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  • 401.
    Borg, Gustaf
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Kennerstedt, Marcus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Temporära bostäder i den socialt hållbara staden2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The majority of the world’s population live in the cities, and even more will live there in the future. This urbanization puts great demands on urban development, at the same time as our times great challenge will be to make our society sustainable. There are many ideas of how the urban development should be done. One method is to use temporary housing, something which has been done at Frihamnen in Gothenburg. This raises the question if similar projects are applicable on a bigger scale, whilst still not conflicting with our pursuit for sustainability?

    Social sustainable urban development and social sustainability walks hand in hand. One creates platforms for the other. The terms have broad definitions within the literature, although important aspects that often is highlighted consists of social interaction, participation, variation and collaboration to create social sustainability. Temporary installments have become a more frequent used and appreciated phenomenon within urban development since one does not commit to long term solutions, and the process of building such places may be in collaboration with the citizens. The thesis is done partly on a case-study of Frihamnen, where temporary housing has a central place in the planning process. Frihamnen has other plans to build other temporary installments in the nearby area, such as Jubileumsparken. Many of the dimensions of social sustainability will need to be identified after the project, but it is possible to draw parallels already between the project and social sustainability. Examples of such is participation and a variation of functions.

    Temporary housing does not affect social sustainability much more than permanent buildings would do. However, they should be a part of an area that consists of temporary installments, and can in that way be a part of social sustainable urban development. The topic about temporary housing within social sustainability and planning is relative unexplored, which means that it is hard to make general conclusions.

  • 402.
    Borg, Marcus
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Spatial Planning.
    Hälsosam stadsplanering: en fallstudie av Stockholm, Göteborg och Malmö2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Fysisk planering är ett område som har möjlighet att påverka många olika delar i samhället. Det innebär således att arbetet med en god fysisk planering är viktigt för att samhället ska fungera på ett bra sätt. Denna studie undersöker närmre hur fysisk planering används för att främja människors hälsa och välbefinnande i de tre kommunerna Stockholm, Göteborg och Malmö. Hälsa och välbefinnande borde vara en självklarhet att sträva efter i stadsplaneringen de menar i alla fall forskare som arbetar för WHO och som denna studie tar sin grund i. De lyfter en oro om att stadsplaneringen börjar glömma bort hur viktiga dessa aspekter är runt om i Europa. Stämmer detta även i en svensk kontext? Eller har vi i Sverige ett sätt att planera som tillgodoser människors hälsa och välbefinnande? Det är frågor som studien diskutera och försöka hitta svar på. Det har under studiens gång framkommit att Hälsosam stadsplanering så som Barton och Tsourou (2000) beskriver den har mycket att göra med att skapa förutsättningar för stadens invånare att förändra sin livsstil. En av de huvudsakliga delarna har visat sig vara att öka möjligheten för människor att röra sig mer till vardags genom att planera för städer där gång och cykel är naturliga transportmedel. Det räcker inte bara att förbättra gång och cykelvägar. Det handlar således om att stadens struktur bör vara anpassad efter närhet och med god tillgång till den vardagliga servicen så att behovet av att transportera sig med bil försvinner. Det har visat sig att denna strategi är något som alla tre kommunerna i undersökningen har anammat och redan där har det kunnat konstateras att kommunerna är en god bit på vägen att tillämpa en hälsosam stadsplanering. Men begreppet rör så mycket mer till exempel boendekvalité, social sammanhållning och tillgänglighet. 

  • 403.
    Borg, Torgny
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Prediction of rock failures in mines, with application to the Näsliden mine in northern Sweden1983Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Continous cut and fill mining will cause increased loading of the roof of the stopes in mining operations. The aim of the present work is to predict what mining levels will induce critically large loads in the roof of the stopes in cut and fill mining and in particular the Näsliden Mine, in Northern Sweden. The quasi-static elastic response of rock masses in the Näsliden Mine is predicted in terms of the stresses and strains induced by mining operations, by using the Finite Element Method. Critical stages in the development of failures are identified and defined from observations in the mine. In-situ measurements are also taken from a selected reference stope in the mine, at certain selected stages in a sequence of mining operations. The extension strain criterion of failure is used in our calculations. From our calculations, and the observations from the reference stope, critical levels of mining, for all stopes in the mine, are identified. The predicted response of the rock mass from calculations based on a linearly elastic model is compared with predictions from calculations based on a joint element model. The joint elements are used to simulate weak contact adjacent to the ore body. Both models are evaluated and adjusted by comparisons with in-situ measurements of displacements and stresses. A sensitivity study is used to investigate the effect of variation in rock properties and calculation errors due to numerical discretizations. Full scale strength data are compared with data from uniaxial compression tests conducted in the laboratory. The results obtained with the elastic model and the extension strain criterion show satisfactory agreement with data obtained from the mine. Almost identical results, as far as the prediction of roof failure of stopes in the mine is concerned, are obtained when the joint element model and the Coulomb failure criteria is used in our calculations. Our quantitative prediction of rock failure can be used to determine when rock support is needed or when changes in mining methods should be adopted. Our computational model could also be used to investigate alternative mine layouts.

  • 404.
    Borg, Torgny
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Sensitivity aspects of FEM calculations1981In: Application of rock mechanics to cut and fill mining: proceedings of the Conference on the application of rock mechanics to cut and fill mining, organized by the Departments of rock mechanics and soil mechanics, University of Luleå ... held at the University of Luleå, Sweden, from 1 to 3 June, 1980 / [ed] Ove Stephansson; Michael J. Jones, London: The Institution of Mining and Metallurgy , 1981, p. 213-225Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 405.
    Borg, Torgny
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    The application of the finite element model of the Näsliden mine to the prediction of future mining conditions1983In: Mining with backfill: proceedings of the International symposium on mining with backfill, Luleå, 7-9 June 1983 / [ed] Sven Granholm, Rotterdam: Balkema Publishers, A.A. / Taylor & Francis The Netherlands , 1983, p. 309-318Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 406.
    Borg, Torgny
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    The Näsliden Project: FEM modeling strategies1981In: Application of rock mechanics to cut and fill mining: proceedings of the Conference on the application of rock mechanics to cut and fill mining, organized by the Departments of rock mechanics and soil mechanics, University of Luleå ... held at the University of Luleå, Sweden, from 1 to 3 June, 1980 / [ed] Ove Stephansson; Michael J. Jones, London: The Institution of Mining and Metallurgy , 1981, p. 196-203Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 407.
    Borg, Torgny
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Leijon, Bengt
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Röshoff, Kennert
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Stephansson, Ove
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Stability prediction for the Zinkgruvan mine, central Sweden1984In: Design and performance of underground excavations: ISRM symposium, Cambridge, U.K., 3-6 September, 1984 / [ed] E.T. Brown; J.A. Hudson, London: British Geotechnical Society , 1984, p. 113-121Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The geomechanics of the Zinkgruvan Mine are presented. A new approach for performing rock stress measurements in open stopes and drifts was tested. An elastic FEM model and strain failure criteria were applied to predict the future condition of the mine. Limits of the strain failure criteria were based on strain values obtained from the model, observations of rock falls, and major failures in the mine. These limits were used to assess suitable panel height, sill pillar dimensions, and sequence delays for mining parallel ore bodies.

  • 408.
    Borg, Torgny
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Stephansson, Ove
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Modellförsök av sprickutbredningen kring gruvöppningen i Grängesberg1977Report (Other academic)
  • 409.
    Borén, Cecilia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Lämplighetsbedömning vid 3D-fastighetsbildning: Hur bedömningen av lämpliga förvaltningsobjekt görs med hänsyn till storlek och andra påverkande faktorer2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays it can be seen that smaller and smaller 3D-property units are formed. To form 3D-property units the property formation procedure must have undergone an assessment of suitability where the general suitability conditions in the third chapter of the Property Formation Act should be taken into account. The legislative history and the commentary of the Property Formation Act speak of that the 3D-property units formed should be suitable management objects and be of palpable size. The size perspective on the 3D-property units has, in some cases, been proven challenging to assess for the cadastral authority.

    This study examines how the assessment of suitable management objects is performed and how the assessment can be affected by other factors. To achieve this, a survey, interviews and a study of property information procedure dossiers have been done. The study of dossiers shows that it is difficult to see reasons to why the 3D-property unit has been considered suitable. The survey and interviews show that the assessment is done with the 3D-property unit’s purpose and independence in mind. The independence is dependent on that the 3D-property unit can operate without too many rights, be economically stable and function alone from a management perspective. The size is only of small significance when it comes to the assessment.

    Conclusion is that the suitability for each management object, the 3D-property units, is done according to the general suitability conditions of the third chapter of the Property Formation Act, where the size doesn’t have an impending significance. However, other factors can affect the assessment; factors that are taken into account individually in each 3D-case.

  • 410.
    Borén, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Koch, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Platser i Praktiken och Social Hållbarhet: Hökarängen och andra små centrumbildningar i fokus2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Stadsbyggnad och samhällsplanering är som framgår av förordet inget neutralt område utan en praktik och ett kunskapsområde med stora implikationer för människors vardagsliv liksom för samhället i stort. Det handlar om att få platser att fungera bra för dem som bor, arbetar eller på annat sätt är involverade i platsen, och där i samman­hanget ’fungera’ avser hela skalan från individens möjligheter till självförverkligande, till det för staden och samhället gemensamma bästa.

    Över tid förändrar sig förutsättningarna och platser som en gång formgivits i samklang med sin tid behöver i stadsbyggnadens och samhällsplaneringens praktik omtolkas och ges nya innebörder för att kunna leva upp till den nya tidens krav, utan att för den skull ge avkall på grundläggande överenskommelser i samhällskontraktet. Platser i praktiken kommer då att handla om social hållbarhet och om vilken typ av stad vi vill ha i vilken typ av samhälle. En komponent i detta handlar om livskraften i det lokala offentliga rummet och de villkor som gäller där oavsett om detta är beläget i stadens centrum eller i något av stadens ytterområden, där mycket av stadens liv levs. Det är detta lokala offentliga rum som den här rapporten ämnar bidra till att belysa.

  • 411.
    Boréus, Ida
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Mechanics, Byggteknik.
    Andersson, Sanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Mechanics, Byggteknik.
    Den offentliga upphandlingens påverkan på entreprenörer: En studie av små och medelstora byggentreprenörer2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Public procurement in Sweden is regulated by the Act on Public Procure­ment (lagen om offentlig upphandling, LOU, in Swedish). The Public procurement in Sweden stands every year approximately for 500 bil­lion Swedish crowns of the taxpayers’ money. It is therefore im­portant that the money is spent in the best possible way. The focus in this study is set on the relationship between the small- and medium sized building entrepreneurs and the government. The study is built on international scientific arti­cles together with Swedish industry articles and the results from our own interview study. A comparison has been made between the three and it has resulted in listing obstacles for SME (small- and medium sizes enter­prises) and how to overcome these obstacles. 

  • 412.
    Boåsen, Filip
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Khaled, Stiven
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Termisk komfort med golvvärme eller luftvärme2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When most people spend a larger part of the day indoors, it is important to have a good thermal comfort, as the thermal comfort affects the experience that you perceive when you are at work, at home or at school. This may then affect the health if the thermal comfort does not meet the requirements. The purpose of the survey is to investigate low temperature system performance in terms of thermal comfort and if it meets the requirements. The survey uses calculation data from previously performed surveys, as the calculations are validated by comparison with other surveys. In this survey we explore the differences between floor heating and air heating, where we look at how the different systems are compared to each other under controlled conditions regarding thermal comfort. The different systems under investigation are air heating placed on the wall, air heating placed under a window, floor heating evenly distributed over the floor and floor heating that has extra loops under windows. The study will carry out a literature study that will be based on the topic of low temperature and how the different systems work and how they can be used at low temperatures. In this survey, the operating temperature PMV, PPD and DR-index are considered to get a good idea of how thermal comfort is experienced regarding floor heating or air heating. The survey has given good results, since the difference in thermal comfort between the different systems has been minimal and fulfilled all BBR requirements. The results have been compared to previous studies of low temperature technology, as the results coincide well with minor deviations. To choose one of the four systems that have been shown superior in terms of thermal comfort, floor heating with extra loops under windows has been proven to be the better option, as PMV and PPD as well as values are below the recommendation for thermal comfort.

  • 413.
    Brandt, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Den byggda utemiljön för flerbostadshus: Fallstudie av Mimers områden Timmerkojan, Tujan och Cedern i Västerås2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The outdoor environment of multifamily dwellings should be carefully planned to accommodate the large number of different dwellers, that are to live there through the lifetime of the building. Different groups of residents have different needs and wishes, and all these must be considered. Failure to achieve a working courtyard where all these needs was met would result in low usage of shared outdoor spaces, and discontentment among the residents. This thesis has strived to catalogue the courtyards of three multifamily housing estates in the Swedish city of Västerås. It has also compared the shared features among the three case studies, according to where the single feature was best implemented and why it worked better there. That comparison gave an indication to what could be considered best practice for similar projects. The initial literature study gave good insight on what matters including: children’s play areas, public seating, different age group’s views and wants. Of universal importance was also the significance of feeling secure in the courtyard. One major difficulty was getting the residents to use the public seating in their area. Studies have suggested that the problem is that they feel observed by their neighbours. This could be solved by providing optional seating out of sight, the compromise with this solution became in making sure that these secluded seating areas was not thought of as possible places for hiding miscreants. Another solution was to make use of non-stationary furniture, which introduces the possibility of the furniture being stolen. Lockable storage for the resident’s private outdoor utensils was then a good suggestion.

  • 414.
    Brandt Johnson, Viktor
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Spatial Planning.
    Leo, Amanda
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Spatial Planning.
    Re-make / Re-model: Om social hållbarhet i industriomvandlingar2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats undersöker hur kommuner med stark industritradition behandlar social hållbarhet och hur sociala hållbarhetsaspekter i dessa implementeras vid industriomvandlingsprojekt. Detta görs genom att utifrån uppsatsens forskningsöversikt definiera nyckelord som appliceras i kvalitativa innehållsanalyser på kommunala plandokument. De översiktliga planerna består av Ljungby kommuns fördjupade översiktsplan för stadens centrum, Tierps kommuns översiktsplan och Lindesbergs kommuns fördjupade översiktsplan för tätorten. I de två sistnämnda kommunerna har även detaljplanedokument som berör industriomvandling analyserats. I analyserna framkommer att många av de aspekter som utifrån teorin beskrivs som betydelsefulla för social hållbarhet i planering förekommer i de översiktliga plandokumenten men behandlas mindre utförligt och frekvent på en detaljerad plannivå i industriomvandlingsprojekt. På detaljplanenivå uppmärksammas istället för nyckelorden i flera fall översiktsplanernas beskrivningar av nyckelorden. Uppsatsen innehåller även ett gestaltningsförslag för omvandling av ett centralt beläget industriområde i Ljungby. En deltagande observation genomfördes med syfte att skapa ett underlag för omvandling. De åtgärder som föreslås utgår från goda exempel på hur de ur forskningsöversikten definierade nyckelorden konkretiserats i de undersökta planerna. I förslaget framkommer att det främst var de översiktliga planernas strategier som var lämpliga att implementera. Det visar också att sociala hållbarhetsaspekter är realiserbara i industriomvandlingsprojekt på en mer detaljerad nivå. Uppsatsen visar att social hållbarhet uppmärksammas i de undersökta kommunernas planering men snarare på en allmän översiktlig nivå än i specifika planförslag som berör industriomvandling.

  • 415.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Lim, Nancy Joy
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Importance of river bank and floodplain slopes on the accuracy of flood inundation mapping2012In: River Flow 2012: Volume 2 / [ed] Rafael Murillo Muñoz, Leiden, The Netherlands: CRC Press / Balkema (Taylor & Francis) , 2012, p. 1015-1020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effective flood assessment and management depend on accurate models of flood events, which in turn are strongly affected by the quality of digital elevation models (DEMs). In this study, HEC-RAS was used to route one specificwater discharge through the main channel of the Eskilstuna River, Sweden. DEMs with various resolutions and accuracies were used to model the inundation. The results showed a strong positive relationship between the quality of theDEMand the extent of the inundation. However, evenDEMswith the highest resolution produced inaccuracies. In another case study, the Testebo River, the model settings could be calibrated, thanks to a surveyed old inundation event. However, even with the calibration efforts, the resulting inundation extents showed varying degrees of deviation from the surveyed flood boundaries. Therefore, it becomes clear that not only does the resolution of the DEM impact the quality of the results; also, the floodplain slope perpendicular to the river flow will impact the modelling accuracy. Flatter areas exhibited the greatest predictive uncertainties regardless of the DEM’s resolution. For perfectly flat areas, uncertainty becomes infinite.

  • 416.
    Brandt, Sven Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Modeling and visualizing uncertainties of flood boundary delineation: algorithm for slope and DEM resolution dependencies of 1D hydraulic models2016In: Stochastic environmental research and risk assessment (Print), ISSN 1436-3240, E-ISSN 1436-3259, Vol. 30, no 6, p. 1677-1690Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As flood inundation risk maps have become a central piece of information for both urban and risk management planning, also a need to assess the accuracies and uncertainties of these maps has emerged. Most maps show the inundation boundaries as crisp lines on visually appealing maps, whereby many planners and decision makers, among others, automatically believe the boundaries are both accurate and reliable. However, as this study shows, probably all such maps, even those that are based on high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs), have immanent uncertainties which can be directly related to both DEM resolution and the steepness of terrain slopes perpendicular to the river flow direction. Based on a number of degenerated DEMs, covering areas along the Eskilstuna River, Sweden, these uncertainties have been quantified into an empirically-derived disparity distance equation, yielding values of distance between true and modeled inundation boundary location. Using the inundation polygon, the DEM, a value representing the DEM resolution, and the desired level of confidence as inputs in a new-developed algorithm that utilizes the disparity distance equation, the slope and DEM dependent uncertainties can be directly visualized on a map. The implications of this strategy should benefit planning and help reduce high costs of floods where infrastructure, etc., have been placed in flood-prone areas without enough consideration of map uncertainties.

  • 417.
    Bretz, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Låt medborgarna skapa staden: Om tactical urbanism och idéburen stadsförbättring samt medborgarnas rätt till staden2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the creation of the city man has the opportunity to remake himself and realize his heart's desire. How and for whom the city should be designed for is probably a discussion that will continue until eternity. Throughout history, private ownership and other social forms of domination has controlled urban space, which often has resulted in various forms of protest movements.

     

    Tactical urbanism has in several cities around the world become a popular method for improving the livability in the city; local actors, mainly citizens, have remade their neighbourhood with small-scale improvements. This paper describes what tactical urbanism is, the theory behind the method and the opportunities and consequences it may bring in the urban environment and in the planning of the city. From a Swedish perspective this is explored through a case study of Stockholm's City guidelines for idéburen stadsförbättring.

     

    This study examines the criticism in contemporary urban development, which argue that the neoliberal urbanism creates inequality in society, and the concept of "right to the city" which permeates tactical urbanisms actions, approaches and basic theory. The contribution of this essay is an interlacement of theoris concerning "right to the city" with tactical urbanism practical usage and how tactical urbanism can be developed to better fullfill the needs of the citizens, especially marginalised groups in society. The essay suggests that there is a tendency that tactical urbanism is incorporated into neoliberal urban development and therefore is losing its voice for the weak of society. The case study of Stockholm shows that the idea if a possible consequence of gentrification as a result of idéburen stadsförbättring is lacking. However, the study shows that there is a concern that the methods mainly benefit inner-city residents. Stockholm's guidelines for idéburen stadsförbättring is similar, but does not entirely coincide with what the tactical urbanism in theory stand for. The study shows that there is a need for a coordinator for idéburen stadsförbättring and a deeper understanding of tactical urbanism.

     

    Through history, the city has been, and continues to be a place where spatial structure divides people, it says a lot about our values, and the symbol of man. To promote practices which allow the citizens to remake the city, is a symbol for the ”right to the city”, but time will tell if that is something tactical urbanism and idéburen stadsförbättring can enable. My hope is that this paper will provide an understanding of what tactical urbanism and idéburen stadsförbättring stands for and inspire for further discussion on how and why we build our cities, what impact it has on the public space, and how new urban guidelines are developed and the importance of a guideline is purpose-based and consentient in municipalities, from politicians to the official.

  • 418.
    Briggert, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Fibres orientation on sawn surfaces: Can fibre orientation on sawn surfaces be determined by means of high resolution scanning2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2013 the European journal of wood and wood products published an article regarding a new method to predict strength in structural timber (Olsson et al 2013). By determining the fibres orientation on all four surfaces of each board in sample of timber using a high resolution scanner the authors were able to achieve a coefficient of determination, R2, as high as 0.71 between bending strength and a new indicating property (IP). For the same sample of timber Olsson et al (2013) determined the R2 by axial dynamic excitation as 0.59. However, all boards used in their investigation were planed before scanning. This study examines if a high resolution scanner could be used to determine the fibre orientation on the surfaces of sawn timber boards of Norway spruce. Both band sawn surfaces and circular sawn surfaces were examined. The procedure in this investigation is described as follows. Firstly, both the band sawn and the circular sawn boards were scanned by a WoodEye® scanner and together with dimensions, weight and the first longitudinal resonance frequency, a modulus of elasticity (MOE) profile was calculated for each board. The MOE profiles were calculated according to Olsson et al (2013) i.e. by a transformation matrix based upon the fibres orientation and a compliance matrix based on material parameters for Norway spruce. Secondly, the corresponding MOE profiles were then determined after the boards had been planed. As a result two MOE profiles were determined for each board. An indicating property (IP) was defined as the lowest value along each MOE profile. To compare the results a regression analysis was performed in which the IPs defined before planing worked as predictor variable and IPs defined after planing worked as response variable. The band sawn band boards yielded an R2 = 0.94 and the circular sawn boards an R2 = 0.93. Further the standard error of estimate was SEE = 829.1 MPa and SEE = 640.9 MPa respectively. As a last step in this investigation the SEE values achieved in this study where implemented on to the sample Olsson et al (2013) used in their investigation.

  • 419.
    Briggert, Andreas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Hu, Min
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Olsson, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology. Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Oscarsson, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Evaluation of three dimensional fibre orientation in Norway spruce using a laboratory laser scanner2016In: WCTE 2016: World Conference on Timber Engineering, Vienna University of Technology , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses laser scanning and utilization of the tracheid effect for determination of local fibre orientation, which is decisive for strength and stiffness of timber. A newly developed laboratory laser scanner that can be used for high resolution and high precision scanning of wood surfaces is used for in-depth assessment of a single Norway spruce specimen that contains a knot. It is assumed that the specimen has a plane of symmetry, through the knot, and by splitting the specimen in two parts it is possible to determine fibre orientation on orthogonal planes. Hence, by relying on the assumption of symmetry, the fibre orientation in 3D space can also be determined. The results are used to evaluate the possibility of utilizing the tracheid effect for determination of the out-of-plane fibre angle of an investigated surface. Furthermore, the results are used for verification of a theoretical fibre orientation model that has often been used by researchers.

  • 420.
    Briggert, Andreas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Olsson, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Oscarsson, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Modelling 3D orientation of knots in timber on the basis of dot laser scanning and the tracheid effect2015In: / [ed] Josef Eberhardsteiner and Michael Kaliske, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ongoing research concerns the possibility of determining the 3D orientation of wood fibres within the entire volume of a wooden board using surface information from laser scanning. Previous research, Olsson and Oscarsson [1], has shown that the fibre orientation of side boards can be determined on the basis of such information. The present research is extended to also comprise boards cut from the centre of the log and a first step in this work is to establish 3D models of knots in boards on the basis of information from dot laser scanning of surfaces.

    In comparison with other approaches aiming at 3D models of knots and wood fibre orientation, e.g. Guindos and Guaita[2] and Hackspiel et al. [3], the present model relies to a larger extent on the actual fibre orientation measured on each individual board, rather than on general assumption and mathematical models of typical fibre orientation alone.  

    The fact that all data needed for the model can be sampled in sawmill production speed means that developed models could be used as a basis for advanced strength grading methods, for grading with respect to shape stability and for other purposes of industrial interest.

  • 421.
    Briggert, Andreas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Olsson, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Oscarsson, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Three dimensional knot models based on surface laser scanning2015In: Proceedings 19th International Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation of Wood Symposium Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 23-25 September, 2015. / [ed] Ross, Robert J.; Gonçalves, Raquel; Wang, Xiping,, Madison, USA: USDA, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory , 2015, Vol. 19, p. 83-90Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most machine strength grading methods of today result in limited grading accuracy and poor yield in higher strength classes. A new and more accurate grading method utilizing laser scanning technique to determine the in-plane fibre directions on board surfaces was recently approved for the European market. In this, however, no consideration is taken to the out-of-plane direction of the fibres. A first step towards scanning-based 3D models of the fibre orientation is the establishment of 3D knot models. In this investigation laser scanning was used to identify knot surfaces on longitudinal board surfaces. By means of developed algorithms knot surfaces that belonged to the same physical knot visible on different sides of the board were identified. All knots with surface areas larger than 100 mm2 were correctly identified and modeled in 3D. This is a promising starting point for further development of the new grading method based on laser scanning.

  • 422.
    Brissman, Elsa
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Spatial Planning.
    På cykel i Karlskrona: En studie av cykelvägnätet i Karlskrona tätort2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 423.
    Bro, A.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Three-dimensional styrofoam models of blocky rock masses1991In: International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts, ISSN 0148-9062, E-ISSN 1879-2073, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 109-113Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 424.
    Brokking, Peter
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Moving with the Times: An Examination of Ten Years of Dutch Transport Planning2001In: Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, ISSN 1523-908X, E-ISSN 1522-7200, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 31-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When the Dutch government presented the Second Transport Structure Plan (SW-II) in 1988, it pronounced a new view on transport planning that would give equal weight to accessibility and liveability. Mobility control and selective accessibility were central themes, which would benefit both the environment and economy. A few years later, it became evident that most of the core objectives of the SW-II would not be reached. The professional debate on the implementation of Dutch transport planning indicated a number of explanations for the inadequacy of the national policies, mainly related to the institutional context of public planning, and the lack of coordination between the actors involved. In response to the experiences of the SW-II, the proposed new national transport policy announces better cooperation between the actors in the field of transport planning, and replaces sustainable development with sustainable economy.

  • 425.
    Brokking, Peter
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    The Planning of Regional Transportation Systems in Sweden2006In: TRA - Transport Research Arena Europe 2006 - Proceedings Abstracts, Vägverket , 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improvement of transport infrastructure networks is generally considered to generate increased productivity. This correla­tion is a common argument in Swedish transportation planning that provides a rationale for investments in regional transportation systems. However, due to a num­ber of limitations in the planning and decision-making process, the development of effective transport infrastructure networks at the regional level is hampered.

     

    In this contribution the findings of a research project on Swedish regional transportation plan­ning are presented, which focuses on an analysis of current planning practise. This analysis is based on an evaluation of the recent planning process of the regional transport infrastructure plan for theKalmarregion. Issues that will be addressed are the disintegrated planning of regional transport systems, the lack of strategic planning in Swedish planning practise and the weak connections with other fields of public planning. The presentation concludes with a set of recom­mendations to improve the planning of regional transportation systems in Sweden.

  • 426.
    Broman, Elisabeth
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Industrial Economics and Management.
    Sprickor i gemenskapen2004Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Cracks in the Spirit of Community is a study of a Swedishtrade union in a period of change. Increasingly, traditionaltrade unions´ work based on collective solutions has comeinto question, and the customer perspective of trade unionactivities is becoming more prominent. At the same time, ageneration of mainstay trade union supporters at ourcountry´s workplaces are approaching retirement age. Howdo these - now ageing - children of Sweden´s"people´s home" hand over our society´s institutionsand pass on its traditions to a new generation? Is there a riskthat knowledge will be lost? And is anyone in the newgeneration ready to receive this knowledge?

    A systematic and structured dialogue with participants fromSif, Sweden´s leading white collar union, helped developthis complex of problems. The work focused on the interactionbetween people to build up a community of understanding, whichwas at the core of earlier trade union tradition. Broadeningthe present pattern of action allows more long-term trends tobe traced. A disregard for matters of common concern, andunstated dissension, cause cracks in the spirit of community,cracks that undermine the power of collective action inpolitical matters. This dissertation poses complex questionsabout democracy, participation and common responsibility.

    The case study was carried out as a series of dialogueseminars with a carefully-selected group of people from Sif.The dialogue seminar method was developed to bring to the foretacit knowledge in skills research. By focussing onvalue-based, shared human knowledge, the dissertation puts tothe test a new application of the dialogue seminar method. Thisstudy illustrates a shift from common interests to individualinterests. It points out general trends in the development ofour society - a trade union member, an employee and a citizenis often one and the same person.

  • 427.
    Bronder, Axel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geodesy and Geoinformatics.
    Persson, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geodesy and Geoinformatics.
    Design, Implementation and Evaluation of a Mobile GIS Solution for a Land Registration Project in Lesotho2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes in detail how a mobile Geographical Information System (GIS) was designed, implemented and evaluated for the prevailing circumstances of a land regularisation project in Lesotho in Southern Africa. The GIS was developed as an application for the Android platform, primarily with the tablet-computer format in mind, to be used for land registration field work.

    The main purpose of the paper is to determine whether an ad hoc mobile GIS solution can improve the efficiency of the field work as well as the integrity of the data collected in the field work of the land regularisation project in Lesotho. The aim is also to evaluate the performance and usefulness of modern tablet computers in this context.

    The application was developed and tested on site in Lesotho on two tablet computers borrowed from Samsung Electronics AB in Sweden. After the development phase, the solution was later implemented on tablet computers of a different model for the remainderof the land regularisation project in Lesotho.

    The design process started with a field visit where the work-flow of the project was analysed. From this a needs analysis were formed together with the management staff on site that served as a base for the development process. The development and implementation was then performed with continuous communication and evaluation with the personnel of the project. As the development progressed, the solution was also tested and evaluated continuously in the field work.

    Not only did the solution perform well both software- and hardware-wise, despite strong sun from high altitudes and lack of internet connection in Lesotho, it also exceeded the expectations of the staff. The solution significantly improved the work environment for the field workers of the project and the efficiency was raised, according to the evaluation. A unified management staff concludes in the evaluation of this paper that they will consider using tablet computers together with an ad hoc application for the field work of their next project.

  • 428.
    Bronder, Axel Viking
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geoinformatik och Geodesi.
    Visualization of a SWEPOS Coordinate Analysis2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Lantmäteriet, The Swedish Mapping, Cadastral and Land Registration Authority, is responsible for the operation and maintenance of SWEPOS and SWEREF99 (the Swedish official reference frame) and there-fore also responsible for control and verification of the data provided by the reference stations.Clas-Göran Persson at Lantmäteriet has created a new controlling procedure, including software, to analyze the position uncertainties of the SWEPOS stations using various statistical methods. The soft-ware evaluates the daily calculated coordinate data of the stations subsequently; it will not be installed directly on the actual stations. The primary goal is to study the stability of SWEPOS from a SWEREF 99 point of view, not to analyze SWEPOS real-time service. The controlling procedure is referred to as “the CGP Program”.The CGP Program is a toolbox of statistical methods created in MATLAB, determining standard devia-tion, correlation, distribution (outliers) and more. Its main purpose is to determine if the SWEPOS data consists of uniform uncorrelated normal distributed deviations, known as white noise, or not.The purpose of my Thesis is to; based on this new controlling procedure, create a graphical overview of the current status of the SWEPOS network for Lantmäteriet. Instead of making a thorough analysis of each station the maps created in this Thesis will visualize the outcome on an overall basis and identify the stations and areas of interest for further analysis.Together with representatives from Lantmäteriet we decided that three different map types where of interest. All the maps were to be based on SWEPOS data from 2010, analyzed by the CGP program, and visualized on a nationwide basis. They differ in their cartographic appearance and they all describe dif-ferent characteristics of the SWEPOS stations.Conclusions from the maps and the numerical analyzes:

    * There is a clear "winter effect", most obvious in the height coordinate. Removal of the snow-period results in lower standard deviations and fewer unwanted systematic effects.

    * The Northing coordinate has a slightly higher standard deviation than the Easting coordinate. The standard deviation in Height is around 50% larger than the horizontal standard deviation.

    * There is no evidence for physical movements, when comparing the official SWEREF 99 coordinates with the 2010 positions.

  • 429.
    Broström, Jeremy
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Nyström, Claes
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Lutningar: Från ritning till verklighet2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta dokument redogör för metoden, resultaten och slutsatserna från enfältundersökning där gång och cykelbanors olika procentuella lutning harundersökts. Detta dokument kan användas som vägledning för att lättare föreställasig hur en procentuell lutning på en väg ser ut i verkligheten. Profilritningar av deinmätta vägarna med tillhörande bilder finns tillgängliga som bilagor. Enprofilritning brukar i de flesta fall inneha olika skalor i vertikal och horisontalledvilket kan ge en felaktig bild om storleken på lutningen ifall personen som granskarritningen inte är medveten om detta. I denna rapport går det att läsa om utfallet avde inmätta vägarna i Luleå med omnejd och skillnaden hur en ritning ser ut därskalan är annorlunda i höjd och plan jämfört med en som inte är det. Lutningarna påde befintliga vägarna har jämförts med Trafikverkets gällande krav och råd för huren väg ska utformas och det fastställs huruvida de har efterföljts eller ej. Efter utfördamätningar och sammanställning av värdena har resultatet jämförts och analyserats.Det framgår tydligt att en lutning som i verkligheten inte ser särskilt brant ut blir iförvrängd skala mer lik en skidbacke än en gångbana.

  • 430.
    Brown, S.M.
    et al.
    Golder Associates.
    Leijon, Bengt A.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Hustrulid, W.A.
    Department of Mining, Coloroado School of Mines.
    Stress distribution within an artificially loaded, jointed block1986In: Rock stress and rock stress measurements: proceedings of the International Symposium on Rock Stress and Rock Stress Measurements, Stockholm 1-3 September 1986 / [ed] Ove Stephansson, Luleå: CENTEK , 1986, p. 429-439Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 431.
    Brunzell, Sarah
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Barnperspektiv i fysisk planering: En kartläggning av metoder för systematiskt arbete2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay is to see how the child perspective is taken into account in the physical planning at the municipal level and to map methods that can help planners in their work. This is a literature study that examines children's rights, how children's health is influenced by the built environment and how they can be involved in planning. Methods that can be used in the work on children's perspective in spatial planning are also mapped. The study is based on reports from government agencies, municipalities, researchers and networks involved in community planning.

    The wellbeing and health of children are affected by the built environment they live in. Their ability to physical activity, play and recovery in an outdoor environment is limited as the city is densified. The open spaces and schools are usually not prioritized when building new areas, affecting the health of the children both physically and mentally. According to the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, the children have the rights to be heard and to express their opinion on matters concerning them. Communicating with children about physical planning provides, among other things, broader knowledge about the area's use. There are methods that planners can use to assess whether children are affected by the project as well as methods for dialogue with children. With the consequence assessment, there are good opportunities to adapt the project according to the children's needs and rights.

    In order to meet the children's needs and rights in physical planning, planners need to get more knowledge about how the work on childhood perspectives is to be implemented and why it is important.

  • 432.
    Brynjolfsson, Brynjolfur
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Evaluation of the Grouting Methodology used in the Stockholm City Line Project2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As part of the Stockholm City Line project a grouting design was conducted and documentedduring the planning phase, based on theoretical grounds. This comprehensive design is the first of its kind for a tunneling project in Sweden. Due to the scale of the undertaking, the general design was ordered by the Swedish Transport Administration (Trafikverket) to apply for the pregrouting operations at the City Line’s rock tunnels. During the local design however, the grouting work developed differently within each sub-project from what was prescribed by the original design. This thesis project was carried out in cooperation with Trafikverket and concerns subjects related to the general grouting design for the City Line. The emphasis is on describing the general design, its theoretical background, and further to investigate what modifications were made during the local design. It was also to discuss the reasons and justifications for the changes at each sub-project. A detailed analysis of the grouting results at chosen sub-projects of the City Line has been performed, including:

    • Vasatunnel & Odenplan
    • Norrmalmstunnel
    • Norrströmstunnel
    • Södermalmstunnel

    The evaluation of results featured a calculation of sealing effects for the track tunnels at the different sites, which were then compared to the inflow requirements set by the Swedish Environmental Court. Further, a section of each sub-project was analyzed with respect to both pumping time and grout consumption. In total 96 pre-grouting fans, including approximately 2900 grouting holes were analyzed for this purpose. The goal was to identify the most economical method of grouting at the City Line, which still met all the demands regarding inleakage. The performed study showed that for all sub-projects the local grouting proceedings evolved considerably, although to varying extents, from the originally designed grouting concepts. In general the designed concepts were quite conservative, and not entirely applicable for grouting at large parts in its unchanged form. However they were hugely beneficial as excellent basis for local modifications made considering site specific conditions.Performed calculations showed that the grouting works at all the sub-projects provided sealing which fulfilled the requirements set by the Environmental court. However the pumping times and material consumption were different between all of them, which provided a basis for a discussion on how economical the grouting was at each site.If documenting of grouting methods and designs is carried on in future tunneling projects, especially of similar scale as the City Line, the knowledge gained can be transferred from one project to the next. Thus consistently building up further understanding on the complexities of hard rock grouting.

  • 433.
    Bröchner, Jan
    et al.
    KTH.
    Eriksson, Anders
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Structural Mechanics.
    Lundequist, Jerker
    Byggprjktet som dataförädling: Processaspekter på informationsstrukturer1990Book (Other academic)
  • 434.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Litter, Marta
    Ciminelli, Virginia S. T.
    Eugenia Morgada, Maria
    Cornejo, Lorena
    Hoyos, Sofia Garrido
    Hoinkis, Jan
    Teresa Alarcon-Herrera, Ma
    Aurora Armienta, Maria
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Emerging mitigation needs and sustainable options for solving the arsenic problems of rural and isolated urban areas in Latin America: A critical analysis2010In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 44, no 19, p. 5828-5845Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, current information about the contamination of ground- and surface-water resources by arsenic from geogenic sources in Latin America is presented together with possible emerging mitigation solutions. The problem is of the same order of magnitude as other world regions, such as SE Asia, but it is often not described in English. Despite the studies undertaken by numerous local researchers, and the identification of proven treatment methods for the specific water conditions encountered, no technologies have been commercialized due to a current lack of funding and technical assistance. Emerging, low-cost technologies to mitigate the problem of arsenic in drinking water resources that are suitable for rural and urban areas lacking centralized water supplies have been evaluated. The technologies generally use simple and low-cost equipment that can easily be handled and maintained by the local population. Experiences comprise (i) coagulation/filtration with iron and aluminum salts, scaled-down for small community-and household-scale-applications, (ii) adsorption techniques using low-cost arsenic sorbents, such as geological materials (clays, laterites, soils, limestones), natural organic-based sorbents (natural biomass), and synthetic materials. TiO2-heterogeneous photocatalysis and zerovalent iron, especially using nanoscale particles, appear to be promising emergent technologies. Another promising innovative method for rural communities is the use of constructed wetlands using native perennial plants for arsenic rhizofiltration. Smallscale simple reverse osmosis equipment (which can be powered by wind or solar energy) that is suitable for small communities can also be utilized. The individual benefits of the different methods have been evaluated in terms of (i) size of the treatment device, (ii) arsenic concentration and distribution of species, chemical composition and grade of mineralization in the raw water, (iii) guidelines for the remaining As concentration, (iv) economical constrains, (v) complexity of installation and maintenance, and infrastructure constraints (e.g. electricity needs). (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 435.
    Burghout, Wilco
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics.
    Koutsopoulos, Haris N.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics, Traffic and Logistics.
    Andreasson, Ingmar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics.
    Incident Management and Traffic Information Tools and Methods for Simulation-Based Traffic Prediction2010In: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, no 2161, p. 20-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Incident response and mitigation are among the main tasks of operators at traffic control centers. Simulation models have a good chance of reproducing and predicting the effects of incident response by explicitly modeling driver response to the incident and information provided. In the PREDIKT project sponsored by the Swedish National Road Administration, the state-of-the-art mesoscopic simulation model MEZZO was extended to provide decision support for incident management. Numerous essential modeling components are described and tested, including modeling the incident response logic, a mixed-logit model, and a method for generating alternatives for drivers switching routes. In addition, the results of a fast calibration method based on simultaneous perturbation statistic approximation are presented. The model components are tested in a small case study that investigates the effect of delay in providing information to drivers after incidents. A linearization of speed-density functions also is shown to improve computational performance by 30% and increase calibration speed and stability while preserving simulation accuracy.

  • 436.
    Burns, K.L
    et al.
    Division of Mineral Physics, C.S.I.R.O.
    Stephansson, Ove
    Wight, A.J.R.
    Geology Department, La Trobe University, Bundoora.
    The Flinders Ranges breccias of South Australia diapirs or décollement?1977In: Journal of the Geological Society, ISSN 0016-7649, E-ISSN 2041-479X, Vol. 134, no 3, p. 363-384Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Breccia-cored domes in the Northern Flinders Ranges, South Australia, have been regarded as diapirs analogous to diapiric salt structures in northwestern Germany and the Gulf Coast. It is shown that the core of the Blinman Dome is not intrusive and is not composed of less dense rocks; hence a diapiric process cannot apply. It is suggested that much of the breccia of the core is formed by deformation of a stratigraphic unit composed of interbedded competent and incompetent beds at a Flinders Ranges dgcollernent and results from folding. If this model is correct, the Flinders Ranges structures should occur at ddcollements in other parts of the world.

  • 437.
    Byström, Berth-Ove
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Vibrationsundersökningar på SKIP (Malmvagn) vid LKAB:s uppfordningsanläggning i Kiruna1978Report (Other academic)
  • 438.
    Bäcklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Philosophical perspectives on sustainable development with a focus on the urban poor2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study discusses sustainable development related to the urban poor in informal settlements. It includes also a case study of how the Municipality of Taboão da Serra, a city in the periphery area to SaoPaulo, work for upgrading the favelas. It discusses issues such as which strategies for slum upgrading that are used and which philosophical theories the upgrading projects are related to.

    The study is based on literature studies and a two and a half month long field study at the municipal office at Taboão da Serra. During the field studies, a number of interviews and informal conversationswere held. Also visits to favelas and participation observations were made.

    The municipality has many projects aimed at upgrading the favelas. Many measures are about a better infrastructure and physical environment, for example waste management, land regularization andbetter roads. There are also measures both at municipal and national level to promote primary education. The municipality also runs programs to reduce unemployment. The upgrading projects have connectionsto both different kinds of utilitarianism and Rawls theory of justice.

  • 439.
    Bäckström, Morgan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Insamling av höjddata med UAV: En jämförelse mellan laserskanning, GNSS och UAV2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the study was to compare elevation data, from UAV photo, with NRTK, trigonometric leveling and airborne laser scanning. The concrete issues to investigate were:

    • What quality is achieved by data acquisition using UAV, compared to laser scanning and terrestrial measurement with NRTK? • How much does different flight altitudes affect the result?

    The aerial photos were taken at 60 and 120 meters above ground, using seven flight support points and four ground control points. Those were measured with NRTK and terrestrial measurement. Collected images have been processed, with Agisoft Photoscan 1.4.2, into models in which coordinates are retrieved for comparison. The coordinates were compared and showed a deviation of 24 to 76 millimeters which is an acceptable result for a HMK standard level 2.

  • 440.
    Böhlmark, Johan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Spatial Planning.
    Källman, Frida
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Spatial Planning.
    Gemensam stad: En fallstudie om socialt hållbar planering för Trelleborgs sjöstad2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Omvandling av hamnområden och att stärka kopplingen mellan staden och havet är en aktuell planeringssituation i dagens ökande urbanisering i våra städer samtidigt som segregering är ett växande problem på många platser. Hållbar utveckling har sedan länge varit aktuellt i planeringsdebatten men under senare tid har en förskjutning skett från de ekologiska aspekterna av stadsplaneringen till de sociala värdena som skapas av densamma. Det har därför inte skrivits och forskats i lika stor utsträckning som inom den ekologiska och ekonomiska hållbarheten då planering för integration och det sociala livet är under pågående utveckling.

    Arbetet syftar därmed till att behandla synen på social hållbar utveckling och undersöka hur begreppet förstås, vad det innefattar och hur det definieras samt hur det senare kan komma att praktiseras. Detta görs med utgång i en teoretisk diskussion där hållbar utveckling som huvudbegrepp utreds utifrån dess ursprung, hur det används och förstås utifrån forskning kring ämnet, varpå en liknande redogörelse görs av begreppet social hållbarhet, vilket utgör arbetets huvudfokus.

    För att bringa klarhet i den sociala hållbarhetens koppling till fysisk planering har samtida forskning i ämnet studerats, vilket utgör arbetets forskningsöversikt. utifrån denna forskningsöversikt, tillsammans med studier av två referensprojekt, utrönas gestaltningsprinciper för hur social hållbarhet kan främjas och praktiskt appliceras i ett gestaltningsförslag. Dessa gestaltningsprinciper tillämpas sedan genom arbetets fallstudie av Trelleborgs sjöstad, som även är föremål för den aktuella arkitekttävlingen Europan 14. I fallstudien studeras planeringsförutsättningarna för Trelleborgs sjöstad utifrån den fördjupade översiktsplanen för området samt utifrån dokument tillhörande tävlingsprogrammet för Europan 14. Arbetet mynnar slutligen ut i ett gestaltningsförslag för en centrumnära del av Trelleborgs sjöstad. Förslaget grundar sig i de principer för socialt hållbar planering som baserats på forskningsöversikten, och det visar sig att det är möjligt att planera socialt hållbart utifrån aktuell forskning och samtida planeringsexempel.

  • 441. Börjars, Simon
    Höjdavvägning och trigonometrisk höjdmätning: en metodjämförelse2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 442.
    Börjesson, Alexander
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Spatial Planning.
    Mårtensson, Felix
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Spatial Planning.
    Den externa handeln i fysisk planering: En studie av handelns påverkan och dess betydelse i stadskärnan och externa lägen2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Handel har i flera fall legat till grund för städers ursprung i Sverige, där stadskärnan har verkat som den centrala handelsplatsen. I takt med handelns utveckling och bilens framfart i det svenska samhället, har handelsplatser uppstått i externa lägen utanför staden. Externhandeln har med bilanpassade och lättåtkomliga lägen i nära anslutning till större trafikleder öppnat upp för en handelsmarknad som har bidragit till en konkurrens om kommuners kundunderlag. Samtidigt har handeln expanderat över internet genom e-handel som även denna plattform är en bidragande faktor till den ökade konkurrensen.

    Konkurrensen mellan den samlade externa handeln och stadskärnan har sedan ett antal år legat till grund för flera debatter, och kring forskningen råder det delade meningar där en del menar att konkurrensen gynnar handel i stadskärnan medan en del menar att den missgynnas. Kommuner har olika synsätt och innehar olika erfarenheter av den externa handeln men gemensamt för dem är att den påverkar deras fysiska planering. Forskningen yrkar på att aspekter som tillgänglighet, trafikfrågor och etablering i geografiska lägen medför konsekvenser för kommuner och att de måste behandlas effektivt i den fysiska planeringen.

    Följande kandidatuppsats undersöker den externa handelns påverkan på stadskärnan och dess verksamheter samt hur den externa handeln behandlas i kommunal fysisk planering. Syftet med arbetet har varit att undersöka två kommuner, Karlshamns kommun och Kristianstad kommun, med hjälp av fallstudier där deras kommunala planering har granskats och jämförts för att finna likheter och skillnader i deras planering. För att genomföra arbetet har dokumentanalys använts där relevanta begrepp har identifierats och kategoriserats utifrån uppsatsens teoretiska utgångspunkter. Begreppen har därefter applicerats på ett empiriskt material som består av kommunala dokument, för att granska hur kommunerna hanterar den externa handeln i planeringen. Samtidigt har uppsatsen använt sig av surveyundersökning för att finna vilken påverkan den externa handeln har på respektive stadskärna och dess verksamheter.

    I analysen av det empiriska materialet har det framgått att i respektive kommun behandlas den externa handeln på liknande sätt då de har snarlika förutsättningar. Båda kommunerna är medvetna om att den externa handeln är betydande för respektive kommuns intressen, samtidigt som de tar hänsyn till de sociala och miljömässiga aspekter som den externa handeln medför samhället. Av surveyundersökningen har det framgått bland aktörer i respektive stad att den externa handeln har en påverkan på verksamheter i stadskärnan, samtidigt som det har påverkat konsumenterna var de främst väljer att uträtta sin handel.

    Respektive analys av kommunerna har slutligen ställts mot varandra och en diskussion har genomförts. Därefter besvaras uppsatsens frågeställningar angående vilken påverkan den externa handeln har på stadskärnan, samt vilka likheter och skillnader det finns mellan de utvalda kommunernas hantering av den externa handeln i planeringen.

  • 443.
    Börjesson, Alexandra
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geoinformatics.
    Askerson, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geoinformatics.
    Suitability Analysis for Expanding Companies2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When companies are expanding, they are searching for optimal locations according to parameters which are important for the company. Companies for which the geographic location is important needs to rely on geographic aspects to find the optimal site for their service. The geographic tool of using Suitability Analysis can make the planning of expansions more efficient. Is it possible to give a reliable Suitability Analysis and will it differ between different choices of weighting techniques in the analysis?

    The focus of the study is on the reliability of Suitability Analysis for expanding companies depending on geographic data. It will, through a study on a start-up company, be checked if the Suitability Analysis is different between two frequently used weighting ideas; Analytic Hierarchy Process and Swing Weight Technique, in this type of analysis. The Suitability Analysis will be done using Geographical Information Systems and the result will be two suitability maps.

    The study results in two different suitability maps, one for each weighting technique, with differences. The different techniques are dissimilar in their subjectivity of the weighting, which is reflected in the result.

    Suitability Analysis is useful for companies which expansions are depending on geographic aspect. The key to a reliable and useful suitability analysis is depending on a credible source of data for respectively parameter of interest. It decreases the risk of error sources and gives the result a higher reliability. 

  • 444.
    Börjesson, Jenny
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Johansson, Sara
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Jane's walk som strategi för involvering av allmänheten i planeringsprocessen2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 445.
    Caesar, Carl
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Real Estate Planning and Land Law.
    Municipal Landownership and Housing in Sweden: Exploring links, supply and possibilities2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis comprises a number of studies, all directed at different linkages between municipal landownership and housing in Sweden. In all, the thesis consists of four papers. Of these, initial Paper I targets the emergence of the municipal landownership that still today are of crucial importance for the Swedish housing market. The main functions of the municipal landownership from the beginning of the 20th century and up until present time are retrospectively investigated and its role within Swedish housing during different times is elaborated upon. Paper II thereafter redirects focus to present time solely, and studies the management of the municipal land from particularly a housing perspective. More concretely, the disposal procedure – or land allocation practice – of the municipal land aimed for housing is investigated empirically, based on current practice in more than 25 municipalities. Paper III builds on preceding Paper II, but with a narrowed focus to a fundamental sequence of the disposal procedure – namely the developer selection. Accordingly, four different assigning methods, all derived from municipal practice, are discerned and their individual strengths and weaknesses are systematically discussed. Lastly, Paper IV attempts to illuminate an often overlooked dimension of the municipal landownership – as a potential and powerful instrument to counter polarizations between different social-groups, within the built environment. Necessary prerequisites in order to enable this are presented and an empirical study investigates whether this, somewhat concealed, potential in the municipal landownership seems to be utilized in practice.

  • 446.
    Caesar, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Real Estate Planning and Land Law. Royal Inst Technol, KTH, Div Real Estate Planning & Land Law, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Kopsch, Fredrik
    Lund Univ, Div Real Estate Sci, Lund, Sweden..
    Municipal land allocations: a key for understanding tenure and social mix patterns in Stockholm2018In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 26, no 8, p. 1663-1681Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A socially mixed population is a political ambition in Stockholm. By providing a mix of tenure alternatives throughout all neighbourhoods this objective could, at least partially, be fulfilled. Since current tenure proportions display a weak balance in many neighbourhoods it could be assumed that governing politicians - by primarily utilizing Stockholm's vast landownership and municipal housing developers - attempt to bridge observed gaps. Distribution of new rental and ownership apartments in municipal land allocations should acknowledge the existing tenure composition in a neighbourhood. Methodically this article focuses on all (nearly 50,000) apartments channelled through Stockholm's land allocation system between 2002 and 2012. After classification of all apartments based on tenure, location, year and developer (private or municipal) the information is merged with yearly housing stock characteristics for 128 neighbourhoods. The outcome is a unique data set allowing for statistical assessment of whether Stockholm's tenure (and in extension social) mix ambition is reflected in practice. The present article aims to highlight the crucial importance of landownership in Swedish municipalities with an aspiration to achieve or maintain a balanced tenure mix. While the findings indicate Stockholm is complying fairly well with its ambition, the results do reveal some contradicting signs.

  • 447.
    Cai, Baoping
    et al.
    College of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao.
    Huang, Lei
    College of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao.
    Lin, Janet
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Xie, Min
    Department of Systems Engineering and Engineering Management, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon.
    Bayesian Networks in Fault Diagnosis: some research issues andchallenges2017In: Proceedings of MPMM 2016: 6th International Conference on Maintenance Performance Measurement and Management, 28 November 2016, Luleå, Sweden / [ed] Diego Galar, Dammika Seneviratne, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2017, p. 26-32Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 448.
    Calance, Marius Alexandru
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Energy Losses Study on District Cooling Pipes: Steady-state Modeling and Simulation2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Distribution losses are a very important factor in district energy systems. By optimizing the losses in such a system, both economical and environmental aspects can be fulfilled. Unfortunately, there is few information regarding losses for district cooling systems. This study focuses on losses in district cooling networks by using both R-network and FEM simulation models. A R-network model composed of thermal conductances has been developed through analytical equations and simulations have been performed for validation. Afterwards, an in-progress construction project of a district cooling network from the city of Gävle, Sweden, is analyzed. The assessment consists of 15 pipe diameters in three configurations (two symmetric cases and one asymmetric), at three ground laying depths (0.8, 2 and 4 meters) for a duration of 7 months (April to October). A particular case in which the main distribution pipes from and to the plant are submerged in the city’s river for a distance of 1 km is investigated in order to estimate the temperature increase of the supply water. A maximum cooling loss below 2% of the total delivered energy during the season for any network configuration resulted from the calculation. Finally, the mixed pipes array seems to be a feasible investment both economically and technically but it cannot be used for the entire network spread since a part of the network has been already built with the non-insulated plastic pipes. The R-network model proved to be effective and reliable in the analysis which provides confidence that it can serve as a solid foundation for a calculation tool - primarily for design purposes and also for estimating energy loss. 

  • 449.
    Calle Cordón, Álvaro
    et al.
    CEMOSA, Spain.
    Jiménez-Redondo, Noemi
    CEMOSA, Spain.
    Morales-Gámiz, J.
    CEMOSA, Spain.
    García-Villena, F. A.
    CEMOSA, Spain.
    Peralta-Escalante, J.
    CEMOSA, Spain.
    Garmabaki, Amir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Famurewa, Stephen Mayowa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Duarte, Emanuel
    Infraestruturas de Portugal, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Morgado, João
    Infraestruturas de Portugal, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Combined RAMS and LCC analysis in railway and road transport infrastructures2018In: Proceedings of 7th Transport Research Arena TRA, Vienna, Austria, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis is an assessment technique used to evaluate costs incurred during the life-cycle of a system to help in long term decision making. In railway and road transport infrastructures, costs are subject to numerous uncertainties associated to the operation and maintenance phase. By integrating in the LCC the stochastic nature of failure using Reliability, Maintainability, Availability and Safety (RAMS) analyses, maintenance costs can be more reliably estimated. This paper presents an innovative approach for a combined RAMS&LCC methodology for linear transport infrastructures which has been developed under the H2020 project INFRALERT. Results of the application of such methodology in two real use cases are shown, one for rail and another one for road. The use cases show how the approach is implemented in practice.

  • 450.
    Calle-Cordón, Álvaro
    et al.
    CEMOSA.
    Jiménez-Redondo, Noemi
    CEMOSA.
    Morales-Gámiz, F. J.
    CEMOSA.
    García-Villena, F.A.
    CEMOSA.
    Garmabaki, Amir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Odelius, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Integration of RAMS in LCC analysis for linear transportinfrastructures: A case study for railways2017In: IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, ISSN 1757-8981, E-ISSN 1757-899X, Vol. 236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis is an economic technique used to assess the totalcosts associated with the lifetime of a system in order to support decision making in long termstrategic planning. For complex systems, such as railway and road infrastructures, the cost ofmaintenance plays an important role in the LCC analysis. Costs associated with maintenanceinterventions can be more reliably estimated by integrating the probabilistic nature of thefailures associated to these interventions in the LCC models. Reliability, Maintainability,Availability and Safety (RAMS) parameters describe the maintenance needs of an asset in aquantitative way by using probabilistic information extracted from registered maintenanceactivities. Therefore, the integration of RAMS in the LCC analysis allows obtaining reliablepredictions of system maintenance costs and the dependencies of these costs with specific costdrivers through sensitivity analyses. This paper presents an innovative approach for acombined RAMS & LCC methodology for railway and road transport infrastructures beingdeveloped under the on-going H2020 project INFRALERT. Such RAMS & LCC analysisprovides relevant probabilistic information to be used for condition and risk-based planning ofmaintenance activities as well as for decision support in long term strategic investmentplanning.

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