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  • 401.
    Unnerstad, Helle
    et al.
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swed. Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Romell, A.
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swed. Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ericsson, Henrik
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swed. Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Danielsson-Tham, Tham
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swed. Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Tham, Wilhelm
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swed. Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Listeria monocytogenes in faeces from clinically healthy dairy cows in Sweden2000In: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, ISSN 1751-0147, E-ISSN 1751-0147, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 167-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Faecal samples from 102 clinically healthy dairy cows, representing 34 farms in the Swedish province of Uppsala, were analysed for the presence of Listeria spp. using an enrichment procedure. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from six (6%) and L. innocua from 2 (2%) cows. From each of the 6 samples positive for L. monocytogenes, 5 isolates were further characterised by restriction enzyme analysis using the 3 enzymes Apa I, Sma I, and Asc I, followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Three of the L. monocytogenes positive cows lived at the same farm, and they all harboured the same clonal type. One of these 3 cows also harboured a further clonal type of L. monocytogenes. The fact that one of the cows harboured 2 different clonal types of L. monocytogenes is important from an epidemiological point of view when routes of infection are to be investigated.

  • 402.
    Valdes, Alberto
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Analytical Chemistry.
    Lewitt, Moira
    Univ West Scotland, Sch Hlth & Life Sci, Paisley PA1 2BE, Renfrew, Scotland.
    Wiss, Erica
    Albano Anim Hosp, S-18236 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ramström, Margareta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Analytical Chemistry.
    Strage, Emma M.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Univ Anim Hosp, Dept Clin Sci, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden;Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Univ Anim Hosp, Clin Pathol Lab, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Development of a Parallel Reaction Monitoring-MS Method To Quantify IGF Proteins in Dogs and a Case of Nonislet Cell Tumor Hypoglycemia2019In: Journal of Proteome Research, ISSN 1535-3893, E-ISSN 1535-3907, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 18-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nonislet-cell tumor hypoglycemia (NICTH) is a rare paraneoplastic phenomenon well described in dogs and humans. Tumors associated with NICTH secrete incompletely processed forms of insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II), commonly named big IGF-II. These forms have increased bioavailability and interact with the insulin and IGF-I receptor causing hypoglycemia and growth-promoting effects. Immunoassays designed for human samples have been used to measure canine IGF-I and -II, but they possess some limitations. In addition, there are no validated methods for measurement of big IGF-II in dogs. In the present study, a targeted parallel reaction monitoring MS-based method previously developed for cats has been optimized and applied to simultaneously quantify the serum levels of IGF-I, IGF-II, and IGFBP-3, and for the first time, the levels of big IGF-II in dogs. This method allows the absolute quantification of IGF proteins using a mixture of QPrEST proteins previously designed for humans. The method possesses good linearity and repeatability and has been used to evaluate the IGF-system in a dog with NICTH syndrome. In this dog, the levels of big IGF-II decreased by 80% and the levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 increased approximately 20- and 4-times, respectively, after removal of the tumor.

  • 403. van den Berg, L
    et al.
    Vos-Loohuis, M
    Schilder, M B H
    van Oost, B A
    Hazewinkel, H A W
    Wade, C M
    Karlsson, E K
    Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Liinamo, A E
    Leegwater, P A J
    Evaluation of the serotonergic genes htr1A, htr1B, htr2A, and slc6A4 in aggressive behavior of golden retriever dogs2008In: Behavior Genetics, ISSN 0001-8244, E-ISSN 1573-3297, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 55-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aggressive behavior displays a high heritability in our study group of Golden Retriever dogs. Alterations in brain serotonin metabolism have been described in aggressive dogs before. Here, we evaluate whether four genes of the canine serotonergic system, coding for the serotonin receptors 1A, 1B, and 2A, and the serotonin transporter, could play a major role in aggression in Golden Retrievers. We performed mutation screens, linkage analysis, an association study, and a quantitative genetic analysis. There was no systematic difference between the coding DNA sequence of the candidate genes in aggressive and non-aggressive Golden Retrievers. An affecteds-only parametric linkage analysis revealed no strong major locus effect on human-directed aggression related to the candidate genes. An analysis of 41 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 1 Mb regions flanking the genes in 49 unrelated human-directed aggressive and 49 unrelated non-aggressive dogs did not show association of SNP alleles, genotypes, or haplotypes with aggression at the candidate loci. We completed our analyses with a study of the effect of variation in the candidate genes on a collection of aggression-related phenotypic measures. The effects of the candidate gene haplotypes were estimated using the Restricted Maximum Likelihood method, with the haplotypes included as fixed effects in a linear animal model. We observed no effect of the candidate gene haplotypes on a range of aggression-related phenotypes, thus extending our conclusions to several types of aggressive behavior. We conclude that it is unlikely that these genes play a major role in the variation in aggression in the Golden Retrievers that we studied. Smaller phenotypic effects of these loci could not be ruled out with our sample size.

  • 404. Van Lith, Lindy
    et al.
    Soba, Barbara
    Vizcaino, Vivian Villalba
    Svärd, Staffan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Microbiology.
    Sprong, Hein
    Tosini, Fabio
    Pozio, Edoardo
    Caccio, Simone M.
    A real-time assemblage-specific PCR assay for the detection of Giardia duodenalis assemblages A, B and E in fecal samples2015In: Veterinary parasitology, ISSN 0304-4017, E-ISSN 1873-2550, Vol. 211, no 1-2, p. 28-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Giardiosis is a common gastrointestinal infection caused by the flagellate Giardia duodenalis, and affects both humans and animals, worldwide. Animals are infected with both zoonotic and host-specific G. duodenalis assemblages, and their role in the transmission of the infection to humans has been a subject of intense research and debate. Conventional PCR assays are appropriate to determine G. duodenalis assemblages, but lack sensitivity for the detection of mixed infections. Previous surveys demonstrated the occurrence of mixed infections with G. duodenalis assemblage A and B in humans, and with assemblages A and E in cattle, but are likely to be underestimated. In this study, we designed a set of assemblage-specific primers by exploiting sequence variability in homologous genes from assemblages A, B and E. Primers were designed to amplify fragments of different size that generated different melting curves from each assemblage in real-time PCR (rt-PCR) experiments. The assay has been tested on a large panel of human and farm animal isolates, and shown to possess high specificity (no cross reactions observed) and sensitivity (detection limit close to 20 copies). Therefore, this assay can be useful to detect zoonotic and host-specific G. duodenalis assemblages in fecal samples from farm animals, particularly when a large number of samples is to be tested.

  • 405.
    Van Vliet, Jolanda S
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rasanen, Leena
    Department of Food and Environmental Sciences, Division of Nutrition, University of Helsinki, Finland..
    Gustafsson, Per A
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Nelson, Nina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Overweight perception among adolescent girls in relation to appearance of female characteristics2014In: Paediatrics and Health, ISSN 2052-935X, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Overweight perception has been shown to be important for health related adolescent behavior, particularly in girls. Body perception may be affected by bodily changes, especially changes visible for others. Female pubertal development is characterized by many physical changes, such as accelerated growth and altered body fat distribution. This study examined the role of appearance of female characteristics in the risk for overweight perception among healthy adolescent girls.

    Methods: 220 girls, aged 11–16, provided self-reports on body perception and pubertal maturation before anthropometric measurements of height, weight, hip and waist circumference (WC). Logistic regression modeling was used to study the appearance of pubertal characteristics in relation to body perception.

    Results: Of the 76 girls (35%) perceiving themselves as overweight, only 14 and 36 girls were overweight according to body mass index and waist circumference respectively. Girls reporting breast development and acne (n=144) were more likely to perceive themselves as overweight than girls who did not report this appearance (n=76). These findings persist after adjusting for overweight according to WC. Non-overweight (n=170) rather than overweight girls reporting characteristics (n=50) were at risk of perceiving themselves overweight.

    Conclusions: Girls may confuse natural changes occurring during adolescent development with being overweight. It is therefore important to improve the understanding about the physical changes that normally occur during puberty along with the girls' own perception of these bodily changes among girls themselves, their parents, at schools, and other healthcare services.

  • 406.
    Velie, Brandon D.
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Breeding & Genet, Uppsala, Sweden;Univ Sydney, Sch Life & Environm Sci, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Lillie, Mette
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fegraeus, Kim Jaderkvist
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Breeding & Genet, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rosengren, Maria K.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Breeding & Genet, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sole, Marina
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Breeding & Genet, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wiklund, Maja
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ihler, Carl-Fredrik
    Norwegian Univ Life Sci, Dept Compan Anim Clin Sci, Oslo, Norway.
    Strand, Eric
    Norwegian Univ Life Sci, Dept Compan Anim Clin Sci, Oslo, Norway.
    Lindgren, Gabriella
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Breeding & Genet, Uppsala, Sweden;Katholieke Univ Leuven, Dept Biosyst, Livestock Genet, Leuven, Belgium.
    Exploring the genetics of trotting racing ability in horses using a unique Nordic horse model2019In: BMC Genomics, ISSN 1471-2164, E-ISSN 1471-2164, Vol. 20, article id 104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundHorses have been strongly selected for speed, strength, and endurance-exercise traits since the onset of domestication. As a result, highly specialized horse breeds have developed with many modern horse breeds often representing closed populations with high phenotypic and genetic uniformity. However, a great deal of variation still exists between breeds, making the horse particularly well suited for genetic studies of athleticism. To identify genomic regions associated with athleticism as it pertains to trotting racing ability in the horse, the current study applies a pooled sequence analysis approach using a unique Nordic horse model.ResultsPooled sequence data from three Nordic horse populations were used for F-ST analysis. After strict filtering, F-ST analysis yielded 580 differentiated regions for trotting racing ability. Candidate regions on equine chromosomes 7 and 11 contained the largest number of SNPs (n=214 and 147, respectively). GO analyses identified multiple genes related to intelligence, energy metabolism, and skeletal development as potential candidate genes. However, only one candidate region for trotting racing ability overlapped a known racing ability QTL.ConclusionsNot unexpected for genomic investigations of complex traits, the current study identified hundreds of candidate regions contributing to trotting racing ability in the horse. Likely resulting from the cumulative effects of many variants across the genome, racing ability continues to demonstrate its polygenic nature with candidate regions implicating genes influencing both musculature and neurological development.

  • 407.
    Vicente Carrillo, Alejandro
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Sperm Membrane Channels, Receptors and Kinematics: Using boar spermatozoa for drug toxicity screening2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Internal fertilization usually implies that a spermatozoon, with intact attributes for zygote formation, passes all hurdles during its transport through the female genitalia and reaches the oocyte. During this journey, millions to billions of other spermatozoa perish. Spermatozoa are highly differentiated motile cells without synthetic capabilities. They generate energy via glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation to sustain motility and to maintain the stability and functionality of their plasma membrane. In vivo, they spend their short lifespan bathing in female genital tract fluids of different origins, or are in vitro exposed to defined media during diverse sperm handling i.e. extension, cryopreservation, in vitro fertilization, etc. Being excitable cells, spermatozoa respond in vivo to various stimuli during pre-fertilization (capacitation, hyperactivation, oocyte location) and fertilization (acrosome reaction, interaction with the oocyte) events, mediated via diverse membrane ion-conducting channels and ligand-gated receptors. The present Thesis has mapped the presence and reactivity (sperm intactness and kinematics) of selected receptors, water and ion channels in ejaculated boar spermatozoa. The final aim was to find a relevant alternative cell type for in vitro bioassays that could ease the early scrutiny of candidate drugs as well as decreasing our needs for experimental animals according to the 3R principles. Spermatozoa are often extended, cooled and thawed to warrant their availability as fertile gametes for breeding or in vitro testing. Such manipulations stress the cells via osmotic variations and hence spermatozoa need to maintain membrane intactness by controlling the exchange of water and the common cryoprotectant glycerol, via aquaporins (AQPs). Both AQPs-7 and -9 were studied for membrane domain changes in cauda- and ejaculated spermatozoa (un-processed, extended, chilled or frozen-thawed). While AQP-9 maintained location through source and handling, thawing of ejaculated spermatozoa clearly relocated the labelling of AQP-7, thus appearing as a relevant marker for non-empirical studies of sperm cryopreservation. Alongside water, spermatozoa interact with calcium (Ca2+) via the main Ca2+ sperm channel CatSper. Increments in intracellular Ca2+ initiate motility hyperactivation and the acrosome reaction. The four subunits of the CatSper channel were present in boar spermatozoa, mediating changes in sperm motility under in vitro capacitation-inducing conditions (increased extracellular Ca2+ availability and bicarbonate) or challenge by the CatSper antagonists mibefradil and NNC 55-0396. Uterine and oviduct fluids are richest in endogenous opioids as β-endorphins during mating and ovulation. Both μ- and δ- opioid receptors were present in boar spermatozoa modulating sperm motility, as in vitro challenge with known agonists (μ: morphine; δ: DPDPE and κ: U 50488) and antagonists (μ: naloxone; δ: naltrindole and κ: nor-binaltrorphimine) showed that the μ-opioid receptor maintained or increased motility while the δ-opioid receptor mediated decreased motility over time. Finally, boar spermatozoa depicted dose-response effects on sperm kinematics and mitochondrial potential following in vitro challenge with 130 pharmacological drugs and toxic compounds as well as with eight known mito-toxic compounds. In conclusion, boar spermatozoa expressing functional water (AQPs-7 and -9) and ion (CatSper 1-4) channels as well as μ- and δ-opioid receptors are able to adapt to stressful environmental variations, capacitation and pharmacological compounds and drug components. Ejaculated sperm suspensions are easily and painlessly obtained from breeding boars, and are suitable biosensors for in vitro drug-induced testing, complying with the 3R principles of reduction and replacement of experimental animals, during early toxicology screening.

  • 408. Vymetalkova, Veronika
    et al.
    Vodicka, Pavel
    Pardini, Barbara
    Rosa, Fabio
    Levy, Miroslav
    Schneiderova, Michaela
    Liska, Vaclav
    Vodickova, Ludmila
    Nilsson, Torbjorn K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Clinical chemistry.
    Farkas, Sanja A.
    Epigenome-wide analysis of DNA methylation reveals a rectal cancer-specific epigenomic signature2016In: Epigenomics, ISSN 1750-1911, Vol. 8, no 9, p. 1193-1207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of the present study is to address a genome-wide search for novel methylation biomarkers in the rectal cancer (RC), as only scarce information on methylation profile is available. Materials & methods: We analyzed methylation status in 25 pairs of RC and adjacent healthy mucosa using the Illumina Human Methylation 450 BeadChip. Results: We found significantly aberrant methylation in 33 genes. After validation of our results by pyrosequencing, we found a good agreement with our findings. The BPIL3 and HBBP1 genes resulted hypomethylated in RC, whereas TIFPI2, ADHFE1, FLI1 and TLX1 were hypermethylated. An external validation by TCGA datasets confirmed the results. Conclusion: Our study, with external validation, has demonstrated the feasibility of using specific methylated DNA signatures for developing biomarkers in RC.

  • 409.
    Vánky, Farkas
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Thoracic Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Surgery for aortic stenosis: with special reference to myocardial metabolism, postoperative heart failure and long-term outcome2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Postoperative heart failure (PHF) remains a major determinant of the outcome after cardiac surgery. However, characteristics of and risk factors for PHF after valve surgery have received little attention.

    Post-ischaemic disturbances of myocardial metabolism that may contribute to PHF and are amenable to metabolic treatment have been identified early after coronary surgery (CABG). Knowledge derived from these studies may not be applicable to other patient groups. We therefore studied myocardial energy metabolism in 20 elective patients undergoing aortic valve replacement (AVR) for isolated aortic stenosis (AS). The metabolic studies indicated that myocardial oxidative metabolism had not fully recovered when the procedure was completed. Free fatty acids were the only major substrates taken up by the heart. Signs of preoperative and postoperative metabolic adaptation with substantial uptake of glutamate, previously demonstrated in patients with coronary artery disease, were found. Postoperative infusion of glutamate, (2 mL/kg body weight and hour of 0.125 M solution) based on assessment of myocardial glutamate requirements in CABG patients, resulted in a two-fold increase in myocardial glutamate uptake and a seven-fold increase in AV differences across the leg. This was associated with a significant myocardial uptake of lactate and metabolic changes in the leg suggesting mitigation of net amino acid loss and peripheral tissue lipolysis.

    Characteristics of and risk factors for PHF were evaluated in 398 patients undergoing isolated AVR for AS from 1 January 1995 to 31 December 2000. These were compared with 398 patients, matched for age and sex, undergoing on-pump isolated CABG. Forty-five AVR and 47 CABG patients fulfilled criteria for PHF and these were studied in detail. PHF usually presented at weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass. After CABG it was closely associated with preoperative ischaemic events and intraoperatively acquired myocardial infarction. Potential causes and eliciting events of PHF after AVR for AS were obvious only in one-third of the patients. Risk factors for PHF after AVR for AS indicated either pre-existing myocardial dysfunction, increased right or left ventricular after-load, or intraoperatively acquired myocardial injury. PHF was associated with high early mortality after CABG, whereas the consequences of PHF after AVR for AS became evident only with time, resulting in a 42% five-year mortality. Although PHF had a different temporal impact on late mortality after CABG and AVR for AS, it emerged as the statistically most significant risk factor for mortality occurring within 5 years from surgery both after AVR for AS and after CABG. Potential implications of our findings include needs for greater focus on preoperative surveillance of patients with AS for optimal timing of surgery, mitigation of intraoperatively acquired myocardial injury and tailoring of treatment for PHF. Furthermore, the findings have implications for long-term follow up of AS patients after surgery.

  • 410.
    Waak, Elisabet
    et al.
    Arla Research and Development, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tham, Wilhelm
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Danielsson-Tham, Marie-Louise
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Detection and characterisation of Listeria monocytogenes isolates in a Swedish dairy plant1998In: XVIII Nordic Veterinary Congress: Helsinki, 4th – 7th Augsut 1998. PROCEEDINGS / [ed] Nordic Veterinary Congress, Helsinki, 1998Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 411.
    Waara, Kristin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kroppens fysiologiska reaktioner vid arbete i värme: en studie på brandmän2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The purpose was to compare physical work in a normal temperature to physical work during heat exposure and in that way investigate how physical work during heat exposure affects the human body in a physiological perspective. My questions were: How does submaximal work during heat, affect heart rate, water loss, body temperature, lactate level and blood glucose level? How does smoke-diving affect heart rate, water loss, and body temperature? How is the heart rate, lactate level and blood glucose level affected in work during heat exposure compared to work in a normal temperature?

    Method

    Six firefighters performed at three different occasions four tests. VO2 tests in cycle-ergometer (submaximal and maximal) in a normal temperature. A smoke-diving test during heat exposure and a submaximal cycle test in a sauna. VO2, heart rate, lactate level and blood glucose level was measured during the tests in the normal temperature. Heart rate, water loss, body temperature, lactate level and blood glucose level was measured during the smoke-diving test and the submaximal cycle test in sauna.

    Results

    Mean heart rate during the smoke-diving test was 174 ± 7,7 bpm (93 ± 1,4 % of maximal heart rate attained in the cycle-ergometer test). Water loss measured to 1,1 ± 0,1 % from bodyweight, body temperature was increased with 2,1 ± 1,2 °C. The blood glucose levels were higher compared to the maximum test during cycling. Concentration at start was 5,04 ± 0,59 vs. 5,64 ± 1,00 mmol/l and 2 min after the test 6,79 ± 1,26 vs. 6,46 ± 1,25 mmol/l. Water loss during the submaximal cycling in sauna was 0,6 ± 0,1 % of bodyweight, body temperature were increased with 0,8 ± 0,3 °C. Lactate levels during the submaximal cycling in sauna were significant lower than cycling in a normal temperature 1,23 ± 0,17 mmol/l vs 3,43 ± 1,46 mmol/l (175W).

    Conclusions

    During the smoke-diving test the firefighters had a mean heart rate which was near the maximal heart rate attained in the cycle-ergometer test. The smoke-diving test was physically very demanding for the subjects since the tasks lasted in 13-18 min and the heart rate was in such high levels in general. During physical work in  85 °C wearing a self-contained breathing apparatus and fire-protective clothing, no difference in heart rate compared to work in a normal temperature could be measured. Water loss and increased body temperatures depends on which kind of physical work and heat exposure the firefighters was exposed to. Lactate levels during physical work in  85 °C was significant lower than the same work in a normal temperature. This might result from the cool air from the breathing apparatus, which lead to a higher oxygen uptake in the muscles. There were no difference in blood glucose levels during physical work in  85 °C compared to work in a normal temperature. After more physically demanding work during higher temperature, elevated levels was measured.

  • 412. Wahlström, Helene
    et al.
    Carpenter, Tim
    Giesecke, Johan
    Andersson, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics. Matematisk statistik.
    Englund, Lena
    Vågsholm, Ivar
    Herd-based monitoring for tuberculosis in extensive swedish deer herds by culling and meat inspection rather than by intradermal tuberculin testing.2000In: Preventive Veterinary Medicine, ISSN 0167-5877, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 103-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of random slaughter and meat inspection as a tool to detect or eradicate tuberculosis in large, extensive deer herds in Sweden was evaluated. A computer spreadsheet model based on the Reed-Frost method was developed. Numbers of new infections and of infected deer slaughtered as well as probability of detecting tuberculosis or slaughtering all infected deer in a herd, were simulated. The model predicted that, given a 20% annual slaughter and that disease was introduced with one infected deer, the infection would be detected or eliminated in most herds (90%) after 15 years.

  • 413. Wambugu, S. N.
    et al.
    Towett, P. K.
    Kiama, S. G.
    Abelson, Klas S. P.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Comparative Medicine.
    Kanui, T. I.
    Effects of opioids in the formalin test in the Speke's hinged tortoise (Kinixy's spekii)2010In: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, ISSN 0140-7783, E-ISSN 1365-2885, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 347-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about analgesia in lower vertebrates such as the Speke's hinged tortoise (Kinixy's spekii), yet of late they are increasingly being adopted as pets. The effects of morphine (5, 7.5, 10 and 20 mg/kg), pethidine (10, 20, and 50 mg/kg) and naloxone (5 mg/kg) on nociception induced by the formalin test (12.5%, 100 mu L) were studied in the Speke's hinged tortoise. Formalin induced a monophasic limb retraction behavioural response and its duration was recorded. The behaviour lasted for 16.4 +/- 0.8 min. Morphine (7.5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) and pethidine (20 and 50 mg/kg) induced significant decrease in the duration of limb retraction in the formalin test. The anti-nociceptive effects were naloxone (5 mg/kg) reversible. The data suggest that the formalin test is a good test for studying nociception and anti-nociception in tortoises and that the opioidergic system plays a role in the control of nociception in these animals.

  • 414.
    Wanby, Pär W.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    On certain genetic and metabolic risk factors for carotid stenosis and stroke2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study evaluated genetic and metabolic factors influencing the risk of acute cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and internal carotid artery stenosis (ICA stenosis) in a Swedish community. The threonine (T) containing protein of the FABP2 A54T gene polymorphism has a greater affinity for long chain fatty acids (FFAs) than the alanine (A) containing protein. This altered affinity for FFAs has been shown to affect the intestinal absorption of fatty acids and consequently the fatty acid composition of serum lipids, in particularly postprandially. Endothelium derived NO is a potent vasodilator and antiatherogenic agent. Asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA) is an endogenous competitive inhibitor of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). ADMA has been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic disease, and ADMA inhibits eNOS by displacement of L-arginine from the enzyme, which in turn is believed to affect the amount of NO available within the endothelium.

    The FABP2 A54T gene polymorphism was analyzed in 407 patients with acute CVD and also in a subset of these patients whose carotids had been evaluated with ultrasound. Both the FABP2 polymorphism and a common polymorphism of the eNOS gene, Glu298Asp, were analyzed in a different population consisting of 54 matched pairs of patients with ICA stenosis and controls. ADMA levels were measured in both study populations.

    We found that the T54 allele was more frequent in patients with transient ischaemic attacks (TIA), and that the TT genotype was more prevalent in young, non-smoking patients with CVD than in controls.

    Increased concentrations of ADMA were observed in cardio-embolic infarction and TIA, but not significantly in non-cardio-embolic infarction nor in haemorrhagic stroke. In multivariate logistic regression models, CVD increased across quartiles of ADMA in all subgroups, but this association was only significant in the TIA group. A decreased arginine/ADMA ratio, a measure of NO availability was associated with CVD in the entire study population. Patients with severe carotid stenosis had significantly higher ADMA levels than the controls. Allele and genotype frequencies of the FABP2 and eNOS polymorphisms did not differ between patients with ICA stenosis and controls.

    Our results indicate that ADMA is a strong marker for TIA and severe ICA stenosis, and that relative defiency of arginine, measured as L-arginine/ADMA, is present in acute CVD.

    We also conclude that a common polymorphism of the FABP2 gene increases susceptibility to ischaemic stroke and TIA.

  • 415.
    Weis, Jan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Radiology.
    Johansson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Radiology.
    Ortiz-Nieto, Francisco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Radiology.
    Ahlström, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Radiology.
    Assessment of lipids in skeletal muscle by LCModel and AMARES2009In: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, ISSN 1053-1807, E-ISSN 1522-2586, Vol. 30, no 5, p. 1124-1129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To process single voxel spectra of the human skeletal muscle by using an advanced method for accurate, robust, and efficient spectral fitting (AMARES) and by linear combination of model spectra (LCModel). To determine absolute concentrations of extra- (EMCL) and intramyocellular lipids (IMCL). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (PRESS) was used to obtain the spectra of the calf muscles. Unsuppressed water line was used as a concentration reference. A new prior knowledge for AMARES was proposed to estimate the concentrations of EMCL and IMCL. The prior knowledge was derived from the spectrum of vegetable oil. The results were compared with the values estimated by LCModel. Absolute concentrations of total lipid content in millimoles per kilogram wet weight were used for the comparisons. RESULTS: Absolute concentrations of total lipid content in skeletal muscle were estimated by AMARES and LCModel. Very good correlation of the total fat (EMCL + IMCL) and IMCL concentrations was achieved between both data processing approaches. CONCLUSION: Assessment the absolute concentrations of muscular lipids by AMARES and LCModel can be performed with comparable accuracy.

  • 416. Wejdmark, A-K
    et al.
    Bonnett, B
    Hedhammar, Å
    Fall, Tove
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences; Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet.
    Lifestyle risk factors for progesterone-related diabetes mellitus in elkhounds: a case-control study2011In: Journal of Small Animal Practice, ISSN 0022-4510, E-ISSN 1748-5827, Vol. 52, no 5, p. 240-245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate lifestyle risk factors for the development of progesterone-related diabetes mellitus in female elkhounds.

    METHODS: Owners of 48 diabetic elkhounds and 58 healthy elkhounds were interviewed by phone concerning lifetime diet and exercise routines. A logistic model was developed to assess the impact of diet and exercise on diabetes diagnosis. The agreement between lifetime owner-perceived body condition score (BCS) and veterinary-perceived BCS at inclusion was estimated in healthy control dogs using the Kappa statistic.

    RESULTS: The model showed that diabetic dogs had increased odds for having been overweight (before diagnosis) compared with controls (OR=2·8, 95% confidence interval 1·1-7·5, P=0·034). Although feeding other food than commercial dog feed was associated with diabetes case status, the effect was not significant after BCS was entered into the model. The overall agreement between lifetime owner- and veterinary-perceived BCS at inclusion in the study was 75% and had a Kappa statistic of 0·16 (P=0·12).

    CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This study indicates that a high owner-perceived lifetime BCS is associated with progesterone-related diabetes in elkhounds.

  • 417. Welsh, Michelle
    et al.
    Sharpe, Richard M
    Moffat, Lindsey
    Atanassova, Nina
    Saunders, Philippa TK
    Kilter, Sigrid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Bergh, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Smith, Lee B
    Androgen action via testicular arteriole smooth muscle cells is important for Leydig cell function, vasomotion and testicular fluid dynamics2010In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 5, no 10, p. e13632-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Regulation of blood flow through the testicular microvasculature by vasomotion is thought to be important for normal testis function as it regulates interstitial fluid (IF) dynamics which is an important intra-testicular transport medium. Androgens control vasomotion, but how they exert these effects remains unclear. One possibility is by signalling via androgen receptors (AR) expressed in testicular arteriole smooth muscle cells. To investigate this and determine the overall importance of this mechanism in testis function, we generated a blood vessel smooth muscle cell-specific AR knockout mouse (SMARKO). Gross reproductive development was normal in SMARKO mice but testis weight was reduced in adulthood compared to control littermates; this reduction was not due to any changes in germ cell volume or to deficits in testosterone, LH or FSH concentrations and did not cause infertility. However, seminiferous tubule lumen volume was reduced in adult SMARKO males while interstitial volume was increased, perhaps indicating altered fluid dynamics; this was associated with compensated Leydig cell failure. Vasomotion was impaired in adult SMARKO males, though overall testis blood flow was normal and there was an increase in the overall blood vessel volume per testis in adult SMARKOs. In conclusion, these results indicate that ablating arteriole smooth muscle AR does not grossly alter spermatogenesis or affect male fertility but does subtly impair Leydig cell function and testicular fluid exchange, possibly by locally regulating microvascular blood flow within the testis.

  • 418.
    Wergård, Eva-Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Westlund, Karolina
    Spångberg, Mats
    Fredlund, Helene
    Forkman, Björn
    Training success in group-housed long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) is better explained by personality than by social rank2016In: Applied Animal Behaviour Science, ISSN 0168-1591, E-ISSN 1872-9045, Vol. 177, p. 52-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using training to prepare laboratory animals for biomedical research is one important behavior management task. With increased knowledge about factors influencing training success, training programs may be optimized, resulting in a refinement of primate husbandry. Even when animals are trained under the same conditions there are individual differences in how they respond to training. The current paper focuses on two of the factors potentially influencing training success: social rank and personality. Five observers rated the personality and the social rank of 34 long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in an observer trait rating survey. Training success was measured in 22 of these individuals and from four of their shaping protocols; hand-feeding, target training, presenting hands and presenting feet. From the factor analysis four personality traits could be identified: 'Emotionality', 'Activity', 'Sociability', and 'Tolerance'. A Multiple linear regressions with backward elimination showed that the personality trait 'Activity' was associated with training success (adj.R-2 = 0.71, p < 0.0005), and unexpectedly, social rank had less influence (adj.R-2 = 0.30, p = 0.005) on training success in group-housed long-tailed macaques. We propose that training success can be conceptualized as consisting of two components: access to the trainer and problem solving. In the case of personality, the two components combine to promote training success: curious animals gain access to trainers, and playful animals are good problem solvers; both these adjectives were present in the trait 'Activity'. In contrast, with regards to rank, qualities that increase access to the trainer (dominance) and traits that promote problem solving (subordinance) counteract one another, potentially explaining why in this study, training was better explained by personality than by rank. We discuss the importance of successfully training different types of personalities in order for the selection of animals in biomedical research to remain random and non-biased, rather than excluding those that do not respond well to training.

  • 419.
    Weseloh, D.V. Chip
    Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    14. Contaminants in Colonial Waterbirds of the North American Great Lakes, 1955-20072012In: Ecology and Animal Health / [ed] Leif Norrgren and Jeffrey Levengood, Uppsala: Baltic University Press , 2012, 1, p. 116-121Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 420.
    Westergren, Jens
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Sodium bicarbonate ingestion increases pH in blood but does not attenuate exercise induced arterial hypoxemia or enhance performance2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The exact causes of Exercise Induced Arterial Hypoxemia (EIAH) are not yet known. Earlier studies on the ergogenic effects of NaHCO3 have neglected to investigate the occurrence of EIAH among their subject, something that could explain the conflicting results, EIAH cannot be over looked since reportedly 50% of well trained athletes experience EIAH. One possible ergogenic effect of NaHCO3 would be to attenuate EIAH through an increase in blood pH in a subject. This has been shown previously by means of intravenous infusion during maximal rowing.

    Aim: The aim of the study was to examine the effect of oral intake of NaHCO3 on EIAH and performance in trained cyclists.

    Method: Seven male cyclists (age 23.7 (22-27) years, VO2peak 64 (60-72) ml min-1 (kg body mass) -1 volunteered for the study. The subjects performed two maximal exercise tests to exhaustion 48 hours apart in a counter balanced cross over double blind fashion. Subjects received 0.3 g kg BW-1 CaCO3 and 0.3 g kg BW-1 NaHCO3 in the placebo and bicarbonate trial respectively.

    Free flowing arterialized capillary blood was sampled at rest and exhaustion and analyzed for pH, O2 Saturation, pO2, pCO2, and blood lactate. Ventilatory variables were measured continuously throughout the test V'O2, V’CO2, V'E, V'E/VO2, RER and HR. In addition pulse oximetry was used to evaluate O2 saturation.

    Results/Discussion: At rest pH and PCO2 was elevated (p<0.05) in the bicarbonate trial compared to the placebo trial. At exhaustion in the bicarbonate trial pH, blood lactate, RER, was significantly elevated (p<0.05) when compared to the placebo trial. O2 saturation from blood samples at exhaustion in the bicarbonate trial showed a trend towards improving (p=0.061). No difference was seen between the two trials in PO2, VO2peak, V'Emax, HRmax or performance. During exercise, bicarbonate ingestion increased blood pH but did not improve arterial saturation or performance. The increase in blood pH achieved by ingestion of bicarbonate was not as large as the increase achieved by intravenous infusion in another study. Even with the larger increase in blood pH in those studies, there was only a small improvement in performance. One possible explanation for the performance improvement with bicarbonate infusion in that study was a reduced ventilation that could effect respiratory muscle work and thereby work capacity. The bicarbonate ingestion in the present study did not reduce ventilation. This could possible be achieved with higher doses of NaHCO3, which would most likely result in increased frequency of gastrointestinal distress among subjects.

  • 421.
    Westin, Lars
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Danielson, Ella
    Sahlgrens Acad, Inst Hlth & Care Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden / Mid Sweden Univ, Dept Hlth Serv, Östersund, Sweden.
    Encounters in Swedish nursing homes: a hermeneutic study of residents' experiences2007In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 60, no 2, p. 172-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim. This paper is a report of a study to illuminate and interpret the meaning of residents' experiences of encounters with nurses in nursing homes.

    Background. A large number of older people suffer from illness and become dependent on other people in their daily living. These people are often in need of care in nursing homes. It is assumed that encounters between nurses and residents are of importance in how residents experience care in nursing homes.

    Method. Twelve residents from three nursing homes in Sweden were interviewed in 2004–2005 about their experiences in encounters with nurses. The interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim. A hermeneutic method was used to describe and interpret the meaning of residents' experiences.

    Findings. Three themes emerged: 'being somebody', 'being nobody' and 'being in a community'. The encounters had both positive and negative influences on residents, expressed as being somebody and belonging somewhere or being nobody and not being seen as a person or simply being left out of things. Encounters between residents and nurses have a mutual dependency where residents certainly have some influence on the relationship. The nurses have both an influence on the relationship and a professional responsibility for the outcome of encounters with residents.

    Conclusion. The insights gained from the study can guide nurses in their encounters with residents in nursing homes so that they feel respected as unique human beings and part of a community.

  • 422. Widgren, Stefan
    et al.
    Engblom, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Scientific Computing. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computational Science.
    Bauer, Pavol
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Scientific Computing. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computational Science.
    Frössling, Jenny
    Emanuelson, Ulf
    Lindberg, Ann
    Data-driven network modelling of disease transmission using complete population movement data: spread of VTEC O157 in Swedish cattle2016In: Veterinary research (Print), ISSN 0928-4249, E-ISSN 1297-9716, Vol. 47, p. 81:1-17, article id 81Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 423.
    Widgren, Stefan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Scientific Computing.
    Engblom, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Scientific Computing. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computational Science.
    Emanuelson, Ulf
    Lindberg, Ann
    Spatio-temporal modelling of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli O157 in cattle in Sweden: exploring options for control2018In: Veterinary research (Print), ISSN 0928-4249, E-ISSN 1297-9716, Vol. 49, p. 78:1-13, article id 78Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 424. Widgren, Stefan
    et al.
    Rosendal, Thomas
    Engblom, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Scientific Computing. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computational Science.
    Ståhl, Karl
    SimInf for spatio-temporal data-driven modeling of African swine fever in Swedish wildboar2019In: GeoVet 2019: Novel spatio-temporal approaches in the era of Big Data, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 425.
    Wierup, Martin
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    25. Principles and Strategies for the Prevention and Control of Infectious Diseases in Livestock and Wildlife2012In: Ecology and Animal Health / [ed] Leif Norrgren and Jeffrey Levengood, Uppsala: Baltic University Press , 2012, 2, p. 203-211Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 426.
    Wierup, Martin
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Bengtsson, Björn
    National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden.
    28. Antimicrobial Resistance in Scandinavia after Termination of Antimicrobials for Growth Promotion2012In: Ecology and Animal Health / [ed] Leif Norrgren and Jeffrey Levengood, Uppsala: Baltic University Press , 2012, 2, p. 222-227Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 427.
    Wigert, Annsofi
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Har syrgaskoncentrationen någon inverkan på lungfunktionen vid endotrakeal sugning och lungrekrytering?: En experimentell studie på gris2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION

    One of the most common routines in mechanically ventilated patients is endotracheal suction,

    (ETS). To avoid desaturation connected to this routine, it is common to increase oxygen

    concentration for a few minutes. High fractions of oxygen can be damaging, and it causes

    athelectasis which impairs gas exchange in the lung. A physiological respond due to the

    athelectasis is redirecting the bloodstream from poorly ventilated lungparts which leads to an

    increased pulmonary pressure. The aim of this study was to investigate if preoxygenation and

    lung recruitment with different oxygen concentrations influences hemodynamics, lung mechanics

    and lung volume.

    METHOD

    In six anaesthetised pigs with assisted mechanical ventilation preoxygenation was given with

    100 % or 60 % O2 for 5 minutes and followed by suction in the endotracheal tube. Thereafter, in

    3 out of 4 protocols a deep sigh was delivered with 21 %, 60 % or 100 % O2 at a pressure 15

    cmH2O above plateau pressure. Hemodynamics and lung mechanics were measured. For control

    in the studie no lungrecruitment was performed in one of the protocols.

    RESULTS

    Mean pulmonary pressure was induced in the protocol where there was no regain of lung volume

    after suction, 29±3 mmHg compared to bas line value of 22±2 mmHg (p<0.05). There was a clear

    difference in lung compliance, whether the lung volume was recruited, 22±1 (100 % O2), 21±3

    (21% O2), 21±3 (60 % O2) or not recruited, (13±1 mL cmH2O) after suction (p<0.001). The same

    were seen for changes in VT (p<0.001) and EELV (p<0.05).

    CONCLUSION

    The oxygen concentration when performing endotracheal suctioning is in this experimental

    model of no influence regarding hemodynamics, lung mechanics- or lung volumes, provided

    recruitment of the lung is done directly after suctioning.

  • 428.
    Wille, Michelle
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Mem Univ Newfoundland, 230 Elizabeth Ave, St John, NF A1B 3X9, Canada..
    McBurney, Scott
    Univ Prince Edward Isl, Canadian Wildlife Hlth Cooperat, Atlantic Reg, Atlantic Vet Coll, 550 Univ Ave, Charlottetown, PE C1A 4P3, Canada..
    Robertson, Gregory J.
    Environm & Climate Change Canada, Sci & Technol Branch, Wildlife Res Div, 6 Bruce St, Mt Pearl, NF A1N 4T3, Canada..
    Wilhelm, Sabina I.
    Environm & Climate Change Canada, Canadian Wildlife Serv, 6 Bruce St, Mt Pearl, NF A1N 4T3, Canada..
    Blehert, David S.
    US Geol Survey, Natl Wildlife Hlth Ctr, 6006 Schroeder Rd, Madison, WI 53711 USA..
    Soos, Catherine
    Environm & Climate Change Canada, Sci & Technol Branch, Ecotoxicol & Wildlife Hlth Div, 115 Perimeter Rd, Saskatoon, SK S7N 0X4, Canada..
    Dunphy, Ron
    Whitney, Hugh
    Forestry & Agrifoods Agcy, Div Anim Hlth, POB 7400, St John, NF A1E 3Y5, Canada..
    A Pelagic Outbreak Of Avian Cholera In North American Gulls: Scavenging As A Primary Mechanism For Transmission?2016In: Journal of Wildlife Diseases, ISSN 0090-3558, E-ISSN 1943-3700, Vol. 52, no 4, p. 793-802Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Avian cholera, caused by the bacterium Pasteurella multocida, is an endemic disease globally, often causing annual epizootics in North American wild bird populations with thousands of mortalities. From December 2006 to March 2007, an avian cholera outbreak caused mortality in marine birds off the coast of Atlantic Canada, largely centered 300-400 km off the coast of the island of Newfoundland. Scavenging gulls (Larus spp.) were the primary species detected; however, mortality was also identified in Black-legged Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) and one Common Raven (Corvus corax), a nonmarine species. The most common gross necropsy findings in the birds with confirmed avian cholera were acute fibrinous and necrotizing lesions affecting the spleen, air sacs, and pericardium, and nonspecific hepatomegaly and splenomegaly. The etiologic agent, P. multocida serotype 1, was recovered from 77 of 136 carcasses examined, and confirmed or probable avian cholera was diagnosed in 85 cases. Mortality observed in scavenging gull species was disproportionately high relative to their abundance, particularly when compared to nonscavenging species. The presence of feather shafts in the ventricular lumen of the majority of larid carcasses diagnosed with avian cholera suggests scavenging of birds that died from avian cholera as a major mode of transmission. This documentation of an outbreak of avian cholera in a North American pelagic environment affecting primarily scavenging gulls indicates that offshore marine environments may be a component of avian cholera dynamics.

  • 429.
    Winberg, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Nordström, Lisbeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Strinnholm, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Nylander, Annica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Jonsäll, Anette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Rönnmark, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    West, Christina E.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    New validated recipes for double-blind placebo-controlled low-dose food challenges2013In: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, ISSN 0905-6157, E-ISSN 1399-3038, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 282-287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges are considered the most reliable method to diagnose or rule out food allergy. Despite this, there are few validated challenge recipes available. The present study aimed to validate new recipes for low-dose double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges in school children, by investigating whether there were any sensory differences between the active materials containing cow's milk, hen's egg, soy, wheat or cod, and the placebo materials. The challenge materials contained the same hypoallergenic amino acidbased product, with or without added food allergens. The test panels consisted of 275 school children, aged 810 and 1415yr, respectively, from five Swedish schools. Each participant tested at least one recipe. Standardized blinded triangle tests were performed to investigate whether any sensory differences could be detected between the active and placebo materials. In our final recipes, no significant differences could be detected between the active and placebo materials for any challenge food (p>0.05). These results remained after stratification for age and gender. The taste of challenge materials was acceptable, and no unfavourable side effects related to test materials were observed. In summary, these new validated recipes for low-dose double-blinded food challenges contain common allergenic foods in childhood; cow's milk, hen's egg, soy, wheat and cod. All test materials contain the same liquid vehicle, which facilitates preparation and dosing. Our validated recipes increase the range of available recipes, and as they are easily prepared and dosed, they may facilitate the use of double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges in daily clinical practice.

  • 430.
    Wright, Dominic
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Rubin, Carl-Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Martinez Barrio, Alvaro
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, The Linnaeus Centre for Bioinformatics.
    Schütz, K.
    Kerje, Susanne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Brändström, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Kindmark, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Jensen, P.
    Andersson, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    The genetic architecture of domestication in the chicken: effects of pleiotropy and linkage2010In: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 19, no 23, p. 5140-5156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The extent of pleiotropy and epistasis in quantitative traits remains equivocal. In the case of pleiotropy, multiple quantitative trait loci are often taken to be pleiotropic if their confidence intervals overlap, without formal statistical tests being used to ascertain if these overlapping loci are statistically significantly pleiotropic. Additionally, the degree to which the genetic correlations between phenotypic traits are reflected in these pleiotropic quantitative trait loci is often variable, especially in the case of antagonistic pleiotropy. Similarly, the extent of epistasis in various morphological, behavioural and life-history traits is also debated, with a general problem being the sample sizes required to detect such effects. Domestication involves a large number of trade-offs, which are reflected in numerous behavioural, morphological and life-history traits which have evolved as a consequence of adaptation to selective pressures exerted by humans and captivity. The comparison between wild and domestic animals allows the genetic analysis of the traits that differ between these population types, as well as being a general model of evolution. Using a large F(2) intercross between wild and domesticated chickens, in combination with a dense SNP and microsatellite marker map, both pleiotropy and epistasis were analysed. The majority of traits were found to segregate in 11 tight 'blocks' and reflected the trade-offs associated with domestication. These blocks were shown to have a pleiotropic 'core' surrounded by more loosely linked loci. In contrast, epistatic interactions were almost entirely absent, with only six pairs identified over all traits analysed. These results give insights both into the extent of such blocks in evolution and the development of domestication itself.

  • 431.
    Wårdell, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kefalopoulou, Zinovia
    Unit of Functional Neurosurgery, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, UK.
    Diczfalusy, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Åström, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Limousin, Patricia
    Unit of Functional Neurosurgery, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, UK.
    Zrinzo, Ludvic
    Unit of Functional Neurosurgery, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, UK.
    Hariz, Marwan
    Unit of Functional Neurosurgery, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, UK / Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Deep Brain Stimulation of the Pallidum Internum for Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome: A Patient-Specific Model-Based Simulation Study of the Electric Field2015In: Neuromodulation (Malden, Mass.), ISSN 1094-7159, E-ISSN 1525-1403, no 2, p. 90-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    The aim of this study was to investigate the deep brain stimulation (DBS) electric field distribution in proton-density MRI scans visualizing the globus pallidus internus (GPi) of patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS), along with its relation to the anatomy.

    Methods

    Patient-specific brain tissue models (n = 7) with bilateral DBS electrodes in the GPi were set up using the finite element method in five patients who had undergone stereotactic proton-density MRI-guided surgery and showed variable improvement with DBS. Simulations (n = 27) of the electric field were performed and the results visualized on the respective preoperative stereotactic MRI scans. The mean electric field volumes (n = 81) within the 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2 V/mm isosurfaces were calculated and compared with the anatomy.

    Results

    Visualization of the simulated electric field confirmed that the anteromedial limbic GPi was the main stimulated target for four of the patients and the posteromedial sensorimotor GPi for one. Larger volumes extended asymmetrically, with parts of fields stretching into the lamina between GPi and globus pallidus externus and into the internal capsule. There was a high correlation (r = 0.994, n = 54) between volumes and brain sides, but with a systematic shift toward the right side, especially for the larger volumes. Simulations with homogeneous tissue models showed no differences.

    Conclusions

    Patient-specific DBS electric field simulations in the GPi as visualized on proton-density MR scans can be implemented in patients with GTS. Visualization of electric fields together with stereotactic thin-slice MRI can provide further support when predicting anatomical structures possibly influenced by DBS in this complex disorder.

  • 432. Yakymovych, Ihor
    et al.
    Yakymovych, Mariya
    Zang, Guangxiang
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Mu, Yabing
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Bergh, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Landström, Maréne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Heldin, Carl-Henrik
    CIN85 modulates TGF beta signaling by promoting the presentation of TGF beta receptors on the cell surface2015In: Journal of Cell Biology, ISSN 0021-9525, E-ISSN 1540-8140, Vol. 210, no 2, p. 319-332Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Members of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) family initiate cellular responses by binding to TGF beta receptor type II (Tf3R11) and type I (TpRI) serine/threonine kinases, whereby Srnad2 and Smad3 are phosphorylated and activated, promoting their association with Smadzi. We report here that T beta RI interacts with the SH3 domains of the adaptor protein CIN85 in response to TGF beta stimulation in a TRAF6-dependent manner. Small interfering RNA mediated knockdown of CIN85 resulted in accumulation of T beta RI in intracellular compartments and diminished TGF beta-stimulated Sniad2 phosphorylation. Overexpression of CIN85 instead increased the amount of T beta RI at the cell surface. This effect was inhibited by a dominant-negative mutant of Rab11, suggesting that CIN85 promoted recycling of TGF beta receptors. CIN85 enhanced TGF beta-stimulated Smad2 phosphorylation, transcriptional responses, and cell migration. CIN85 expression correlated with the degree of malignancy of prostate cancers. Collectively, our results reveal that CIN85 promotes recycling of TGF beta receptors and thereby positively regulates TGF beta signaling.

  • 433.
    Yaraghi, Niam
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Critical Success Factors for Risk Management Systems2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the existence of extensive literature regarding risk management, there still seems to be lack of knowledge in identification of Critical Success Factors (CSFs) in this area. In this research Grounded Theory is implemented to identify CSFs in Risk Management Systems (RMS). Factor analysis and one-sample t-test are then used to refine and rank the CSFs based on the results of a survey which has been performed among Risk Management practitioners in various types of Swedish corporations. CSFs are defined from three different perspectives: (a) the factors that have influence on the inclination and readiness of corporation for implementing RMS. (b) the factors that are important during the design and implementation of RMS in corporation and can significantly affect the success of RMS design and implementation and (c) the factors that are crucially important to successfully run, maintain and administrate RMS after the closure of the project of RMS design and Implementation.

    This systematic approach towards understanding the taxonomy of the success dimension in RMS is important for re-enforcing effective risk management practices.

  • 434.
    Zebunke, Manuela
    et al.
    Institute of Behavioural Physiology, Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology (FBN), Dummerstorf, Germany.
    Repsilber, Dirk
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Nuernberg, Gerd
    Institute of Genetics and Biometry, Leibnitz Institute for Farm Animal Biology (FBN), Dummerstorf, Germany.
    Wittenburg, Doerte
    Institute of Genetics and Biometry, Leibnitz Institute for Farm Animal Biology (FBN), Dummerstorf, Germany.
    Puppe, Birger
    Institute of Behavioural Physiology, Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology (FBN), Dummerstorf, Germany; Behavioural Sciences, Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany.
    The backtest in pigs revisited: an analysis of intra-situational behaviour2015In: Applied Animal Behaviour Science, ISSN 0168-1591, E-ISSN 1872-9045, Vol. 169, p. 17-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The occurrence of different behavioural phenotypes in animals (regarding temperament and personality) has increasingly attracted the attention of scientists dealing with farm animal breeding, management and welfare. As part of the adaptation repertoire, coping behaviour describes how animals deal with challenging situations. To detect different coping strategies (active vs. passive) in domestic pigs, Hessing et al. (1993) suggested using the backtest at an early age. However, the literature contains ambiguous results and criticism of the backtest. Thus, referring to Jensen (1995), the aim of our study was to analyse the backtest in terms of intra-situational behaviour (frequency distribution, behavioural consistency, heritability) in a large sample of domestic piglets (n = 3555). By using a statistical resampling analysis we wanted to verify whether the individual variation in the behaviour of the piglets in the repeated backtest indicates coping strategies or just random variation. The backtest was repeated four times between the first and fourth week of life (ages 5, 12, 19 and 26 days), and the latency, total duration and frequency of all struggling attempts were recorded. Our results show a continuous, unimodal distribution in the frequency parameter and an apparent bimodal distribution in the latency and duration parameter, that probably represents a unimodal distribution with a 'ceiling-effect'. The intra-test consistency of the behaviour (Spearman rank correlation (r(S)) and repeatability (R)) was moderate (r(S) = 0.19-0.45, p < 0.001; R = 0.25-0.39), indicating at least a certain degree of behavioural consistency. The resampling analysis revealed that the piglets did not show just random variation in behaviour. Moreover, the piglets did not display a general habituation to the repeated backtest. Based on a large pedigree, we calculated that the heritability of the behavioural parameters ranged from 0.17 to 0.43. In conclusion, the repeated backtest does not provide evidence for definitive coping strategies that are clearly separable. We instead found pronounced individual dispositions that are partly determined by genetics along a continuum from active to passive coping behaviour. This means that individuals show both behavioural consistency and flexibility in behaviour.

  • 435.
    Zeisig, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Tennis elbow: sonographic findings and intratendinous injection treatment2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Tennis elbow (TE) is a relatively common painful condition affecting the upper extremity. The aetiology is not known, but TE is most often seen in middle aged individuals using repetitive and forceful gripping at work or recreational activities, and is referred to overuse injuries. The pathogenesis is not known, but there are so-called degenerative changes in the wrist- and finger-extensor muscle origin (common extensor origin - CEO). The pain mechanisms involved have not been scientifically clarified.

    The studies in the present thesis aimed to 1) evaluate the structure and blood flow using ultrasound (US) and colour Doppler (CD) examinations of the CEO in patients with TE, and in pain-free elbows, 2) evaluate the clinical effects of US- and CD-guided intratendinous injection treatment with the sclerosing substance polidocanol, 3) evaluate the long term (2 years) effects of injection treatment on the tendon structure and blood flow, and 4) investigate if there is a local production of sympathetic and parasympathetic signal substances in non-neural cells in the CEO.

    Structural tendon changes and high blood flow was found in the CEO in patients with TE, but not in pain-free controls. Remaining structural changes and additional bone spur formation at the lateral epicondyle, but not high blood flow, were seen 2 years after successful injection treatment. In a randomised double-blind study, US- and CD-guided intratendinous injection treatment with sclerosing polidocanol or the local anaesthetic lidocaine combined with epinephrine, targeting the region with high blood flow, was found to reduce pain and increase grip strength in patients with TE. There were no differences in the outcome between the two treatment groups. A local production of catecholamines, but not acetylcholine, was found in fibroblasts in the CEO, in patients with TE.

    This thesis presents results showing US and CD examinations to be useful methods to diagnose TE, and to evaluate structure and blood flow in the CEO after treatment. US- and CD-guided injection treatment targeting high blood flow in the region with structural changes can reduce pain symptoms in patients with TE. The localised high blood flow, and local production of catecholamines in the tendon cells in the CEO, might be involved in the pain mechanisms.

  • 436.
    Zetterqvist, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in Swedish Adolescents: Prevalence, Characteristics, Functions and Associations With Childhood Adversities2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), such as intentionally cutting, burning or hitting oneself, is a behavior with potentially detrimental consequences and empirical studies are necessary to gain knowledge of how to prevent NSSI in adolescents. The aims of this thesis were to investigate the prevalence, methods, characteristics and functions of NSSI in a large community sample of Swedish adolescents, and to examine the relationship between NSSI and adverse life events and trauma symptoms. All empirical studies had a cross-sectional design and were based on 3,097 adolescents in the county of Östergötland, aged 15-17 years, in their first year of high school. Participating school classes were selected through a randomization process and administered self-report questionnaires.

    In study I (n = 3,060) a single item NSSI question resulted in a prevalence rate of 17.2%, while 35.6% of adolescents reported having engaged in NSSI at least once during the past year when given a checklist. The most commonly reported type of NSSI in this sample was “bit yourself”, followed by “hit yourself on purpose”, “erased your skin” and “cut or carved on your skin”. Applying the proposed DSM-5 diagnostic criteria of NSSI resulted in a prevalence rate of 6.7%. Results in study II (n = 2,964) showed that after controlling for gender, parental occupation and living conditions, adolescents with no self-injurious behavior reported the lowest level of adversities and trauma symptoms, while adolescents with both NSSI and suicide attempts (5.7%) reported the highest levels compared to those with only NSSI or a suicide attempt. Adolescents reporting frequent NSSI reported more adversities and trauma symptoms than those with less frequent NSSI. Automatic functions, such as affect regulation, self-punishment and feeling-generation, were the most commonly reported functions of NSSI. Attempts in study I to confirm Nock and Prinstein’s (2004) four-factor model of underlying factors of NSSI functions resulted in a close to acceptable fit. An attempt to refine the factor analysis on this community sample of Swedish adolescents, using Mplus with cross-validation, was made in study III (n = 836). An exploratory factor analysis resulted in a three-factor model (social influence, automatic functions and non-conformist peer identification), which was validated in confirmatory analysis. In order to adhere more closely to learning theory and the concept of negative and positive reinforcement, the third factor was then split into two factors, resulting in a four-factor model (social influence, automatic functions, peer identification and avoiding demands), which showed excellent fit to the data in the confirmatory factor analysis. Study IV (n = 816) showed that NSSI frequency, gender (female), self-reported experience of emotional and physical abuse, having made a suicide attempt, prolonged illness or handicap and symptoms of depression and dissociation were significant predictors in the final model of the automatic functions, indicating that these variables are important in understanding the mechanisms underlying the need to engage in NSSI to regulate emotions, generate feelings, gain control or to self-punish. Symptoms of depression and dissociation mediated the relationship between sexual, physical and emotional abuse and the automatic  functions. Furthermore, frequency of NSSI, gender, emotional abuse, prolonged illness or handicap and symptoms of depression uniquely predicted automatic functions but not social functions. Self-reported experience of physical abuse, having made a suicide attempt, symptoms of anxiety and dissociation were significant in the final model of social functions, i.e., performing NSSI to influence or  communicate with others, to avoid demands or to identify with peers. Of these, symptoms of anxiety were uniquely associated with social functions. Symptoms of anxiety and dissociation mediated the relationship between physical abuse and social functions of NSSI.

    Taken together, this thesis has shown that NSSI is prevalent in Swedish adolescents and findings contribute to the discussion of a potential NSSI diagnosis. It is important to consider the effect of different types of negative life events and trauma symptoms in relation to NSSI in adolescents. Assessing the specific reinforcing functions of NSSI and the underlying factor structure can be helpful in developing functionally relevant individualized treatment.

  • 437.
    Zineldin, Mosad
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics. marknadsföring.
    cooperation, competition and health care refrom: Challenges and opportunities for health care officials, professionals and patents2007Conference proceedings (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 438.
    Zsigmond, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Neurosurgery.
    Nord, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kullman, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Diczfalusy, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wårdell, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Dizdar (Dizdar Segrell), Nil
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology.
    Neurotransmitter levels in basal ganglia during levodopa and deep brain stimulation treatment in Parkinson’s disease2014In: Neurology and Clinical Neuroscience, ISSN 2049-4173, Vol. 2, no 5, p. 149-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The mechanism by which deep brain stimulation of the nucleus subthalamicus improves Parkinson’s disease symptoms remains unclear. In a previous perioperative study, we showed that there might be alterations of neurotransmitter levels in the globus pallidum interna during deep brain stimulation of the nucleus subthalamicus. Aim In this study, we examined whether deep brain stimulation of the nucleus subthalamicus and levodopa infusion interact and affect the levels of neurotransmitters. Methods Five patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease took part in the study. During subthalamic nucleus surgery, microdialysis catheters were inserted bilaterally in the globus pallidum interna and unilaterally in the right putamen. A study protocol was set up and was followed for 3 days. Levodopa infusion with and without concomitant bilateral deep brain stimulation of the nucleus subthalamicus was also carried out. Results The putaminal dopamine levels increased during deep brain stimulation of the nucleus subthalamicus. In addition, an increase of gamma amino buturic acid concentrations in the globus pallidum interna during deep brain stimulation of the nucleus subthalamicus and during levodopa infusion was found. Conclusions These findings provide evidence that the subthalamic nucleus has a direct action on the substantia nigra pars compacta, and that deep brain stimulation of the nucleus subthalamicus might indirectly release putaminal dopamine. There is also evidence that deep brain stimulation of the nucleus subthalamicus interferes with levodopa therapy resulting in higher levels of levodopa in the brain, explaining why it is possible to decrease levodopa medication after deep brain stimulation surgery.

  • 439.
    Zuiderent-Jerak, Teun
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Grit, Kor
    Department of Health Policy and Management, Erasmus University, Rotterdam.
    Grinten, Tom van der
    Department of Health Policy and Management, Erasmus University, Rotterdam.
    Critical composition of public values: on the enactment and disarticulation of what counts in health-care markets2015In: Value practices in the life sciences and medicine / [ed] Isabelle Dussauge, Claes-Fredrik Helgesson, Francis Lee, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015, p. 119-135Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 440.
    Ängeby, Karin
    et al.
    Women’s Department, Central Hospital, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Wilde-Larsson, Bodil
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013). Inland Norway Univ Appl Sci, Fac Publ Hlth, Dept Nursing, Elverum, Norway.
    Hildingsson, Ingegerd
    Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, .
    Sandin-Bojö, Ann-Kristin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Prevalence of Prolonged Latent Phase and Labor Outcome: Review of Birth Records in a Swedish Population2018In: Journal of midwifery & women's health, ISSN 1526-9523, E-ISSN 1542-2011, Vol. 63, no 1, p. 33-44, article id JMWH12704Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevalence of a prolonged latent phase of labor has been described as ranging from 5% to 6.5% in previous research. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of the prolonged latent phase of 18 hours or more, based on women's report, in women intending vaginal birth and who had spontaneous onset of labor. An additional aim was to compare the incidence of obstetric interventions, and the labor and neonatal outcomes in women with and without a prolonged latent phase.

    METHODS:

    A descriptive and comparative study was performed in a mid-sized hospital in western Sweden. The sample consisted of 1343 birth records of women who intended vaginal births and who had spontaneous onset of labor at 37 or more weeks' gestation during a one-year period (2013-2014). Background characteristics, obstetric interventions, and labor and neonatal outcomes were compared between women with latent phases lasting less than 18 hours and 18 hours or more, based on women's self-report. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for the different exposure variables.

    A prolonged latent phase lasting 18 hours or more occurred in 23% of all births analyzed (n = 1343). A prolonged latent phase was more common among nulliparous women (29.2%) but also common for multiparous women (17%). Nulliparous and multiparous women who experienced a prolonged latent phase were more often exposed to amniotomy during latent phase. For nulliparous women, the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) was 11.57 (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.25-25.51) and for multiparous women the aOR was 18.73 (95% CI, 9.06-38.69). Similarly, amniotomy during active phase was more common for both nulliparous and multiparous women who experienced a prolonged latent phase (aOR, 4.05; 95% CI, 2.53-6.47 and aOR, 3.93; 95% CI, 2.43-6.37, respectively). Women with latent phases of 18 hours or more, more often experienced augmentation of labor during all phases, especially during latent phase. For nulliparous women, the aOR was 10.13 (95% CI, 2.82-36.39) and for multiparous women, aOR was11.9 (95% CI, 3.69-38.71). A prolonged latent phase was associated with more instrumental vaginal births for multiparas (aOR, 2.58; 95% CI, 1.27-5.26) and emergency cesarean regardless of parity (nulliparous women: aOR, 3.21; 95% CI, 1.08-9.50 and multiparous women: aOR, 3.93; 95% CI, 1.67-9.26).

    Based on women's self-report, the prevalence of a prolonged latent phase in women at term who planned a vaginal birth and had spontaneous onset of labor was higher than previously reported. Women with a prolonged latent phase were more likely to receive obstetric interventions. Assisted vaginal birth was more common for nulliparous women with prolonged latent phase and emergency cesarean occurred more frequently for both nulliparous women and multiparous women with a prolonged latent phase.

  • 441.
    Åkerman, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Aspects of the Pre-Diabetic Period in Type 1 Diabetes2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease characterized by insulin deficiency, due to immune-mediated destruction of beta cells. Current knowledge regarding the period preceding disease onset comes, to a large extent, from studying risk cohorts based on relatives of T1D-patients, as they have an increased disease risk. Among T1D patients in general, however, few have the disease in their immediate family. It is therefore important to study risk cohorts from the general population as well. An ongoing autoimmune reaction can often be seen in the blood long before disease onset, by detection of autoantibodies directed towards beta cell antigens. By autoantibody screening among participants in the ABIS (All Babies in the South-east of Sweden) cohort, we could identify a group of children from the general population with increased risk for T1D, positive for multiple autoantibodies. They were enrolled in a 2-year prospective follow-up aiming to characterize the prediabetic period and to identify factors indicative of progression/non-progression to T1D. We assessed glucose homeostasis and autoantibody titers over time, and searched for risk-biomarkers by analyzing the expression of immune-related genes (Th1-Th2-Th3) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from these children, in comparison to healthy children and newly diagnosed T1D patients. In the same groups we also compared serum micro RNA (miRNA) profiles, knowing that miRNA molecules have desirable biomarker properties. We found that two specific autoantibodies, IA2A and ZnT8A, were detected at higher concentrations in risk-individuals who progressed to overt T1D during or after the follow-up period, compared to those who still have not. We also observed disturbed glucose homeostasis long before onset in the progressors, but it was seen among those who remain symptom free as well. Further, we found support for the possible role of insulin resistance as an accelerator of the disease process. For gene expression and serum miRNA, few differences were observed between risk-individuals and healthy children overall. However, for PBMC gene expression and serum miRNA both, there were associations to beta cell function and glucose homeostasis, and for miRNA also to islet autoantibodies. Although specific profiles for prediction of disease onset or identification of risk-individuals could not be found, these results are interesting and deserve to be evaluated further. As part of another sub-study within ABIS, the effects of physical activity on glucose homeostasis were assessed in healthy schoolchildren. The level of physical activity, measured by pedometers, was related to insulin resistance and beta cell-stress, and decreased physical activity was associated with increased insulin resistance and load on the insulin-producing beta cells, already at school-age.

  • 442.
    Åsberg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, The Department of Gender Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Birke, Lynda
    University Chester, UK.
    Biology is a feminist issue: Interview with Lynda Birke2010In: The European Journal of Women's Studies, ISSN 1350-5068, E-ISSN 1461-7420, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 413-423Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is an interview with Professor Lynda Birke (University of Chester, UK), one of the key figures of feminist science studies. She is a pioneer of feminist biology and of materialist feminist thought, as well as of the new and emerging field of hum-animal studies (HAS). This interview was conducted over email in two time periods, in the spring of 2008 and 2010. The format allowed for comments on previous writings and an engagement in an open-ended dialogue. Professor Birke talks about her key arguments and outlooks on a changing field of research. The work of this English biologist is typical of a long and continuous feminist engagement with biology and ontological matters that reaches well beyond the more recently articulated material turn of feminist theory. It touches upon feminist issues beyond the usual comfort zones of gender constructionism and human-centred research. Perhaps less recognized than for instance the names of Donna Haraway or Karen Barad, Lynda Birkes oeuvre is part of the same long-standing and twofold critique from feminist scholars qua trained natural scientists. On the one hand, theirs is a powerful critique of biological determinism; on the other, an acutely observed contemporary critique of how merely cultural or socially reductionist approaches to the effervescently lively and biological might leave the corporeal, environmental or non-human animal critically undertheorized within feminist scholarship. In highlighting the work and arguments of Lynda Birke, it is hoped here to provide an accessible introduction to the critical questions and challenges that circumvent contemporary discussions within feminist technoscience as theory and political practice.

  • 443.
    Åström, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Sapiens Steering Brain Stimulation BV, NL-5656 Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Diczfalusy, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Martens, Hubert
    Sapiens Steering Brain Stimulation B.V., Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Wårdell, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Relationship between Neural Activation and Electric Field Distribution during Deep Brain Stimulation2015In: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, ISSN 0018-9294, E-ISSN 1558-2531, Vol. 62, no 2, p. 664-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Models and simulations are commonly used to study deep brain stimulation (DBS). Simulated stimulation fields are often defined and visualized by electric field isolevels or volumes of tissue activated (VTA). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between stimulation field strength as defined by the electric potential V, the electric field E, and the divergence of the electric field ∇(2) V, and neural activation. Axon cable models were developed and coupled to finite-element DBS models in three-dimensional (3-D). Field thresholds ( VT , ET, and ∇(2) VT ) were derived at the location of activation for various stimulation amplitudes (1 to 5 V), pulse widths (30 to 120 μs), and axon diameters (2.0 to 7.5 μm). Results showed that thresholds for VT and ∇(2) VT were highly dependent on the stimulation amplitude while ET were approximately independent of the amplitude for large axons. The activation field strength thresholds presented in this study may be used in future studies to approximate the VTA during model-based investigations of DBS without the need of computational axon models.

  • 444. Öberg, Josefine
    et al.
    Fall, Tove
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Lilliehöök, Inger
    Validation of a species-optimized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for determination of serum concentrations of insulin in dogs2011In: Veterinary clinical pathology, ISSN 0275-6382, E-ISSN 1939-165X, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 66-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Measurement of canine serum insulin has relied on methods developed to measure human insulin. A species-optimized test for measurement of serum insulin in dogs is now commercially available.

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to validate the canine ELISA for determination of serum insulin concentration in dogs.

    METHODS: Precision was determined by evaluating intra- and interassay coefficient of variation (CV), and accuracy was determined by dilution and spike recovery studies. A method comparison study with samples from 34 clinically healthy dogs and 73 dogs examined for various illnesses and disorders ("patients") was performed using the canine ELISA and an ELISA for human insulin. Biologic relevance of the canine assay was evaluated by measuring insulin in samples collected from 8 healthy dogs after administration of glucagon. A stability study was preformed with 6 samples stored at 20°C, 4-8°C, and -20°C.

    RESULTS: For the canine ELISA, intra- and interassay CVs were 4.3-7.8% and 4.4-7.7%, respectively. Mean recovery after dilution was 99% and recovery after spiking with porcine insulin was 116%. The canine and human ELISAs correlated well (r(2) =.94 for healthy dogs, r(2) =.88 for patient samples). After glucagon injection serum insulin concentrations increased significantly in 8 dogs. Insulin was stable for 30 days in 6 serum samples stored at -20°C and in most samples for 8 days at 4-8°C. Insulin was stable for <3 days at room temperature (20°C).

    CONCLUSIONS: The new canine serum insulin ELISA had good precision and accuracy and correlated well with the previously used assay.

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