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  • 401.
    Wang, Chao
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. South East University, Nanjing, China.
    Zhang, JIwen
    South East University, Nanjing, China.
    Tu, Yongming
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. South East University, Nanjing, China.
    Sabourova, Natalia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Grip, Niklas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mathematical Science.
    Blanksvärd, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Fatigue Assessment of Reinforced Concrete Railway Bridge based on a Coupled Dynamic System2020In: Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, ISSN 1573-2479, E-ISSN 1744-8980Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a fatigue damage assessment methodology of a reinforced concrete bridge based on a train bridge coupled dynamic analysis system. This coupling system is composed of a vehicle a ballasted track and a bridge structure to realize a coupled vibration analysis during train passages. This methodology adopts the Palmgren Miner rule to linearly accumulate fatigue damage, and accomplishes fatigue assessment based on recommended SN relationships for reinforced concrete from various criteria. In this paper, the dynamic performances of a bridge structure are analyzed with two different vehicle models, a moving load model (and a moving spring mass damper model). Calculated dynamic stresses areused to evaluate the fatigue damage of critical positions in a reinforced concrete bridge. A case study is carried out of a railway arch bridge with a span of 89 m, Långforsen Bridge. It runs over Kalix River on the railway between Kalix and Morjärv in northern Sweden The fatigue assessment is made by combining the presented methodology with measurements. Furthermore, the effects of train speed and axle load on fatigue damage are investigated. The results indicate that good estimations of the fatigue damage assessment are made for four measured cases based on a train-bridge coupled dynamic analysis. For low speeds and light loads no difference could be seen in the cumulative fatigue damage for the two vehicle models. But high speeds and/or heavy load ssignificantly affect the fatigue damage.

  • 402.
    Wang, Tongfang
    et al.
    Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of Ministry of Education, National Engineering Research Center for Prestressing Technology, School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, 211189 Nanjing, PR China.
    Cao, Jie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Guo, Tong
    Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of Ministry of Education, National Engineering Research Center for Prestressing Technology, School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, 211189 Nanjing, PR China.
    Tu, Yongming
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of Ministry of Education, National Engineering Research Center for Prestressing Technology, School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, 211189 Nanjing, PR China.
    Wang, Chao
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Sas, Gabriel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    The role of deep learning in reducing computational cost when simulating chloride ion attack on hydrated calcium silicate with molecular dynamics2024In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 417, article id 135257Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 403.
    Wang, Tongfang
    et al.
    Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of Ministry of Education, National Engineering Research Center for Prestressing Technology, School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, 211189 Nanjing, PR China.
    Tu, Yongming
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of Ministry of Education, National Engineering Research Center for Prestressing Technology, School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, 211189 Nanjing, PR China.
    Guo, Tong
    Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of Ministry of Education, National Engineering Research Center for Prestressing Technology, School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, 211189 Nanjing, PR China.
    Fang, Mengxiang
    Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of Ministry of Education, National Engineering Research Center for Prestressing Technology, School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, 211189 Nanjing, PR China.
    Shi, Pan
    Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of Ministry of Education, National Engineering Research Center for Prestressing Technology, School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, 211189 Nanjing, PR China.
    Yuan, Lei
    Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of Ministry of Education, National Engineering Research Center for Prestressing Technology, School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, 211189 Nanjing, PR China.
    Wang, Chao
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Sas, Gabriel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. SINTEF Narvik AS, Narvik 8517, Norway.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Molecular dynamics study on structural characteristics and mechanical properties of sodium aluminosilicate hydrate with immobilized radioactive Cs and Sr ions2023In: Applied Clay Science, ISSN 0169-1317, E-ISSN 1872-9053, Vol. 243, article id 107042Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a low-carbon, environment-friendly and economical resource for nuclear power generation, radionuclide emission and storage has received worldwide attention. Geopolymer concrete is a green and sustainable building material that can be used to immobilize radionuclides. In the present study, molecular dynamics simulations were conducted to investigate the structural and mechanical properties of sodium aluminosilicate hydrate (NASH) gel, the main component of geopolymer concrete, with/without immobilized radioactive Cs and Sr ions. The three-dimensional structure of NASH gel enabled good immobilization of both radioactive Cs and Sr ions owing to the large radius of Cs ions and high charge density of Sr ions. Addition of Cs ions reduced the strength of the gel and increased the fracture strain, whereas addition of Sr ions increased the strength and significantly increased the ductility. Addition of Sr ions increased the number of penta-coordinated Al in the structure. Consequently, breakage of these bonds required more energy to be absorbed from outside. The nanoscale molecular dynamics simulations provided a theoretical support at atomic level for understanding the structural and mechanical characteristics of geopolymers pertinent to the immobilization of nuclear waste.

  • 404.
    Wang, Xiaodong
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Hagman, Olle
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Björngrim, Niclas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Engineered Wood in Cold Climate - Application to Monitoring of a New Swedish Suspension Bridge2013In: Advanced Materials Research, ISSN 1022-6680, E-ISSN 1662-8985, Vol. 639-640, p. 96-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineered wood is increasingly used in large structures in Europe, though little is known of its behavior in cold climate. This paper presents the structural health monitoring (SHM) system of a newly built suspension bridge with a deck of glulam timber as well as a bond stability study regarding cold climate performance of engineered wood. The bridge is located in Skellefteå in northern Sweden, and it connects two parts of the city situated on opposite shores of the Skellefteå river. In this ongoing study of the timber-bridge, a structural health monitoring system is employed to verify structural design and long-term performance. This 130m-span bridge is monitored using GNSS receivers, MEMS accelerometers, laser positioning systems, wireless moisture content sensors, strain gauges and weather stations. Data from the monitoring systems is analyzed regarding accuracy, complexity, costs and reliability for long time use. Engineered wood application in bridges, sports centers and timber buildings are discussed. Bond stability of glulam structures in cold climate is also examined in a range of experiments ranging from small glued wood joints to full size glulam bridge performance over time. From an engineered wood material point of view, the study is relevant to cold regions such as Scandinavia, Canada, Alaska, Russia, and the northern parts of China and Japan etc. The engineered wood constructions in these areas will be exposed to low temperature in a quite long period each year. The goal is to determine how engineered wood behaves when exposed to temperatures between 20 °C to -60 °C.

  • 405.
    Wen, Rongjia
    et al.
    Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of Ministry of Education, National Engineering Research Center for Prestressing Technology, School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, 211189, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China.
    Chen, Yanqiu
    Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of Ministry of Education, National Engineering Research Center for Prestressing Technology, School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, 211189, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China.
    Guo, Tong
    Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of Ministry of Education, National Engineering Research Center for Prestressing Technology, School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, 211189, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China.
    Yuan, Lei
    Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of Ministry of Education, National Engineering Research Center for Prestressing Technology, School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, 211189, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China.
    Wang, Tongfang
    Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of Ministry of Education, National Engineering Research Center for Prestressing Technology, School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, 211189, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China.
    Yu, Qian
    Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of Ministry of Education, National Engineering Research Center for Prestressing Technology, School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, 211189, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China.
    Tu, Yongming
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of Ministry of Education, National Engineering Research Center for Prestressing Technology, School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, 211189, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China.
    Sas, Gabriel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. SINTEF Narvik AS, 8517, Narvik, Norway.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Effects of temperature on ion transport in C–A–S–H gel nanopores: insights from molecular dynamics simulations2022In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 57, no 39, p. 18437-18455Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, molecular dynamics simulations are used to study the effects of temperature on the transport of chloride and sulfate in the nanopores of aluminum-doped cement-based materials (i.e., CASH gels) exposed to aqueous solutions of NaCl and Na2SO4 at 283, 293, 303, 333, and 363 K. It is shown that high temperatures increase the initial transport rates of water molecules and ions while weakening the hydration layer around ions. This increases the probability of ion–ion and ion–substrate contact and thus makes ions more likely to cluster in solution and be captured by the substrate. Both cluster formation and substrate capture can significantly restrict the free movement of ions in solution and thus gradually reduce the ion transport rate. In addition, since sulfate ions have four oxygen atoms that can capture other ions, large ion clusters form more readily in Na2SO4 solution than in NaCl solution. The capture of these large ion clusters at the interface can cause a “necking” phenomenon that hinders the subsequent transport of water molecules and ions into the nanopore. These results provide a nanoscale basis for designing aluminum-doped cement-based materials with enhanced durability at high temperatures.

  • 406.
    Wen, Rongjia
    et al.
    Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of Ministry of Education, School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, P.R. China.
    Tu, Yongming
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of Ministry of Education, School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, P.R. China; National Engineering Research Center for Prestressing Technology, Southeast University, Nanjing, P.R. China.
    Guo, Tong
    Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of Ministry of Education, School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, P.R. China.
    Yu, Qian
    Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of Ministry of Education, School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, P.R. China.
    Shi, Pan
    Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of Ministry of Education, School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, P.R. China.
    Ji, Yuanhui
    School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, P.R. China.
    Das, Oisik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Försth, Michael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Sas, Gabriel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. SINTEF Narvik AS, Narvik, Norway.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Molecular dynamics study on coupled ion transport in aluminium-doped cement-based materials: Effect of concentration2023In: Advances in Cement Research, ISSN 0951-7197, E-ISSN 1751-7605, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 81-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mutual inhibition effect of transport of sulphate and chloride in concrete specimen was determined in a macroscopic experiment. Higher concentration of sulphate has a better inhibition effect on chloride transport and the opposite is also true. In this paper, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was performed to explore the effect of concentration (0, 0.5, 1.0 mol/L) on the transport of mixed solutions (NaCl and Na2SO4) in the main hydration products of aluminium-doped cement-based materials (i.e., calcium-aluminium-silicate-hydrate (C-A-S-H) gel). Sulphate was found to promote the aggregation of other ions to form ion clusters, which can reduce the effective width of the channel entrance and create a “necking” effect, thus reducing the overall transport rate of the solution. With the increase of NaCl concentration, sulphate ions in the mixed solution can adsorb more Na+ and Cl+ ions, and then form larger ion clusters to block the nanopores. Moreover, with increasing Na2SO4 concentration, higher amount of sulphate ions existing in the solution makes it possible to form more ion clusters. The results can provide a reasonable nanoscale explanation for macroscopic experiment.

  • 407. Westerberg, Bo
    et al.
    Ansell, Anders
    KTH, Byggvetenskap, Betongbyggnad.
    Sundquist, Håkan
    KTH, Byggvetenskap, Brobyggnad.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Hållfasthet2021In: Betonghandbok Material, Del II, tredje reviderade upplagan: Hårdnad betong, fysikaliska egenskaper och beständighet / [ed] Ingvar Börtemark, Richard McCarthy, Christer Ljungkrantz, Stockholm: Svensk Byggtjänst , 2021, 3, p. 27-187Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kapitlet omfattar följande delar:

    14.1 Inledning

    14.2 Begreppet hållfasthet

    14.3 Faktorer som generellt påverkar hållfastheten

    14.4 Tryckhållfasthet

    14.5 Centrisk draghållfasthet

    14.6 Spräckhållfasthet

    14.7 Böjdraghållfasthet

    14.8 Brottmekanik

    14.9 Skjuvhållfasthet

    14.10 Slaghållfasthet

    14.11 Hållfasthet vid stämpellast

    14.12 Hållfasthetssamband

    14.13 Hållfasthet i färdig konstruktion

    14.14 Bedömning av hållfasthet i färdig konstruktion

    14.15 Hållfasthetens spridning

    14.16 Litteratur

  • 408.
    Westerström, Göran
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Bernspång, Lars
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Utbildning och forskning i världsklass vid LTU: Skandinaviens nordligaste tekniska universitet2004In: V-byggaren : väg- och vattenbyggaren, ISSN 0283-5363, no 2, p. 42-45Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Luleå tekniska universitet startade 1971 som Tekniska högskolan i Luleå. Målet var att ge regionen tillväxt genom högre teknisk utbildning och forskning. Många i de södra delarna av landet var skeptiska och vanföreställningar som att akademiker inte kan förmås att bo så långt norrut frodades

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 409.
    Widing, Svante
    et al.
    Nya Asfalt AB.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Injekterade dragstag i lera1971In: Byggmästaren, ISSN 0007-7550, no 5, p. 1-8Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For some years a great number of temporary te-backs have been successfully constructed in Sweden. The tie-backs are used for bracing of sheet pile walls and are grouted in soils having adequate friction capacity. In order to investigate if some type of tie-back could possibly be used in loose clay,  a series of tests were performed during 1966-67. The tests were carried out in Göteborg near the Göta River. The clay at this location has settled in stationary water. The uindrained shear stress is 15-25 kPa and the water content is 60 to 85%. Earlier tests in Europe have been performed with a much lower water content (25-30%).

    The tiebacks were injected in steps. To study the effect of creep deformation, three tie-backs were tested with constant loads equal to 75% of the ultimate load for periods up to four weeks. The ultimate load ranged between 200 and 260 kN and the creep deformation of 1 to 2 mm.

    The allowable load may be taken to 100 to 150 kN. Thids is a rather low allowable load and the tested type od tie-backs can only be competitive in special cases. for example when it is troublesome to brace a sheet pile wall by other methods.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 410.
    Yu, Qian
    et al.
    Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of the Ministry of Education, School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, 211189 Nanjing, PR China.
    Lin, Yuxuan
    Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of the Ministry of Education, School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, 211189 Nanjing, PR China.
    Guo, Tong
    Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of the Ministry of Education, School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, 211189 Nanjing, PR China.
    Wen, Rongjia
    Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of the Ministry of Education, School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, 211189 Nanjing, PR China.
    Wang, Chao
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Tu, Yongming
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Sas, Gabriel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. SINTEF Narvik AS, Narvik 8517, Norway.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Assessing the unsaturated transport and adsorption properties of ions in nanopores of realistic hydrated-calcium-silicate gel using molecular dynamics simulations2023In: Computational materials science, ISSN 0927-0256, E-ISSN 1879-0801, Vol. 222, article id 112121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The unsaturated transport of water and ions in concrete structures accelerates the corrosion of reinforcing steel bars. Unfortunately, previous macroscopic and microscopic experimental studies have provided little clarity on the transport mechanisms of ions in calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H) gels. This paper presents molecular dynamics simulations performed to investigate the effect of ion species and concentration during unsaturated transport processes. The transport rate of NaCl solutions at any given concentration significantly exceeds that of CaCl2 solutions because of desorption of intralayer calcium ions in the substrate. Additionally, the electric double layer effect of the realistic C-S-H gel substrate is more pronounced in NaCl solution than in CaCl2 solution and becomes stronger as the concentration increases in both cases. These insights into the effects of ion species and concentration on unsaturated ion transport and adsorption in realistic C-S-H gel nanopores will help guide the development of cement-based materials with improved corrosion resistance.

  • 411.
    Yuan, Lei
    et al.
    Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of Ministry of Education, National Engineering Research Center for Prestressing Technology, School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, 211189 Nanjing, PR China.
    Lin, Yuxuan
    Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of Ministry of Education, National Engineering Research Center for Prestressing Technology, School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, 211189 Nanjing, PR China.
    Guo, Tong
    Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of Ministry of Education, National Engineering Research Center for Prestressing Technology, School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, 211189 Nanjing, PR China.
    Wen, Rongjia
    Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of Ministry of Education, National Engineering Research Center for Prestressing Technology, School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, 211189 Nanjing, PR China.
    Yu, Qian
    Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of Ministry of Education, National Engineering Research Center for Prestressing Technology, School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, 211189 Nanjing, PR China.
    Wang, Chao
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Tu, Yongming
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. ey Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of Ministry of Education, National Engineering Research Center for Prestressing Technology, School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, 211189 Nanjing, PR China.
    Sas, Gabriel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. SINTEF Narvik AS, Narvik 8517, Norway.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    The adsorption of two organic inhibitors on stainless steel passive film: A reactive force field study2023In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 607, article id 154965Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reactive molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to investigate the adsorption of water and the organic corrosion inhibitors vitamin C (VC) and 2-vinylsuccinic acid (VSA) on Cr2O3 (0 0 1) surface. Adsorption of the inhibitors is accompanied by the formation of Cr-O covalent bonds and O…H hydrogen bonds. The superior corrosion inhibition performance of VC than VSA and their preferential parallel adsorption geometry can be attributed to more bonds to the surface. The adsorption of water on the Cr2O3 surface leads to the formation of a multilayered structure with a higher atomic intensity than bulk water in which the first two layers interact directly with the metal oxide surface. When an inhibitor layer and water are both present, the inhibitor effectively blocks Cr2O3-water interactions but water significantly weakens the inhibitor's adsorption. These findings shed new light on the mechanism of corrosion inhibition in stainless steel.

  • 412.
    Zou, Zhongquan
    et al.
    Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha.
    Enochsson, Ola
    He, Guojing
    Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Finite element analysis of small span reinforced concrete trough railway bridge2009In: Key Engineering Materials, ISSN 1013-9826, E-ISSN 1662-9795, Vol. 400-402, p. 645-650Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The static behavior of a reinforced concrete trough railway bridge is analyzed by finite element method. The influences of load distribution fashion, supporting width of the bearings and the additional support beneath the girder are investigated; and the spatial effect of the stress distribution is studied as well. To confirm the analysis accuracy, the results are calibrated with the field load test results. It is found that the influence of load distribution fashion is minor and negligible, while those of supporting width and additional support are not negligible; and the spatial effect is significant.

  • 413.
    Östlund, Per-Olov
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Inverkan av fleraxiell last och temperatur på betong1976Report (Other academic)
6789 401 - 413 of 413
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