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  • 4501.
    Thiborg, Jesper
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Att göra (e)sport: om datorspel och sportifiering2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Competitive computer gaming, under the name e-sport, have become a popular activity inSweden and worldwide. Within the e-sport community the question about the relationbetween the e-sport and sport has been discussed. Despite of this, very few sport scientistshave studied e-sport. The aim of this licentiate thesis is to create an understanding of thephenomenon e-sport. As a theoretical framework the concept of sportification was used. Inthree articles aspects of sportification in e-sport was studied. E-sport as a concept evolvedin the late 1990 and is used by many people and organizations. The reasons why theconcept of e-sport is used are probably manifold. In the thesis three reasons are presented,namely higher legitimacy, social recognition and autonomy. Furthermore, the results showsimilarities between e-sport and contemporary sport. E-sport has, in contrast tocontemporary sports, developed from commerce around computer games to sport, and notonly from spontaneous play. In conclusion, e-sport is e-sport. By that I mean that e-sport issomething that goes beyond contemporary sport. Probably, it is due to the fact that e-sportevolved in a time when industrial society was transformed into an information- andcommunication society.

  • 4502.
    Thiborg, Jesper
    Hälsoakademin, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro universitet, Örebro, Sweden.
    Tävling i datorspel: från lek med elektronik till e-sport2011In: Kulturstudier, kropp, och idrott: perspektiv på fenomen i gränslandet mellan natur och kultur / [ed] Helena Tolvhed, David Cardell, Malmö: Idrottsforum.org / Nordic sport science forum , 2011, p. 107-126Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4503.
    Thiborg, Jesper
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Carlsson, Bo
    Malmö university, Malmö, Sweden.
    Law and morality in counterstrike2010In: Entertainment and Sports Law Journal (Online), ISSN 1748-944X, E-ISSN 1748-944X, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article uses David Fraser’s work on law and cricket as a departure point. His analysis of the relationship between law, popular culture and everyday life is inspiring and contributes to a socio-legal understanding of law and morality as well as society and its cultural development in general. Cricket, no doubt, is closely connected with the British Empire, with parliamentarianism, modernity, cultural identity, heritage, fair play and the sportsmanship of 19th-century ideals and virtues; but it is also closely associated with rule violations, commercialization and commodification, as is modern sport in general. The focus of this article, which departs from Fraser’s approach, will be on a computer game; that is, a game that, at least hypothetically, is related to globalization, networks, post-modernity, youth, lifestyles and moral pluralism.

  • 4504.
    Thomeé, Roland
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital ; Gothenburg University.
    Neeter, Camille
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital ; Gothenburg University.
    Gustavsson, Alexander
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital ; Gothenburg University.
    Thomeé, Pia
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital ; Gothenburg University.
    Augustsson, Jesper
    Gothenburg University.
    Eriksson, Bengt
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital ; Gothenburg University.
    Karlsson, Jon
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital ; Gothenburg University.
    Variability in leg muscle power and hop performance after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction2012In: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, ISSN 0942-2056, E-ISSN 1433-7347, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 1143-1151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The purpose of this prospective study was to describe the variability in leg muscle power and hop performance up to 2 years among patients following ACL reconstruction and specifically to illustrate the effects of various criteria for an acceptable level of muscle function.

    Methods Eighty-two patients (56 men and 26 women) with a mean age of 28 years, who underwent ACL reconstruction using either hamstring tendons (n = 46) or apatellar tendon (n = 36), were assessed pre-operatively and 3, 6, 12 and 24 months post-surgery with a battery of three lower extremity muscle power tests and a battery of three hop tests. Results Leg symmetry index (LSI) values at group level ranged between 73 and 100% at all follow-ups. When the tests were evaluated individually, patients reached an average LSI of C90% at 24 months. The success rate at 24 months for the muscle power test battery, that is, patients with an LSI of C90% in all three tests, was 48 and 44% for the hop test battery. The success rate at 24 months for both test batteries on all six muscle function tests was 22%. The criterion of an LSI of C80% resulted in 53% of the patients having an acceptable level on all six tests, while with a criterion of an LSI of C100%, none of the patients reached an acceptable level.

    Conclusion At group level and in single muscle function tests, the muscle function outcome 1 and 2 years after ACL reconstruction is satisfactory in the present study and on a par with the results presented in the literature. However, when using more demanding criteria for a successful muscle function outcome, using batteries of tests or increasing the acceptable LSI level from C90% to C95% or C100%, the results are considered to be poor. It is suggested that this should be taken into consideration when presenting results after ACL rehabilitation, deciding on the criteria for a safe return to sports, or designing rehabilitation programmes after ACL reconstruction.

    Level of evidence Prognostic prospective cohort study, Level I.

  • 4505.
    Thor, Jessica
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Education.
    En kartläggning av kompetenskraven på Sport managers2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to survey which competences and personal qualities the labour market, for students with examination from the Coaching and Sport management education at Vaxjo University, require. Furthermore I want to find out if the employees, videlicet the ex students, consider that their competences differentiate in relation to other employees in the organization which not have this education.

    In the study a qualitative investigation method has been used where ten interviews have been implemented. The interviews have been carried out within five conceivable work areas to a student with examination from the Coaching and Sport management education at Vaxjo University. The work areas are sports association, sports union, municipal activity with sport and leisure time connection, company with health care connection and company without any kind of sport connection. Five of the persons being interviewed are ex students that now are employees within any of the elected work areas. The remaining five interviews have been carried out with the employer of respective employees.

    The result of the study shows that the work which the employees perform within respective work area are relatively different but are despite everything of similar characteristic and can be deduced to the work that is included in the profession of a Sport manager. Between the work areas that have any kind of sport or health care connection their is an obvious connection between which qualifications that is demanded to recruitment and which competences and personal qualities that are important within each profession to perform its work. An obvious connection is also made clear among the competence weaknesses that the employees have, despite different work.

    In the analysis the result is compared with the chosen theories to support the interpretations that are made. There are also suggestions given about changes that can be valuable to take into consideration in future planning of the course contents within the education of Coaching and Sport management at Vaxjo University.

  • 4506.
    Thorell, Carl Johan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Wallström, Mikael
    När isen lockar: en introduktion i att åka långfärdsskridskor2005Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Långfärdsskridskoåkning är en aktivitet för alla sinnen. Du får fantastiska natur- och kulturupplevelser, god och hälsosam motion och gott fika i glada vänners lag. För att inte tala om frihetskänslan då du sträcker ut i medvind på blank solbelyst is.

    Allt fler vill uppleva denna tjusning, men för att öka upplevelsen och minimera riskerna behöver du vara väl föreberedd och ha kunskaper om utrustning och säkerhet.

    I När isen lockar presenteras grunder i teknik, utrustning och kunskap om isen. På flera håll runt om i Sverige finns dessutom lokala föreningar som erbjuder både nybörjarprogram och prova på kurser, och framför allt kan du få kunnigt sällskap på isen. Sedan är det bara till att ge sig ut och njuta…

  • 4507.
    Thorell, Gabriella
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet; Swedish Equestrian Center of Sport, Education and Research, Strömsholm, Sweden.
    Augustsson, Christian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Stråhlman, Owe
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Morgan, Karin
    Swedish Equestrian Center of Sport, Education and Research, Strömsholm, Sweden.
    The Swedish riding school: A social arena for young riders2018In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 21, no 9, p. 1416-1431Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to explore how young riders experience the riding school. By analysing focus groups interviews, a picture emerged showing that young riders' main motive for participating at riding schools was the social aspects. Riding schools could be characterized through an institutional perspective in which the young riders became internalized and socialized into a stable culture. The young riders identified with the norms and values of the riding instructors through master-apprentice learning. In addition, the results revealed a change in the stable culture since the instructors encouraged social interactions and participation in the community that became central to learning and development. Opportunities to influence and interact were important for the individuals and from a child's rights perspective. Through participation in the community of practice at riding schools, young riders not only learn about riding and horse management but also develop important personal social skills.

  • 4508.
    Thorell, Gabriella
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; .
    Hedenborg, Susanna
    Malmö university, Sweden.
    Strahlman, Owe
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Morgan, Karin
    Swedish Equestrian Center of Sport, Education and Research, Sweden.
    From giving orders to engaging in dialogue: Military norms being challenged at the Swedish riding school2018In: International Review for the Sociology of Sport, ISSN 1012-6902, E-ISSN 1461-7218, Vol. 53, no 4, p. 451-470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Equestrian sport is one of the largest sports among young girls in Sweden. A majority of these girls get their riding education at riding schools that provide horses and instructors. Previous research has pointed out that the Swedish riding school is characterised by a traditional stable culture that originated in army practices. Presently Swedish children and youth sport at large are undergoing a change driven by increased commercialisation and individualisation. The aim of this article is therefore to explore and analyse how Swedish riding instructors perceive and experience their professional role in regards to these changes. Interviews with 10 riding instructors have been analysed using a constructivist approach of Grounded theory, as well as institutional theory and institutional economic theory. It was discovered that the riding instructors, due to an economic recession, feel that the institutional arrangements of the riding schools have become governed by the economy. The riding instructors thus feel impelled to change and adapt to new teaching styles - from instruction characterised by giving orders to teaching characterised by dialogue. This study illustrates how economic challenges require continuous development of the riding instructors' pedagogical ability, and have made them more aware of their profession, its historical heritage and norms.

  • 4509.
    Thornell, Lars-Eric
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Gustafsson, Thomas
    Karolinska Institutet Karolinska University Hospital .
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Department of Public Health and Caring Uppsala Science Park Uppsala.
    Ulfhake, Brun
    Karolinska Institutet .
    "Sarcopenia" has earned its living2012In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 113, no 4, p. 683-684Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4510.
    Thorsson, Emil
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Samundervisning eller särundervisning inom ämnet idrott och hälsa: En undersökning gjord på en skola i Dalsland2007Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Mitt examensarbete handlar om samundervisning och särundervisning. Jag avsåg att undersöka om elevernas tilltro till den egna förmågan i ämnet idrott och hälsa kunde förbättras genom särundervisning. Jag ville också undersöka om eleverna är positivt eller negativt inställda till särundervisning.

    Undersökningen ägde rum på en skola i Dalsland. Jag intervjuade tolv elever, tre lärare och en rektor. 112 elever fick också svara på en enkät.

    Pojkarna ansåg att de utvecklade sina fysiska förmågor mest vid särundervisning, medan de utvecklade sina sociala förmågor mest vid samundervisning. Flickorna ansåg att de utvecklade sina fysiska och sociala förmågor mest vid samundervisning.

    En majoritet av eleverna, framförallt flickorna, var positiva till särundervisning. Eleverna kunde tänka sig fortsätta arbeta med särundervisning på villkor att man också hade samundervisning. De tycker att samundervisning är en mer underhållande undervisning.

  • 4511. Thorstensson, A
    et al.
    Larsson, L
    Tesch, P
    Karlsson, J
    Muscle strength and fiber composition in athletes and sedentary men.1977In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 26-30Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4512. Thorstensson, A
    et al.
    Sjödin, B
    Tesch, P
    Karlsson, J
    Actomyosin ATPase, myokinase, CPK and LDH in human fast and slow twitch muscle fibres.1977In: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, E-ISSN 1365-201X, Vol. 99, no 2, p. 225-229Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4513.
    Thundal, Andrea
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Haaranen, Emma
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Idrottande gymnasieelevers uppfattningar om doping inom elitidrotten2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background: The use of doping substances is not a new problem in the elite sport. Previous studies and theories show that behavior and the environment has a big influence on individuals’ perceptions. Young athletes watches idols in the environment of sport that they are in and can have an impact on how their perceptions are regarding doping in elite sports.

    Purpose: To examine perceptions towards doping in elite sport among athletic 18-year-olds with sports as a part of their education in Gävleborgs län.

    Method: This study was a cross-sectional study, is based upon a quantitative design and contains a questionnaire with 28 participants.  The questionnaire was web-based and contained background-questions and questions regarding doping and performances. The criteria for inclusion in the study were adolescents that went to school in Gävleborgs län, took classes involving sports and was 18 years or older.

    Result and discussion: The participants thought that doping was wrong, unfair and neither real nor natural. The majority says that it is possible to become a world champion in sports without the use of doping. People’s perceptions create the environment and that environment that individuals exist in has an impact on their attitudes and behaviors. This shows that people’s perceptions regarding doping may lead to other people getting similar perceptions.

    Conclusion: Youth sport should advocate a doping free sport, to create an environment that hopefully will get adolescents to adapt perceptions that doping should not be allowed within elite sports. These adolescents create the environment for future generations.

  • 4514.
    Thyli, Vetle
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Block periodization versus traditional periodization in trained cross-country skiers and biathletes2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of two different methods of organizing endurance training in trained male and female cross-country skiers and biathletes during a 5-week preparation period.

    Method

    One group of athletes performed block periodization (BP; n=10), wherein week 1 and 3 constituted of respectively five and three sessions of high intensity aerobic training (HIT), followed by respectively one and two weeks of one weekly HIT session. Another group performed a more traditional organization (TRAD; n=9), with four weeks of two HIT sessions and one week of three HIT sessions. The HIT was interspersed with low intensity training (LIT) so that similar total volumes of both HIT and LIT were performed in the two groups. The majority of the both HIT and LIT were performed on roller skis. All tests were conducted skating on roller ski treadmill.

    Results

    BP achieved an improvement in maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), while TRAD did not improve (BP; 2.0 ± 2.5% (p = 0.05), TRAD; –0.1 ± 3.0% (p = 0.75). Also in maximal power output (Wmax) BP achieved an improvement, while TRAD did not improve (BP; 3.8 ± 4.3% (p = 0.016), TRAD; –2.5 ± 6.6% (p = 0.241). Mean effect size (ES) of the relative improvement in VO 2max (ES: 0.76) and Wmax (ES: 1.11) revealed moderate superior effects of BP compared to TRAD.

    Conclusion

    The present study suggests that block periodization of endurance training have superior effects on VO 2max and Wmax compared to traditional organization.

  • 4515.
    Thysell, Elin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Chorell, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Svensson, Michael B
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Jonsson, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Antti, Henrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Validated and Predictive Processing of Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Based Metabolomics Data for Large Scale Screening Studies, Diagnostics and Metabolite Pattern Verification2012In: Metabolites, ISSN 2218-1989, Vol. 2, p. 796-817Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The suggested approach makes it feasible to screen large metabolomics data, sample sets with retained data quality or to retrieve significant metabolic information from small sample sets that can be verified over multiple studies. Hierarchical multivariate curve resolution (H-MCR), followed by orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was used for processing and classification of gas chromatography/time of flight mass spectrometry (GC/TOFMS) data characterizing human serum samples collected in a study of strenuous physical exercise. The efficiency of predictive H-MCR processing of representative sample subsets, selected by chemometric approaches, for generating high quality data was proven. Extensive model validation by means of cross-validation and external predictions verified the robustness of the extracted metabolite patterns in the data. Comparisons of extracted metabolite patterns between models emphasized the reliability of the methodology in a biological information context. Furthermore, the high predictive power in longitudinal data provided proof for the potential use in clinical diagnosis. Finally, the predictive metabolite pattern was interpreted physiologically, highlighting the biological relevance of the diagnostic pattern. The suggested approach makes it feasible to screen large metabolomics data, sample sets with retained data quality or to retrieve significant metabolic information from small sample sets that can be verified over multiple studies. Hierarchical multivariate curve resolution (H-MCR), followed by orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was used for processing and classification of gas chromatography/time of flight mass spectrometry (GC/TOFMS) data characterizing human serum samples collected in a study of strenuous physical exercise. The efficiency of predictive H-MCR processing of representative sample subsets, selected by chemometric approaches, for generating high quality data was proven. Extensive model validation by means of cross-validation and external predictions verified the robustness of the extracted metabolite patterns in the data. Comparisons of extracted metabolite patterns between models emphasized the reliability of the methodology in a biological information context. Furthermore, the high predictive power in longitudinal data provided proof for the potential use in clinical diagnosis. Finally, the predictive metabolite pattern was interpreted physiologically, highlighting the biological relevance of the diagnostic pattern.

  • 4516.
    Tidén, Anna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Bedömningar av ungas rörelseförmåga: En idrottsvetenskaplig problematisering och validering2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall purpose of this thesis is to investigate, discuss and problematise different aspects of movement ability. The four sub-studies of the thesis deal with various issues concerning assessment of movement ability. First, the focus is on how the concept of physical literacy has influenced the steering document of the subject physical education and health (PEH) in Sweden. The question is: What kind of tensions and conflicts arise when different approaches and interpretations of movement ability are used in an educational context? Second, a structural validation is conducted of the NyTid test, an assessment tool developed to assess basic and complex movement skills at the ages of 12-16 years. The question is: Which categories of movement skills are identified through the validation of the NyTid test? Third, the study examines how ‘ability’ is conceptualised, configured and produced in movement tests and movement assessment tools. Finally, an investigation of how or whether an assessed low or high movement ability at the age of 15 matters for developing an interest in, or taste for, sport and physical activities nine years later, in young adulthood.

    Movement ability is studied from different perspectives, including a multidisciplinary sport science approach using mixed methods. The theoretical standpoint in the sociocultural analyses is inspired by Bourdieu’s theories and concepts of habitus, capital, field and doxa, which are used as analytical tools. Different theories relating to the evaluation of movement abilities as product- or process oriented assessment are also made use of.

    Movement abilities tests and assessment tools are also found to construct a specific and narrow form of physical capital strongly related to traditional sports. Accordingly, the social construction of movement ability through assessment tools is far from neutral and could affect how children see themselves and their sense of ‘ability’. Furthermore, the assumption that an acquired high level of movement ability plays a central role for being physically active is challenged in the thesis. Even though pupils at the age of 15 had a low level of assessed movement ability, it did not prevent them from acquiring a taste for sport and physical activity later in life. However, more studies on movement ability and the underlining mechanisms and factors for engaging in physical activities are necessary.

  • 4517.
    Tidén, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Lundqvist, Carolina
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Nyberg, Marie
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Development and Initial Validation of the NyTid Test: A Movement Assessment Tool for Compulsory School Pupils.2015In: Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, ISSN 1091-367X, E-ISSN 1532-7841, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 34-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents the development process and initial validation of the NyTid test, a process-oriented movement assessment tool for compulsory school pupils. A sample of 1,260 (627 girls and 633 boys; mean age of 14.39) Swedish school children participated in the study. In the first step, exploratory factor analyses (EFAs) were performed in Sample 1, consisting of one third of the participants. The EFA indicated that the 17 skills in the test could be reduced to 12 and divided into four factors. In the second step, the suggested factor structure was cross-validated with confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) in the larger Sample 2. The NyTid test adopts a holistic perspective in which qualitative criteria offer an alternative approach to product-oriented measurement. The study confirms that the NyTid test is a valid process-oriented assessment tool designed for typically developed children aged 12 and 16. ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR

  • 4518.
    Tiger, Mattias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Innebandyns värld: Ur ett målvaktsperspektiv: Vad får innebandymålvakter att stanna kvar inom innebandyn?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 4519.
    Tiger, Mattias
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Libäck, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Utseende och självförtroende utifrån hälsoaspekter: Skillnader mellan kvinnliga och manliga studenters uppfattning på sitt eget utseende och självförtroende2014Student paper second term, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The paper takes part in the big health trend going on in today's society. No one can have failed to notice how the media influences and has a major influence when it comes to body fixation and self-confidence. Everywhere one gets the impression that one should be slim or fit to fit in and it is important to be like everyone else. And if you're not, you don’t meet the demands of your surroundings. Obviously, this should reflect on your self-confidence if you do not feel you meet the requirements, or is that the case? The purpose of this paper is to examine whether male and female university students have different views of their own appearance and self-confidence, and also investigate whether there are gender differences. We have chosen to do the survey using questionnaires via the web-based program Survey & Report. After analyzing the results of the Survey & Report and SPSS, we chose to walk around at Karlstad University with the survey and let the randomly selected respondents answer the questionnaire and there were 50 students who participated in the survey. The results showed that female students generally had lower self-confidence than the male students had. Both the female and male students were overall quite positive about their own appearance. Male students were found to be more secure in different kinds of situations than the female students were. The conclusions are that there was a wide area to explore, perhaps too wide for this kind of paper and for the small percentage of respondents we had. It is not possible to draw any generalization of the research when there were too few respondents. But from what we have chosen to investigate it is possible to draw a conclusion that male respondents showed a better self-confidence and were more reliable in different situations. The female respondents were more evenly satisfied with their appearance than men were, and female respondents answered that they wanted to change less of themselves in appearance than men responded that they would.

  • 4520. Timmons, James A
    et al.
    Norrbom, Jessica
    Schéele, Camilla
    Thonberg, Håkan
    Wahlestedt, Claes
    Tesch, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Expression profiling following local muscle inactivity in humans provides new perspective on diabetes-related genes2006In: Genomics, ISSN 0888-7543, E-ISSN 1089-8646, Vol. 87, no 1, p. 165-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Physical activity enhances muscle mitochondrial gene expression, while inactivity and mitochondrial dysfunction are both risk factors for developing diabetes. Defective activation of the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1 may contribute to the gene expression pattern observed in diabetic and insulin-resistant skeletal muscle. We proposed that greater insight into the mitochondrial component of skeletal muscle “diabetes” would be possible if the clinical transcriptome data were contrasted with local muscle inactivity-induced modulation of mitochondrial genes in otherwise healthy subjects. We studied PPARGC1A (PGC-1), PPARGC1B (PGC-1β), NRF1, and a variety of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes critical for oxidative phosphorylation in soleus muscle biopsies obtained from six healthy men and women before and after 5 weeks of local muscle inactivity. Muscle inactivity resulted in a coordinated down-regulation of PGC-1 and genes involved with mitochondrial metabolism, including muscle substrate delivery genes. Decreased expression of the mtDNA helicase Twinkle was related to the decline in mitochondrial RNA polymerase (r = 0.83, p < 0.04), suggesting that mtDNA transcription and replication are coregulated in human muscle tissue. In contrast to the situation in diabetes, PGC-1β expression was not significantly altered, while NRF1 expression was actually up-regulated following muscle inactivity. We can conclude that reduced PGC-1 expression described in Type 2 diabetes may be partly explained by muscle inactivity. Further, although diabetes patients are typically inactive, our analysis indicates that local muscle inactivity may not be expected to contribute to the decreased NRF1 and PGC-1β expression noted in insulin-resistant and Type 2 diabetes patients, suggesting these changes may be more disease specific.

  • 4521.
    Timpka, Toomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Center for Public Health.
    Alonso, Juan-Manuel
    International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) Medical and Anti-doping Commission, Montecarlo, Monaco; Sports Medicine Department, Aspetar, Qatar Orthopedics and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha, Qatar.
    Jacobsson, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Swedish Athletics Association, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Junge, Astrid
    FIFA Medical Assessment and Research Centre (F-MARC), Zurich, Switzerland; Schulthess Klinik, Zurich, Switzerland; Medical School Hamburg (MSH), Germany .
    Branco, Pedro
    International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) Medical and Anti-doping Commission, Montecarlo, Monaco; European Athletics Medical & Anti-Doping Commission, European Athletics Association (EAA), Lausanne, Switzerland .
    Clarsen, Ben
    Oslo Sports Trauma Research Centre, Norway; Olympic Elite Sports Program (Olympiatoppen), Oslo, Norway .
    Kowalski, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Swedish Athletics Association, Stockholm, Sweden; Diamond League, Stockholm, Sweden; Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Mountjoy, Margo
    International Olympic Committee (IOC) Medical Commission, Lausanne, Switzerland; Department of Sports Medicine, FINA Bureau, Lausanne, Switzerland; McMaster University School of Medicine, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada .
    Nilsson, Sverker
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Swedish Athletics Association, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Pluim, Babette
    Royal Netherlands Lawn Tennis Association, Amersfoort, The Netherlands .
    Renström, Per
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; International Olympic Committee (IOC) Medical Commission, Lausanne, Switzerland .
    Rønsen, Ola
    International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) Medical and Anti-doping Commission, Montecarlo, Monaco; Olympic Elite Sports Program (Olympiatoppen), Oslo, Norway .
    Steffen, Kathrin
    Oslo Sports Trauma Research Centre, Norway .
    Edouard, Pascal
    University Hospital of Saint-Etienne, France; University of Lyon, France.
    Injury and illness definitions and data collection procedures for use in epidemiological studies in Athletics (track and field): Consensus statement2014In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 48, no 7, p. 483-490Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Movement towards sport safety in Athletics through the introduction of preventive strategies requires consensus on definitions and methods for reporting epidemiological data in the various populations of athletes.

    OBJECTIVE:

    To define health-related incidents (injuries and illnesses) that should be recorded in epidemiological studies in Athletics, and the criteria for recording their nature, cause and severity, as well as standards for data collection and analysis procedures.

    METHODS:

    A 1-day meeting of 14 experts from eight countries representing a range of Athletics stakeholders and sport science researchers was facilitated. Definitions of injuries and illnesses, study design and data collection for epidemiological studies in Athletics were discussed during the meeting. Two members of the group produced a draft statement after this meeting, and distributed to the group members for their input. A revision was prepared, and the procedure was repeated to finalise the consensus statement.

    RESULTS:

    Definitions of injuries and illnesses and categories for recording of their nature, cause and severity were provided. Essential baseline information was listed. Guidelines on the recording of exposure data during competition and training and the calculation of prevalence and incidences were given. Finally, methodological guidance for consistent recording and reporting on injury and illness in athletics was described.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    This consensus statement provides definitions and methodological guidance for epidemiological studies in Athletics. Consistent use of the definitions and methodological guidance would lead to more reliable and comparable evidence.

  • 4522.
    Timpka, Toomas
    et al.
    Linkoping Univ, Athlet Res Ctr, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.;Linkoping Univ, Dept Med & Hlth Sci, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.;Cty Council Ostergotland, Ctr Healthcare Dev, Unit Hlth Anal, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Janson, Staffan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Jacobsson, Jenny
    Linkoping Univ, Athlet Res Ctr, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.;Linkoping Univ, Dept Med & Hlth Sci, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Ekberg, Joakim
    Linkoping Univ, Athlet Res Ctr, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.;Linkoping Univ, Dept Med & Hlth Sci, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.;Cty Council Ostergotland, Ctr Healthcare Dev, Unit Hlth Anal, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Dahlstrom, Orjan
    Linkoping Univ, Athlet Res Ctr, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.;Linkoping Univ, Dept Behav Sci & Learning, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Kowalski, Jan
    Karolinska Inst, Pediat Unit, Dept Clini Sci Intervent & Technol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Bargoria, Victor
    Linkoping Univ, Athlet Res Ctr, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.;Linkoping Univ, Dept Med & Hlth Sci, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.;Moi Univ, Dept Orthopaed & Rehabil, Eldoret, Kenya..
    Mountjoy, Margo
    McMaster Univ, Dept Family Med, Kitchener, ON, Canada..
    Svedin, Carl G.
    Linkoping Univ, Athlet Res Ctr, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.;Linkoping Univ, Dept Med & Hlth Sci, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Protocol Design for Large-Scale Cross-Sectional Studies of Sexual Abuse and Associated Factors in Individual Sports: Feasibility Study in Swedish Athletics2015In: Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (JSSM), ISSN 1303-2968, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 179-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To ensure health and well-being for their athletes, sports organizations must offer preventive measures against sexual abuse. The aim of this study was to design and evaluate feasibility of a research protocol for cross-sectional epidemiological studies of sexual abuse in athletics. Examination of the requirements on the study of sexual abuse in athletics was followed by iterated drafting of protocol specifications and formative evaluations. The feasibility of the resulting protocol was evaluated in a national-level study among elite athletics athletes (n = 507) in Sweden. The definition of sexual abuse, the ethical soundness of the protocol, reference populations and study of co-morbidity, and the means for athlete-level data collection were identified as particularly complex issues in the requirements analyses. The web-based survey defined by the protocol facilitates anonymous athlete self-reporting of data on exposure to sexual abuse. 198 athletes (39%) fully completed the feasibility survey. 89% (n = 177) reported that they agreed with that the questions in the survey were important, and 95% (n = 189) reported that they answered truthfully to all questions. Similarly, 91% (n = 180) reported that they did not agree with that the questions were unpleasant for them. However, 16% (n = 32) reported that they did not find the survey to be of personal value, and 12% (n = 23) reported that the survey had caused them to think about issues that they did not want to think about. Responding that participation was not personally gratifying was associated with training more hours (p = 0.01). There is a scarcity of research on the prevention of sexual abuse in individual sports. The present protocol should be regarded as a means to overcome this shortcoming in athletics. When implementing the protocol, it is necessary to encourage athlete compliance and to adapt the web-based survey to the particular infrastructural conditions in the sports setting at hand.

  • 4523.
    Timurtas, Kristina
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    "Min lärare bemöter tjejer och killar på samma sätt. Ja, alltså... Bortsett från att han inte hälsar likadant": En kvalitativ forskningsstudie om elevers upplevelser av särbehandling mellan pojkar och flickor i idrott och hälsa.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 4524.
    Tinmark, Fredrik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Karolinska institutet, Inst för klinisk vetenskap, intervention och teknik / Dept of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology.
    Bimanual movement control: insights from golf ball striking2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis was to gain insight into the control of complex bimanual movements that are both fast and accurate. For this, skilled golf ball striking was used as a model in two experimental studies (I and III). The thesis also includes two methodological studies (II and IV), intended to assist in present and future investigation on bimanual movement control. Study I shows a common kinematic proximal-to-distal sequencing (PDS) pattern and speed-summation effect in skilled golf players of both genders. Using a common PDS movement strategy in golf ball striking at various endpoint speeds appears beneficial from mechanical and control points of view and could serve the purpose of providing both high speed and accuracy. In Study II a general expression for mobility was derived, which can be applied for extending the theory of mobility to double-handed grasping and manipulation. Study III found that kinematic contributions to endpoint velocity at slow, medium and fast test conditions were provided by the same subset of possible joint rotations. However, the specific subset differed between levels of expertise. The inertial behavior of the linkage arms-hands-club promoted movement parallel to and resisted movement orthogonal to the club path close to ball impact, at all endpoint speeds investigated. These findings extend previous knowledge regarding endpoint control in single-limb movements. Moreover, results regarding movement organization in Study I together with results in Study III regarding inertial behavior suggest the existence of limb configurations able to simultaneously exploit intersegmental dynamics and endpoint mobility in a proficient manner. To make the control of intersegmental dynamics in bimanual striking transparent, however, torques originating from segmental in teractions should be determined. However, when hands are placed next to each other or are overlapping it becomes challenging to find placements for standard force sensors which allow separation of right and left hand forces without altering normal behavior. As partially explored in Study IV, pressure mapping of the right hand together with inverse dynamics calculations for the golf club can potentially provide an adequate solution.

  • 4525.
    Tinmark, Fredrik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Ardt, Toni
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Hellström, John
    Örebro universitet.
    Halvorsen, Kjartan
    Endpoint control in a bimanual striking task: application to the golfswing2014Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4526.
    Tinmark, Fredrik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Arndt, Toni
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Halvorsen, Kjartan
    Using Motion Analysis and Pressure sensitive sensors for determining normal forces when gripping a cylinderManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 4527.
    Tinmark, Fredrik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Hellström, John
    Arndt, Anton
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Halvorsen, Kjartan
    Contributions to club velocity in golf swings to submaximal and maximal shot distances2012In: eProceedings of the 30th Conference of the International Society of Biomechanics in Sports, 2012: Volume 3 / [ed] Bradshaw, E.J., Burnett, A., Hume, P.A., 2012, p. 81-83Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The contribution of joint rotations to endpoint velocity was investigated in golf shots to submaximal and maximal shot distances using a 41degrees of freedom (DOF) kinematic model. A subset of 16 DOFs was found to explain 97%-99% of endpoint velocity regulation at club–ball contact. The largest contributors, for both groups at every shot condition, were pelvis and torso twist rotation among the most proximal DOFs, elbow pronation/supination and wrist flexion/extension among DOFs in the left arm, and shoulder internal/external rotation and wrist flexion/extension among DOFs in the right arm. The contributions from pelvis obliquity, left wrist flexion/extension, left wrist ulnar/radial deviation and right shoulder flexion/extension differed significantly between the advanced and intermediate group.

  • 4528.
    Tinmark, Fredrik
    et al.
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Hellström, John
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Halvorsen, Kjartan
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Thorstensson, Alf
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Analysis of elite golfers' kinematic sequence in full-swing and partial swing shots2009In: Proceedings of ISBS 27 International Conference on Biomechanics in Sports, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Proximal-to-distal sequencing (PDS) has been observed in full-swing golf shots as in most throwing and striking skills, where the main goal is to maximize speed in the most distal segment of an open-link system (Zheng et al., 2007). Although PDS primarily is associated with mechanical advantage when the speed requirement is high, this temporal order has also been found and ascribed various merits in relatively slow multi-joint movements (Furuya & Kinoshita, 2007). However, no research to date has examined the sequencing pattern in partial golf shots to submaximal distances. The purpose here was to investigate whether PDS is a common characteristic also in partial swing shots of skilled golf players. METHODS: A total of 47 golfers were investigated, 11 male tournament professionals, 23 male amateurs (HCP 0 ± 2 strokes), and 13 female amateurs (HCP -2 ± 2 strokes) performed partial shots with a wedge to targets at three discrete distances (40, 55 and 70 m), and full-swing shots with a five iron as well as a driver in the same direction for maximal distance. Pelvis, upper torso, and hand movement were recorded in 3D with an electromagnetic tracking system (Polhemus) at 240 Hz. The magnitude of the resultant angular velocity vector of each segment was used to examine the sequencing pattern and the angular speed of segment motions. Movement onset, peak amplitude and time for peak amplitude were analyzed in separate repeated-measure ANOVAs with pre-planned Bonferroni corrected pairwise comparisons.

  • 4529. Tinmark, Fredrik
    et al.
    Hellström, John
    Halvorsen, Kjartan
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Thorstensson, Alf
    Elite golfers' kinematic sequence in full-swing and partial-swing shots2010In: SPORT BIOMECH, ISSN 1476-3141, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 236-244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether kinematic proximal-to-distal sequencing (PDS) and speed-summation are common characteristics of both partial and full-swing shots in golf players of different skill levels and genders. A total of 45 golfers participated, 11 male tournament professionals, 21 male and 13 female elite amateurs. They performed partial shots with a wedge to targets at three submaximal distances, 40, 55 and 70m, and full-swing shots with a 5 iron and a driver for maximal distance. Pelvis, upper torso and hand movements were recorded in 3D with an electromagnetic tracking system (Polhemus Liberty) at 240Hz and the magnitude of the resultant angular velocity vector of each segment was computed. The results showed a significant proximal-to-distal temporal relationship and a concomitant successive increase in maximum (peak) segment angular speed in every shot condition for both genders and levels of expertise. A proximal-to-distal utilization of interaction torques is indicated. Using a common PDS movement strategy in partial and full-swing golf shots appears beneficial from mechanical and control points of view and could serve the purpose of providing both high speed and accuracy.

  • 4530.
    Tinmark, Fredrik
    et al.
    Dept Neurosci, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden; Biomech & Motor Control Lab, Swedish Sch Sport & Hlth Sci, GIH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hellström, John
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Halvorsen, Kjartan
    Sch Technol & Hlth, Div Med Engn, KTH Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden; Dept Informat Technol, Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Thorstensson, Alf
    Dept Neurosci, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden; Biomech & Motor Control Lab, Swedish Sch Sport & Hlth Sci, GIH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Elite golfers' kinematic sequence in full-swing and partial-swing shots2010In: Sports Biomechanics, ISSN 1476-3141, E-ISSN 1752-6116, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 236-244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether kinematic proximal-to-distal sequencing (PDS) and speed-summation are common characteristics of both partial and full-swing shots in golf players of different skill levels and genders. A total of 45 golfers participated, 11 male tournament professionals, 21 male and 13 female elite amateurs. They performed partial shots with a wedge to targets at three submaximal distances, 40, 55 and 70m, and full-swing shots with a 5 iron and a driver for maximal distance. Pelvis, upper torso and hand movements were recorded in 3D with an electromagnetic tracking system (Polhemus Liberty) at 240Hz and the magnitude of the resultant angular velocity vector of each segment was computed. The results showed a significant proximal-to-distal temporal relationship and a concomitant successive increase in maximum (peak) segment angular speed in every shot condition for both genders and levels of expertise. A proximal-to-distal utilization of interaction torques is indicated. Using a common PDS movement strategy in partial and full-swing golf shots appears beneficial from mechanical and control points of view and could serve the purpose of providing both high speed and accuracy.

  • 4531.
    Tinmark, Fredrik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Hellström, John
    Örebro universitet.
    Halvorsen, Kjartan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Thorstensson, Alf
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Elite golfers' kinematic sequence in full-swing and partial-swing shots2010In: Sports Biomechanics, ISSN 1476-3141, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 236-244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether kinematic proximal-to-distal sequencing (PDS) and speed-summation are common characteristics of both partial and full-swing shots in golf players of different skill levels and genders. A total of 45 golfers participated, 11 male tournament professionals, 21 male and 13 female elite amateurs. They performed partial shots with a wedge to targets at three submaximal distances, 40, 55 and 70 m, and full-swing shots with a 5 iron and a driver for maximal distance. Pelvis, upper torso and hand movements were recorded in 3D with an electromagnetic tracking system (Polhemus Liberty) at 240 Hz and the magnitude of the resultant angular velocity vector of each segment was computed. The results showed a significant proximal-to-distal temporal relationship and a concomitant successive increase in maximum (peak) segment angular speed in every shot condition for both genders and levels of expertise. A proximal-to-distal utilization of interaction torques is indicated. Using a common PDS movement strategy in partial and full-swing golf shots appears beneficial from mechanical and control points of view and could serve the purpose of providing both high speed and accuracy.

  • 4532.
    Tinmark, Fredrik
    et al.
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Hellström, John
    Örebro University.
    Thorstensson, Alf
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Halvorsen, Kjartan
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical sensors, signals and systems (MSSS).
    Contributions to endpoint velocity in a bimanual striking task2011In: Proceedings of ISB XXIII Congress, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4533.
    Tinnsten, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Dahlén, Leon
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Holmberg, Joakim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Holmberg, Hans Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Projekt Davos: hjälper längdlandslaget att åka fortare2004In: Svensk Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 25-27Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4534.
    Tinnsten, Mats
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Dahlén, Leon
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Holmberg, Joakim
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Holmberg, Hans Christer
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Projekt Davos: hjälper längdlandslaget att åka fortare2004In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 25-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    DAVOS – Datorbaserade verktyg för optimering och simulering är ett EU fi nansierat (Mål 1) projekt som handlar om tillämpad teknik och tilllämpad optimering. Projektet omfattar ca 10 personer, ca 20 miljoner kr och kommer att pågå fram till 2004. Projektet drivs av institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier vid Mitthögskolan i Östersund men även personal från institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik ingår och projektledare är docent Mats Tinnsten. I projektet ingår sex delprojekt varav två har en inriktning mot sport och sportrel aterad utrustning. DAVOS har goda kontakter med den regionala industrin, internationella universitet och forskargrupper, nationella universitet, forskargrupper och projekt. Särskilt goda och givande kontakter har projektet med Nationellt Vintersportcentrum och längdskidlandslaget samt ett antal elitskidåkare som har varit eller är studenter vid någon av teknikinstitutionerna vid campus Östersund. DAVOS handlar alltså om tillämpad teknik och optimering och verksamheten är inriktad på numeriska simuleringar och analyser av tekniska tillämpningar vilket närmast faller inom området maskinteknik och man kan ju fråga sig hur detta kan kopplas till området sport och sportutrustning. På ett alldeles naturligt sätt anser deltagarna i projektet och förhoppningsvis ska detta klarna vid genomläsning av den resterande texten.

  • 4535.
    Tolgfors, Björn
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Bedömning för lärande i ämnet idrott och hälsa: didaktiska konsekvenser av styrning2014Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of assessment for learning (AFL) in upper secondary PE, in terms of governance and its possible consequences for the subjects in the teaching and learning triangle (the teacher, the student) and the subject content. The study is conducted in three steps: i) How do a group of PE-teachers describe their ways of realizing assessment for learning in their teaching practice? ii) How can their reflections about AFL be understood from a governmentality perspective? iii) Depending on what forms of governance that are dominant in the teachers’ reflections about AFL, different consequences can be argued in the triadic relation between the teacher, the student and the subject content. The analysis highlights different roles of the teacher as a coach, an administrator or a moderator. These teacher roles have different expectations of the students, emphasizing the individual’s learning, accountability or group development. Consequently the subject content can be perceived as flexible, standardized or negotiable. Thus assessment for learning in PE can be described as:

    - An educational approach, promoting the individual’s selfrealization, through the right to choose her own way towards the goals and take responsibility for her own learning.

    - A control instrument in line with the accountability regime. Different assessment techniques are used in order to adapt the student to the standards and not the other way around; adapt the teaching and learning to meet student needs.

    - A systematic way of linking (group-) reflection to physical activities, which denotes a holistic approach to body/mind. The teaching practice is characterized by communication and negotiation about how to reach the goals in suitable ways for the group.

  • 4536.
    Tolgfors, Björn
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Bedömning för vilket lärande?: En studie av vad bedömning för lärande blir och gör i ämnet idrott och hälsa2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation deals with the didactic consequences of assessment for learning (AfL) in the subject of physical education and health (PEH) at three upper secondary schools in Sweden. The purpose of the study is to investigate how assessment for learning is realised in PEH and what triadic relations between the teacher, student and subject content are established in the formative assessment practice. The empirical material consists of group reflections within a Teacher Learning Community (TLC) as well as field studies, including lesson observations and semi structured interviews with both students and teachers. In the first step of the analysis the material is categorized by means of the five key strategies (Wiliam, 2010a), in order to identify different ways of working with AfL in upper secondary PEH. The second step is a combination of a governmentality (Foucault, 1978/1991b), a performativity (Ball, 2003) and a didactic (Hudson, 2002) analysis, which illuminates what triadic relations are established under different conditions of governance.

    The findings highlight five fabrications of AfL in PEH, named after their most prominent features or functions, AfL as: i) Empowerment, ii) Physical Activation, iii) Grade Generation, iv) Constructive Alignment, v) Negotiation. ”Among the products of discursive practices are the very persons who engage in them” (Davies & Harré, 2001, p. 263). Accordingly, different teacher and student subjects as well as characteristics of the subject content are constituted in each of these fabrications.

    Moreover, the so called ‘backwash effect’ (Torrance, 2012) implies that the contrasting versions of AfL promote different kinds of learning, such as: i) increased autonomy, ii) participation in a community of practice, iii) criteria compliance, iv) acquisition of prescribed abilities, v) group development. However, the big idea of AfL is to adapt the teaching to the students and not the students to the knowledge requirements. Hence, this dissertation could serve as a basis for discussion on possible didactic implications of AfL in PEH.

  • 4537.
    Tolgfors, Björn
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Different versions of assessment for learning in the subject of physical education2018In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 311-327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Assessment for learning (AfL) is now marketed across the Western world as a key to an improved goal attainment in most school subjects. The concept has also attracted increased interest in the international research field of physical education (PE) in recent years. According to (Chan, K., P. J. Hay, and R. Tinning. 2011. “Understandingthe Pedagogic Discourse of Assessment in Physical Education.” Asia-Pacific Journal of Health, Sport and Physical Education 2 (1): 3–18) assessment both influences the teaching and learning process and defines its product, which is referred to as the ‘backwash effect’. Contrasting versions of AfL will therefore have different consequences, regarding the constitution of teacher and student subjectivities as wellas characteristics of the subject content. These consequences can be understood in terms of didactics, which in a European research tradition focuses on the relationship between teacher, student and subject content (Hudson, B., and M. A. Meyer, eds. 2011. Beyond Fragmentation:Didactics, Learning and Teaching in Europe. Opladen and FarmingtonHills: Barbara Budrich Publishers).

    Purpose and research question: The purpose of the study is to identify teacher and student subjectivities as well as subject content, constituted through different versions of AfL in school PE. The identification of the different versions of AfL and the relations established through each of them is facilitated by the research question: ‘What is performed and produced in the formative assessment practice of PE?’ The findings are then discussed on the basis of the question: ‘Assessment for what learning?’

    Methods: In order to answer the research question, a mixed method of lesson observations and semi-structured interviews was used (cf. Patton,M. Q. 2002. Qualitative Research and Evaluation Methods. 3rd ed.Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications Inc). Thirteen PE lessons were observed at two different upper secondary schools, involving four classes attaining both vocational and pre-university programmes. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 17 of the students and their two male PE teachers. The empirical material consisted of field notes and transcriptions of the interviews, with an emphasis on the latter. In the first step of the analysis the material was categorised by means of the five key strategies of AfL (Wiliam, D. 2011. “What is Assessment forLearning?” Studies in Educational Evaluation 37: 3–14. Elsevier), in order to identify different ways of realising the concept in the subject of PE. The second step was a combination of a performativity (Ball, S. J. 2003.“The Teacher’s Soul and the Terrors of Performativity.” Journal of Education Policy 18 (2): 215–228) and a didactic (Hudson, B. 2002.“Holding Complexity and Searching for Meaning: Teaching as Reflective Practice.” Journal of Curriculum Studies 34 (1): 43–57) analysis, which clarified the relations established under different circumstances in the formative assessment practice.

    Findings: The findings highlight five versions of AfL in PE, named after their most prominent features or functions, AfL as: (i) Empowerment, (ii)Physical Activation, (iii) Constructive Alignment, (iv) Grade Generation, (v) Negotiation. ‘Among the products of discursive practices are the very persons who engage in them’ (Davies, B., and R. Harré. 2001.“Positioning: The Discursive Production of Selves.” In Discourse Theoryand Practice, edited by M. Wetherell, S. Taylor, and S. J. Yates. London:Sage, 263). Accordingly, different teacher and student subjectivities as well as characteristics of the subject content are constituted in each of these fabrications.

    Conclusions: The so-called ‘backwash effect’ (Torrance, H. 2012.“Formative Assessment at the Crossroads: Conformative, Deformativeand Transformative Assessment.” Oxford Review of Education 38 (3): 323–342. London: Routledge) implies that the contrasting versions of AfL promote different kinds of learning, such as: (i) increased autonomy, (ii) participation in a community of practice, (iii) acquisition of prescribedabilities, (iv) criteria compliance, (v) group development. However, the big idea of AfL is to adapt the teaching to the students and not the students to the standards.

  • 4538.
    Tolgfors, Björn
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Olika versioner av "bedömning för lärande" i ämnet idrott och hälsa2017In: Idrott & hälsa, ISSN 1653-1124Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 4539.
    Tolgfors, Björn
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Transformative assessment in physical education2018In: European Physical Education Review, ISSN 1356-336X, E-ISSN 1741-2749, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on assessment processes in the school subject of physical education (PE). Inspired by Torrance, the overarching research question is: ‘What might assessment involve if it focuses on the development and identification of collective understanding, collaboratively produced through educational experiences?’ The purpose of the study is to illustrate what characterises transformative assessment and show how it can be addressed in PE practice. A combination of group interviews with teachers, lesson observations and individual interviews with students and teachers was used to gather the empirical material. The analysis was based on three aspects of transformative assessment: responsibilisation; subjectification; and collaboration. Three empirical illustrations show what transformative assessment might involve in relation to learning tasks such as: the training log; the group choreography; and the case of exercise physiology. The views presented in this article contribute to the knowledge about the field in the following ways. First, the illustrations show that the ‘whats’, ‘hows’, ‘whoms’ and ‘whys’ in the assessment practice are often negotiable, which prevents a simplified understanding of the four aspects of assessment literacy: comprehension; application; interpretation; and critical engagement. Second, the notion of transformative assessment could hinder a reductive use of assessment for learning and promote collaborative learning and social justice in today’s heterogeneous PE practices.

  • 4540.
    Tolgfors, Björn
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Transformative assessment in the subject of physical education.2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4541.
    Tolgfors, Björn
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Öhman, Marie
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    The implications of assessment for learning in physical education and health2016In: European Physical Education Review, ISSN 1356-336X, E-ISSN 1741-2749, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 150-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article deals with the implications of assessment for learning (AfL) in upper secondary physical education and health (PEH). Inspired by the research field that emanates from the concept of governmentality, the study is concerned with how AfL guides teachers’ and students’ actions in certain directions. Based on teachers’ descriptions of how they integrate formative assessment in their teaching practice, the purpose of this article is to investigate the possible consequences of AfL for the teacher, the student and the subject content. The findings highlight different implications of AfL when it is viewed as (i) governance through freedom, (ii) governance through control and (iii) a dialectic form of governance. These concepts constitute certain teacher and student subjects and imply specific conditions for the subject content. In their different roles, for example as coach, deliverer/administrator and moderator, teachers expect different things from their students. In the first instance, students are expected to reach the open goals by self-regulation, in terms of individual choice and personal responsibility. In the second instance, students are subjected to disciplinary normalisation through criteria compliance by means of conformative assessment. In the third instance, students are activated as learning resources for one another using physical activities followed by group reflection. The tension between freedom and control can be described as allowing students to make their own choices but ensuring that they do this in relation to a predetermined idea about what is correct.

  • 4542.
    Toll, Oliver
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Williamsson, Lisa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Varför deltar du?: En kvantitativ studie om hur lärarens arbetssätt och ämnets lektionsinnehåll motiverar elever till att delta I ämnet idrott och hälsa utifrån ett könsperspektiv2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie undersöktes elevers uppfattningar om hur de anser att lärares arbetssätt, ämnets lektionsinnehåll och om vad som motiverar dem till att delta i ämnet idrott och hälsa. Det un-dersöktes även om det fanns några eventuella skillnader mellan könen, det vill säga om flick-or och pojkar hade olika uppfattningar i frågorna. Enkäter användes och delades ut på en gymnasieskola och besvarades av 105 elever i olika klasser som läste idrott och hälsa 1. Ele-verna som deltog i enkäten valdes ut genom ett bekvämlighetsurval då kontakter på skolan fanns sedan tidigare. Teorin som används genom studien är Deci & Ryans motivationsteori ”Self-Determination Theory”. Resultatet visade att flickor och pojkar motiveras olika mycket av lärarens arbetssätt. Flickor värderar lärarens arbetssätt högre än pojkar. Även vilket lek-tionsinnehåll eleverna motiveras av till att delta på lektionerna samt varför de deltar i under-visningen skiljer sig åt mellan könen. Flickor motiveras mer av faktorer som leder till inre motivation i jämförelse med pojkar exempelvis som att förbättra/upprätthålla hälsan. Pojkarna drivs mer av yttre motivationsfaktorer än flickorna, att vinna på lektionerna eller att få betyg är två faktorer som motiverar dem till att delta. En gemensam motivationsfaktor som får både pojkar och flickor att vilja delta på lektionerna i idrott och hälsa är glädjen till ämnet.

  • 4543.
    Tomth, Jonas
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Wallbom, Tobias
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Hör idrott och alkohol ihop?: En studie om alkoholvanor bland lagidrottande unga vuxna i två Stockolmskommuner2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställning

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka alkoholvanorna bland lagidrottande unga vuxna (18-20 år) i två Stockholmskommuner.

    Frågeställningar:

    - Hur stor är alkoholkonsumtionen bland lagidrottande unga vuxna?

    - Av vilka skäl konsumerar lagidrottande unga vuxna alkohol?

    - Hur påverkar följande faktorer alkoholkonsumtionen?

    o Erfarenheter av alkohol

    o Umgängeskrets inom laget

    o Ekonomi

    o Medvetenhet kring förebyggande arbete

    Metod

    Vi använde oss av en kvantitativ undersökning varför enkäter passade bäst som datainsamlingsmetod. Målgruppen avgränsades till åldrarna 18-20 år. Undersökningsgruppen skaffade vi genom att kontakta så många föreningar som möjligt inom de två kommunerna. Vi utgick från att kontakta ett herrjuniorlag och ett damjuniorlag från respektive idrott. Datainsamlingen skedde i vår närvaro under träningstillfällen.

    Resultat

    De lagidrottande unga vuxna i de aktuella kommunerna konsumerar i genomsnitt 578 cl 100 % alkohol per år, vilket motsvarar ungefär fyra starköl (5,2 %) i veckan. Anmärkningsvärt är att ishockeyspelarnas alkoholkonsumtion är betydligt högre än de övriga idrottarnas (892 cl per år). De vanligaste skälen till varför de konsumerar alkohol är dels för att öka nöjet i samband med fest, men även för att man har lättare att ta kontakt med andra människor. Erfarenheter av alkohol samt storlek på umgängeskrets inom laget påverkar alkoholkonsumtionen. Ekonomisk status påverkar inte alkoholkonsumtionen hos försökspersonerna. Medvetenheten kring förebyggande arbetet inom föreningen och laget påverkar alkoholkonsumtionen hos kvinnorna men inte hos männen.

    Slutsats

    Slutsatsen för denna studie är att de lagidrottande unga vuxna inom de aktuella kommunerna konsumerar mindre mängd alkohol än genomsnittet bland andraårs gymnasieelever i Sverige.

  • 4544.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Medical Science.
    Bågskytte - en precisionsidrott med höga krav på specifik styrka2014In: Bågskytten, ISSN 0345-1216, Vol. 67, no 4, p. 13-15Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 4545.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Den aeroba nojan2011In: Idrott och Kunskap, ISSN 1652-6961, no 2, p. 56-57Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 4546.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Hur många stulna medaljer?2012In: Idrott och Kunskap, ISSN 1652-6961, no 4, p. 58-59Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 4547.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science.
    Idrottsmedicinen sviker barnen2012In: Svenska Dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, no 25 nov, p. 5-5Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 4548.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Mest är inte alltid bäst2011In: Idrott och Kunskap, ISSN 1652-6961, no 3, p. 56-57Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 4549.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Om korta, tydliga råd och sammanfattningsrutor…2012In: Idrott och Kunskap, ISSN 1652-6961, no 3, p. 54-55Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 4550.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Statisk uthållighet i bågskytte2012In: Bågskytten, ISSN 0345-1216, Vol. 65, no 11, p. 18-20Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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