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  • 4501. Wahlin-Larsson, P.
    et al.
    Edholm, Peter
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Mattsson, C.M.
    Ponsot, Elodie
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Lindvall, B.
    Ekblom, L.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Ultra-endurance exercise is associated with extensive inflammatory cell infiltration in human skeletal muscle of experienced athletes2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4502.
    Wahlstrand, Martin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Pulsmätning som ett sätt att studera pacing under cykelmomentet i Ironman triathlon2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In order to succeed in an Ironman it is necessary to have a strategy on how to dispose your energy during the 8-16 hour race. This is called pacing or pacing strategy and is the self-selected effort that can help the competitor to optimize their performance. Based on heart rate measurement, this is particularly interesting during the 180 km cycle section, where drafting is not allowed.Aim: The aim of this investigation was to study pacing in Ironman thriathlon. Is there a relationship between the competitors intensity and biketime and did those who had smaller variation in intensity achieved a better biketime?Method: 22 competitive triathletes undertook a test to find out their HRmax. In conjunction with Ironman Kalmar 2016 the participants HR-data was registered with heartrate monitors and the data was then analyzed in order to determine the participants mean intensity and variation in intensity. These factors were used to understand pacing based on the participants heartrate and correlated to biketimes for each participant.

    Results: Average intensity for the participants was 140 ±9.2 bpm and the results show no significanct correlation between biketime and either the intensity chosen by the competitor or the variation in intensity. However, there was  a trend towards significance for the intensity vs biketime, p = 0.066.

    Conclusion: This study was unable to determine the effect of pacing due to the selected intensity within the group was too large to clearly study the importance of intensity for performance during the cycle part of an IronMan and further studies are required.

  • 4503.
    Wahlström, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    "Vattenvana och bentag, det är nyckeln!" - En undersökning av hur lärare bedriver simundervisning för nyanlända elever2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    1. Sammanfattning:

    Simundervisning är idag en betydande del i den centrala kursplanen för ämnet Idrott och Hälsa. Trots detta, visar tidigare forskning att simundervisningen är problematiskt och har en tendens att hamna i skymundan. Tidigare forskning visar också att simundervisningen medför didaktiska utmaningar för lärare, framförallt på grund av ekonomiska och religiösa faktorer. Simundervisningen är inte enbart problematiskt för lärare, utan också för nyanlända elever eller elever med utländsk bakgrund. På grund av bristande erfarenheter av fysisk aktivitet och vattenvana är det många nyanlända elever som inte klarar lgr11s kunskapskrav för simkunnighet. Studiens övergripande syfte är därför att undersöka hur lärare i ämnet Idrott och Hälsa arbetar för att nå simkunnighet bland nyanlända elever. Studien avser att bidra med kunskap om hur simundervisningen för nyanlända elever kan bedrivas och vilka faktorer som påverkar simundervisningen. För att undersöka detta har en kvalitativ undersökning med semistrukturerade intervjuer genomförts.

    Övergripande, så visar resultatet att lärarna definierar begreppet simkunnighet utifrån kunskapskravet i lgr11. Lärarna ser begreppet som tydligt och rimligt. Dock visar resultatet att lärarna tolkar begreppet olika. Hälften av lärarna bedriver simundervisningen på egen hand och andra hälften överlåter ansvaret till badhuspersonalen. Om det är idrottsläraren eller badhuspersonal som undervisar eleverna har ingen betydelse, huvudsaken är att personen har en didaktisk kompetens och kan anpassa undervisningen efter varje individs förutsättningar och förmågor. De faktorer som påverkar simundervisningen är ekonomiska faktorer, religiösa faktorer och elevens egna förutsättningar. Den ekonomiska faktorn är mest påtaglig för landsbygdsskolorna, då resekostnaderna till och från badhuset är höga. Den religiösa faktorn påverkar främst de nyanlända flickorna, då majoriteten av flickorna inte får simma tillsammans med pojkarna. Elevens förutsättningar beror till stor del på ursprung och kultur. Majoriteten av eleverna har en ytterst liten erfarenhet av simundervisning och vistelse vid vatten. Några är dock uppväxta vid en flod och är då mer vattenvana. Dessa förutsättningar påverkar vilken kunskapsnivå eleverna ligger på när det anländer till Sverige.

  • 4504.
    Wahman, Kerstin
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Div Neurorehabil, Stockholm ; Rehab Stn Stockholm, Spinalis R&D Unit, Stockholm.
    Nash, Mark S
    Univ Miami, Miller Sch Med, Dept Neurol Surg, ; Univ Miami, Miller Sch Med, Dept Rehabil Med, ; Univ Miami, Miller Sch Med, Miami Project Cure Paralysis.
    Lewis, John E
    Univ Miami, Miller Sch Med, Dept Psychiat & Behav Sci, ; Univ Miami, Miller Sch Med, Ctr Complementary & Integrat Med..
    Seiger, Åke
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Div Neurorehabil, Stockholm ; Rehab Stn Stockholm, Spinalis R&D Unit, Stockholm ; Stockholms Sjukhem Fdn, Stockholm.
    Levi, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Rehabilitation Medicine. Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Div Neurorehabil, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Cardiovascular disease risk and the need for prevention after paraplegia determined by conventional multifactorial risk models: the Stockholm spinal cord injury study2011In: Journal of rehabilitation medicine : official journal of the UEMS European Board of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 237-242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the need for intervention on cardio-vascular disease risks in persons with paraplegia according to: (i) two multifactorial risk models; and (ii) these models in combination with the additional risk of overweight/obesity.

    DESIGN: Cross-sectional.

    SUBJECTS: A total of 134 out of 153 persons, comprising more than 80% of a regional prevalence population with traumatic paraplegia (American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale A-C) of minimum one year duration.

    METHODS: Participants were screened for cardiovascular disease risk using two multifactorial risk models: the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation and the Framingham Risk Equation. Risk factors included were: age, gender, systolic blood pressure, antihypertensive medication, smoking, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and total cholesterol/total cholesterol ratio. In addition, overweight/obesity was assessed by body mass index.

    RESULTS: Twenty-seven percent to 36% of the cohort was eligible for cardiovascular disease risk intervention, depending on the risk model used. When overweight/obesity (spinal cord injury adjusted cut-score body mass index ≥ 22) was also considered, over 80% of the participants qualified for intervention.

    CONCLUSION: Almost one-third of persons with paraplegia were eligible for cardiovascular disease risk intervention according to authoritative assessment tools. The number in need of intervention was dramatically increased when overweight/obesity as a cardiovascular disease risk was considered.

  • 4505. Wahman, Kerstin
    et al.
    Nash, Mark S
    Lewis, John E
    Seiger, Åke
    Levi, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Rehabilitation Medicine.
    Increased cardiovascular disease risk in Swedish persons with paraplegia: the Stockholm spinal cord injury study2010In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 42, no 5, p. 489-492Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Comparison of prevalence of cardiovascular disease risks in persons with chronic traumatic paraplegia with those in the general population.

    DESIGN: Cross-sectional comparative study.

    SUBJECTS: A total of 135 individuals, age range 18-79 years, with chronic (> or = 1 year) traumatic paraplegia.

    METHODS: The prevalences of diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, overweight, and smoking, were assessed in the study population and were compared with an age- and gender-matched sample of the general population in the region under study. History of myocardial infarction and medication for dyslipidaemia, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus were also recorded. chi2 tests were used to compare the paraplegic cohort with the general population sample.

    RESULTS: Significantly more persons with paraplegia reported a history of myocardial infarction (5.9%) than those in the comparison group (0.7%). The prevalences of diabetes mellitus (5.9%), dyslipidaemia (11.1%), and hypertension (14.1%) were also significantly higher in the paraplegic group, as were drug treatment for these disorders.

    CONCLUSION: Persons with paraplegia report increased prevalences of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidaemia, in particular, compared with the general population. Population-based screening and therapeutic counter-measures for these conditions may therefore be particularly indicated for this patient group.

  • 4506. Wahman, Kerstin
    et al.
    Nash, Mark S
    Westgren, Ninni
    Lewis, John E
    Seiger, Åke
    Levi, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Rehabilitation Medicine.
    Cardiovascular disease risk factors in persons with paraplegia: the Stockholm spinal cord injury study2010In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 272-278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To examine cardiovascular disease risk factors and risk clusters in Swedish persons with traumatic wheelchair-dependent paraplegia.

    DESIGN: Prospective examination.

    SUBJECTS: A total of 135 individuals aged 18-79 years with chronic (>or= 1 year) post-traumatic paraplegia.

    METHODS: Cardiovascular disease risk factors; dyslipidemia, impaired fasting glucose, hypertension, overweight, smoking, and medication usage for dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus, were analyzed according to authoritative guidelines. Stepwise regression tested the effects of age, gender, and injury characteristics on cardiovascular disease risks.

    RESULTS: High-prevalence risk factors were dyslipidemia (83.1%), hypertension (39.3%), and overweight (42.2%) with pervasive clustering of these risks. Being older was related to increased cardiovascular disease risk, except for dyslipidemia. Hypertension was more common in low-level paraplegia. Prevalence of impaired fasting glucose was lower than previously reported after paraplegia. A high percentage of persons being prescribed drug treatment for dyslipidemia and hypertension failed to reach authoritative targets for cardiovascular disease risk reduction.

    CONCLUSION: Swedish persons with paraplegia are at high risk for dyslipidemia, hypertension, and overweight. Impaired fasting glucose was not as common as reported in some previous studies. Pharmacotherapy for dyslipidemia and hypertension often failed to achieve recommended targets. Population-based screening and therapeutic countermeasures to these cardiovascular disease risks are indicated.

  • 4507.
    Waldén, Markus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Department of Orthopaedics, Hässleholm-Kristianstad-Ystad Hospitals, Hässleholm, Sweden.
    Hägglund, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Bengtsson, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Ekstrand, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Perspectives in football medicine2018In: Der Unfallchirurg (Berlin. Print), ISSN 0177-5537, E-ISSN 1433-044X, Vol. 121, no 6, p. 470-474Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The high injury rate among mens professional football players is well-known. Therefore, the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) launched an injury study already in 2001. This study, the UEFA Elite Club Injury Study (ECIS), currently includes data from a total of 51 clubs from 18 European countries with more than 14,000 registered injuries. With the 21(st) World Cup (WC) in Russia just around the corner, we have from our study identified a higher match injury rate and a higher proportion of severe injuries in the European Championships compared to the preceding club competitive seasons. Moreover, we have also recently showed that the muscle injury rate is higher when players are given a recovery window of five days or less between two matches. Considering the congested match schedule of the upcoming WC, it is therefore likely that injuries and fatigue once again will be a topic of discussion this summer.

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-04-13 00:09
  • 4508.
    Waldén, Markus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Hassleholm Kristianstad Ystad Hospital, Sweden.
    Hägglund, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Magnusson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Ekstrand, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    ACL injuries in mens professional football: a 15-year prospective study on time trends and return-to-play rates reveals only 65% of players still play at the top level 3 years after ACL rupture2016In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 50, no 12, p. 744-750Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Studies investigating the development of ACL injuries over time in football are scarce and more data on what happens before and after return to play (RTP) are needed. Aim To investigate (1) time trends in ACL injury rates, (2) complication rates before return to match play following ACL reconstruction, and (3) the influence of ACL injury on the subsequent playing career in male professional football players. Methods 78 clubs were followed between 2001 and 2015. Time trend in ACL injury rate was analysed using linear regression. ACL-injured players were monitored until RTP and tracked for 3 years after RTP. Results We recorded 157 ACL injuries, 140 total and 17 partial ruptures, with a non-significant average annual increase in the ACL injury rate by 6% (R-2=0.13, b=0.059, 95% CI -0.04 to 0.15, p=0.20). The match ACL injury rate was 20-fold higher than the training injury rate (0.340 vs 0.017 per 1000 h). 138 players (98.6%) with a total rupture underwent ACL reconstruction; all 134 players with RTP data (4 players still under rehabilitation) were able to return to training, but 9 of them (6.7%) suffered complications before their first match appearance (5 reruptures and 4 other knee surgeries). The median layoff after ACL reconstruction was 6.6 months to training and 7.4 months to match play. We report 3-year follow-up data for 106 players in total; 91 players (85.8%) were still playing football and 60 of 93 players (65%) with ACL reconstruction for a total rupture played at the same level. Conclusions The ACL injury rate has not declined during the 2000s and the rerupture rate before return to match play was 4%. The RTP rate within a year after ACL reconstruction was very high, but only two-thirds competed at the highest level 3 years later.

  • 4509.
    Wallberg, Linnea
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Mattsson, C. Mikael
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Enqvist, Jonas K.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Plasma IL-6 concentration during ultra-endurance exercise2011In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 111, no 6, p. 1081-1088Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interleukin 6 (IL-6) response was studied during two ultra endurance events – one laboratory 24 h protocol (9 men) with exercise intensity set to 60 % of VO2max and one Adventure Race over 6 days (12 men/6 women) with a self-selected race pace, including rests, of about 38 % of VO2max. In the 24 h protocol IL-6 level was elevated from 0.76 ± 0.48 pg mL-1 at rest to 7.16 ± 2.70 pg mL-1 at 6 h, and increased further to 10.58 ± 1.04 pg mL-1 at 12 h, but remained thereafter unchanged at 24 h, (10.89±0.36 pg mL-1). All participants had nearly identical values at 12 and 24 h, supporting intensity as main determinant in the IL-6 response since exercise duration did not increase IL-6 level after 12 h. Possible confounding factors do not seem to influence the IL-6 concentration during the longer races (>12h), but might very well do so during shorter exercise bouts. In the 6-day race IL-6 increased from rest to 24 h, but thereafter there was no change in plasma IL-6 value until the end of the race (140 h). There was no elevation of TNF-α in any of the protocols, suggesting that the competitors were free from systemic inflammation. During endurance exercise lasting >12 h intensity and not duration is the main determinant of the IL-6 response, while during shorter exercise bouts both intensity and duration contribute to the accumulation of IL-6 in plasma.

  • 4510.
    Wallin, Frida
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Pokemon Go: Har applikationen Pokemon Go fått barn att röra på sig mer på sin fritid?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte

    Syftet med den här studien är att undersöka om spelet Pokemon Go kan få elever att röra på sig mer på sin fritid och på så sätt minska stillasittandet där ofta mobil/tv-spel och tv-tittande ingår. Kan ett mobilspel motivera barnen till en aktivare fritid? Hur kan skolan ta hjälp av den nya tekniken för att motivera elever till mer rörelse i skolan?

    • Hur många steg tar eleverna de dagar de inte letar efter Pokemons?
    •  Hur många steg tar eleverna de dagar de letar efter Pokemons?                
    • Sitter de mindre framför datorn/tv och spelar nu än innan de började spela Pokemon GO?

    Metod

    För att besvara syftet användas främst en kvantitativ metod dels genom enkätundersökning och stegräknare men även kvalitativa intervjuer har genomförts. I enkätundersökningen fick en lågstadieskola i årskurs 2-6 svara på ett antal frågor om Pokemon Go. 108 elever besvarade enkäten. Genom ett strategiskt urval valdes fem elever i årskurs 6 där deras stegräknare avlästes av varje dag under en månad för att få reda på antal steg de tog när de spelade applikationen och hur många steg det tog när de inte spelade.  

     

    Resultat

    De eleverna som fick sin stegräknare avläst rörde på sig mer de dagar de spelade applikationen. Eleverna fick sin stegräknare avläst i två månader. Två veckor valdes ut avlästes och i snitt gick de fem elever 12458 steg när de spelade Pokemon Go och 1587 steg de dagar som de inte spelade. Enkätundersöknigen visade att 72 av eleverna spelade och 36 elever spelade inte Pokemon Go. Motivationen var en viktig faktor visades sig under intervjuerna, de som spelande gjorde det för att det var roligt och de som inte spelade gjorde det för att de tyckte att det var tråkigt eller att de inte ägde en mobiltelefon.

     

    Slutsats

    Slutsatsen blev att så länge eleverna tyckte att de är roligt så var de ute och spelade. De spelade för att det var kul inte för att må bättre ur ett hälsoperspektiv. De flesta svarade att de satt mindre framför dator/Ipad sedan de började spela Pokemon Go. Barnen tog mer antal steg de dagar dem spelade Pokemon Go.

  • 4511.
    Wallin, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Wiklund, Jennifer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Träningsråd efter graviditet & förlossning2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Regular physical activity is a recognised factor in the promotion of lifelong health. Exercise during pregnancy has been more accepted lately, and research shows that exercise during pregnancy is safe and beneficial, as opposed to the general view a few years ago when exercise during pregnancy was considered dangerous for both mother and fetus. It is likely that exercise plays a crucial role for women's health in postpartum as at any other time during her life. However, exercise after pregnancy is not a well­studied field and there are uncertainties about how exercise postpartum should be performed. This fact contributes to that an estimated 75% of women in postpartum reports that they want more information about lifestyle related factors such as diet, physical activity and exercise. The aim of the present study was to investigate how well exercise­advise given to women postpartum match with current research. To investigate this, a survey was made. Seven midwifes responded to how they advise and supervise women when it comes to exercise postpartum. The results shows that a majority of midwifes are unsure of how exercise should be performed, and the advise given does not always match with current research. The present study indicates that more research and education concerning exercise postpartum is needed. 

  • 4512.
    Walther, Ida
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Fysisk aktivitet och inlärning: en studie i en svart kåkstad2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The investigation of this exam are gathered in South Africa, where I interviewed teachers in a black township about their experience of physical activity and how it affects learning. I have also investigated previous research about the subject. Physical activities practice the social skills and increase children’s confidence. Teachers, parents and students say that after physical activities it is much easier to concentrate and work in the classroom. I have also found that commitment is contagious and that it is the teacher's task is to motivate students to learn and the only way to do that is by being physically active yourself. Besides this, the study shows that students learn in different ways and that there are seven types of intelligences. The kinesthetic intelligence is when you learn best by using your body. An important thing that this study show is that physical activity leads to improved mood which makes the learning easier. Teachers in South Africa talks about the importance of physical activity and about children getting the feeling that they can succeed in life by other means than through school. An active body can lead to an active mind.

  • 4513. Wang, Li
    et al.
    Psilander, Niklas
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Ding, Shuzhe
    Sahlin, Kent
    Similar expression of oxidative genes after interval and continuous exercise2009In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 41, no 12, p. 2136-2144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: There is a debate whether interval or traditional endurance training is the most effective stimulus of mitochondrial biogenesis. Here, we compared the effects of acute interval exercise (IE) or continuous exercise (CE) on the muscle messenger RNA (mRNA) content for several genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and lipid metabolism.

    Methods: Nine sedentary subjects cycled for 90 min with two protocols: CE (at 67% V?O2max) and IE (12 s at 120% and 18 s at 20% of V?O2max). The duration of exercise and work performed with CE and IE was identical. Muscle biopsies were taken before and 3 h after exercise. Results: There were no significant differences between the two exercise protocols in the increases in V?O2 and HR, the reduction in muscle glycogen (35%-40% with both protocols) or the changes in blood metabolites (lactate, glucose, and fatty acids). The mRNA content for major regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis [peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ? coactivator 1a (PGC-1a), PGC-1-related coactivator, PPAR/d] and of lipid metabolism [pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isozyme 4 (PDK4)] increased after exercise, but there was no significant difference between IE and CE. However, the mRNA content for several downstream targets of PGC-1a increased significantly only after CE, and mRNA content for nuclear respiratory factor 2 was significantly higher after CE (P < 0.025 vs IE).

    Conclusions: The present findings demonstrate that, when the duration of exercise and work performed is the same, IE and CE influence the transcription of genes involved in oxidative metabolism in a similar manner.

  • 4514.
    Wang, Ruoli
    et al.
    Department of Mechanics, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Thur, Charlotte K.
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section of Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gutierrez-Farewik, Elena M.
    Department of Mechanics, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wretenberg, Per
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section of Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine, Karolinska Institute Solna, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Broström, Eva
    Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    One year follow-up after operative ankle fractures: a prospective gait analysis study with a multi-segment foot model2010In: Gait & Posture, ISSN 0966-6362, E-ISSN 1879-2219, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 234-240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ankle fractures are one of the most common lower limb traumas. Several studies reported short- and long-term post-operative results, mainly determined by radiographic and subjective functional evaluations. Three-dimensional gait analysis with a multi-segment foot model was used in the current study to quantify the inter-segment foot motions in 18 patients 1 year after surgically treated ankle fractures. Data were compared to that from gender- and age-matched healthy controls. The correlations between Olerud/Molander ankle score and kinematics were also evaluated. Patients with ankle fractures showed less plantarflexion and smaller range of motion in the injured talocrural joint, which were believed to be a sign of residual joint stiffness after surgery and immobilization. Moreover, the forefoot segment had smaller sagittal and transverse ranges of motion, less plantarflexion and the hallux segment had less dorsiflexion and smaller sagittal range of motion. The deviations found in the forefoot segment may contribute to the compensation mechanisms of the injured ankle joint. Findings of our study show that gait analysis with a multi-segment foot model provides a quantitative and objective way to perform the dynamic assessment of post-operative ankle fractures, and makes it possible to better understand not only how the injured joint is affected, but also the surrounding joints.

  • 4515.
    Ward, Gavin
    et al.
    Institute of Sport, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, United Kingdom .
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Knowing in primary physical education in the UK: negotiating movement culture2015In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 588-603Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to understand how pupils and teachers actions-in-context constitute being-a-pupil and being-a-teacher within a primary school physical education (PE) movement culture. Dewey and Bentley's theory of transaction, which views organism-in-environment-as-a-whole, enables the researcher to explore how actions-in-ongoing activities constitute and negotiate PE movement culture. Video footage from seven primary school PE lessons from a school in the West Midlands in the UK was analysed by focusing upon the ends-in-view of actions as they appeared through the educational content (what) and pedagogy (how) of the recorded PE experiences. Findings indicated that the movement culture within the school was a monoculture of looks-like-sport characterised by the privileging of the functional coordination of cooperative action. Three themes of pupils' and teachers' negotiation of the movement culture emerged U-turning, Knowing the game and Moving into and out of games. This movement culture required teachers to ensure pupils looked busy and reproduced cooperative looks-like-sport actions. In fulfilling this role, they struggled to negotiate between their knowledge of sport-for-real and directing pupils towards educational ends-in-view within games activities. Simply being good at sports was not a prerequisite for pupils' success in this movement culture. In order to re-actualise their knowledge of sport, pupils were required to negotiate the teacher's 'how' and 'what' by exploring what constituted cooperative actions within the spatial and social dimensions of the activities they were set. These findings suggest that if PE is to be more than just the reproduction of codified sport, careful adjustment and consideration of ends-in-view is of great importance. Without regard for the latter there is potential to create significant complexity for both teachers and pupils beyond that required by learning and performing sport.

  • 4516.
    Warell, Jessica
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Eriksson, Pauline
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Mentala träningsmetoder och spänningsreglering: motivationens vardag i lärar-  och elevperspektiv2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Mental training has been given a bigger space in schools and in society, where organizations in different parts denounce good health. Results of several studies show that students can improve their well-being and their school performance through mental training techniques. The purpose of this study is to find out what concepts and methods that are frequently used and relevant in the area of mental training and stress control within the subject Sports and Health 1. The study was divided into two sub-studies. The first sub-study is an analysis of this thesis literature. Study number two consists of several interviews that is connected with the content analysis we made. The two sub-studies form the basis of our results and analysis. We present results depicting how education in the field of mental training and stress control is perceived by the teacher - or student perspective on the three schools within the same municipality. The result is thematized by the central concepts, mental training techniques, motivation, stress control/relaxation where we also compare respondents’ answers to each other. The result shows that teaching about mental training is relatively unknown to the students while the teachers believe that it is continuously used. The final discussion is on how education is perceived and implemented.

  • 4517.
    Warren, Janet M.
    et al.
    MRC Human Nutr Res, Elsie Widdowson Lab, Cambridge, England; Trowbridge Danone Baby Nutr, Wilts, England.
    Ekelund, Ulf
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences. Inst Metab Sci, MRC, Epidemiol Unit, Addenbrookes Hosp, Cambridge, England.
    Besson, Herve
    School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; Julius Ctr UMCU, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Mezzani, Alessandro
    Veruno Sci Inst, Div Cardiol, S Maugeri Fdn, Veruno NO, Italy.
    Geladas, Nickos
    Dept Sport Med & Biol Exercise, Univ Athens, Athens, Greece.
    Vanhees, Luc
    Dept Rehabil Sci Biomed Sci, Katholieke Univ Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Assessment of physical activity - a review of methodologies with reference to epidemiological research: a report of the exercise physiology section of the European Association of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation2010In: European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation, ISSN 1741-8267, E-ISSN 1741-8275, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 127-139Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Physical activity has a fundamental role in the prevention and treatment of chronic disease. The precise measurement of physical activity is key to many surveillance and epidemiological studies investigating trends and associations with disease. Public health initiatives aimed at increasing physical activity rely on the measurement of physical activity to monitor their effectiveness. Physical activity is multidimensional, and a complex behaviour to measure; its various domains are often misunderstood. Inappropriate or crude measures of physical activity have serious implications, and are likely to lead to misleading results and underestimate effect size. In this review, key definitions and theoretical aspects, which underpin the measurement of physical activity, are briefly discussed. Methodologies particularly suited for use in epidemiological research are reviewed, with particular reference to their validity, primary outcome measure and considerations when using each in the field. It is acknowledged that the choice of method may be a compromise between accuracy level and feasibility, but the ultimate choice of tool must suit the stated aim of the research. A framework is presented to guide researchers on the selection of the most suitable tool for use in a specific study.

  • 4518. Webb, Louisa
    et al.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Öhman, Marie
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Healthy bodies: construction of the body and health in physical education2008In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 353-372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In physical education, bodies are not only moved but made. There are perceived expectations for bodies in physical education to be ‘healthy bodies’*for teachers to be ‘appropriate’ physical, fit, healthy and skilful ‘role models’ and for students to display a slim body that is equated with fitness and health. In teachers’ monitoring of students with the intention of regulating health behaviour, however, the surveillance of students’ bodies and associated assumptions about health practices are implicated in the (re)production of the ‘cult of the body’. In this paper, we consider issues of embodiment and power in a subject area where the visual and active body is central and we use data from Australian and Swedish schools to analyse the discourses of health and embodiment in physical education. In both Swedish and Australian physical education there were discourses related to a fit healthy body and an at risk healthy body. These discourses also acted through a range of techniques of power, particularly regulation and normalisation.

  • 4519.
    Wedin, Isabella
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Larsson, Tove
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Effekter av fysisk aktivitet på upplevd stress och välmående.: En interventionsstudie genomförd på fysiskt inaktiva med måttlig till hög grad av stress2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In today’s society it has increasingly become common to experience a high degree of negative stress. Despite the fact that physical activity has many health benefits, for example when it comes to reduce perceived stress, individuals feeling stressed does not prioritize physical activity. Being physically inactive in combination with a high degree of negative stress can lead to a variety of psychological diagnoses and physical problems. Physical activity does not only give rise to a better health, but also a higher sense of wellbeing and life quality.  Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to investigate if 100 minutes of group training per week during 5 weeks had an effect on perceived life stress, well-being and physical fitness in physically inactive individuals with moderate to high perceived stress. Participants: 30 participants (24 women, 5 men and 1 intergender) between the ages of 2040 years participated in the study. The participants were randomized into two groups, an intervention group (n=15) and a control group (n=15). They did not engage in any physical activity and estimated themselves as moderately (total sum>14) to highly stressed (total sum>27) on PSS-10. Method: The participants filled in got to answer a questionnaire related to perceived life stress (PSS-10), a questionnaire about well-being (VS) and performed a submaximal bicycle ergometer test (EB-test). After a 5 week intervention period the questionnaires were distributed again and the bicycle ergometer test was performed. The intervention group participated in 100 minutes of group based circuit training per week while the control group was requested to continue to live as before. Results: Significant differences were found in the intervention group pre- and post test results for PSS-10 (p=0,0001) and VS (p<0,0001). No differences between the intervention group and the control group were found on regarding any parameters. Conclusion: 100 minutes of group training per week, under specific circumstances, seems to have an effect on perceived stress and well-being on previously inactive individuals with moderate to high stress. A single cause that lead to a reduction in stress and higher well-being can not be determined.

  • 4520.
    Wedin, J. O.
    et al.
    Sundsvall Cty Hosp, Dept Clin Chem, SE-85186 Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Henriksson, Anders E.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences. Sundsvall Cty Hosp, Dept Clin Chem, SE-85186 Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Postgame elevation of cardiac markers among elite floorball players2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 495-500Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cardiac biomarker release after exercise is well documented in endurance sports, but neither the impact of intermittent high-intensity exercise nor the reproducibility has yet been established. Floorball, a popular sport in Scandinavia, involves intermittent periods of high-intensity exercise. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and reproducibility of elevated cardiac marker levels among elite floorball players after two games. Twenty-three healthy male elite floorball players of median age 19 years (range 16-34 years) participated in two standard games. Blood was drawn at three time points: pregame, immediately after, and 2h after the game. Creatine kinase MB (CK-MB), myoglobin, and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) were measured. The results showed significantly elevated median postgame values in all markers. In both games, hs-cTnT exceeded the cutoff for myocardial damage (14ng/L) 2h postgame in the same six players. The major findings were that postgame cardiac hs-cTnT values among elite floorball players were significantly elevated and reproducible. The findings imply that extended investigations should incorporate evaluation of myocardial function and myocardial perfusion during exercise to seek the clinical significance and underlying mechanisms of elevated cardiac troponin after high-intensity exercise.

  • 4521.
    Weidenius, Joakim
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Svärd, Hugo
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Visualiseringsvanor: skillnader hos elitidrottare och motionärer inom kampsport2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Uppsatsens syfte är att undersöka skillnaden i hur elitidrottare och motionärer använder sig av visualisering inför och under träning och tävling.

    Frågeställningarna:

    Hur använder sig elitidrottare av visualisering inför och under träning och tävling?Hur använder sig motionärer av visualisering inför och under träning?

    Hur ser medvetenheten ut för elitidrottare kontra motionärer, angående visualisering?Vilka skillnader finns i hur elitidrottare och motionärer använder sig av visualisering?

    Metod

    Fyra kampsportsutövare intervjuades för att få information om deras tränings-, motivations- och visualiseringsvanor. Respondenternas syn på visualisering och dess innebörd kartlades utförligt. Intervjuerna var öppet riktade för att ge relevanta svar men samtidigt ge plats åt respondenternas egna tankar och funderingar. Möjlighet att beskriva respondenternas medvetenhet speglas i frågor där respondentens tankar kring visualisering utforskas. På så sätt ger metoden data till att besvara samtliga frågeställningar.

    Resultat

    Resultaten visar hur motionärer och elitidrottare använder sig av visualisering inom sin idrott på ett utförligt sätt. I intervjuerna uppkommer tydligt vad respondenterna har för syn på visualisering och hur stor vikt de lägger på det. Delarna av intervjun där respondenterna får beskriva hur de själva gör, visar på såväl strategier som medvetenhet. Sammantaget ger resultatet vad som krävs för att besvara syftet.

    Slutsats

    Eftersom att studiens omfång är begränsat får de flesta resultat tolkas som enskilda tendenser snarare än fakta. Resultaten visar då tydliga tendenser till att elitidrottare är mer medvetna och använder visualisering till fler saker än motionärer. I sina beskrivningar av hur visualisering går till var elitidrottarna betydligt utförligare än motionärerna.

  • 4522.
    Weimann, Hanna
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Björk, Jonas
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Rylander, Lars
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Bergman, Patrick
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Eiben, Gabriele
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Neighborhood environment and physical activity among young children: A cross-sectional study from Sweden.2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 283-293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: The aims of this study were to investigate the association between the neighbourhood environment and physical activity among young children in a Scandinavian setting, and to assess the influences of seasonal variations, age, sex and parental education.

    METHODS: Physical activity was assessed with an accelerometer and neighbourhood resources were estimated using geographic information systems for 205 Swedish children aged 4-11 years. Neighbourhood resources were generated as the sum of three neighbourhood attributes: (a) foot and bike paths, (b) non-restricted destinations and (c) recreational area, all within 300 m of each child's home. Physical activity was assessed as: (a) total volume of physical activity (i.e. counts per minute), (b) sedentary time and (c) moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The association between neighbourhood resources and physical activity was analysed using mixed linear models weighted by measurement time and adjusted for sex, age, season of activity measurement, type of housing and parental education.

    RESULTS: Children were more physically active in areas with intermediate access to neighbourhood resources for physical activity compared to areas with worst access, while the difference between intermediate and best neighbourhood resource areas was less clear. The association between physical activity and neighbourhood resources was weaker than with seasonal variations but compatible in magnitude with sex, age, type of housing and parental education. Among specific neighbourhood attributes, the amount of foot and bike paths was associated with less sedentary time and more MVPA.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study provides some, not entirely consistent, evidence overall for an association between the neighbourhood environment and physical activity among young children in Scandinavia.

  • 4523.
    Weinéus, Hanna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Unga tjejers uppfattning och motivation till en fysisk och hälsosam livsstil2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 4524.
    Weiss, Rüdiger J.
    et al.
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section of Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wretenberg, Per
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section of Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Solna, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stark, André
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section of Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Palmblad, Karin
    Department of Women and Child Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Larsson, Per
    Department of Medicine, Section of Rheumatology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gröndal, Lollo
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section of Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Broström, Eva
    Department of Women and Child Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gait pattern in rheumatoid arthritis2008In: Gait & Posture, ISSN 0966-6362, E-ISSN 1879-2219, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 229-234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to analyse kinematic and kinetic gait changes in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients in comparison to healthy controls and to examine whether levels of functional disability (Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ)-scores) were associated with gait parameters. Using a three-dimensional motion analysis system, kinematic and kinetic gait parameters were measured in 50 RA patients and 37 healthy controls. There was a significant reduction in joint motions, joint moments and work in the RA cohort compared with healthy controls. The following joint motions were decreased: hip flexion-extension range (Delta6 degrees ), hip abduction (Delta4 degrees ), knee flexion-extension range (Delta8 degrees ) and ankle plantarflexion (Delta10 degrees ). The following joint moments were reduced: hip extensor (Delta0.30Nm/kg) and flexor (Delta0.20Nm/kg), knee extensor (Delta0.11Nm/kg) and flexor (Delta0.13Nm/kg), and ankle plantarflexor (Delta0.44Nm/kg). Work was lower in hip positive work (Delta0.07J/kg), knee negative work (Delta0.08J/kg) and ankle positive work (Delta0.15J/kg). Correlations were fair although significant between HAQ and hip flexion-extension range, hip abduction, knee flexion-extension range, hip abductor moment, stride length, step length and single support (r=-0.30 to -0.38, p<0.05). Our findings suggest that RA patients have overall less joint movement and specifically restricted joint moments and work across the large joints of the lower limbs during walking than healthy controls. There were only fair associations between levels of functional disability and gait parameters. The findings of this study help to improve the understanding how RA affects gait changes in the lower limbs.

  • 4525.
    Welde, Boye
    et al.
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Stöggl, Thomas L.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria.
    Mathisen, Gunnar E.
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Supej, Matej
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Zoppirolli, Chiara
    University of Verona, Rovereto, Italy.
    Winther, Andreas K.
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Pellegrini, Barbara
    University of Verona, Rovereto, Italy.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    The pacing strategy and technique of male cross-country skiers with different levels of performance during a 15-km classical race2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 11, article id e0187111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the pacing strategy, cycle characteristics and choice of technique of elite male cross-country (XC) skiers during a three-lap, 15-km classical race with interval start were measured. During the Norwegian Championships in 2016, fast (n = 18, age: 26±4 yr; height: 182±4 cm; body mass: 78±3 kg (means±SD)) and slow skiers (n = 18, age: 22±2 yr; height: 183±5 cm; body mass: 78±6 kg) were video recorded on flat (0), intermediate (3.5) and uphill sections (7.1) of the first and final laps. All skiers adopted a positive pacing strategy, skiing more slowly (11.8%) with shorter cycles (11.7%) on the final than first lap (both p&lt;0.001; pη2 = 0.93 and 0.87, respectively). The fast skiers were 7.0% faster overall (p&lt;0.001, d = 4.20), and 6.1% (p&lt;0.001, d = 3.32) and 7.0% (p&lt;0.001, d = 3.68) faster on the first and final laps, respectively, compared to slower skiers. On all sections of both laps, the fast skiers exhibited 9.5% more rapid (pη2 = 0.74) and 8.9% (pη2 = 0.48) longer cycles (both p&lt;0.001). On intermediate terrain, the fast skiers employed primarily double poling (DP, 38.9% on the first lap) and double poling with a kick (DPKICK, 50% on the final lap). In contrast, the slow skiers utilized for the most part DP alone (lap 1: 33.3%, lap 3: 38.9%) or in combination with other techniques (lap 1: 33.3%, lap 3: 38.9%) and decreased their usage of DPKICK from 27.8% on the first to 16.7% on the final lap. Skiing velocity on flat and intermediate terrain proved to be the best predictor of race performance (p&lt;0.001). In conclusion, during a 15-km classical XC skiing race, velocity and cycle length decreased from the first to the final lap, most extensively on flat terrain and least uphill. Moreover, on the intermediate sections the fast and slow skiers chose to use different techniques.

  • 4526. Wengström, Y
    et al.
    Bolam, Kate A.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Mijwel, S
    Sundberg, C J
    Backman, M
    Browall, M
    Norrbom, J
    Rundqvist, H
    Optitrain: a randomised controlled exercise trial for women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy.2017In: BMC Cancer, ISSN 1471-2407, E-ISSN 1471-2407, Vol. 17, article id 100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy suffer from a range of detrimental disease and treatment related side-effects. Exercise has shown to be able to counter some of these side-effects and improve physical function as well as quality of life. The primary aim of the study is to investigate and compare the effects of two different exercise regimens on the primary outcome cancer-related fatigue and the secondary outcomes muscle strength, function and structure, cardiovascular fitness, systemic inflammation, skeletal muscle gene activity, health related quality of life, pain, disease and treatment-related symptoms in women with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy. The second aim is to examine if any effects are sustained 1, 2, and 5 years following the completion of the intervention and to monitor return to work, recurrence and survival. The third aim of the study is to examine the effect of attendance and adherence rates on the effects of the exercise programme.

    METHODS: This study is a randomised controlled trial including 240 women with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy in Stockholm, Sweden. The participants are randomly allocated to either: group 1: Aerobic training, group 2: Combined resistance and aerobic training, or group 3: usual care (control group). During the 5-year follow-up period, participants in the exercise groups will receive a physical activity prescription. Measurements for endpoints will take place at baseline, after 16 weeks (end of intervention) as well as after 1, 2 and 5 years.

    DISCUSSION: This randomised controlled trial will generate substantial information regarding the effects of different types of exercise on the health of patients with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy. We expect that dissemination of the knowledge gained from this study will contribute to developing effective long term strategies to improve the physical and psychosocial health of breast cancer survivors.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: OptiTrain - Optimal Training Women with Breast Cancer (OptiTrain), NCT02522260 ; Registration: June 9, 2015, Last updated version Feb 29, 2016. Retrospectively registered.

  • 4527.
    Wenner, Freddy
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Foam rolling av quadricepsmuskulaturen har ingen akut effekt på rörlighet i knäled eller effektutveckling vid squat jump och counter movement jump2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 4528.
    Wennlöf, Jessica
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Musiktillskott?: Hur fysiska och psykiska variabler skiljer sig vid löpning med, respektive utan musik2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka hur fysiska och psykiska variabler skiljer sig hos löparvana män, vid löpning på löpband i samband med respektive utan musik.

    - Hur skiljer sig upplevd ansträngning under löpning med, respektive utan musik?

    - Vilka skillnader finns i laktat, laktattrösklar och hjärtfrekvens under löpning med, respektive utan musik?

    - Vilken skillnad finns mellan situationsspecifikt självförtroende innan löpning med musik samt situationsspecifikt självförtroende innan löpning utan musik?

    Hypotes: Fysiska och psykiska variabler skiljer sig vid löpning med, respektive utan musik.

    Metod

    I denna experimentella studie testades nio män i åldrarna 18-30 år i ett laktattröskeltest på löpband med, respektive utan musik. De sprang sex till sju stegrande intensiteter/nivåer. Under testerna undersöktes laktat, hjärtfrekvens och upplevd ansträngning. Ansträngingen skattades efter borgskalan. Innan testerna fick de fylla i en enkät med frågor om situationsspecifikt självförtroende.

    Resultat

    Det visades inga skillnader i upplevd ansträngning, hjärtfrekvens, laktat, laktattrösklar och situationsspecifikt självförtroende vid löpning med, respektive utan musik.

    Slutsats

    Det finns inte skillnader i laktat, laktattrösklar, hjärtfrekvens, upplevd ansträngning samt situationsspecifikt självförtroende vid löpning med, respektive utan musik.

  • 4529.
    Werin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Excentrisk träning vid tennisarmbåge: en litteraturstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To evaluate the effect of eccentric training as treatment for tennis elbow

    Design: Systematic review

    Participants: Search through Pubmed between 2010 and October 2013.

    Keywords: eccentric exercise, epicondyaliga, lateral epicondylitis, physiotherapy, tendinosis, tennis elbow.

    12 articles with randomised clinical trials met the inclusion criteria. The outcome measurements were pain, strength, function, sick leave and ultrasound.

    Results: All studies measured pain before and after the treatment period and seven out of twelve studies had a significant better outcome for the eccentric group compared with control group. Outcome concerning strength showed significant better for some of the measurements, but not for all, for the eccentric group in six of ten studies. Function was measured through different questionnaires and also by clinical examination. Five out of eight studies showed significant better function for the eccentric group than in controls. Sick leave showed no significant difference between groups. Ultrasound showed that the tendon healed significantly better in eccentric group than in controls. Conclusion: Eccentric training is a treatment for tennis elbow that can be recommended. We still do not know how to optimize the treatment protocol. Further research concerning training with or without pain, how often and for how long a period the treatment should last is still needed

  • 4530.
    Werin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Tennisarmbåge. Excentrisk träning med extenderad eller flekterad armbåge - vilken metod ger bäst resultat?   En pilotstudie2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 4531.
    West, Daniel J.
    et al.
    Northumbria Univ, Sch Life Sci, Dept Sport & Exercise Sci, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE1 8ST, Tyne & Wear, England.
    Cook, Christian J.
    UK Sport, Res & Innovat, Bath, Avon, England.
    Beaven, C. Martyn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Kilduff, Liam P.
    Swansea Univ, Coll Engn, Swansea, W Glam, Wales.
    THE INFLUENCE OF THE TIME OF DAY ON CORE TEMPERATURE AND LOWER BODY POWER OUTPUT IN ELITE RUGBY UNION SEVENS PLAYERS2014In: JOURNAL OF STRENGTH AND CONDITIONING RESEARCH, ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 28, no 6, p. 1524-1528Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Core temperature typically displays a low circadian in the morning before peaking later in the day, and these changes occur within small physiological ranges. Body temperature plays an important role in physical performance, and some athletes may be required to train and compete in both the morning and evening. However, the influence of the circadian change in body temperature and its influence on physical performance in elite athletes are unclear. This study examined the effects of the time of day on core temperature and lower body power output in elite rugby union sevens players. Sixteen elite rugby union sevens players completed morning (in AM) countermovement jump and core temperature (T-core) measurement, which were then repeated later the same day (in PM). Countermovement jump was processed for peak power output (PPO). Data were analyzed using paired samples t-test and Pearson's product moment correlation and are presented in mean +/- SD. T-core significantly increased from AM to PM (AM, 36.92 +/- 0.23 vs. PM, 37.18 +/- 0.188 degrees C; P < 0.001) with PPO significantly increasing from AM to PM in all 16 players (AM, 5248 +/- 366 vs. PM, 5413 +/- 361 W; P < 0.001). The delta change in T-core (0.26 +/- 0.138 degrees C) and PPO (164 +/- 78 W) was significantly related (r = 0.781; P < 0.001). In conclusion, small circadian changes in core temperature can influence physical performance in elite athletes. Coaches should seek to use strategies, which may raise morning body temperature to offset the circadian low in the morning.

  • 4532.
    West, Janne
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Adv MR Analyt AB, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Romu, Thobias
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Adv MR Analyt AB, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Thorell, Sofia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Sweden.
    Lindblom, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Berin, Emilia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Spetz Holm, Anna-Clara
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Lindh Åstrand, Lotta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Karlsson, Anette
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Borga, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Adv MR Analyt AB, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Hammar, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Dahlqvist Leinhard, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Adv MR Analyt AB, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Precision of MRI-based body composition measurements of postmenopausal women2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 2, article id e0192495Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives To determine precision of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based fat and muscle quantification in a group of postmenopausal women. Furthermore, to extend the method to individual muscles relevant to upper-body exercise. Materials and methods This was a sub-study to a randomized control trial investigating effects of resistance training to decrease hot flushes in postmenopausal women. Thirty-six women were included, mean age 56 +/- 6 years. Each subject was scanned twice with a 3.0T MR-scanner using a whole-body Dixon protocol. Water and fat images were calculated using a 6-peak lipid model including R2*-correction. Body composition analyses were performed to measure visceral and subcutaneous fat volumes, lean volumes and muscle fat infiltration (MFI) of the muscle groups thigh muscles, lower leg muscles, and abdominal muscles, as well as the three individual muscles pectoralis, latissimus, and rhomboideus. Analysis was performed using a multi-atlas, calibrated water-fat separated quantification method. Liver-fat was measured as average proton density fat-fraction (PDFF) of three regions-of-interest. Precision was determined with Bland-Altman analysis, repeatability, and coefficient of variation. Results All of the 36 included women were successfully scanned and analysed. The coefficient of variation was 1.1% to 1.5% for abdominal fat compartments (visceral and subcutaneous), 0.8% to 1.9% for volumes of muscle groups (thigh, lower leg, and abdomen), and 2.3% to 7.0% for individual muscle volumes (pectoralis, latissimus, and rhomboideus). Limits of agreement for MFI was within +/- 2.06% for muscle groups and within +/- 5.13% for individual muscles. The limits of agreement for liver PDFF was within +/- 1.9%. Conclusion Whole-body Dixon MRI could characterize a range of different fat and muscle compartments with high precision, including individual muscles, in the study-group of postmenopausal women. The inclusion of individual muscles, calculated from the same scan, enables analysis for specific intervention programs and studies.

  • 4533.
    Westblad, Niklas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Biologisk åldersbestämning ur ett träningsplaneringsperspektiv: En sammanställning av somatiska mätmetoder2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka vilken eller vilka somatiska mätmetoder som har störst tillämpbarhet för att praktiskt genomföra en biologisk åldersuppskattning för en tränare.

    Metod

    För att besvara studiens frågeställning har sökningar genomförts i databaserna PubMed och Google Scholar. Information har även sökts i relevant facklitteratur inom barn- och ungdomsträning samt i relevanta studiers referenslistor.

    Resultat

    Tre somatiska mätmetoder kunde presenteras i form av tid för högst tillväxtspurt (PHV) av Mirwald et al (2002), Fysiskt utvecklingsindex (KEI) av Bauer från 1982 (Tonkonogi & Bellardini 2012, s 25) och uppskattad vuxenlängd mot Tannerkriterierna (PAH) (Khamis & Roche 1995; Cumming et al 2017). Resultatet indikerar att KEI-metoden är den mätmetod som har störst validitet (r > 0,89). För praktisk tillämpbarhet verkar en kombination av PHV och PAH-metoderna vara mest lämpad för en biologisk åldersuppskattning för tränare i en fältmiljö.

    Slutsats

    Studiens slutsats är att tränare rekommenderas att använda sig av en kombination av PHV och PAH. De är två metoder som används flitigt inom den internationella litteraturen och verkar kunna användas ihop för att indikera tiden för PHV, som är en frekvent använd indikator för vilka delkapaciteter som är träningsbara för en individ i puberteten.

    Nyckelord: biologisk ålder, peak height velocity, predictive adult height, tannerkriterierna

  • 4534.
    Westergren, Jens
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    No difference in sprint cycling performance tests on a stationary and mobile ergometer2011In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 161-161Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 4535.
    Westerlind, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Vilken betydelse har coachning för idrottsutövandet?: En kvalitativ studie kring idrottsutövarens upplevelser och uppfattning om coachningens betydelse.2014Student paper second term, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att prestera på topp inom elitidrott kräver mycket av idrottsutövaren och det finns många olika betydelsefulla faktorer som påverkar huruvida man kommer nå framgång. Syftet med studien var att ta reda på vilken betydelse coachning har för idrottsutövandet. Det är mycket som ska "klaffa" för en idrottsutövare. Studien visade hur flera viktiga komponenter behövs som coachande effekter, coachande kontext, förväntade ledaregenskaper och det egna drivet för att överhuvudtaget vara där de är idag. Att ha stöd både av föräldrar samt förening bidrar till att de kan fokusera på sin idrott och att de fortsätter. Det visar även vikten av att ha tillgång till en coach vars ledaregenskaper och coachande skapar en trygg grund med bra förutsättningar. En annan förutsättning att de idrottar är deras egen drivkraft. Effekterna av coachning påverkar idrottsutövaren inom olika plan men det visar även att omgivningen/kontextet har en coachande effekt på idrottsutövaren. Slutsatsen är att det varken finns en rak eller lätt väg för att lyckas då det ändå krävs att många saker ska "klaffa" från barn till ungdom och till vuxen. Studien visar en tydlig röd linje och det är engagemang. Att ha engagerade föräldrar, coacher och föreningar men även att idrottsutövaren själv har ett brinnande engagemang till det de gör, är viktigt.

  • 4536.
    Westerlund, Marianne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Correlation between visceral adipose tissue and cardiovascular risk factors in a 70 year old population2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 4537.
    Westermark, Gabriela
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lindgren, Moa
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Är tidig specialisering vägen till landslaget?: Konståkares och truppgymnasters erfarenheter kring specialisering2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka om tidig specialisering är en förutsättning för att uppnå elitnivå inom de estetiska idrotterna konståkning och truppgymnastik samt försöka få en förståelse för vilka för- och nackdelar tidig specialisering kan tänkas få för individen och den framtida elitkarriären. Följande frågeställningar skall besvaras i studien:

    1. Hur ser idrottsbakgrunden ut för samtliga landslagsutövarna inom konståkning och truppgymnastik?
    2. Hur beskriver landslagsutövarna sin idrottskarriär, inklusive eventuell specialisering och diversifiering?

    Metod

    En deduktiv enkät med totalt 7 frågor skickades ut till de 34 landslagsutövarna för att få en överblick över/kring hur deras idrottsbakgrund såg ut. 29 stycken valde att svara varav 14 var kvinnor och 15 var män, 10 konståkare och 18 truppgymnaster. Därefter kunde intervjupersonerna väljas utifrån de svar de angivit och som ansågs relevanta för studien, 2 från varje sport, 2 män och 2 kvinnor, med olika bakgrund inom sporterna. En semistrukturerad intervjuguide skapades för att samla så mycket information från deltagarna som möjligt. Efter transkribering togs citat ut och en induktiv metod användes för att skapa en modell med de svar som angivits av atleterna.

    Resultat

    Studien visade att det var stor spridning inom de båda landslagen gällande när atleterna börjat, specialiserat sig, utövat olika idrotter och dylikt. De fyra intervjupersonerna hade en mängd likheter och olikheter i deras väg till landslaget. Det skiljer sig i när de började utöva sporterna, några hade mest lek i träningen och andra tränade med målet att bli bättre redan första året. Kvinnorna hade fler skador än männen, endast en av de fyra atleterna hade slutat och tagit en paus i sin karriär. Stöttningen hemifrån och lagamraterna/kompisarna hade också olika stor inverkan på de fyra intervjupersonerna.

    Slutsats

    Tidig specialisering framkommer inte som ett måste för att nå det svenska landslaget i konståkning och truppgymnastik.

  • 4538.
    Westholm, Patrik
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Socioekonomisk status påverkan på betyget i idrott och hälsa2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 4539.
    Westin, Maria
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Mol Med & Surg, Stockholm Sports Trauma Res Ctr, S-11486 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Alricsson, Marie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science. Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Werner, Suzanne
    Sophiahemmet, S-11486 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Injury profile of competitive alpine skiers: a five-year cohort study2012In: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, ISSN 0942-2056, E-ISSN 1433-7347, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 1175-1181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to make a survey of injuries in young elite alpine skiers. During 5 years, all students at the Swedish Ski High schools were prospectively followed regarding injuries, time of exposure, injury location, type of injury, injury severity and gender. Four hundred and thirty-one skiers, 215 males and 216 females completed the entire study. Of 431 skiers, 193 (91 males, 102 females) sustained 312 injuries during the 5-year study period. The injury incidence for males was 1.62 injuries/1,000 ski hours or 2.97 injuries/100 months at a Ski High school, and the corresponding values for females were 1.77 and 3.25, respectively. Forty-one percent of the injuries involved the knee, 69% were ligament injuries, and 49% were classified as severe injuries. Of 190 injured skiers, 120 injured their left leg ( = 0.0097). This was their first time injury. The risk of sustaining a re-injury or a new injury increased the sooner the first time injury occurred ( = 0.001). There was a high risk for alpine ski students to sustain an injury during their education at the Swedish Ski High schools. Most injuries, especially ligament injuries, occurred in the knee joint in both males and females. Both genders were more likely to sustain injuries to the left than to the right leg. Nearly 50% of the injuries were classified as severe. II.

  • 4540.
    Westin, Maria
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Mol Med & Surg, Stockholm Sports Trauma Res Ctr, S-11486 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Alricsson, Marie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Werner, Suzanne
    Sophiahemmet, S-11486 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Injury profile of competitive alpine skiers: a five-year cohort study2012In: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, ISSN 0942-2056, E-ISSN 1433-7347, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 1175-1181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to make a survey of injuries in young elite alpine skiers. During 5 years, all students at the Swedish Ski High schools were prospectively followed regarding injuries, time of exposure, injury location, type of injury, injury severity and gender. Four hundred and thirty-one skiers, 215 males and 216 females completed the entire study. Of 431 skiers, 193 (91 males, 102 females) sustained 312 injuries during the 5-year study period. The injury incidence for males was 1.62 injuries/1,000 ski hours or 2.97 injuries/100 months at a Ski High school, and the corresponding values for females were 1.77 and 3.25, respectively. Forty-one percent of the injuries involved the knee, 69% were ligament injuries, and 49% were classified as severe injuries. Of 190 injured skiers, 120 injured their left leg ( = 0.0097). This was their first time injury. The risk of sustaining a re-injury or a new injury increased the sooner the first time injury occurred ( = 0.001). There was a high risk for alpine ski students to sustain an injury during their education at the Swedish Ski High schools. Most injuries, especially ligament injuries, occurred in the knee joint in both males and females. Both genders were more likely to sustain injuries to the left than to the right leg. Nearly 50% of the injuries were classified as severe. II.

  • 4541.
    Westin, Maria
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Harringe, Marita L.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Engström, Björn
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Alricsson, Marie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Werner, Suzanne
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Risk Factors for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury in Competitive Adolescent Alpine Skiers2018In: The Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 2325-9671, Vol. 6, no 4, article id 2325967118766830Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is a high risk for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in alpine skiers. To reduce or try to prevent theseinjuries, intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors need to be identified.Purpose: To identify possible intrinsic and extrinsic ACL injury risk factors among competitive adolescent alpine skiers.Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3.Methods: Between 2006 and 2009, a cohort of 339 alpine ski students (176 male, 163 female) from Swedish ski high schools wereprospectively observed in terms of ACL injuries. First-time ACL injuries were recorded. In September, prior to each ski season, theskiers were clinically examined according to a specific knee protocol.Results: Overall, 11 male and 14 female skiers sustained a total of 25 first-episode ACL injuries. The majority of injuries occurred inthe left knee (P < .05). Skiers who had participated in alpine skiing for >13 years (hazard ratio, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.68-1.00; P < .05) hada reduced risk of sustaining an ACL injury. Eighteen ACL injuries occurred during training, 12 in the technical discipline of giantslalom, and 8 in slalom. Fourteen skiers reported not to be fatigued at all at the time of injury, and 8 skiers reported that they weresomewhat fatigued.Conclusion: ACL injuries occurred more often in the left knee than the right. This should be taken into consideration in the design ofACL injury prevention programs. Those who reported a higher number of active years in alpine skiing showed a reduced risk ofsustaining an ACL injury. No other factor among those studied could be identified as an independent risk factor for ACL injury.

  • 4542.
    Westin-Thorén, Malin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Vad är bra undervisning?: vad elever i högstadiet anser om undervisningen i Idrott och Hälsa2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur en god undervisningsmiljö ser ut. För att uppfylla mitt syfte kommer jag att undersöka högstadieelevers syn på ämnet Idrott och Hälsa.

    Studien fokuserar på vilken sorts undervisning som elever anser är meningsfull samt vad den undervisningen innehåller. Undersökningen syftar även till att undersöka om elevers syn stämmer överens med läroplanens mål. Studiens frågeställningar är:

    - Vad är elevers syn på bra undervisning?

    - Vad innefattar en bra undervisning?

    - Finns det samband mellan hur elever ser på vad en bra undervisning är och läroplanens mål?

    Inför studien har jag fördjupat mig i Aaron Antonovskys teorier kring KASAM samt litteratur gällande studiens ämne. Den metod som tillämpats är kvalitativa intervjuundersökningar. Syftet med detta var att ta reda på elevers syn på idrottsundervisningen i högstadiet. I studien intervjuades åtta elever i högstadiet. Intervjufrågorna fokuserade på frågor innehållande vad bra undervisning i Idrott och Hälsa är samt vad den innefattar. Utöver detta ingick även delar utifrån KASAM:s tre delkomponenter: Att ha begriplighet, hanterbarhet och meningsfullhet. Efter insamlat och transkriberat material kunde syfte och frågeställningar besvaras samt diskuteras i relation till teoretiskt perspektiv, litteratur och tidigare forskning.

    Intervjuerna visar att eleverna anser att Idrott och Hälsa främst handlar om att ha roligt samt att de känner sig delaktiga och engagerade på lektionerna. Flertalet ansåg även att de behövde få mer förståelse för innehållet för att kunna känna att ämnet hade relevans. Det framkom likaså att läraren roll var central på så sätt att han/hon har ansvar att forma undervisningen så att den passar alla. En bra undervisning i Idrott och Hälsa innefattar enligt eleverna mycket rörelse, samt att den måste vara varierad. Reflektion ansågs även relevant, där de helst ville diskutera innehållet samt ha en gemensam frågestund. Studiens resultat visar på att hälften av eleverna känner sig bekväma med läroplanen, varav resterande hälften känner det motsatta. Dock visar resultatet på att det eleverna talar om gällande bra undervisning, stämmer överens med läroplanens tankar kring om ämnet.

  • 4543.
    Westlin, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Effekten av marklyftsträning på produktivitet hos kontorsarbetare2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Office workers spends about a third of the day at work and a majority of total daily sedentary behavior takes place at the office. Physical activity has positive effects on physical and mental health and could inhibit the adverse effects of a sedentary lifestyle. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of seven weeks of deadlift training on productivity, strength and endurance in office workers of both sexes. An experimental group (n=12, age 40,1±6,6 years) performed deadlift 8rm during office hours, three times per week. The experimental group conducted physiological tests (8RM deadlift, maximal grip strength, Biering-Sørensen Test) and The Health and Work Questionnaire at baseline and after the intervention period. A control group (n=18, age 35,2±10,7 years) was recruited to compare questionnaire score with the intervention group. Results show that after the intervention the participants had increased deadlift strength (pre 80,4±28,4 vs. post 97,5±31,6, p<0,0001, ES=0,58) and demonstrated higher productivity (pre 6,5±2,0 vs. post 8,0±0,4, p<0,001, RP=0,57, CI95% [0,37, 0,76]), but showed no change in endurance of the back and hip extensor muscles (pre 130,8±45,1 vs. post 143±51,3, p=0,098) or change in maximal grip strength (pre 48,7±16,3 vs. Post 48,6±14,8, p=0,92). This implicates that deadlift training is a time and cost-efficient way to increase productivity in office workers and at the same time increase physical activity at the workplace, but further research of high quality is needed.

  • 4544.
    Westling, Linus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Vart tog den söta lilla flickan vägen?: En kvantitativ studie av talangutvecklingen inom dam- och flickfotbollen i Stockholm2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of this study was to look into the development of talents regarding women’s soccer in Stockholm. The aim was furthermore to see what results the investments in the talents has generated. Questions at issue were: What does the talents do today? Do they still play soccer and in that case on what level? Have they quit playing soccer and in that case why? Are they in any other way than as a player involved in the organisation of soccer today? How has their course of studies been like and have that in any way affected their careers as soccer players? Has the amount and the intensity of time invested in soccer affected their careers as soccer players?

    Method

    The data for this study was collected by a survey sent by mail to a group of 245 individuals born between the years of 1983 to 1989. These players were at the age of 14 selected to attend a special camp called “Bosölägret”.

    Results

    27 of the 102 still active players were at the time playing for an elite club. 117 of the players had quit playing soccer and a majority of those did so between the ages of 16 to 18. The main reasons for the drop out were that their youth team was splitted and that they didn’t consider playing for the senior squad as fun as playing for the youth squad. Another reason was that school occupied too much of their time, yet those individuals who studied a programme in upper secondary school with a soccer profile tended to have continued playing soccer to a larger extent.

    Conclusion

    On the basis of the results it’s up to the federation and to the clubs, on the basis of their criterion, to evaluate if the distribution from the investments are satisfactory from an elite perspective. Still more than half of them have quit playing soccer and a very small amount of the players are today involved in the organization of soccer in any other way than as a player. If one take in account all the investments made by the federation, the clubs and the people involved, the investments haven’t given enough returns from a wider perspective.

  • 4545. Westman, Anton
    et al.
    Georen, Peter
    Stromberg, Johan
    Inclined Wind Tunnel for the Study of Human and Large Animal Flight2017In: Wilderness & environmental medicine (Print), ISSN 1080-6032, E-ISSN 1545-1534, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 54-56Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4546.
    Wetter, Jonas
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Palmgren, Sofia
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    ”Ge mig ett tält med bubbelpool och jacuzzi, då säger jag ja till friluftsliv”: en komparativ studie om friluftsundervisning2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    Our aim with this study was to examine how outdoor education is designed and experienced in three upper (senior) levels of compulsory school in Stockholm, and to compare it with the Norwegian equivalence.

    Method

    Our method has been interviews with ten teachers, of whom six are Swedish teachers and four are Norwegian teachers. Two Swedish teachers are teaching in other subjects than Physical Education, four are teachers in Physical Education, two are teachers in Norway in Physical Education at and two are teachers in Norway at university level. Questionnaires were used to examine the Swedish pupils’ attitudes towards outdoor education. 90 questionnaires were delivered, and 70 answered them. 38 answeres were from the school with outdoor education profile and 32 answers were from two other schools. The questionnaires were examined on pupils in 9th grade of three upper (senior) level compulsory schools.

    Results

    The results of the study showed that outdoor education is not included in Physical Education curriculum in one school, is used very briefly in the second school and used more in the school with a profile of outdoor education. The attitudes towards outdoor education are mixed among the teachers, even though they mention outdoor education as a good tool for different kinds of education, other than sport. The questionnaires showed that outdoor education is pursued and experienced in the same shape as their teachers. There were also a difference in experiencing outdoor eduation between schools with a profile of outdoor education and the school with no profile. Obstacles teachers have mentioned are time, lack of knowledge among teachers and colleagues, economy and resources. From a Norwegian perspective the results show that outdoor education is used more extensively in Physical Education than in Swedish schools. Outdoor education is formed by staying overnight outdoors and with education aimed to support to outdoor education.

    Conclusions

    Outdoor education is carried out in Physical Education if different prerequisites are fulfilled. These are economy, interests, knowledge, support from the management and headmasters, colleagues interests, cooperation among teachers and the availability of green areas in the

  • 4547.
    Wetterling, Andreas
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    2008Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I arbetet intervjuas åtta lärare i idrott och hälsa för grundskolans senare år om hur de obligatoriska momenten friluftsliv, orientering, simning och hälsa kommer till uttryck och bedöms i undervisningen i år nio. Lärarna intervjuas om vad som krävs av eleverna för att uppnå respektive betygsteg Godkänd, Väl godkänd och Mycket väl godkänd. Intervjuerna syftar till att se vad i bedömningen och betygssättningen som krävs för de olika betygsstegen och de skillnader som finns mellan lärarna.

     

    Intervjuerna bygger på tidigare forskning som visar att den nationella kursplanen kan tolkas väldigt olika av lärarna i idrott och hälsa vilket leder till en orättvis bedömning och betygssättning av eleverna. Arbetet bygger på att belysa de olika momenten i relation till den problematik som har visat sig finnas i hur bedömningen skall genomföras.

  • 4548.
    Wiberg, Alexandra
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Bergman, Daniel
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    RELATIONEN MELLAN AUTONOMISTÖD OCH FYSISK AKTIVITET: En kvantitativ studie baserad på elever i årskurs 92015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to examine, in a population of ninth grade high-school students,whether autonomy support from parents and the fulfilment of basic psychological needspredicted participation in physical activity both in leisure time and in PE classes. Based onprevious research we hypothesised that autonomy support would have an indirect effect onparticipation in physical activity in leisure time and school sports through the psychologicalbasic needs.The study involved 193 students from ninth grade in the Swedish school system.Mediation analyses were performed to investigate the stated hypotheses. The results showedthat a positive indirect effect from autonomy support on participation in physical activity inleisure time through psychological basic needs. Further there was no statistically significantcorrelation between autonomy support, basic needs and participation in PE classes.Based on this study we concluded that autonomy supports as well as the psychologicalbasic needs are two important factors to focus on to get high-school students to be physicallyactive.

  • 4549.
    Wiberg, Edvard
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Rönnmark, Joel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Det sitter i huvudet: En kvalitativ studie av mental träning inom svensk juniorishockey2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Begreppet mental träning i idrottssammanhang är allmänt känt. Detta gäller även ishockeyn vilket styrks av denna kvalitativa studie. Studien har två målgrupper, där fokusgruppsintervjuer genomförts med elitsatsande juniorishockeyspelare och semi-strukturerade intervjuer genomförts med tränare från de deltagande spelarnas föreningar. Studiens syfte ämnade undersöka hur och på vilket sätt det arbetas med mental träning och vilka erfarenheter och värderingar som fanns hos målgrupperna. Resultatet av studien visar en gemensam syn från samtliga deltagare att mental träning är viktigt men att användandet av det i praktiken inte överensstämmer med de värderingar som råder. Bilden av vad mental träning innebär är av svaren att döma högst individuell och endast ett fåtal av deltagarna säger sig arbeta kontinuerligt med mental träning i prestationshöjande syfte. Kunskap om ämnet i stort och hur det kan användas av spelare och tränare i praktiken har fortfarande stor utvecklingspotential. Det är 14 år sedan Svenska Ishockeyförbundet genomförde en kvantitativ undersökning i ämnet mental träning. I undersökningen framgår det att spelarna ansåg att mental träning var viktigt, men trots detta arbetade nästintill ingen aktivt med det. Lite har hänt. Förhoppningsvis bidrar denna studie till att det om ytterligare 14 år skett en mer markant förändring. 

  • 4550.
    Wichardt, Emma
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Mattsson, C Mikael
    Ekblom, Björn
    Henriksson-Larsén, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Rhabdomyolysis/myoglobinemia and NSAID during 48 h ultra-endurance exercise (adventure racing)2011In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 111, no 7, p. 1541-4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our purpose is to determine whether rhabdomyolysis with myoglobinemia exists during a 48+ h adventure race and if there is a correlation with NSAID use, race time and perceived pain or exertion. Blood samples for analyses of myoglobin (Mb) were collected, and perception of exertion and pain was registered on the Borg-RPE and CR scales, from 20 subjects (3 female, 17 male) Pre-, Mid- and Post-race. Subjects were asked about NSAID use at each sampling and within 12 h pre-race. The result observed was a significant rise in Mb throughout the race, with the NSAID group (n = 6) having significantly lower Mb-Post than the no-NSAID group (n = 14). High Mb-Pre and Post correlated to shorter race time and high Mb-Pre to lower Pain-post. Race time also correlated to NSAID use, with the NSAID group having significantly longer race time than the no-NSAID group. Rhabdomyolysis with myoglobinemia, which might be reduced with NSAID use, exists during a 48+ h adventure race. Indications that high Mb-levels correlate with shorter race time and less pain, and the reasons for the NSAID groups longer race time, warrants further investigation.

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