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  • 4501.
    Vaks, Katrin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Sjöström, Rita
    Region Jämtland Härjedalen.
    Rheumatoid arthritis patients' experience of climate care2015In: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation, ISSN 2288-176X, Vol. 11, no 6, p. 337-344Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand and examine how patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) experience climate care and its effects. A qualitative approach was chosen for the study. Two men and six women were interviewed according to a semistructured interview guide. The text was analyzed using a manifest content analysis. The analysis resulted in four categories and 10 subcategories. The interviewees experienced climate care positively. The training was perceived increasing gradually. The patients felt that they performed to a maximum capacity during training and were impressed by the staff's enthusiasm and encouragement. The patients felt that they were involved in the goal setting and the choice of treatment, and the staff noticed individual needs. There was a feeling among the patients of being acknowledged by the staff. Information about the disease was perceived as individualized. The climate and beautiful surroundings were viewed as encouraging physical activity and a feeling of well-being. Patients made new friends, had fun together and also shared experiences about their disease. Furthermore, the patients described a sense of belonging to a group as well as a feeling of not being the only one that was sick among the healthy. Not having to do everyday tasks and having time to themselves were perceived positively. Several factors contributed to the positive experiences of climate care; climate, environment, physical activity, social context, staff involvement, and information about the disease were described as interacting together and resulting in a sense of well-being. A proposal for future research would be to examine if/how the various factors might interact and affect the RA patients' illness and quality of life.

  • 4502.
    Vallmark Jansson, Jasper
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    ”Winning isn’t everything.” A Mixed-method study of a Swedish female handball team throughout a competitive season2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to (1) examine throughout the season dynamics of the handball team's performance and related factors (i.e. emphasizing leadership, emotions and concentration) as perceived by the coach and the captain. The analysis was used to motivate the emotions being studied in objective two (2) examine the handball team during successful and less successful games in terms of the dynamics of the players’ emotions, concentration and performance between two halves of the game and after time-outs. Informants for objective 1, was the team coach and the team captain. Objective 2 of the study consisted of 15 women all playing in the same team. The study includes longitudinal data over a ten game period containing five successful and five less successful games. Data was collected after games using the ECPP(H) developed by Olausson and Vallmark-Jansson (2013). In-depth narrative interviews were used. Three analyses were made: (1) sjuzet- fabula, (2) holistic- content and (3) categorical-content analysis. Poetic representation was used to present parts of the results. The results showed shifts in the dynamics of performance, possible explanation to the shift of dynamics of emotions, concentration and performance and different types of leadership styles demonstrated throughout the season. Furthermore, similarities and diversities were found between the coach and captain’s perceptions of the season in focus. Finally, practical team-specific applications are suggested, such as working with emotional control in order to help the team enhance their performance.

  • 4503.
    van der Maarel, Martin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Byqvist, Mikael
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Hur parkmiljöer kan påverka vardagsrörelse: en studie utifrån aktiva unga vuxnas uppfattningar2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Reduced movement in everyday life is a problem that is becoming increasingly common in the world today. Although people today are becoming more and more regularly physically active and conduct more planned exercise, the everyday movement that is needed to maintain a good health and reduce the risk of dying prematurely, is decreasing. Something that has been shown to increase everyday activity is the presence of park environments. Research has shown that where fewer parks existed, people were more sedentary and less active. The

    aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between everyday movement and park environments based on the view of physically active young adults. The method used in this study consisted of interviewing young adults (18-30 years of age). Why this selection was used was because this group of age were previously considered to have good health during their period of life, but new evidence shows that people of these ages are becoming increasingly inactive in their daily lives. Physically active people were chosen to see how their perceptions of movement in addition to their normal training meant to them. Six active young adults were recruited to the study and interviewed. The results showed that young adults understand the meaning of the positive effects of movement, but at the same time they were negatively motivated to visit park environments. The single movement in parks indicated by the participants was in the form of walks and jogging. Participants suggested that more types of activities (kiosks, outdoor gyms, etc.) should be available to increase the visitor level in park environments for a longer period of time, as well as conduct more daily living there.

  • 4504. van der Werff, Ross
    et al.
    O'Leary, Shaun
    Jull, Gwendolen
    Peolsson, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Trygg, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Peolsson, Anneli
    A speckle tracking application of ultrasound to evaluate activity of multilayered cervical muscles2014In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 46, no 7, p. 662-667Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To evaluate the capacity of the ultrasound-based method of speckle tracking analysis to detect changes in multilayered dorsal neck muscle activity induced by performing a lifting task. Subjects: Twenty-one healthy individuals. Design: Participants performed a loaded lifting task in 3 different postural orientations of the neck (neutral, flexed and forward head posture). Ultrasound images were recorded and speckle tracking analysis was used to quantify muscle deformation and deformation rate over 3 equal time-periods during the lifting sequence (rest, mid-lift and end-lift). Results: Significant main effects of postural orientation for the deformation measure (p<0.05) and time for the deformation rate measure (p<0.05) were observed in all dorsal muscles examined. Significant time by postural interactions for the deformation measure were observed in the trapezius, semispinalis cervicis and multifidus (p<0.05) and in the semispinalis cervicis (p<0.05) for the deformation rate measure. Conclusion: Speckle tracking analysis ultrasound measurements can detect differences in multilayered muscle activity of the dorsal neck induced by postural variations during a lifting task. Findings for the deformation and the deformation rate measures suggest that they quantify a different, albeit related, mechanical event during muscle contraction in a functional task such as lifting.

  • 4505. van Hall, G
    et al.
    Jensen-Urstad, M
    Rosdahl, H
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Leg and arm lactate metabolism during different modes of cross-country skiing2001In: Proceedings of The Physiological Society Scientific Meeting, 17-19 December 2001,University of York, England, 2001Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4506. van Hall, G
    et al.
    Jensen-Urstad, M
    Rosdahl, H
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Saltin, B
    Calbet, J A L
    Leg and arm lactate metabolism during different modes of cross-country skiing2003In: Proceedings of The Physiological Society Scientific Meeting 17-19 December 2001, University of York, England, 2003Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 4507. van Hall, G
    et al.
    Jensen-Urstad, M
    Rosdahl, H
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Saltin, B
    Jensen-Urstad, M
    Peak oxygen uptake in upper body, leg and whole body exercise in elite cross-country skiers2002In: Proceedings of The Physiological Society Scientific Meeting 17-19 December 2001, University of York, England., 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4508. Van Hall, G
    et al.
    Jensen-Urstad, M
    Rosdahl, H
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Saltin, Bengt
    Calbet, JA
    Leg and arm lactate and substrate kinetics during exercise2003In: American Journal of Physiology: Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0193-1849, Vol. 284, no 1, p. E193-E205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To study the role of muscle mass and muscle activity on lactate and energy kinetics during exercise, whole body and limb lactate, glucose, and fatty acid fluxes were determined in six elite cross-country skiers during roller-skiing for 40 min with the diagonal stride (Continuous Arm + Leg) followed by 10 min of double poling and diagonal stride at 72-76% maximal O(2) uptake. A high lactate appearance rate (R(a), 184 +/- 17 micromol x kg(-1) x min(-1)) but a low arterial lactate concentration ( approximately 2.5 mmol/l) were observed during Continuous Arm + Leg despite a substantial net lactate release by the arm of approximately 2.1 mmol/min, which was balanced by a similar net lactate uptake by the leg. Whole body and limb lactate oxidation during Continuous Arm + Leg was approximately 45% at rest and approximately 95% of disappearance rate and limb lactate uptake, respectively. Limb lactate kinetics changed multiple times when exercise mode was changed. Whole body glucose and glycerol turnover was unchanged during the different skiing modes; however, limb net glucose uptake changed severalfold. In conclusion, the arterial lactate concentration can be maintained at a relatively low level despite high lactate R(a) during exercise with a large muscle mass because of the large capacity of active skeletal muscle to take up lactate, which is tightly correlated with lactate delivery. The limb lactate uptake during exercise is oxidized at rates far above resting oxygen consumption, implying that lactate uptake and subsequent oxidation are also dependent on an elevated metabolic rate. The relative contribution of whole body and limb lactate oxidation is between 20 and 30% of total carbohydrate oxidation at rest and during exercise under the various conditions. Skeletal muscle can change its limb net glucose uptake severalfold within minutes, causing a redistribution of the available glucose because whole body glucose turnover was unchanged.

  • 4509.
    Vanhelst, Jérémy
    et al.
    University Lille 2, France ; Toulouse University Hospital, France.
    Béghin, Laurent
    University Lille 2, France ; Toulouse University Hospital, France.
    Duhamel, Alain
    University of Lille Nord de France, France.
    Bergman, Patrick
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Sjöström, Michael
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Gottrand, Frédéric
    University Lille 2, France.
    Comparison of uniaxial and triaxial accelerometry in the assessment of physical activity among adolescents under free-living conditions: the HELENA study2012In: BMC Medical Research Methodology, ISSN 1471-2288, E-ISSN 1471-2288, Vol. 12, article id 26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Different types of devices are available and the choice about which to use depends on various factors: cost, physical characteristics, performance, and the validity and intra- and interinstrument reliability. Given the large number of studies that have used uniaxial or triaxial devices, it is of interest to know whether the different devices give similar information about PA levels and patterns. The aim of this study was to compare physical activity (PA) levels and patterns obtained simultaneously by triaxial accelerometry and uniaxial accelerometry in adolescents in free-living conditions.

    METHODS: Sixty-two participants, aged 13-16 years, were recruited in this ancillary study, which is a part of the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA). All participants wore a uniaxial accelerometer (ActiGraph GT1M®, Pensacola, FL) and a triaxial accelerometer (RT3®, Stayhealthy, Monrovia, CA) simultaneously for 7 days. The patterns were calculated by converting accelerometer data output as a percentage of time spent at sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous PA per day. Analysis of output data from the two accelerometers were assessed by two different tests: Equivalence Test and Bland & Altman method.

    RESULTS: The concordance correlation coefficient between the data from the triaxial accelerometer and uniaxial accelerometer at each intensity level was superior to 0.95. The ANOVA test showed a significant difference for the first three lower intensities while no significant difference was found for vigorous intensity. The difference between data obtained with the triaxial accelerometer and the uniaxial monitor never exceeded 2.1% and decreased as PA level increased. The Bland & Altman method showed good agreement between data obtained between the both accelerometers (p < 0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: Uniaxial and triaxial accelerometers do not differ in their measurement of PA in population studies, and either could be used in such studies.

  • 4510.
    Vaziripour, Mahmoud
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Tränarlänken.
    Kravanalys för grekisk-romersk elitbrottning2005Student thesis
  • 4511.
    Vedin, Sofie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Holmbom, Kajsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Samband mellan fysiologiska tester, kroppskomposition och tävlingsprestation hos kvinnliga längdskidåkare2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has identified the complexity of cross-country skiing and the importance of finding test parameters that reflect the sport-specific performance. The purpose of the present study was to investigate relationships between body composition and physiological variables and performance in young cross-country skiing women. Ten 22,6 (±2,7) year old trained, Swedish, female cross-country skiers volunteered to participate in a specific test battery. Participants completed a test battery consisting of VO2max, standing long jump (SLH), squat jump (SJ), counter movement jump (CMJ), counter movement jump with arm swing (CMJarm), isometric leg strength (ISO-leg), ball throw (kast), isometric arm strength (ISO-drag), Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA-scan) and anthropometric measurements (weight, height, BMI). The physiological test variables obtained were correlated with participants FISpoints (International Ski Federation’s ranking points for distance and sprint performance) used as performance data. Correlations were performed using Pearson’s product-moment correlation coefficient test. The results show that SJ and FIS-points (distance) were significantly correlated. However, no significant correlations were found between any of the other physiological test variables (VO2max, DXA-scan, CMJ, CMJ-arm, ISO-leg, kast, ISOdrag, SLH) and FIS-points. These findings highlight the importance of sport-specific tests which reflect actual performance in cross-country skiing. Furthermore, as physiological demands will vary depending on the competition, it may also be of importance to reflect on the definition of performance used, as this in turn should reflect the required specific demands.

  • 4512.
    Vejedal, Alexandra
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Tiden efter Orienteringsgymnasiet: en studie om varför före detta elever väljer att sluta satsa på orientering efter tiden på Eksjö Gymnasium.2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med denna studie har varit att undersöka hur stor andel elever som slutar med orientering samt bakomliggande faktorer till varför före detta elever slutar satsa på orientering efter att de gått på Orienteringsgymnasiet i Eksjö. Frågeställningarna var följande: Hur stor andel av de före detta eleverna slutar satsa på orientering efter att de gått på Orienteringsgymnasiet i Eksjö? Vilka är de bakomliggande orsakerna till att före detta elever från Orienteringsgymnasiet i Eksjö slutar satsa på orientering efter studenten?

    Metod

    Studien består av dels en kvantitativ del, dels en kvalitativ del. De metoder som använts är en kartläggande enkätstudie som var till hjälp för att göra ett urval. Denna enkätstudie följdes sedan upp av fem intervjuer, fyra bland de elever som gått på orienteringsgymnasiet (OL-gymnasiet), och en av de tre tränarna som arbetar som tränare på gymnasiet.

    Resultat

    72 % har slutat satsa på orientering efter att de gått på Orienteringsgymnasiet i Eksjö och 28 % satsar fortfarande. Av dem som slutat satsa är 55 % tjejer och 45 % killar, och av dem som fortfarande satsar är fördelningen mellan könen lika. De främsta anledningarna till att de slutade var att skola/andra intressen tog mera tid och prioriterades före orienteringen och att det var för stor omställning från att gå på OL-gymnasium till livet efter. Andra anledningar var: ”jag blev aldrig så bra som jag ville”, skador/sjukdomar hade satt stopp, lathet, motivationsbrist och att orienteringen var för tidskrävande.

    Slutsats

    Det var ett väldigt högt antal av de före detta eleverna som slutat satsa efter gymnasiet, 72 %. Detta beror inte bara på en orsak utan det är många som samverkar. Det är av stor betydelse att man har en plan för vad man ska göra efter studenten redan innan man slutat gymnasiet.

  • 4513.
    Vejedal, Alexandra
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Tränarlänken.
    Davidsson, Frida
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Tränarlänken.
    Kravanalys för elitorienteraren2005Student thesis
  • 4514.
    Vejvoda, Otakar
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Laktatsänkning efter ishockeyträning: studie om hur olika återhämtnings metoder påverkar laktatkoncentrationen2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Huvudsyfte med arbetet var att undersöka olika återhämtningsmetoders påverkan på laktatkoncentration efter en ishockey träning och dess applikation i en ishockey match.

    1. Vilken metod och intensitet uppvisade snabbast laktatsänkning i blod.

    Metod

    I studien deltog 12 div.2 ishockeyspelare. Alla tränar minst 6 gånger i veckan två timmar. Spelarna genomförde under två helger, två identiska ishockeyträningar. Träningarna varade 60 minuter inriktade på spelövningar (bilaga 3,4). Efter träningarna genomfördes aktiv återhämtning (gruppvis) i form av löpning 60 % och 70 % av max hjärtfrekvensen(HF) , cykling på 60 % och 70 % av max HF och passiv vila. Blodlaktat togs en minut efter träningen och sedan 5, 10, 15, och 20 min under återhämtningsperioden.

    Resultat

    I denna studie visade den snabbaste laktatminskningen efter 20 min hos gruppen som sprang på 60 % av max HF och det med 88 % av det ursprungliga värdet. Löpning på 70 % av max HF uppvisade laktatminskning med 77 %, cykling på 60 % av max HF – laktatminskning med 79 %, cykling på 70 % av max HF- laktatminskning med 76 % och vilogruppen 76 % laktatminskning. Efter 15 min uppvisade snabbaste återhämtningsgruppen (löpning på 60 % av max HF) laktatborttransport med 85 % i jämförelse mot vilogruppen med 69 % av laktatminskning. I första fem minuter efter träningen visade det sig att skillnaden mellan aktiv vila grupper och vilo gruppen i laktatkoncetrationen var ännu större. Vilogruppen visade laktatminskning mellan 1-5 min med 37 % i motsats till löpning på 60 % av max HF laktatminskning med 70 %. Löpning på 70 % av max HF visade laktatminskning med 61 %, cykling på 60 % av max HF minskning med 56,5 % och cykling på 70 % av max HF laktatminskning med 55,5 %.

    Slutsats

    Från ishockeymatch perspektiv var det mest relevanta resultatet skillnaden mellan vilo och löpningsgruppen 60 % av max HF efter 15 min återhämtning. En periodpaus varar 18 minuter och ger uppskattningsvis 14-15 min möjlighet till återhämtning genom aktiv vila. Arbetet bekräftade andra studiernas resultat på att aktiv vila är att föredra för snabbare laktat borttransport. Åtminstone i tidigt skede efter ishockey träning uppvisar aktiv vila snabbare laktatminskning än passiv vila.

  • 4515.
    Verikas, Antanas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research. Kaunas University of Technology, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Parker, James
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Bacauskiene, Marija
    Kaunas University of Technology, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Olsson, M. Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Exploring relations between EMG and biomechanical data recorded during a golf swing2017In: Expert systems with applications, ISSN 0957-4174, E-ISSN 1873-6793, Vol. 88, p. 109-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exploring relations between patterns of peak rotational speed of thorax, pelvis and arm, and patterns of EMG signals recorded from eight muscle regions of forearms and shoulders during the golf swing is the main objective of this article. The linear canonical correlation analysis, allowing studying relations between sets of variables, was the main technique applied. To get deeper insights, linear and nonlinear random forests-based prediction models relating a single output variable, e.g. a thorax peak rotational speed, with a set of input variables, e.g. an average intensity of EMG signals were used. The experimental investigations using data from 16 golfers revealed statistically significant relations between sets of input and output variables. A strong direct linear relation was observed between lin- ear combinations of EMG averages and peak rotational speeds. The coefficient of determination values R2 = 0 . 958 and R2 = 0 . 943 obtained on unseen data by the random forest models designed to predict peak rotational speed of thorax and pelvis , indicate high modelling accuracy. However, predictions of peak rotational speed of arm were less accurate. This was expected, since peak rotational speed of arm played a minor role in the linear combination of peak speeds. The most important muscles to predict peak rotational speed of the body parts were identified. The investigations have shown that the canon- ical correlation analysis is a promising tool for studying relations between sets of biomechanical and EMG data. Better understanding of these relations will lead to guidelines concerning muscle engagement and coordination of thorax, pelvis and arms during a golf swing and will help golf coaches in providing substantiated advices. ©2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 4516.
    Verikas, Antanas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research. Kaunas University of Technology, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Vaiciukynas, Evaldas
    Kaunas University of Technology, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Gelzinis, Adas
    Kaunas University of Technology, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Parker, James
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Olsson, M. Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Electromyographic Patterns during Golf Swing: Activation Sequence Profiling and Prediction of Shot Effectiveness2016In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 16, no 4, article id 592Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes muscle activity, recorded in an eight-channel electromyographic (EMG) signal stream, during the golf swing using a 7-iron club and exploits information extracted from EMG dynamics to predict the success of the resulting shot. Muscles of the arm and shoulder on both the left and right sides, namely flexor carpi radialis, extensor digitorum communis, rhomboideus and trapezius, are considered for 15 golf players (∼5 shots each). The method using Gaussian filtering is outlined for EMG onset time estimation in each channel and activation sequence profiling. Shots of each player revealed a persistent pattern of muscle activation. Profiles were plotted and insights with respect to player effectiveness were provided. Inspection of EMG dynamics revealed a pair of highest peaks in each channel as the hallmark of golf swing, and a custom application of peak detection for automatic extraction of swing segment was introduced. Various EMG features, encompassing 22 feature sets, were constructed. Feature sets were used individually and also in decision-level fusion for the prediction of shot effectiveness. The prediction of the target attribute, such as club head speed or ball carry distance, was investigated using random forest as the learner in detection and regression tasks. Detection evaluates the personal effectiveness of a shot with respect to the player-specific average, whereas regression estimates the value of target attribute, using EMG features as predictors. Fusion after decision optimization provided the best results: the equal error rate in detection was 24.3% for the speed and 31.7% for the distance; the mean absolute percentage error in regression was 3.2% for the speed and 6.4% for the distance. Proposed EMG feature sets were found to be useful, especially when used in combination. Rankings of feature sets indicated statistics for muscle activity in both the left and right body sides, correlation-based analysis of EMG dynamics and features derived from the properties of two highest peaks as important predictors of personal shot effectiveness. Activation sequence profiles helped in analyzing muscle orchestration during golf shot, exposing a specific avalanche pattern, but data from more players are needed for stronger conclusions. Results demonstrate that information arising from an EMG signal stream is useful for predicting golf shot success, in terms of club head speed and ball carry distance, with acceptable accuracy. Surface EMG data, collected with a goal to automatically evaluate golf player’s performance, enables wearable computing in the field of ambient intelligence and has potential to enhance exercising of a long carry distance drive.

  • 4517.
    Verney, Julien
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Charifi, Nadia
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Féasson, Léonard
    Saafi, Mohamed Ali
    Castells, Josiane
    Piehl-Aulin, Karin
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Denis, Christian
    Effects of combined lower body endurance and upper body resistance training on the satellite cell pool in elderly subjects2008In: Muscle and Nerve, ISSN 0148-639X, E-ISSN 1097-4598, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 1147-1154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To distinguish the respective potential of endurance and resistance training to increase the satellite cell pool, we investigated the effects of 14 weeks of concurrent lower body endurance and upper body resistance training (3 sessions/week) on vastus lateralis (VLat) and deltoid (Del) muscles of 10 active elderly men. NCAM+ satellite cells and myonuclear number were assessed in VLat and Del. After 14 weeks of training the NCAM+ satellite cell pool increased similarly (+38%) in both muscles, mainly in type II muscle fibers (P < 0.05). There was no significant change in myonuclear number or myonuclear domain in either muscle. Combining resistance training in the upper limbs with endurance training in the lower limbs is an efficient strategy to enhance the satellite cell pool in upper and lower body muscles in elderly subjects. Our results provide a practical reference for the determination of optimal exercise protocols to improve muscle function and regeneration in the elderly.

  • 4518.
    Verney, Julien
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Örebro University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Saafi, Mohamed A.
    Piehl-Aulin, Karin
    Örebro University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Denis, Christian
    Combined lower body endurance and upper body resistance training improves performance and health parameters in healthy active elderly2006In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 97, no 3, p. 288-297Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the effects of combined lower body (LB) endurance and upper body (UB) resistance training on endurance, strength, blood lipid profile and body composition in active older men. Ten healthy still active men (73+/-4 years, V(O2) peak: 36 (31-41) ml min-1 kg-1) were tested before and after 14 weeks of combined training (3 times week-1). Training consisted of 3x12 min of high intensity interval training on a bicycle for endurance interspersed by 3x12 min of UB resistance exercises. V(O2) peak during leg cycling and arm cranking, isokinetic torque of knee extensor and shoulder abductor and the cross-sectional area (CSA) of several muscles from UB and LB were measured. Sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) and abdominal fat area were measured on MRI scans. Total body composition was assessed by hydrostatic weighing (HW) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Blood lipid profile was assessed before and after training. By the end of the training period, V(O2) peak (l min-1) increased significantly by 9 and 16% in leg cycling and arm cranking tests, respectively. Maximal isokinetic torque increased both for the knee extensor and shoulder abductor muscle groups. CSA increased significantly in deltoid muscle. Percentage of body fat decreased by 1.3% (P<0.05) and abdominal fat and SAD decreased by 12 and 6%, respectively (P<0.01). There was also a significant decrease in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein. Thus, combined LB endurance and UB resistance training can improve endurance, strength, body composition and blood lipid profile even in healthy active elderly.

  • 4519.
    Verworner, Eva-Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lärarens syn på samundervisning i ämnet idrott och hälsa2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte med denna undersökning var att få reda på vilken inställning lärare har till samundervisning i ämnet idrott och hälsa. Mina frågeställningar är vad som är nackdelarna och fördelarna med samundervisning, enligt lärarna. Vilka pedagogiska och didaktiskt ställningstaganden lärarna gör och hur de planerar lektioner med samundervisning på bästa sättet. För att kunna ta reda på detta har jag valt att använda mig av intervjuer. Jag intervjuade 5 lärare i Haninge kommmun, som alla undervisar I skolor med årskurs 6-9. Innan inlämningen av denna uppsats kontaktade mig en av lärarna och ville inte vara en del av studien längre så studien omfattar 4 lärare, varav tre kvinnor och en man.

    Svaren som jag fick av lärarna var väldigt lika varandra, alla hade en väldigt positiv grundinställning till samundervisning i ämnet idrott och hälsa. De tyckte att det är nyttigt för eleverna att lära sig att acceptera varandra och att samarbeta. Dock fanns det några punkter som de tyckte var negativa, som till exempel att pojkar tar alldeles för mycket plats på lektionerna och pga. klassstorleken är det nästan omöjligt att se alla elever. När det gäller de didaktiska ochpedagogiska ställningstaganden,var lärarna också nästan överens. Alla försöker vara tydliga och anpassa rösten efter gruppstorleken, samtidigt som de försöker vara bra förebilder till eleverna och ser de som just eleverna och inte som kön.

    När det gäller planering av lektionerna så tyckte några lärare att alla moment lämpade sig för samundervisning, det kräver bara lite mer av en som lärare och de andra lärarna tyckte att tävling lämpar sig minst av allt för samundervisning. Det är mycket bättre med fria lektioner och olika stationer där eleverna får välja själva hur länge de ska träna och testa.

    I diskussionen visar författaren att själva genus konstruktionen i vårt samhälle ligger till grund för de olika förväntningar och prestationer av flickor och pojkar.

    Slutsatsen i denna studie är att samundervisning är bra för eleverna enligt lärarna men att det kräver mycket av en som lärare för att få det att fungera.

  • 4520.
    Vestberg, Torbjorn
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden; School of Law, Psychology and Social Work, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Gustafson, Roland
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Maurex, Liselotte
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ingvar, Martin
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Petrovic, Predrag
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Executive Functions Predict the Success of Top-Soccer Players2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 4, article id e34731Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While the importance of physical abilities and motor coordination is non-contested in sport, more focus has recently been turned toward cognitive processes important for different sports. However, this line of studies has often investigated sport-specific cognitive traits, while few studies have focused on general cognitive traits. We explored if measures of general executive functions can predict the success of a soccer player. The present study used standardized neuropsychological assessment tools assessing players' general executive functions including on-line multi-processing such as creativity, response inhibition, and cognitive flexibility. In a first cross-sectional part of the study we compared the results between High Division players (HD), Lower Division players (LD) and a standardized norm group. The result shows that both HD and LD players had significantly better measures of executive functions in comparison to the norm group for both men and women. Moreover, the HD players outperformed the LD players in these tests. In the second prospective part of the study, a partial correlation test showed a significant correlation between the result from the executive test and the numbers of goals and assists the players had scored two seasons later. The results from this study strongly suggest that results in cognitive function tests predict the success of ball sport players.

  • 4521.
    Vestergren, Tommy
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Josefsson, Jesper
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Muskelaktivering under farmers walk, marklyft, trapbarmarklyft (high-bar) och trapbar marklyft (low-bar): En Deskriptiv Studie2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    SubjectThe purpose of this descriptive study was to examine the mean muscle activation rate in the exercises farmers walk, conventional deadlifts, trapbar deadlift (high bar) and trapbar deadlift (low bar).MethodsThe participants were five healthy men with no injuries or diseases, with at least two years of prior experience in general strength training and the four specific test exercises; and able to perform at least five repetitions of 150 kilos conventional deadlift. Their average age, height and body weight was 25 ± 4 years, 180 ± 3 cm and 85 ± 4 kg. The EMG-apparatus used in the study was a Biometrics Datalog (Cumfelinfach, Gwent, UK) with associated surface electrodes and knee goniometer. The analysis of the recorded data was done with the software Biometrics DATALOG PC software (v: 7.50). The compilation of all data used Microsoft Excel 2010. The data are presented in mean ± standard deviation in relation to mean maximum voluntary contraction (MVIC). In the study, participants performed a number of pre-tests, for the so called MVIC, which then was used as a normalization of the EMG-data. The main test in the study were four different exercises; conventional deadlift, trapbar deadlift (high bar) and trapbar deadlift (low-bar) and farmers walk. During the test participants used 150 kg for five repetitions on the deadlifts and 150 kg for fifteen meters on the farmers walk.ResultsThe results presented here for the deadlift is in line with previous results presented for various deadlift variations in relation to MVIC for all muscles tested in previous studies. The greatest normalaized mean EMG-activation rate was achieved in the lower body muscles; vastus lateralis, gluteus medius; and the erector spinae muscles. While the torso muscles—with the teres Major muscles as an outliner—was active to a lesser extent. We found similar results with the other two deadlift versions with the trapbar (High and lowbar). Farmers walk showed similir degree of muscle activation in the lower body as the deadlifts, while the exercise showed a higher mean EMG-activation rate of the upper body muscles.ConclusionThe three different deadlift versions have similar activation patterns, while the farmers walk activates the upper body to a greater degree. Each exercise achieves a high degree of mean EMG-activation and can be used to stimulate strength increases, both for muscle-endurance and too some extent maximum strength.

  • 4522.
    Vestlin, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Idrottsskador bland riksidrottsgymnasieelever inom handboll och innebandy: En retrospektiv enkätstudie på riksidrottsgymnasieperioden och livet efter2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, adolescents can attend elite-level upper secondary sports programs (Riksidrottsgymnasium). The purpose of the present study was to investigate to what extent former high school sports students experienced injuries during the high school period, and what consequences this might have had during and after their high school period. A web survey was distributed to former high school sports students (N=51), recruited via the sports federations. The survey included 53 questions assessing injury rate and severity, subsequent pain and in what way the individuals were affected by their injuries, as well as their perception of stress and exercise load. The results show that 80% of the students had been inflicted with a mild acute injury during their high school sports program, and that another 60% still experience pain after high school. There was a significant positive correlation with students training on their own and injury rate (mild or severe injuries).

  • 4523.
    Vestly, Alette
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Accepting or avoiding fear: A study of how elite freestyle snowboarders experience and cope with snowboard-related fear from an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy perspective2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Elite freestyle snowboarders often expose themselves to large risks while performing their sport. A natural response to risk is fear, and it is the aim of this study to explore how elite freestyle snowboarders experience and cope with emotions of fear in conjunction with performing their sport. When examining these mechanisms, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) will be used as the theoretical framework. The aim is to try to determine if the riders accept or avoid situations, thoughts and emotions of fear.

    Data was collected through semi-structured interviews with seven elite freestyle snowboarders (six men and one woman). The content of the interviews where processed with theory driven thematic analysis and inductive thematic analysis.

    The analysis revealed eight themes related to the athletes’ experience of fear: (1) Sources of fear, (2) Fear inducing events and situations, (3) Physiological responses, (4) Cognitive changes, (5) Action tendencies, (6) Fear appraisal, (7) Fear and risk and (8) Fear as a problem. In the analysis of the participants’ coping strategies for fear two themes emerged: Coping strategies not related to ACT and ACT-related coping strategies.

    It can be concluded from this study that elite freestyle snowboarders at times experience fear when exposed to high risk of injury, and can interpret this experience both as a negative and positive for well-being and performance. Participants use a range of coping strategies for fear; some which are in line with traditional sport psychology with an avoidance approach. Despite no previous ACT training, some participants have developed an accepting approach to relate to fear. The complexity of ACT as a theoretical framework is also demonstrated in this study due to the difficulties in categorizing the distinction between processes and orientations of strategies.

     

  • 4524.
    Vestly, Alette
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    How to spin to win: A study about the biomechanical and physiological determinants in a snowboard jump2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim and objectives

    The aim of this study was to examine how different biomechanical, physiological and anthropometry variables relate to snowboard jump performance. The first objective was to investigate the differences in velocity at take-off, jumping height, jumping length and air-time (AT) in straight jumps and tricks with different degrees of rotations in a jump. The second objective was to identify which biomechanical and physiological parameters correlate with snowboard jump performance, which was defined as the ranking of the athletes’ best 720° jump subjectively determined by an experienced snowboard judge.

    Method

    Eleven students at Malung-Sälens Snowboard High-school performed straight jumps and backside rotations on a snowboard jump, while data on snow variables such as velocity at take-off, jumping height, jumping length and AT were collected. An experienced judge evaluated all 720° jumps. Participants also performed strength and flexibility tests to assess their physiological performance. The physiological tests included: 1RM squat, squat jump with weight equal to 40% of their 1RM squat weight, unweighted squat jump, countermovement jumps, countermovement jumps with arm swing, chin-ups, brutal bench and a modified sit and reach test.

    Results

    While performing the 720° rotations the riders had significantly higher jumping height and AT than during the 360° jumps. No significant correlations were found between the best subjectively judged 720° and jumping height, jumping length or AT. None of the physiological tests results produced significant correlations with subjectively judged snowboard performance.

    Conclusions

    When the participants performed a higher degree of rotation, jumping height and AT increased significantly. No relationships were observed between jumping height, jumping length, or AT with subjectively judged snowboard jump performance. It is believed that the rank of the best 720° was primarily based on the athletes’ personal riding style. The physiological tests showed no relationship to the subjectively judged snowboard jump performance. Other factors such as psychology, technique and coordination might be more important for performance.

  • 4525. Vicente-Rodriguez, G.
    et al.
    Rey-Lopez, J. P.
    Ruiz, J. R.
    Jimenez-Pavon, D.
    Bergman, Patrick
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Ciarapica, D.
    Heredia, J. M.
    Molnar, D.
    Gutierrez, A.
    Moreno, L. A.
    Ortega, F. B.
    Interrater reliability and time measurement validity of speed-agility field tests in adolescents2011In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 25, no 7, p. 2059-2063Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine the interrater reliability (trained vs. untrained raters) and criterion-related validity (manual vs. automatic timing) of the 4 x 10-m shuttle run and 30-m running speed tests (times measured). The study comprised 85 adolescents (38 girls) aged 13.0-16.9 years from the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study. The time required to complete the 4 x 10-m shuttle run and 30-m running tests was simultaneously measured (a) manually with a stopwatch by both trained and untrained raters (for interrater reliability analysis), and (b) by using photoelectric cells (for validity analysis). Systematic error, random error, and heteroscedasticity were studied with repeated-measured analysis of variance and Bland-Altman plots. The systematic error for untrained vs. trained raters and the untrained raters vs. photoelectric cells were in all cases approximately 0.1 seconds (p < 0.01), that is, untrained raters recorded higher times. No systematic error was found between trained raters and photoelectric cells (p > 0.05). No heteroscedasticity was shown in any case (p > 0.05). The findings indicate that manual measurements by a trained rater, using a stopwatch, seem to be a valid method to assess speed and agility fitness testing in adolescents. Researchers must be trained to minimize the measurement error.

  • 4526.
    Videkull, Jill
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Videkull, Li
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Can eccentric training increase flexibility?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Purpose

    : Several studies have shown that stretching increases flexibility and therefore stretching has become a conventional method. However, there are theories but few studies on eccentric training and its influence on flexibility. The current studies have confirmed an increased fascicle length (FL) and range of motion (ROM) and thereby flexibility. The purpose of this review article was to examine the effects of traditional stretching and eccentric training on muscle flexibility, and to conclude if eccentric training can be used as an alternative. Method: For the investigation, the inclusion criteria for literature search, were set to publication date 2007-2017, peer reviewed or refereed (quality assured), both gender included, animal and human studies, language English and full text available. The databases PubMed, SPORTDiscus and Google Scholar, were searched, with search terms in different combinations, from Mars to May 2017. References from extracted articles were used, with inclusion criteria mentioned above except for no time limitation. Results and Conclusion: Stretching and eccentric training seem to have some similar physiological adaptations. Stretching has shown to increase flexibility through sarcomerogenesis, and eccentric training has proved to increase flexibility through increased FL. Sarcomerogenesis and FL are interrelated which confirms that these results from both stretching and eccentric training can depend on sarcomerogenesis. There are other physiological adaptations with both stretching and eccentric training, but these adaptations cannot be compared because of lack of investigation. Therefore, the results from this study only confirm that eccentric training can give some similar effects on flexibility as stretching but more research needs to be done to confirm this theory.

  • 4527.
    Vigetun-Haughey, Helena
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Capio St Gorans Hosp, Dept Clin Physiol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Appelberg, Jonas
    Sundsvall Hosp, Dept Res & Dev, Vasternorrland Cty Council, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Forsberg, Tomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Kaldensjö, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Schagatay, Erika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Voluntary apnea evokes diving responses in obstructive sleep apnea patients2015In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 115, no 5, p. 1029-1036Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two potentially protective responses to apnea were studied in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients; the diving response and the increase in Hb concentration [Hb] via spleen contraction. Eight OSA patients and ten healthy controls performed apneas in air (A) and apneas with facial immersion in 15 A degrees C water (FIA) after inspiration and without prior hyperventilation. In each condition, subjects performed three apneas of maximal voluntary duration spaced by 2 min of rest. Cardiorespiratory parameters were measured non-invasively, and venous blood samples for [Hb] analysis were drawn before and after apneas. Mean (SD) apnea durations were similar between groups (NS). In controls, the heart rate (HR) reduction was 10 +/- A 10 % at apnea and 19 +/- A 10 % in FIA (P < 0.05). In OSA patients, however, the fall in HR was the same in both conditions, 13 +/- A 10 and 14 +/- A 8 % for A and FIA, respectively (NS). In controls, the [Hb] increase was the same in A and FIA (2.2 +/- A 2.9 and 2.1 +/- A 2.2 %), while in OSA the [Hb] increase was greater during FIA compared to A (3.3 +/- A 2.2 and 1.4 +/- A 0.9 %; P < 0.05). Apnea induces a diving response and [Hb] increase in both groups. OSA patients did not show the typical training effect of the diving response seen in apnea divers despite their frequent nocturnal apneas. However, they also deviated from normal controls in response pattern; face immersion enhanced the cardiovascular diving response in controls but not in OSA, while the hematological response was enhanced by face immersion only in OSA patients.

  • 4528.
    Vikström, Carina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Flickor med flyktingbakgrund i svensk föreningsidrott: En kvalitativ studie om idrottsledares upplevelser av att arbeta med inkludering2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Girls with refugee backgrounds are underrepresented in Swedish association sports. At the same time, it is noted how gender norms are expressed in sport. Both leaders and active have stated that there are unspoken, yet present expectations of how boys and girls “should be” and how it may affect some individuals’ sport participation. The Swedish Sports Confederation believes that the sport must be developed and renewed so that even more people can feel welcome. They focus particularly on girls with refugee background. The purpose of this study was to examine the leaders’ experiences of including girls with refugee backgrounds in their associations. The study has a qualitative approach in which four focus group interviews were conducted. The selection consists of 21 leaders from the county of Värmland who has worked with inclusion of refugees in their associations.

    The result shows that leaders talk about girls with refugee backgrounds as a group with a lack of experience of sport. Therefore, they mean that girls have less prerequisites for start doing sports in Sweden than boys with refugee backgrounds. The leaders also explain that the girls rarely come to the associations on their own. It has therefore been a prerequisite to find the girls in their own environments and then invite them to the association. The leaders explain that most of the girls with refugee background preferred to exercise in special groups for girls. As a result, the leaders have been reflecting on how their sport can be developed and adapted to the girls wishes. Furthermore, the leaders describe how their own way of meeting the girls played a major role. Although it required extra commitment, the meeting has often been crucial for recruiting girls with refugee backgrounds.

  • 4529.
    Vikström, Johanna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Har knäböj eller unilateralt drop-hopp akut positiv effekt på horisontell och vertikal hoppförmåga?: postaktiveringspotentialens vara eller icke vara2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie var att jämföra den akuta effekten av unilateralt drop-hopp (ULDH) med effekten av knäböj på resultatet i hopphöjd vid Counter Movement Jump (CMJ) samt stående 5-steg i hopplängd, kontakttid och flygtid och se om de finns något samband mellan dessa. 

    Frågeställningar: Har en unilateral unilateralt ULDH och knäböj liknande akut effekt på hopprestation vid CMJ? Har ULDH och knäböj någon akut effekt på horisontell hopplängd? Påverkas kontakttiden och flygtiden vid stående 5- steg av knäböj respektive ULDH och finns det något samband mellan dessa?

    Metod: En crossover studie med 6 st juniorer i friidrott inom grenen sprint (ålder 18 ± 2 år, vikt 70,5 kg ± 12kg.  max i knäböj låg på 90 kg ± 24 kg). Vid tre tillfällen testades deltagarna i stående 5 steg samt CMJ med olika aktivering 8 minuter innan interventionshopp, intervention 1 vila, intervention 2 knäböj 90 % av 1RM och intervention 3 ULDH från 30 cm.  

    Resultat: Studien visar på att knäböj har en tydlig effekt på vertikal hoppförmåga och några analyser visar effekt av ULDH. Inga signifikanta resultat för någon intervention på horisontell hoppförmåga. Inga korrelationer mellan horisontell hoppförmåga, kontakttid och flygtid hittades.

    Slutsats: Studien bekräftar att knäböj har en akut effekt på vertikal hoppförmåga, samt att det finns tendenser till att ULDH har det. Däremot krävs ytterligare forskning på akuta effekter på horisontell hoppförmåga. 

  • 4530.
    Vilagi, Christopher
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Munter Ribeiro, Philip
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Självupplevd skadeförekomst vid Crossfitutövning iSverige: En retrospektiv kohortstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    The objective of this study is to map the self-perceived injury frequency in Swedish Crossfit participants.

    Design

    Retrospective cohort study.

    Method

    An electronic survey was made and distributed in the Facebook group ”CF Sweden”, a group for Swedish Crossfit participants consisting of about 8000 members. The survey identified demographic data, training attributes and injury frequency in Swedish Crossfit participants. To be included in the study the participants had to be >18 years old and had to train at an affiliated Crossfit gym/box.

    Results

    305 individuals answered the survey, of which only 274 were included in the study because they didn’t fulfill the inclusion criteria’s. Of those included 137 (50 %) were men and 137 (50 %) were women, the majority of the participants were in the age category 28-37 years, 89 (32,5 %) followed by the category 38-47 years, 86 (31,4 %) and most participants answered that they had practiced Crossfit for more than 25 months, 162 (59,1%). The results show how 162 (59,1 %) of the participants had injured themself during the last year and that shoulders, 82 (49,1 %) were the body part most likely to get injured during Crossfit, followed by the lower back, 42 (25,1 %) and knees, 34 (20,4 %). The majority of the Crossfit participants answered that they had injured themselves during a WOD, 94 (56,6 %) followed by weightlifting, 51 (30,7 %).

    Conclusion The injury frequency in Crossfit does not differ disproportionately from other sports. The results of the study show very similar results to previous research that strengthen this study's ability to its findings.

  • 4531. Vimaleswaran, Karani Santhanakrishnan
    et al.
    Luan, Jian'an
    Andersen, Gitte
    Muller, Y Li
    Wheeler, Eleanor
    Brito, Ema C
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    O'Rahilly, Stephen
    Pedersen, Oluf
    Baier, Leslie J
    Knowler, William C
    Barroso, Inês
    Wareham, Nicholas J
    Loos, Ruth J F
    Franks, Paul W
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine. Medical Research Council, Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    The Gly482Ser genotype at the PPARGC1A gene and elevated blood pressure: a meta-analysis involving 13,949 individuals2008In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 105, no 4, p. 1352-1358Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The protein encoded by the PPARGC1A gene is expressed at high levels in metabolically active tissues and is involved in the control of oxidative stress via reactive oxygen species detoxification. Several recent reports suggest that the PPARGC1A Gly482Ser (rs8192678) missense polymorphism may relate inversely with blood pressure. We used conventional meta-analysis methods to assess the association between Gly482Ser and systolic (SBP) or diastolic blood pressures (DBP) or hypertension in 13,949 individuals from 17 studies, of which 6,042 were previously unpublished observations. The studies comprised cohorts of white European, Asian, and American Indian adults, and adolescents from South America. Stratified analyses were conducted to control for population stratification. Pooled genotype frequencies were 0.47 (Gly482Gly), 0.42 (Gly482Ser), and 0.11 (Ser482Ser). We found no evidence of association between Gly482Ser and SBP [Gly482Gly: mean = 131.0 mmHg, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 130.5-131.5 mmHg; Gly482Ser mean = 133.1 mmHg, 95% CI = 132.6-133.6 mmHg; Ser482Ser: mean = 133.5 mmHg, 95% CI = 132.5-134.5 mmHg; P = 0.409] or DBP (Gly482Gly: mean = 80.3 mmHg, 95% CI = 80.0-80.6 mmHg; Gly482Ser mean = 81.5 mmHg, 95% CI = 81.2-81.8 mmHg; Ser482Ser: mean = 82.1 mmHg, 95% CI = 81.5-82.7 mmHg; P = 0.651). Contrary to previous reports, we did not observe significant effect modification by sex (SBP, P = 0.966; DBP, P = 0.715). We were also unable to confirm the previously reported association between the Ser482 allele and hypertension [odds ratio: 0.97, 95% CI = 0.87-1.08, P = 0.585]. These results were materially unchanged when analyses were focused on whites only. However, statistical evidence of gene-age interaction was apparent for DBP [Gly482Gly: 73.5 (72.8, 74.2), Gly482Ser: 77.0 (76.2, 77.8), Ser482Ser: 79.1 (77.4, 80.9), P = 4.20 x 10(-12)] and SBP [Gly482Gly: 121.4 (120.4, 122.5), Gly482Ser: 125.9 (124.6, 127.1), Ser482Ser: 129.2 (126.5, 131.9), P = 7.20 x 10(-12)] in individuals <50 yr (n = 2,511); these genetic effects were absent in those older than 50 yr (n = 5,088) (SBP, P = 0.41; DBP, P = 0.51). Our findings suggest that the PPARGC1A Ser482 allele may be associated with higher blood pressure, but this is only apparent in younger adults.

  • 4532. Vinamäki, H
    et al.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Fysiologisk effekt av intervallträning på och runt mjölksyratröskeln med avseende på tröskelkapacitet, återhämtningsförmåga och maximal syreupptagning : C-uppsats vid Idrottshögskolan i Stockholm1997Other (Other scientific)
  • 4533.
    Virtanen, Aleksis
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Harju, Niklas
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Kan man förbättra anaerob kapacitet och effekt med hjälp av intervallträning på is?: En studie på unga elitishockeyspelare2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med denna studie var att ta reda på om man kan träna annorlunda jämfört med den traditionella ishockeyträningen på is för att bibehålla eller förbättra den anaeroba kapaciteten. 

    Kan man med hjälp av högintensitetsträning på is under sju och en halv minut förbättra den anaeroba kapaciteten bättre jämfört med konventionella ishockeyövningar under pågående säsong?

     

    Metod

    Sexton spelare från ett av lagen i J20 superelit som är den högsta serien för ishockeyspelare under 20 år. Testpersonerna delades in i en testgrupp som bestod av sju personer och en kontrollgrupp som bestod av nio personer. Studiens träningsprogram bestod av fem veckors högintensiv träning en gång i veckan för testgruppen och bestod av maximal skridskoåkning i tjugo sekunder från den förlängda mållinjen till den röda mittlinjen på ishockeyrinken och sedan fram och tillbaka så många gånger som hanns med. Detta gjordes åtta gånger med en vila på 45 sekunder mellan varje set. Kontrollgruppen tränade samtidigt som vanligt på isen. Efter fem veckor gjordes Wingate cykeltestet om för att se om några förbättringar skett.

     

    Resultat

    Resultatet visar en generell peak power och peak 0-5 sekunder ökning över tid för grupperna. Båda grupperna ökade sina värden men kontrollgruppens ökning var störst. Peak 0-5 sekunder och average power visade sig ha en interaktion efter ett Post Hoc test, alltså en skillnad mellan grupperna. Kontrollgruppen ökade sina värden på average power men inte testgruppen. Träningen hade ingen effekt på P.O 25-30 sekunder som förblev oförändrad i båda grupperna. Båda grupperna uppvisade en signifikant ökning i power drop (W/kg) efter träningsperioden. Dock sågs ingen skillnad i % power drop då peak power samtidigt ökade.

     

    Slutsats

    Slutsatsen i denna studie var att både den högintensiva intervallträningen på is och den traditionella isträningen ökar den anaeroba effekten hos unga elitishockeyspelare. Vanligtvis sänker den konventionella isträning den anaeroba effekten under den pågående säsongen. Detta gör det svårt att tolka resultatet i studien som troligtvis beror på skillnader i testgrupperna och suboptimala testförhållanden.

  • 4534. Visell, Y.
    et al.
    Fontana, F.
    Giordano, B. L.
    Nordahl, R.
    Serafin, S.
    Bresin, Roberto
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Sound design and perception in walking interactions2009In: International journal of human-computer studies, ISSN 1071-5819, E-ISSN 1095-9300, Vol. 67, no 11, p. 947-959Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews the state of the art in the display and perception of walking generated sounds and tactile vibrations, and their current and potential future uses in interactive systems. As non-visual information sources that are closely linked to human activities in diverse environments, such signals are capable of communicating about the spaces we traverse and activities we encounter in familial and intuitive ways However, in order for them to be effectively employed in human-computer interfaces, significant knowledge is required in areas including the perception of acoustic signatures of walking, and the design, engineering, and evaluation of interfaces that utilize them. Much of this expertise has accumulated in recent years, although many questions remain to be explored We highlight past work and current research directions in this Multidisciplinary area of investigation, and point to potential future trends.

  • 4535.
    Visnevska, Lauma
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Hassel, Frida
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Varför avslutas en elitidrottssatsning i ungdomsåren?: En intervjustudie kring vilka de vanligaste faktorerna som bidrog till en avslutad elitidrottssatsning i ungdomsåren.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine the most common reasons why young elite athletes dropped out their sport at the top level. To study this case, we collected our data with an interview as a method and Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis as instrument to interpreted participants citations into the factors. These factors later were categorized under different themes: Other, Internal and External factors, Sickness and Injuries. The most common reasons quoted was exhaustion (psychological) and fatigue (physical), too high performance requirement, environmental change, conflict of interest, too demanding training environment and lack of leadership skills.

  • 4536.
    Volgé, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Att undervisa elever med ADHD i idrott och hälsa2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    AbstractWorking with students who have ADHD are today common in Swedish schools. Approximately 2-3 students per class have been diagnosed with ADHD and require greater demands on their teachers. The pupils have to be included and get the opportunities to develop in the way that suits the students best. The pupils themselves should not have to adapt to the school, it is the school that has to adapt to the pupils. The purpose of this paper is to examine how PE teachers work with students who have ADHD as they need to have adults around them that have insights on their special needs. Through interviews with six PE teachers in southern Sweden I have investigated what skills they have, how they work with these students and what kind of education they are offered. The result is interesting because it shows that the teachers do not have any special skills to work with students with ADHD, but they still manage their work very well because of the basic teaching skills they possess. Despite the good education which they engage, the knowledge about this diagnosis should increase among the teachers. It is vital for the student that their teachers may help them to the best schooling situation as possible.

  • 4537.
    von Hamm, Victor
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Strelitz, Robin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Har PWO effekt på muskulär uthållighet i övningarna knäböj, armhävningar och sit-ups?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Pre-workout supplementation is today a well-known phenomenon ever increasing in popularity every year. In this study, we investigate Rampage™; a popular product in Sweden. There’s too few studies that investigate the link between pre-workout and strength training to failure and we believe that is where pre-workout is most effective. The aim of this study is to research Rampage’s™ effects on muscular endurance in male participants above the age group of 18. To do this a double-blind cross-over design has been applied to 13 participants who, unknowingly, either ingest a placebo or the actual pre-workout in order to do three sets of squats, three sets of push-ups and three sets of sit-ups. When they couldn’t perform one more repetition the set was concluded. The number of repetitions was later used for statistical analysis and we found no significance between the groups (p=0,858). There are some reasons this might be the case, and we believe this could be investigated further, although our hypothesis remains unproven. 

  • 4538.
    von Polgar, Brita
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Utvärdering av tillit till knäet i samband med återgång till idrott efter främre korsbandsrekonstruktion2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Many ACL-injured athletes experience after surgery a reduced reliance on the knee and are afraid of new lesions. It is therefore important to identify those patients.

    Aim:

    The aim with this study was was to establish whether the triple hop, the cross over hop and the side hop really shows the ACL reconstructed patient´s confidence in the knee 6-12 months post operatively when returning to sport.

    Method:

    9 women and 9 men who had undergone ACL reconstruction 6-12 months previously and were about to return to sports, were included in this study. The participants conducted three functional single leg hop tests in both legs; the triple hop, the cross over hop and the side hop test. Before each specific hop test, the confidence in the knee was estimated and directly efter the hop test, the degree of ability to use their strength was estimated on a visual analog scale. The subjects were also asked to fill out the Knee Self- Efficacy Scale (K-SES) form.

    Results:

    Significant differences were found in the ACL reconstructed knee compared to the other knee, when estimating amount of confidence the patient had to his knee before performing the triple hop and the cross over hop. Some significance was also found regarding the reliance on the knee estimated before the side hop and also when estimating the ability use their strength in all three hop tests. Only the triple hop and cross over hop, showed significant result. The only abnormal limb symmetri index (LSI)-value found (<90%), was that of estimated confidence before the triple hop and the cross over hop. A correlation was found for LSI when estimated confidence in the knee before the triple hop and the cross over hop and the K-SESPresent and K-SESFuture. The triple hop also correlated with LSI hop result and estimated ability to use their strength and for the K-SESPresent.

    Conclusion:

    The triple hop and the cross over hop show a greater difference in estimated confidence in the knee than does the difference in hop results and estimated ability to use their strength when jumping. The LSI-value of estimated confidence in these two hop tests, correlates well with self efficacy for both the K-SES scales. The triple hop and the cross over hop, in combination with estimated confidence and ability to use their strength while jumping using a visual analog scale, could be well suited for evaluating the confidence in the ACL knee surgery patient experience during the rehabilitation period.

  • 4539.
    von Schewelov, Martinique
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Jag kan inte serva!: en studie om skador hos ungdomar i samband med tennisserven2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte och frågeställning

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka vilka som är de vanligaste skadorna inom tennis i samband med serverörelsen. Studien ämnar undersöka om det finns några skillnader i förekomst av skada vid utförandet av de tre olika servetyperna kick-, flack- och sliceserve, samt om det förekommer några skillnader mellan pojkar och flickor.

    Frågorna som undersöks är vilka skador som är vanliga i samband med serverörelsen, vilka skillnader som förekommer gällande skadeförekomst vid de tre serveteknikerna, samt upplevd orsak till skadeuppkomst. Hypotesen är baserad på Kovacs och Ellenbeckers modell om teknikskillnader i serverörelsen, och att skadorna i samband med serverörelsen uppstår på grund av bristfällig teknik och/eller bristfällig fysisk kapacitet.

    Metod

    Studien är utförd med en enkätstudie på 14 i Sverige tävlingsaktiva juniorer i åldrarna 13-16 år. Enkäten är skapad och analyserad i det webbaserade programmet SurveyMonkey. Resultaten är sammanställda och analyserade utifrån en 8-stegs serveanalysmodell som tagits fram specifikt för tennis.

    Resultat

    Studiens resultat visade att axelskador, rygg- och bålskador är vanligt förekommande bland spelarna (5,5 skador/pojke och 1,8 skador/flicka). Det var ingen skillnad i skadetyp eller grad av smärta beroende på vilken typ av serveteknik som användes. Skillnader mellan könen förekommer enbart i förmågan att utföra samtliga tre servetekniker. Inga bevis för att bristfällig teknik och fysisk kapacitet skulle vara orsaken till skada kunde hittas, för detta behövs mer omfattande studier utföras.

    Slutsats

    Studien bekräftade resultat i tidigare studier med avseende på att de vanligaste skadorna i samband med serverörelsen i tennis är i övre delen av kroppen, framför allt axel och rygg. Resultaten kunde inte visa någon skillnad i skadetyp beroende på vilken serveteknik som utövas.

  • 4540.
    von Schewelov, Martinique
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Vadå tekniska och taktiska förmågor?: En studie om hur specialidrottslärare förhåller sig till bedömning av tekniska och taktiska förmågor2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim The purpose of this study was to determine how teachers in the subject "Specialised physical" education relate to assessment of technical and tactical skills in a chosen sport.

    Questions at issue

    • How are technical and tactical skills assessed?
    • Other than technical and tactical skills, what factors play a part in the assessment of the subject Specialized physical education?

    Method A qualitative method was implemented on five of Sweden’s tennis coaches teaching in the subject Specialized physical education. The questions formed for the interviews where semi structured in aim of making sure more detailed answers could be given and supplementary questions could be posed. Pierre Bourdieu’s theory with the concepts Habitus, Capital and Field where used as a theoretical framework.

    Results The coaches experienced difficulties with interpreting and using curricula and assessment tools presented by Skolverket. Therefore, they also find difficulties in knowing what to assess regarding tactical and technical skills. The coaches mainly work with technical, tactical and physical skills, mental development, work effort and behaviour. These are also the factors that are most noted when it comes to assessment in the subject.

    Conclusion The coaches in this study experience difficulties in relating to both The national agency for education curricula and the assessment tools regarding assessment of the specific abilities technique and tactics. Many of the coaches therefore base their assessment on their personal habitus, meaning, they build their teaching and assessment methods on their own experiences and their own beliefs of what should be taught and learnt by the students. Despite some differences in both educational background and training philosophy amongst the coaches, they all work and relate to technical and tactical skills in more or less equivalent ways and with equal goals. Viewed from Bourdieu’s notions, the coaches could therefore be considered being in the same field, with a equivalent capital.

  • 4541. Von Walden, Ferdinand
    et al.
    Pozzo, Marco
    Elman, Ted
    Tesch, Per A
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Muscle fluid shift does not alter EMG global variables during sustained isometric actions.2008In: Journal of Electromyography & Kinesiology, ISSN 1050-6411, E-ISSN 1873-5711, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 849-856Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Body fluid redistribution occurs in astronauts traveling in space, potentially altering interstitial water content and hence impedance. This in turn may impact the features of electromyographic (EMG) signals measured to compare in-flight muscle function with pre- and post-flight conditions. Thus, the current study aimed at investigating the influence of similar fluid shifts on EMG spectral variables during muscle contractile activity. Ten men performed sustained isometric actions (120 s) at 20% and 60% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) following 1-h rest in the vertical or supine position. From single differential EMG signals, recorded from the soleus (SOL), the medial (MG) and lateral (LG) gastrocnemius muscles, initial value and rate of change over time (slope) of mean power frequency (MNF) and average rectified value (ARV) were assessed. MNF initial value showed dependence on muscle (P < 0.01), but was unaffected by body tilt. MNF rate of change increased (P < 0.001) with increased force and differed across muscles (P < 0.05), but was not influenced (P = 0.85) by altered body position. Thus, fluid shift resulting from vertical to supine tilt had no impact on myoelectrical manifestations of muscle fatigue. Furthermore, since such alteration of body fluid distribution resembles that occurring in microgravity, our findings suggest this may not be a methodological limitation, when comparing EMG fatigue indices on Earth versus in space.

  • 4542.
    Voudouragkakis, Christos
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Claesson, David
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Läraren och betydelsen av dennes kropp i idrott och hälsa: En kvalitativ studie om elevers förväntningar på lärare i idrott och hälsa gällande deras kroppsform och förmåga att genomföra fysiska moment i undervisningen2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, emphasis was situated around pupils’ expectations regarding body shape and physical proficiency among teachers within the subject of physical education. Additionally, possible outcomes of failure to uphold such demands were put in relation to aspects of legitimacy. To enable such study a qualitative study including semi-structured interviews was conducted and carried through, involving six pupils in the third grade of upper secondary education. The pupils were mainly selected through a convenience sample with. The applied theory did in the current case derive from the theoretical concepts of discourse, stigma and legitimacy. These concepts were then intertwined through the creation of a theoretical model, which was applied when analyzing the received material. The results showed that the pupils had – with a few exceptions – expectations on teachers in physical education to withhold a body shape that represents the subject. This meant that a fit body shape was preferred over an overweight body shape. Also, statements concluded that a teacher in physical education should be able to uphold a certain level of physical proficiency, to demonstrate in front of the pupils. Lastly, if a teacher in physical education fails to comply with the demands, the results showed a negative effect concerning aspects of legitimacy.

  • 4543.
    Vukojevic, Slavica
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Möjligheter och hinder med framtidsarbetet "Morgondagens idrott": Ur kontaktpersonernas synvinkel2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att beskriva deltagandeidrottsföreningars redogörelser kring framtidsarbetet inomframtidsgrupperna i projektet ”Morgondagens idrott” utifrån ettlärande perspektiv. Detta med hjälp av frågeställningen: vilkamöjligheter respektive hinder upplevde kontaktpersonerna att detvarit med framtids- och utvecklingsarbetet i derasidrottsföreningar? Studien är intressant då ingen tidigare forskningpå detta projekt finns tillgängligt. Studien genomfördes med hjälpav en kvalitativ totalundersökning. Resultatet av intervjuerna visaratt möjligheter som kontaktpersonerna såg var meningsfullhet,stöd, framtidstänk, rekrytering och utbildning. Hindrena varekonomi, ledarrekrytering och genomförande.

  • 4544.
    Vångell, Fredrika
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Andersson, Frida
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Tränar du som jag?: en studie av orienteringslitteraturen samt en jämförelse av elitorienterares träning på 1980-talet och år 20102010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet i studien var tvådelat, dels avsågs att analysera vad orienteringslitteraturen skriver om träning, dels att jämföra hur svenska elitorienterare tränade på 1980-talet och år 2010.

    Frågeställningar till källanalysen: Vad skriver orienteringslitteraturen om träningsupplägg, mental träning och mentala faktorer som påverkar prestationen samt tränarrollen?

    Frågeställningar kring hur elitorienterare tränade på 1980-talet jämfört med år 2010: Vilka skillnader och likheter i träningsupplägg bland kvinnor och män finns det mellan 1980-talet och år 2010? Har tränarrollen förändrats? Varifrån får elitorienterare sin kunskap om hur de ska lägga upp sin träning?

    Metod

    De metoder som användes i studien var källanalys och enkätundersökning. De källor som analyserats är fem böcker som handlar om orienteringsträning. Respondenterna till enkäten var de som var landslagsaktiva under 1980-talet samt de som var det år 2010. Antalet respondenter var 13 från 1980-talet och 14 från år 2010.

    Resultat

    De viktigaste resultaten i studien var att det finns både skillnader och likheter i vad som ingår i en elitorienterares träningsupplägg på 1980-talet jämfört med år 2010. I enkätstudien kan vi se följande resultat; träningstiden bland kvinnorna har ökat, de högintensiva konditionspassen har ökat bland båda könen, den mentala träningen likaså. Även tränare har ökat i förekomst hos de som var landslagsaktiva år 2010, men det är fortfarande svårt att definiera tränarbegreppet. Kunskap om träningsupplägg fick de aktiva år 2010 till störst del från vetenskaplig forskning medan de på 1980-talet ansåg att de baserade sitt träningsupplägg till störst del på andra orienterares erfarenheter och på egen beprövad erfarenhet.

    Slutsats

    Den slutsats vi kan dra är att det är ett komplext område att förstå hur elitorienterare lägger upp sin träning. Det finns inte något universellt träningsupplägg som passar alla. Det fanns dock stora skillnader när vi jämförde landslagsorienterarna som grupp under 1980-talet med år 2010, vilket tyder på att de förändringar sporten har genomgått har påverkat elitorienterarnas träningsupplägg. Dessutom verkar definitioner kring tränarrollen saknas, antagligen på grund av den allmänt förekommande åsikten inom sporten att man ska sträva efter att bli sin egen tränare. Detta gör det svårt för de aktiva år 2010 att definiera personer runt omkring dem som de får hjälp av.

  • 4545.
    Wadeskog, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Undervisningssituationen för idrottspedagoger i glesbygd: – Hur påverkar den eleverna och vad gör skola för att ombesörja elevernas fysiska aktivering?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    De positiva hälsoeffekterna av fysisk aktivitet och dess påverkan på vår motoriska och kognitiva utveckling i unga år är idag väl känt. Trots det spenderar barn idag mer tid på stillasittande aktiviteter så som tv-tittande och datorspel. Studier har visat att mycket stillasittande aktiviteter i unga år kan leda till sämre hälsa i vuxen ålder. Människor i glesbygd har visats ha sämre hälsa än människor i tätort och barnen deltar mer sällan i föreningsidrott. Syfte: Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka idrottspedagogernas syn på sin undervisningssituation och hur den påverkar elevernas fysiska aktivering. Metod: Studien genomfördes i form av en webbaserad enkätundersökning. Enkäten skickades ut till idrottspedagoger (N=23) i tre kommuner (Berg, Bräcke och Ragunda) i Jämtlands län. Enligt Sveriges kommuner och landstings definition klassificeras dessa som glesbygd.  Resultat: Av de 23 kontaktade idrottspedagogerna svarade 16 på enkäten. Bland de deltagande idrottspedagogerna svarade 94 % (15 av 16) att de bedrev sin undervisning efter de riktlinjer som finns i Läroplan för grundskolan, förskoleklassen och fritidshemmet 2011 (LGR 11), 81 % (13 av 16) tycker inte att tiden som var avsatt för fysisk aktivitet för eleverna var tillräcklig. Majoriteten av idrottspedagogerna tyckte att mer tid och pengar var en förutsättning för att kunna utveckla undervisningen i idrott och hälsa. Slutsats: Denna studies resultat antyder att idrottspedagogerna önskar att det inte enbart ska ligga på idrottspedagogens ansvar att elever aktiveras och får daglig fysisk aktivitet. För att barn i glesbygds fysiska aktivitet ska tillgodoses krävs det engagemang från skolan men även att ämnet uppmärksammas och prioriteras bland föräldrarna.

  • 4546.
    Waggott, Daryl
    et al.
    Stanford University.
    Mattsson, C. Mikael
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Wheeler, Matthew
    Stanford University.
    Ashley, Euan A.
    Stanford University.
    The Genomics of Extreme Athletes. The ELITE Study (Exercise at the Limit - Inherited Traits of Endurance).2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Health exists as a spectrum from disease to some outlier physiological optimum. To date most molecular genetic research has focused on disease states and less on extreme health populations. We hypothesize that interrogating outlier elite endurance athletes, with strict physiological eligibility criteria, will inform cardiovascular research through the identification of complementary pathways and therapeutic targets. Eligibility criteria for the ELITE study required a lifetime VO2max, which measures maximal oxygen consumption during peak aerobic exercise, at a threshold estimated to be attainable in less than 1 in 50,000 people (men  80ml/kg/min; women 65ml/kg/min). VO2max is reported to have substantial genetic influence (h2~0.5) and is correlated with endurance sport performance along with work efficiency. Several well documented cases of athletic outliers have been tied to rare genetic variants including the Finnish cross country skier Mäntyranta (EPOR) and  Priscilla Lopes-Schliep (LMNA). In the later, the same domain of the LMNA gene is related to rare forms of muscular dystrophy. Additionally, adaptive hypoxia variations have been identified in high altitude populations in Tibet (EPAS1), Andes and Ethiopia. To date we have sequenced 268 ELITE participants using clinically enhanced exomes and run 550 samples on high density multi-ethnic SNP chips. Preliminary analysis has focused on a combination of rare variant curation and common variation association. Rare variation curation included prioritization of LOF variants within candidate genes related to oxygen transport, muscle physiology and metabolism (i.e. PPARA, PPARGC1A, RYR2, ACTN3) and global gene screening using in silico weighted burden testing. Common variant association (the largest GWAS of its kind) has been used to support rare variant findings and identify non-coding and structural variant association signals. We believe that our methodology of combining rare LOF variants with common variation association in a population with extreme endurance physiology will systematically identify pleiotropic genes with both protective and pathogenic features similar to PCSK9.

  • 4547.
    Wagnsson, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    De engagerade idrottsföräldrarna-vilka är de?2006Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 4548.
    Wagnsson, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Den fostrande idrotten?2006Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 4549.
    Wagnsson, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Education.
    Föreningsidrott som socialisationsmiljö: En studie av idrottens betydelse för barns och ungdomars psykosociala utveckling2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall purpose of this study was to examine organized youth sports in Sweden and the possible influences over time (2 years) on some of the intended socialisation effects in terms of children’s and adolescent’s self-esteem, perceived physical and social competence, self reported pro- and antisocial behaviours, self reported psychosomatic health, and use of alcohol and tobacco. In an attempt to capture some of the complex social interactions in sports, which undoubtedly leads to different socialisation experiences, an additional purpose of this study was to examine possible relations between children and adolescent athletes’ dispositional goal orientations (task and ego), perceived motivational climate in sports, perceived sport-specific competence, perceived prosocial coaching and presumptive psychosocial effect variables.

    This study’s theoretical framework was primarily based on previous works by Bronfenbrenner (1979, 1992, 1995, 2001), Bronfenbrenner and Morris (1998), Nicholls (1984, 1989) and Patriksson (1995).

    The design of the study was a three-occasion longitudinal multiple cohort design including elements of retrospective questions. Data was collected from pupils residing in schools situated in Western and Middle parts of Sweden. The sample was based on a randomly stratified sampling procedure and comprised of 1378 pupils in total (10-18 years) distributed in primary school, lower secondary school and upper secondary school. The answering rate was high (T1=85%; T2=80%; T3=80%), but wave non-response made it necessary to impute missing data values. In total 1212 respondents were included in the final analyses.

    The main results showed that sport socialisation effects on youth’s prosocial development in general were rather small, with some minor exception for perceived physical competence and smoking tobacco. Consequently the results challenge the public notion that participating in organized sport “builds character.” Results related to the specific sport environment, though showed that organized sports have the potential to act as a more positive socialisation arena. It is proposed that creating a mainly task-oriented motivational climate, and helping the individual to foster a balance between task- and ego-oriented goal orientations, will increase the probability that young athletes will perceive higher levels of competence. This will, in turn, enhance the chance that participation in organized sports will have a positive effect on youths’ psychosocial development.

  • 4550.
    Wagnsson, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Föreningsidrotten som socialisationsmiljö för barn och ungdomar2009Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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