503-515Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The instant blood-mediated inflammatory reaction (IBMIR) has been studied in whole blood models of human allo-islet transplantation for short periods (<6 h). Beyond this time frame the innate response to intraportally transplanted islets is less well described. A novel whole blood model was applied to study blood islet graft interactions up to 48 h. Heparinized polyvinyl chloride tubing was sealed into small bags containing venous blood together with allogeneic human islets and exocrine tissue, respectively. The bags were attached to a rotating wheel (37 degrees C). Concentrated glucose and sodium hydrogen carbonate were added every 12 h to maintain physiological limits for sustained immune cell functions. Plasma was collected at repeated time points for analyses of coagulation/complement activation and chemokine/cytokine production. Immune cell infiltration was analyzed using immunohistochemistry. Coagulation and platelet activation markers, thrombin antithrombin complex (TAT) and soluble CD40 ligand (sCD4OL) showed early high concentrations (at 6-12 h). sC5b-9 steadily increased over 48 h. At 6 h neutrophils and monocytes surrounded the clotted cellular grafts with a following massive infiltration of neutrophils. High and increasing concentrations of CXCR1/2 ligands [IL-8 and growth-regulated oncogene alpha/beta/gamma (Gro-alpha/beta/gamma)] and IL-6 were produced in response to human islets and exocrine tissue. The CCR2 ligand monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) exhibited increasing concentrations in response to exocrine tissue. The CXCR3 ligand interferon-inducible T cell alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC) was produced in response to both human islets and exocrine tissue from 6 h. Monokine induced by yinterferon (Mig) and interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10) showed a later response, preferentially to exocrine tissue and with larger variations among preparations. An extended blood model of clinical islet transplantation allowed characterization of early immune activation in response to human islets and exocrine tissue. Increased production of chemokines targeting CXCR1/2, CCR2, and CXCR3 was observed, accompanied by massive intraislet neutrophil infiltration over 48 h. The model proved to be useful in exploring early blood-mediated reactions to cellular transplants and has relevance for evaluation of pharmacological interventions to prevent graft loss.

  • 499. Höglind, Ankie
    et al.
    Areström, Irene
    Ehrnfelt, Cecilia
    Masjedi, Khosro
    Zuber, Bartels
    Giavedoni, Luis
    Ahlborg, Niklas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute. Mabtech, Sweden.
    Systematic evaluation of monoclonal antibodies and immunoassays for the detection of Interferon-gamma and Interleukin-2 in old and new world non-human primates2017In: JIM - Journal of Immunological Methods, ISSN 0022-1759, E-ISSN 1872-7905, Vol. 441, p. 39-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-human primates (NHP) provide important animal models for studies on immune responses to infections and vaccines. When assessing cellular immunity in NHP, cytokines are almost exclusively analyzed utilizing cross-reactive anti-human antibodies. The functionality of antibodies has to be empirically established for each assay/application as well as NHP species.

    A rational approach was employed to identify monoclonal antibodies (mAb) cross-reactive with many NHP species. Panels of new and established mAbs against human Interferon (IFN)-gamma and Interleukin (IL)-2 were assessed for reactivity with eukaryotically expressed recombinant IFN-gamma and IL-2, respectively, from Old (rhesus, cynomolgus and pigtail macaques, African green monkey, sooty mangabey and baboon) and New World NHP (Ma's night monkey, squirrel monkey and common marmoset).

    Pan-reactive mAbs, recognizing cytokines from all NHP species, were further analyzed in capture assays and flow cytometry with NHP peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Pan-reactive mAb pairs for IFN-gamma well as IL-2 were identified and used in ELISA to measure IFN-gamma and IL-2, respectively, in Old and New World NHP PBMC supernatants. The same mAb pairs displayed high functionality in ELISpot and FluoroSpot for the measurement of antigen-specific IFN-gamma and IL-2 responses using cynomolgus PBMC Functionality of pan-reactive mAbs in flow cytometry was also verified with cynomolgus PBMC.

    The development of well-defined immunoassays functional with a panel of NHP species facilitates improved analyses of cellular immunity and enables inclusion in multiplex cytokine assays intended for a variety of NHP.

  • 500.
    Högstrand, Kari
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Gene conversion of the mouse MHC class II1998Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is the most polymorphic vertebrate gene loci known to exist. Gene products of the MHC are responsible for presentation of antigen derived peptides to T cells of the immune system, which thereby become activated and involved in the elimination of particles recognised as non-self. The mechanism of acquiring this extensive polymorphism is not known, but gene conversion has been suggested as one possible molecular genetic mechanism employed to generate new MHC alleles. A strict definition of gene conversion, based on the phenomenon in yeast, involves the transfer of a DNA fragment from a donor gene to a homologous acceptor gene without the donor gene being changed in the process. For practical reasons, the term gene conversion in higher organisms is rather used in the context of ìtemplated segmental mutationì.

    This thesis describes the first direct evidence of gene conversion events between two endogenous MHC class II genes in a mouse system using sperm as a representative for future potential individuals. A PCR assay was developed using primers for the acceptor gene as well as the donor gene to obtain a detectable product only in cells where a gene conversion event had occurred. Interchromosomal gene conversion between a MHC class II Ab and Eb gene located on separate chromosomes was found to occur at a frequency of 1/500.000 sperm, whereas no gene conversion was detected in somatic liver cells. Intrachromosomal gene conversions between Ab and Eb genes located on the same chromosome were detected at frequencies ranging from 1/35.000 sperm to 1/830.000 sperm depending on the alleles in ves gat ed. This difference in frequency was found although the investigated alleles coexisted in the same cell, which indicates that there is sequence restraints acting on the genes involved in a gene conversion event. Both inter- and intra-chromosomal gene conversions transferred DNA fragments which varied in length, but the transfer breakpoints investigated were usually in regions where the donor and acceptor genes showed a high nucleotide similarity.

    Investigation of gene conversion during male gametogenesis showed that most gene conversion events detected between MHC class II genes were completed already in the premeiotic spermatogonia cell stage, which indicates that gene conversion relies on other molecular genetic mechanisms than normal meiotic recombination. Sequence analysis of several MHC mutants proposed to have been caused by gene conversion events revealed that both donor and acceptor sequences resided in regions where normal mammalian CpG suppression was absent. CpG dinucleotides have been shown to be relatively mutation prone, which accordingly suggests that regions with a high CpG content could be targeted for mutation events. Moreover, gene conversion could be induced and increased up to 15 times of the background level in a cell line by DNA damage, which indicates that the DNA repair system is involved in the gene conversion mechanism.

    From an evolutionary point of view, gene conversion thus is a very potent mechanism for creation of new MHC alleles by shuffling of already existing and functional parts of genes into new homologous locations. This mechanism can efficiently produce new functional MHC variants, which could give the population a selective advantage in terms of the ability to cope with various pathogens as well as being a mean to avoid inbreeding that could result in a reproductive loss.

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