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  • 401.
    Briat, Corentin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Yavuz, Emre A.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Karlsson, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    A conservation-law-based modular fluid-flow model for network congestion modeling2012In: 2012 Proceedings - IEEE INFOCOM, IEEE Computer Society, 2012, p. 2050-2058Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A modular fluid-flow model for network congestion analysis and control is proposed. The model is derived from an information conservation law stating that the information is either in transit, lost or received. Mathematical models of network elements such as queues, users, and transmission channels, and network description variables, including sending/ acknowledgement rates and delays, are inferred from this law and obtained by applying this principle locally. The modularity of the devised model makes it sufficiently generic to describe any network topology, and appealing for building simulators. Previous models in the literature are often not capable of capturing the transient behavior of the network precisely, making the resulting analysis inaccurate in practice. Those models can be recovered from exact reduction or approximation of this new model. An important aspect of this particular modeling approach is the introduction of new tight building blocks that implement mechanisms ignored by the existing ones, notably at the queue and user levels. Comparisons with packet-level simulations corroborate the proposed model.

  • 402.
    Broman, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Teleinformatics.
    Tarberg, Fredrik
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Teleinformatics.
    Implementation andAnalyses of theMobile-IP Protocol1996Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report is the result of a masters degree project conducted at the Department of Teleinformatics at the Royal Institute of Technology during the autumn 1995. The area investigated is the Mobile Internet Protocol, especially its implementation and efficiency.

    The thesis work is divided into three areas. The first area includes the development and implementation of a Management Information Base for the Mobile-IP protocol. The second area deals with the porting of a Mobile-IP implementation for SunOS to MachOS and Solaris. The last area covers the tests done to measure the throughput and latency of the protocol.

  • 403.
    Broms, Daniel
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Access restrictions in surrogates using Portable Channel Representation2002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This Master thesis investigates how content with access restrictions can be handled in a Content Distribution Network (CDN). The thesis focuses on CDNs where the distribution is made using Portable Channel Representation (PCR), a description of content that enables installation on any platform. There has been a demand from customers for access restriction support when distributing web sites. Ranging from personal homepages wanting to restrict access using some simple password authentication protocol to corporate websites wanting HTTPS support.

    This thesis starts with a survey of available authentication mechanisms as well as available publication protocols with support for protection. This provided the basis for the design of the new protection element for PCR spanning most protection requirements. The PCR model is realized using XML in the Lokomo Software Suite. The new design has been implemented in the context of the Lokomo Software Suite. The protection has been shown to correctly install basic authentication on both Apache’s HTTP Server and Microsoft’s Internet Information Server.

  • 404. Brotherton, M.D
    et al.
    Huynh-Thu, Q
    Hands, D
    Brunnström, Kjell
    Subjective Multimedia Quality Assessment.2006In: IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics Communications and Computer Sciences, ISSN 0916-8508, E-ISSN 1745-1337, Vol. E89-A, no 11, p. 2920-2932Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 405. Brown, J.
    et al.
    Roedig, U.
    O'Donovan, T.
    Sreenan, C. J.
    He, Z.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Pottner, B.
    Wolf, L.
    Klein, A.
    Silva, J. Sa
    Vassiliou, V.
    doO, J.
    GINSENG: Performance Control in Wireless Sensor Networks2011In: 8th European Conference on Wireless Sensor Networks (EWSN’11), 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 406. Brown, James
    et al.
    McCarthy, Ben
    Roedig, Utz
    Voigt, Thiemo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Sreenan, Cormac J.
    BurstProbe: Debugging Time-Critical Data Delivery in Wireless Sensor Networks2011In: 8th European Conference on Wireless Sensor Networks (EWSN’11), 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 407.
    Brundin, Peter
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    LESpy - PCM Link Analyzer2002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report will discuss the design of a test tool, a PCM link analyzer, LESpy. The development of LESpy is based upon reuse of C++ source code from previous test equipment from INEO, LESim. The purpose of LESpy is a tool for analyzing two telephony interfaces in Ericsson’s ”Radio in the Local Loop” system RAS 1000. Monitoring the Channel Associated Signaling (CAS) interface was the primary goal. As second goal was to find a solution to analyze the ISDN interface.

    The report presents some background information about telephony, computer telephony, the RAS 1000 system, and the development and target environment (IBM’s operating system OS/2). It also describes building blocks and functionality, i.e. the nodes, components, classes, and use cases of LESpy through UML diagrams.

    The result of the project is a test tool where most of the requirements were fulfilled through inheritance of new classes and new functionality by polymorphism. As required supervision and address signaling could be monitored and saved to a file.

  • 408.
    Brunnström, K
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    3D user experience and display performance2013In: Proceedings, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 409.
    Brunnström, K
    ACREO AB.
    Percieved QoS and Test suites: keynote2008In: ETSI Workshop on Effects of transmission Performance on Multimedia QoS, Prague, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 410.
    Brunnström, K
    et al.
    Acreo AB, Sweden.
    Hands, D
    BT Innovate, UK.
    Speranza, F
    Communications Research Centre, Canada.
    Webster, A
    NTIA/ITS, United States.
    VQEG Validation and ITU Standardisation of Objective Perceptual Video Quality Metrics2009In: IEEE signal processing magazine (Print), ISSN 1053-5888, E-ISSN 1558-0792, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 96-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For industry, the need to access accurate and reliable objective video metrics has become more pressing with the advent of new video applications and services such as mobile broadcasting, Internet video, and Internet Protocol television (IPTV). Industry-class objective quality- measurement models have a wide range of uses, including equipment testing (e.g., codec evaluation), transmission- planning and network-dimensioning tasks, head-end quality assurance, in- service network monitoring, and client-based quality measurement. The Video Quality Experts Group (VQEG) is the primary forum for validation testing of objective perceptual quality models. The work of VQEG has resulted in International Telecommunication Union (ITU) standardization of objective quality models designed for standard- definition television and for multimedia applications. This article reviews VQEG's work, paying particular attention to the group's approach to validation testing.

  • 411.
    Brunnström, K
    et al.
    Acreo, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nordström, L
    Andrén, B
    Visual experience of quality degradation when viewing computer and notebooks displays from an oblique angle2011In: Journal of the Society for Information Display, ISSN 1071-0922, E-ISSN 1938-3657, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 387-397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focused on evaluating the user experience of the viewing-angle-dependent quality of computer and notebook displays. The tests were performed in a test lab using a notebook with a prismatic display and a computer monitor with a conventional LCD. The notebook display was tilted and turned during an image-quality test and tilted during an acuity test. On the computer monitor, the turn and tilt was simulated in the image-quality test, for checking the TCO requirements. The results from the image-quality test show that the parameter used in the TCO requirement, luminance ratio, would be a reasonable predictor of image quality. However, the experiment with the notebook display shows that, in general, this is not the case, especially for larger viewing angles where the physical characteristics do not show a gradual variation in luminance. Therefore, the luminance ratio in TCO requirements shall be used with caution. In addition, the results for the notebook display show that the visual acu ity decreased faster with increasing viewing angle than predicted from the luminance decrease alone. This means that it will be harder to resolve small details and will, therefore, have a negative influence on the visual ergonomics.

  • 412.
    Brunnström, K
    et al.
    Acreo AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Schenkman, B
    Jacobsen, B
    Object Detection in Cluttered Infrared Images.2003In: Optical Engineering: The Journal of SPIE, ISSN 0091-3286, E-ISSN 1560-2303, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 388-399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Implementation of the Johnson criteria for infrared images is the probabilities of a discrimination technique. The inputs to the model are the size of the target, the range to it, and the temperature difference against the background. The temperature difference is calculated without taking the background structure into consideration, but it may have a strong influence on the visibility of the target. We investigated whether a perceptually based temperature difference should be used as input. Four different models are discussed: 1. a probability of discrimination model largely based on the Johnson criteria for infrared images, 2. a peak signal-to-noise ratio model, 3. a signal-to-clutter ratio model, and 4. two versions of an image discrimination model based on how human vision analyzes spatial information. The models differ as to how much they try to simulate human perception. To test the models, a psychophysical experiment was carried out with ten test persons, measuring contrast threshold detection in five different infrared backgrounds using a method based on a two-alternative forced-choice methodology. Predictions of thresholds in contrast energy were calculated for the different models and compared to the empirical values. Thresholds depend on the background, and these can be predicted well by the image discrimination models, and better than the other models. Future extensions are discussed.

  • 413.
    Brunnström, K
    et al.
    Acreo AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Schenkman, B.N
    Acreo AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Comparison of the predictions of a spatio-temporal model with the detection of distortion in small moving images2002In: Optical Engineering: The Journal of SPIE, ISSN 0091-3286, E-ISSN 1560-2303, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 711-722Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 414.
    Brunnström, K
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems. Acreo Swedish ICT AB.
    Wang, K
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB.
    Andrén, B
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB.
    Simulator sickness analysis of 3D video viewing on passive 3DTV2013In: Stereoscopic Displays and Applications XXIV / [ed] Woods, A. J., Holliman, N. S., and Favalora, G. E., Bellingham, WA, USA: SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2013, p. 864802-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 415.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    et al.
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan.
    Eklund, Jan-Olof
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan.
    Uhlin, Tomas
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan.
    Active fixation for scene exploration1996In: International Journal of Computer Vision, ISSN 0920-5691, E-ISSN 1573-1405, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 137-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well-known that active selection of fixation points in humans is highly context and task dependent. It is therefore likely that successful computational processes for fixation in active vision should be so too. We are considering active fixation in the context of recognition of man-made objects characterized by their shapes. In this situation the qualitative shape and type of observed junctions play an important role. The fixations are driven by a grouping strategy, which forms sets of connected junctions separated from the surrounding at depth discontinuities. We have furthermore developed a methodology for rapid active detection and classification of junctions by selection of fixation points. The approach is based on direct computations from image data and allows integration of stereo and accommodation cues with luminance information. This work form a part of an effort to perform active recognition of generic objects, in the spirit of Malik and Biederman, but on real imagery rather than on line-drawings.

  • 416.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    et al.
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan.
    Eklundh, Jan-Olof
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan.
    Lindeberg, Tony
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan.
    On scale and resolution in active analysis of local image structure1990In: Image and Vision Computing, ISSN 0262-8856, E-ISSN 1872-8138, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 289-296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Focus-of-attention is extremely important in human visual perception. If computer vision systems are to perform tasks in a complex, dynamic world they will have to be able to control processing in a way that is analogous to visual attention in humans. Problems connected to foveation (examination of selected regions of the world at high resolution) are examined. In particular, the problem of finding and classifying junctions from this aspect is considered. It is shown that foveation as simulated by controlled, active zooming in conjunction with scale-space techniques allows for robust detection and classification of junctions.

  • 417.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    et al.
    Acreo.
    Josefsson, Katarina
    Acreo.
    Andrén, Börje
    Acreo.
    The effects of glossy screens on the visual ergonomics of flat panel displays.2008In: Journal of the Society for Information Display, ISSN 1071-0922, E-ISSN 1938-3657, Vol. 16, no 10, p. 1041-1049Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The TCO requirements provide well-known and recognized quality labels for displays.For these requirements to remain useful, they must continuously be reviewed and updated when nec-essary. The study described here was performed in response to the market trend of designing flat-paneldisplays and notebooks with glare panels. The purpose of this study was to investigate subjectiveresponses to display screens of different gloss levels for office workers working on different tasks undernormal office-lighting conditions. The study consisted of three parts, one where the users should setan acceptable reflex level, one where the user should rate their disturbance on a category scale, andone where the visual acuity of the users were investigated whether they were affected by glare or not.The results show that increasing gloss and increasing luminance levels had negative effects on theacceptance and the disturbance of reflexes. There were statistically significant differences in theacceptance and the disturbance levels between screens with low gloss and screens with high gloss,which suggests that screens with the highest gloss levels should be avoided. The study did not showan effect on the performance based on acuity testing.

  • 418.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Sjöström, Mårten
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Muhammad, Imran
    HIAB AB, Sweden ; Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Magnus, Pettersson
    HIAB AB, Sweden.
    Johanson, Mathias
    Alkit Communications AB, Sweden.
    Quality of Experience for a Virtual Reality simulator2018In: Human Vision and Electronic Imaging 2018 / [ed] Rogowitz, B.;Pappas, T.;De Ridder H., The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we investigate a VR simulator of a forestry crane used for loading logs onto a truck, mainly looking at Quality of Experience (QoE) aspects that may be relevant for task completion, but also whether there are any discomfort related symptoms experienced during task execution. The QoE test has been designed to capture both the general subjective experience of using the simulator and to study task completion rate. Moreover, a specific focus has been to study the effects of latency on the subjective experience, with regards both to delays in the crane control interface as well as lag in the visual scene rendering in the head mounted display (HMD). Two larger formal subjective studies have been performed: one with the VR-system as it is and one where we have added controlled delay to the display update and to the joystick signals. The baseline study shows that most people are more or less happy with the VR-system and that it does not have strong effects on any symptoms as listed in the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ). In the delay study we found significant effects on Comfort Quality and Immersion Quality for higher Display delay (30 ms), but very small impact of joystick delay. Furthermore, the Display delay had strong influence on the symptoms in the SSQ, and causing test subjects to decide not to continue with the complete experiments. We found that this was especially connected to the longer added Display delays (≥ 20 ms).

  • 419.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems. Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Wang, Kun
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems. Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Andrén, Börje
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Kulyk, Valentin
    Ericsson Research, Sweden.
    Tavakoli, Samira
    Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain.
    Hedberg, Christer
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Ananth, Indirajith Vijai
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Hussein, Mahir
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Folkesson, Mats
    Ericsson Research, Sweden.
    Barkowsky, Marcus
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Kista, Sweden.
    3D Video Quality of Experience - Influence of Scale and Crosstalk Invited2014In: Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Video Processing and Quality Metrics for Consumer Electronics VPQM-2014, Scottsdale, AZ, USA, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper gives an overview of three recent studies by the authors on the topic of 3D video Quality of Experience (QoE). Two of studies [1,2] investigated different psychological dimension that may be needed for describing 3D video QoE and the third the visibility and annoyance of crosstalk[3]. The results shows that the video quality scale could be sufficient for evaluating S3D video experience for coding and spatial resolution reduction distortions. It was also confirmed that with a more complex mixture of degradations more than one scale should be used to capture the QoE in these cases. The study found a linear relationship between the perceived crosstalk and the amount of crosstalk.

  • 420.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems. Acreo Swedish ICT AB.
    Wang, Kun
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB.
    Tavakoli, Samira
    Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain.
    Andrén, Börje
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB.
    Symptoms analysis of 3D TV viewing based on Simulator Sickness Questionnaires2017In: Quality and User Experience, ISSN 2366-0147, Vol. 2, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stereoscopic 3D TV viewing puts different visual demands on the viewer compared to 2D TV viewing. Previous research has reported on viewers' fatigue and discomfort and other negative effects. This study is to investigate further how severe and what symptoms may arise from somewhat longish 3D TV viewing.

    The MPEG 3DV project is working on the next-generation video encoding standard and in this process, MPEG issued a call for proposal of encoding algorithms. To evaluate these algorithms a large scale subjective test was performed involving Laboratories all over the world[1, 2]. For the participating Labs, it was optional to administer a slightly modified Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) before and after the test. One of the SSQ data sets described in this article is coming from this study. The SSQ data from the MPEG test is the largest data set in this study and also contains the longest viewing times. Along with the SSQ data from the MPEG test, we have also collected questionnaire data in three other 3D TV studies. We did two on the same 3D TV (passive film pattern retarder) as in the MPEG test, and one was using a projector system. As comparison SSQ data from a 2D video quality experiment is also presented. 

    This investigation shows a statistically significant increase in symptoms after viewing 3D TV primarily related to the visual or Oculomotor system. Surprisingly, 3D video viewing using projectors did not show this effect.

  • 421.
    Brännback, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    FTTX-Analysverktyg anpassat för Telias nät2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A tool for analyzing the status of Fiber to the X (FTTX) customers in Telia’s network has been programmed in the Python programming language. The system consists of a module divided structure where analysis functions of similar types are bundled into module files. The system is designed to be easily further developed by adding more analysis modules in future projects. To perform an analysis on a specific customer, the system retrieves technical data parameters from the switch which the customer is connected to, and compares these parameters against predetermined values to find deviations. Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) and Telnet are the primary protocols used to retrieve data. Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is used to transfer data as system input and output. The result of an analysis is sent as Extensible Markup Language (XML) back to the server that originally requested the start of an analysis. The XML reply contains technical data parameters describing the customer’s connection status and an analytical response based on these technical parameters. The amount of data presented in the XML response varies slightly depending on the type of switch the customer is connected to. Switches of older hardware types generally presents less customer port data compared to more modern switches. Less customer port data leads to poor detail in the analytical response, and therefore, this analysis tool is better suited to the modern switches found in Telia's network.

  • 422.
    Buchegger, Sonja
    EPFL.
    A Robust Reputation System for Peer-to-Peer and Mobile Ad-hoc Networks2004In: Proceedings of Third Workshop on Economics of Peer-to-Peer Systems (P2PEcon), 2004, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 423.
    Buchegger, Sonja
    EPFL.
    Coping with Misbehavior in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n this work, we address the question of how to enable a system to operate despite the presence of misbehavior. Specifically, in a mobile ad-hoc network, how can we keep the network functional for normal nodes when other nodes do not route and forward correctly? Node misbehavior due to selfish or malicious reasons or faulty nodes can significantly degrade the performance of mobile ad-hoc networks. Existing approaches such as economic incentives or secure routing by cryptographic means alleviate some of the problems, but not all. For instance, nodes can still forward packets on bogus routes. We propose a protocol called CONFIDANT (Cooperation Of Nodes --- Fairness In Dynamic Ad-hoc NeTworks) to cope with misbehavior. It enables nodes to detect misbehavior by first-hand observation and use of second-hand information provided by other nodes. The view a node has about the behavior of another node is captured in a reputation system, which is used to classify nodes as misbehaving or normal. Once a misbehaving node is detected, it is isolated from the network. Reputation systems can, however, be tricked by the spread of false reputation ratings, be it false accusations or false praise. Simple solutions such as exclusively relying on one`s own direct observations have drawbacks, as they do not make use of all the information available. To solve this problem, we propose a fully distributed reputation system that can cope with false information and effectively use second-hand information in a safe way. Our approach is based on a modified Bayesian estimation and classification procedure. In our approach, each node maintains a reputation rating and a trust rating about all other nodes it cares about. Reputation ratings capture the quality of the behavior of a node as an actor in the network performing routing and forwarding tasks. From time to time first-hand reputation information is exchanged with others; using a modified Bayesian approach we designed, second-hand reputation information is only accepted if it is compatible with the current reputation rating. Reputation ratings are only slightly modified by accepted information. Trust ratings capture the quality of a node as an actor in the reputation system and reflect whether the reported first hand information summaries published by node are likely to be true. Trust ratings are updated based on the compatibility of second-hand reputation information with prior reputation ratings. We enable node redemption and prevent the sudden exploitation of good reputation built over time by introducing reputation fading. Data is entirely distributed, the reputation and trust value of a node is the collection of ratings maintained by others. We use simulation to evaluate and demonstrate the performance. We found that CONFIDANT can keep the network performance high even when up to half of the network population misbehaves. We show that our approach of using second-hand information significantly speeds up the detection of misbehaving nodes while keeping the number of false positives and negatives negligibly low.

  • 424.
    Buchegger, Sonja
    Deutsche Telekom Laboratories, TU Berlin.
    Economics of Self-Organized Networks2009Other (Refereed)
  • 425.
    Buchegger, Sonja
    et al.
    Deutsche Telekom Laboratories, TU Berlin.
    Chuang, John
    UC Berkeley.
    Economics-Informed Network Design2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 426.
    Buchegger, Sonja
    et al.
    Deutsche Telekom Laboratories, TU Berlin.
    Chuang, John
    UC Berkeley.
    Encouraging Cooperation Among Network Entities2007In: Cognitive Wireless Networks: Concepts, Methodologies and Visions / [ed] Frank Fitzek, Marcos Katz, Springer, 2007, p. 87-107Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 427.
    Buchegger, Sonja
    et al.
    Deutsche Telekom Laboratories, TU Berlin.
    Krishnamurthy, Sudha
    Deutsche Telekom Laboratories, TU Berlin.
    Sensor Network Economics2007In: Handbook on Sensor Networks / [ed] Yang Xiao, Hui Chen, Frank H. Li, World Scientific, 2007, p. 835-852Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 428.
    Buchegger, Sonja
    et al.
    EPFL.
    Le Boudec, Jean-Yves
    EPFL.
    Self-Policing Mobile Ad-hoc Networks2004In: Handbook on Mobile Computing, CRC Press, 2004, p. 395-413Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 429.
    Buchegger, Sonja
    et al.
    EPFL.
    Tissieres, Cedric
    EPFL.
    Le Boudec, Jean-Yves
    EPFL.
    A Test-Bed for Misbehavior Detection in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks: How Much can Watchdogs Really Do?2004In: SIXTH IEEE WORKSHOP ON MOBILE COMPUTING SYSTEMS AND APPLICATIONS, PROCEEDINGS, 2004, p. 102-111Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several misbehavior detection and reputation systems have been proposed for mobile ad-hoc networks, relying on direct network observation mechanisms, so-called watchdogs. While these approaches have so far only been evaluated in simulations and restricted to selfish packet dropping, we are interested in the capabilities of a watchdog detection component in a real network. In this paper we present our test-bed implementation of misbehavior detection. Following an evaluation of both the feasibility and detectability of attacks on routing and forwarding in the Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) protocol, we present the design of our test-bed. In order to add detection capabilities, we extend the concept of passive acknowledgment by mechanisms for partial dropping, packet modification, and fabrication detection. We combine DSR with Netfilter and APE to enable detection. We implement both attackers and detection and show their feasibility and limitations.

  • 430.
    Bude, Cristian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Kervefors Bergstrand, Andreas
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Internet of Things: Exploring and Securing a Future Concept2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Internet of Things (IoT) is a concept that encompasses various objects and methods of communication to exchange information. Today IoT is more a descriptive term of a vision that everything should be connected to the internet. IoT will be fundamental in the future because the concept opens up opportunities for new services and new innovations. All objects will be connected and able to communicate with each other, while they operate in unprotected environments. This later aspect leads to major security challenges.

    Today, IoT is in great need of standardization and clear architectures that describe how this technology should be implemented and how IoT devices interact with each other in a secure manner. The security challenges are rooted in the technology and how information is acquired and manipulated by this technology. This thesis provides an introduction to what the IoT is and how it can be used as well as some of the threats that IoT may face in regards to information security. In addition, the thesis provides the reader with some suggestions about how to potentially solve the fundamental need for authentication and secure communications. The solutions presented are based on both contemporary solutions and technologies that are under development for the future. Contemporary solutions are based on security protocols such as IPSec and DTLS. These protocols are being used in an environment that extends across the Internet and into a 6LoWPAN network. The proposed authentication solution has been developed based on a public key infrastructure and trust models for certificate management.

    As future work, the thesis presents several research areas where this thesis can be used as a basis. These specialization areas include further analysis of vulnerabilities and an implementation of the proposed solutions.

  • 431.
    Budzisz, Łukasz
    et al.
    Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Garcia, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Ferrús, Ramon
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain.
    A taxonomy and survey of SCTP research2012In: ACM Computing Surveys, ISSN 0360-0300, E-ISSN 1557-7341, Vol. 44, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) is a relatively recent general-purpose transport layer protocol for IP networks that has been introduced as a complement to the well-established TCP and UDP transport protocols. Although initially conceived for the transport of PSTN signaling messages over IP networks, the introduction of key features in SCTP, such as multihoming and multistreaming, has spurred considerable research interest surrounding SCTP and its applicability to different networking scenarios. This article aims to provide a detailed survey of one of these new features—multihoming—which, as it is shown, is the subject of evaluation in more than half of all published SCTP-related articles. To this end, the article first summarizes and organizes SCTP-related research conducted so far by developing a four-dimensional taxonomy reflecting the (1) protocol feature examined, (2) application area, (3) network environment, and (4) study approach. Over 430 SCTP-related publications have been analyzed and classified according to the proposed taxonomy. As a result, a clear perspective on this research area in the decade since the first protocol standardization in 2000 is given, covering both current and future research trends. On continuation, a detailed survey of the SCTP multihoming feature is provided, examining possible applications of multihoming, such as robustness, handover support, and loadsharing.

  • 432.
    Bugiel, Sven
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture (Closed 20120101), Communication Systems, CoS (closed 2012-01-01).
    Ekberg, J. -E
    Implementing an application-specific credential platform using late-launched mobile trusted module2010In: STC '10 Proceedings of the fifth ACM workshop on Scalable trusted computing, 2010, p. 21-30Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary trusted execution environments provide a good foundation for implementing secure user credentials, but these are not properly bound to the application instances that implement their use. This paper introduces a framework for application-specific credentials and provides a prototype implementation using TCG MTM and DRTM technologies. Measurements and a security analysis is presented for the realised architecture.

  • 433.
    Bui, Minh N.
    et al.
    Concordia University.
    Jaumard, Brigitte
    Concordia University.
    Cavdar, Cicek
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Mukherjee, Biswanath
    University of California - Davis.
    Design of a survivable VPN topology over a service provider network2013In: 2013 9th International Conference on the Design of Reliable Communication Networks (DRCN), IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, p. 71-78Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Survivability in IP-over-WDM networks has alreadybeen extensively discussed in a series of studies. Up to date,most of the studies assume single-hop working routing of trafficrequests. In this paper, we study the multi layer survivable designof a logical topology in the context of multiple-hop workingrouting for IP layer traffic requests. The design problem iscomposed of two problems which are simultaneously solved:(i) Finding the most efficient or economical multi-hop routingof the IP traffic flows with different bandwidth granularitiesover the logical topology, which involves some traffic grooming,(ii) Ensuring that the logical topology is survivable throughoutan appropriate mapping of the logical links over the physicaltopology, if such a mapping exists.In order to solve such a complex multi layer resilient networkdesign problem, we propose a column generation ILP model. Itallows exploiting the natural decomposition of the problem andhelps devising a scalable solution scheme.We conducted numerical experiments on a German networkwith 50 nodes and 88 physical links. Not only we could solve muchlarger data instances than those published in the literature, butalso observe than multi-hop routing allows a saving of up to 10%of the number of lightpaths, depending on the traffic load.

  • 434. Bulakci, O.
    et al.
    Gutierrez-Estevez, D. M.
    Ericson, M.
    Prasad, A.
    Pateromichelakis, E.
    Calochira, G.
    Belschner, J.
    Arnold, P.
    Moya, F. Sanchez
    Ibrahim, A. M.
    Bronzino, F.
    Čelik, Haris
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Fodor, G.
    An Agile Resource Management Framework for 5G2017In: 2017 IEEE CONFERENCE ON STANDARDS FOR COMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORKING (CSCN), IEEE, 2017, p. 24-29Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the design foundations of an agile resource management (RM) framework for the fifth generation (5G) radio access network (RAN) by describing essential building blocks (BBs). Overall, the presented RM framework provides holistic RM solutions that consider and exploit the novel aspects of 5G systems, such as, diverse service requirements, co-existence of multiple air interface (AI) variants (AIVs) in the overall AI, dynamic radio topologies, and novel communication modes. The proposed framework encompasses the following key BBs: Advanced interference management techniques for dense and dynamic deployments; dynamic traffic steering mechanisms that aim to attain the optimum mapping of 5G services to any available resources when and where needed by considering the peculiarities of different AIVs; tight interworking between novel 5G AIVs and evolved legacy AIVs such as Longterm Evolution (LTE); sharing of a common RAN by multiple network slices; RAN moderation techniques to attain energy efficiency gains; and functional extensions in the device measurement context to enable all the above new functionalities. The BBs are analyzed from the perspectives of key findings and RAN design implications.

  • 435.
    Butun, Ismail
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Pereira, Nuno
    Polytechnic Institute of Porto, Porto, Portugal .
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Analysis of LoRaWAN V1.1 Security2018In: Proceedings of the 4th ACM MobiHoc Workshop on Experiences with the Design and Implementation of Smart Objects (SMARTOBJECTS '18)., ACM Digital Library, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    LoRa and the LoRaWAN specification is a technology for Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN) designed to allow connectivity for connected objects, such as remote sensors. Several previous works revealed various weaknesses regarding the security of LoRaWAN v1.0 (the official 1st draft) and these led to improvements included in LoRaWAN v1.1, released on Oct 11, 2017. In this work, we provide the first look into the security of LoRaWAN v1.1. We present an overview of the protocol and, importantly, present several threats to this new version of the protocol. Besides, we propose our own ramification strategies for the mentioned threats, to be used in developing next version of LoRaWAN. The threats presented were not previously discussed, they are possible even within the security assumptions of the specification and are relevant for practitioners implementing LoRa-based applications as well researchers and the future evolution of the LoRaWAN specification.

  • 436. Byamukama, Maximus
    et al.
    Nannono, Janet Nakato
    Ruhinda, Kabonire
    Pehrson, Björn
    KTH.
    Nsabagwa, Mary
    Akol, Roselyn
    Olsson, Robert
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Bakkabulindi, Geoffrey
    Kondela, Emmanuel
    Design Guidelines for Ultra-low Power Gateways in Environment Monitoring Wireless Sensor Networks2017In: 2017 IEEE AFRICON / [ed] Cornish, D R, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, p. 1472-1478Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We explore techniques that can be used to reduce the power consumption of gateways in wireless sensor networks deployed in environment monitoring applications, such as Automatic Weather Stations (AWS). The challenge is the deployment of these networks in locations that are far from a consistent power source, such as a national grid. Such stations must be autonomous and power consumption must be minimized. We present test scenarios illustrating the impact of the suggested techniques. We explore hardware and software based methods of power reduction, assess the impact of each, the constraints to be expected and how to overcome them. We then provide a reference implementation of a gateway in which we integrate these techniques. We show that power consumption can be reduced by 48 - 85% when comparing best and worst case scenarios. The reference implementation we provide consumes 27mW at 3V.

  • 437.
    Byttner, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Teleinformatics.
    Internet Telephony using the Session Initiation Protocol2000Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is a highly extensible signaling protocol that provides mechanisms for establishing, modifying, and tearing down Internet telephony calls. Together with other Internet protocols and API’s it can create a flexible, dynamic, and scalable telephony environment, where services can be developed and deployed rapidly and by a wide range of users.

    This report investigates some proposed extensions to SIP and some of the API's that aim to standardize how telephony services can be defined in a SIP enabled network. The report describes some changes and improvements to these proposals and demonstrates how different services can be implemented using them.

  • 438.
    Bång, Karl-Lennart
    et al.
    Transportforskningskommissionen.
    Lindkvist, Anders
    Transportforskningskommissionen.
    Kan elektroniska informations- och reglersystem underlätta vägtrafiken?1982Report (Other academic)
  • 439.
    Böhm, Annette
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Delay-sensitive wireless communication for cooperative driving applications2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cooperative driving holds the potential to considerably improve the level of safety and efficiency on our roads. Recent advances in in-vehicle sensing and wireless communication technology have paved the way for the development of cooperative traffic safety applications based on the exchange of data between vehicles (or between vehicles and road side units) over a wireless link. The access to up-to-date status information from surrounding vehicles is vital to most cooperative driving applications. Other applications rely on the fast dissemination of warning messages in case a hazardous event or certain situation is detected. Both message types put high requirements on timeliness and reliability of the underlying communication protocols.

    The recently adopted European profile of IEEE 802.11p defines two message types,periodic beacons for basic status exchange and event-triggered hazard warnings, both operating at pre-defined send rates and sharing a common control channel. The IEEE 802.11p Medium Access Control (MAC) scheme is a random access protocol that doesnot offer deterministic real-time support, i.e. no guarantee that a packet is granted access to the channel before its deadline can be given. It has been shown that a high number of channel access requests, either due to a high number of communicating vehicles or highdata volumes produced by these vehicles, cannot be supported by the IEEE 802.11p MAC protocol, as it may result in dropped packets and unbounded delays.

    The goal of the work presented in this thesis has therefore been to enhance IEEE 802.11p without altering the standard such that it better supports the timing and reliability requirements of traffic safety applications and provides context-aware andefficient use of the available communication resources in a vehicular network. The proposed solutions are mapped to the specific demands of a set of cooperative driving scenarios (featuring infrastructure-based and infrastructure-free use cases, densely and sparsely trafficked roads, very high and more relaxed timing requirements) and evaluated either analytically, by computer simulation or by measurements and compared to the results produced by the unaltered IEEE 802.11p standard.

    As an alternative to the random MAC method of IEEE 802.11p, a centralized solution isproposed for application scenarios where either a road side unit or a suitable dedicated vehicle is present long enough to take the coordinating role. A random access phase forevent-driven data traffic is interleaved with a collision-free phase where timely channel access of periodic delay-sensitive data is scheduled. The ratio of the two phases isdynamically adapted to the current data traffic load and specific application requirements. This centralized MAC solution is mapped on two cooperative driving applications: merge assistance at highway entrances and platooning of trucks. Further,the effect of a context-aware choice of parameters like send rate or priority settings based on a vehicle’s position or role in the safety application is studied with the goal to reduce the overall number of packets in the network or, alternatively, use the available resources more efficiently. Examples include position-based priorities for the merge assistance use case, context-aware send rate adaptation of status updates in anovertaking warning application targeting sparsely-trafficked rural roads and an efficient dissemination strategy for warning messages within a platoon.

    It can be concluded that IEEE 802.11p as is does not provide sufficient support for the specific timing and reliability requirements imposed by the exchange of safety-criticalreal-time data for cooperative driving applications. While the proper, context-awarechoice of parameters, concerning send rate or priority level, within the limits of the standard, can lead to improved packet inter-arrival rates and reduced end-to-end delays,the added benefits from integrating MAC solutions with real-time support into the standard are obvious and needs to be investigated further.

  • 440.
    Böhm, Annette
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Co-existing periodic beaconing and hazard warnings in IEEE 802.11p-based platooning applicationsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A platoon of trucks driving at the same, mutually agreed speed while keeping a minimum inter-vehicle distance will reduce fuel consumption, enhance transport efficiency as well as improve the safety of other adjacent road users. The European profile of IEEE 802.11p for inter-vehicle communications uses a single 10 MHz control channel dedicated to safety-critical data, shared by periodic status updates, CAM (Cooperative Awareness Message), and event-triggered warnings, DENM (Decentralized Environmental Notification Message). Coupled with the random access delay inherent to the 802.11p medium access method, the strict timing and reliability requirements of platoon applications are not easily met. To this end, we evaluate by simulation the effect of IEEE 802.11p-compliant send rate adaptations and message type prioritizations and the choice of warning dissemination strategy on CAM transmissions and DENM dissemination in a platooning scenario. Simulation studies of a platoon of 10-20 vehicles in a busy highway scenario show that the context-aware choice of send rate, priority class and dissemination strategy not only reduce the dissemination delay of DENMs but even has a significant effect on the throughput of CAMs exchanged by platoon members.

  • 441.
    Böhm, Annette
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Co-Existing Periodic Beaconing and Hazard Warnings in IEEE 802.11p-Based Platooning Applications2013In: VANET 2013 - Proceedings of the 10th ACM International Workshop on VehiculAr Inter-NETworking, Systems, and Applications, New York, NY: ACM Press, 2013, p. 99-101Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A platoon of trucks driving at the same, mutually agreed speed while keeping a minimum inter-vehicle distance will reduce fuel consumption, enhance transport efficiency as well as improve the safety of other adjacent road users. The European profile of IEEE 802.11p for inter-vehicle communications uses a single 10 MHz control channel dedicated to safety-critical data, shared by periodic status updates, and event-triggered warnings. Coupled with the random access delay inherent to the 802.11p medium access method, the strict timing and reliability requirements of platoon applications are not easily met. To this end, we evaluate the effect of IEEE 802.11p-compliant send rate adaptations and message type prioritizations and the choice of warning dissemination strategy in a platooning scenario. Simulation studies of a platoon of 10-20 vehicles in a busy highway scenario show that a context-aware choice of send rate, priority class and dissemination strategy not only reduces the hazard warning dissemination delay but also has a significant effect on the throughput of periodic beacons.

  • 442.
    Böhm, Annette
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Performance comparison of a platooning application using the IEEE 802.11p MAC on the control channel and a centralized MAC on a service channel2013In: 2013 IEEE 9th International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications (WiMob), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2013, p. 545-552, article id 6673411Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advances in cooperative driving hold the potential to significantly improve safety, comfort and efficiency on our roads. An application of particular interest is platooning of trucks, where it has been shown that keeping a minimum inter-vehicle distance results in considerably reduced fuel consumption.This, however, puts high requirements on timeliness and reliability of the underlying exchange of control messages betweenplatoon members. The European profile of IEEE 802.11p, recently adopted by ETSI, defines two message types to this end, periodic beacons for basic cooperative awareness (CAM) and event-triggered decentralized environmental notification messages (DENM), both of which will use one common control channel. IEEE 802.11p employs a random medium access protocol, which may experience excessive delays during high network loads. To mitigate these effects, ETSI standardizes a decentralized congestion control algorithm to, e.g., lower the CAM update frequency during high loads. However, this may prevent proper functionality of a platooning application. In this paper we propose a solution that instead uses a dedicated service channel for platooning applications and compare its performance to standard-compliant IEEE 802.11p inter-platoon communication on the control channel. Service channels typically have less strict requirements on send rates, data traffic types and medium access methods. Our service channel solution combines a random access phase for DENM with a centralized, scheduled access phase for CAM. Using a service channel enables us to guarantee timely channel access for all CAM packets before a specified deadline while still being able to provide a reasonable DENM dissemination delay. © 2013 IEEE.

  • 443.
    Böhm, Annette
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Performance evaluation of a platooning application using the IEEE 802.11p MAC on a control channel vs. a centralized real-time MAC on a service channelManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advances in cooperative driving hold the potential to significantly improve safety, comfort and efficiency on our roads. An application of particular interest is platooning of trucks, where it has been shown that keeping a minimum inter-vehicle distance results in considerably reduced fuel consumptions. This, however, puts high requirements on timeliness and reliability of the underlying exchange of control messages between platoon members. The European profile of IEEE 802.11p, recently adopted by ETSI, defines two message types to this end, periodic beacons for basic cooperative awareness (CAM) and event-triggered decentralized environmental notification messages (DENM), both using the common control channel. The IEEE 802.11p employs a random medium access protocol, with excessive delays that may prevent proper functionality of a platooning application. To mitigate the effects of this, ETSI standardizes a decentralized congestion control algorithm to, e.g., lower the CAM frequency when needed. Some service channels with less strict requirements on send rates, data traffic types or medium access methods are available. In this paper we compare the performance of decentralized, standard-compliant inter-platoon communication using IEEE 802.11p on the control channel with a solution based on a service channel, which combines a random access phase for DENM with a centralized, scheduled access phase for CAM. A dedicated service channel for platooning applications enables us to always guarantee timely channel access of CAM packets before a specified deadline and our simulations show that this is achieved at very small sacrifices in DENM dissemination delay.

  • 444.
    Böhm, Annette
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Kunert, Kristina
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Data age based MAC scheme for fast and reliable communication within and between platoons of vehicles2016In: International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications, Piscataway: IEEE, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heavy vehicles driving as platoon with highly reduced inter-vehicle gaps has shown considerable fuel saving potential, but put high timing and reliability requirements on the underlying control data exchange. The recently standardized IEEE 802.11p protocol suite for Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks (VANETs) and its message types do neither support the demands of a platooning application nor take advantage of its properties. We therefore propose a framework for centralized channel access with retransmission capabilities for safety critical control data exchange based on the data age of earlier received messages, DA-RE (Data Age based REtransmission scheme). A simulation comparison to the 802.11p random access Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol shows that the intelligent assignment of retransmission opportunities considerably improves the reliability of platooning control data. We also propose a power control based scheme for early platoon detection allowing several platoons to temporarily share a channel and show that the safe and reliable operation of their vehicles is not compromised. © 2016 IEEE.

  • 445.
    Böhm, Annette
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Kunert, Kristina
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Data age based retransmission scheme for reliable control data exchange in platooning applications2015In: 2015 IEEE International Conference on Communication Workshop (ICCW), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2015, p. 2412-2418Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advances in cooperative driving hold the potential to significantly improve safety, comfort and efficiency on our roads. Platooning of heavy vehicles, where automated or semi-automated driving allows minimal inter-vehicle gaps, has shown considerable reductions in fuel consumption. Although using the same wireless communication technology, a platoon differs from a VANET (Vehicular Ad-hoc NETwork) in several points. It is centralized in its nature, with a well-defined group leader, its topology is fairly stable and it has very challenging requirements on timeliness and reliability of its control data exchange. Therefore, the IEEE 802.11p protocol suite and its recently defined message types do neither support the needs of a platooning application nor take advantage of its properties. A platoons control loop must continuously be fed with fresh data, so the information age is an important parameter to be closely monitored. In this paper, we therefore propose a framework for centralized channel access and retransmission capabilities for safety critical inter-platoon control data based on the data age of earlier received messages. A simulation evaluation compares our solution to a) the decentralized, standard-compliant IEEE 802.11p MAC (Medium Access Control) method, and a time-slotted scheme b) with and c) without retransmissions and shows that the centralized, data age based retransmission scheme clearly outperforms its competitors in terms of maintained data age. © 2015 IEEE.

  • 446.
    Böhm, Annette
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Lidström, Kristoffer
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Larsson, Tony
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Evaluating CALM M5-based vehicle-to-vehicle communication in various road settings through field trials2010In: Proceedings - Conference on Local Computer Networks, LCN, (2010 12 01): 613-620, Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE Press, 2010, p. 613-620Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Future cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) applications aimed to improve safety, efficiency and comfort on our roads put high demands on the underlying wireless communication system. To gain better understanding of the limitations of the 5.9 GHz frequency band and the set of communication protocols for medium range vehicle to vehicle (V2V) communication, a set of field trials with CALM M5 enabled prototypes has been conducted. This paper describes five different real vehicle traffic scenarios covering both urban and rural settings at varying vehicle speeds and under varying line-of-sight (LOS) conditions and discusses the connectivity (measured as Packet Reception Ratio) that could be achieved between the two test vehicles. Our measurements indicate a quite problematic LOS sensitivity that strongly influences the performance of V2V-based applications. We further discuss how the awareness of these context-based connectivity problems can be used to improve the design of possible future cooperative ITS safety applications.

  • 447.
    Börjesson, Martin
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Teleinformatics.
    Creation & Deployment of Voice Browsing Services1999Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Making the World Wide Web accessible trough audio interfaces (voice browsing) would provide many benefits. Far more people today have access to phones than have access to computers, further more, cellular phones allow user-mobility. Traditional Interactive Voice Response (IVR) applications have so far been restricted to the POTS network. However, a combination of Internet and IVR technologies could make voice browsing on the WWW possible. IVR services can with many benefits be described with customised markup languages instead of the traditional programming languages that are used today. The services can be published on the web using the same tools as in graphical Web publishing.

    In this paper, existing conversational markup languages are presented and evaluated together with suggestions for improvements. The benefits of the Extensible Markup Language in web publishing are studied with the conclusion that it would provide the best available base a future conversational markup standard.

    Requirements for a voice browser are suggested and possible media platforms are evaluated and discussed. The design of a voice browser is presented and discussed together with experiences gained from an implementation task.

    This paper concludes that voice browsing on the WWW will become a common way of web interaction within a not too distant future. The techniques necessary already exists. The benefits and opportunities that it offers will drive the development of necessary standards as well as the growth of content provide[r]s and users[.]

  • 448.
    Bülow, Jonas
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Mobile IP and AAA Services2002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Networks providing Authentication, Authorization and Accounting services are found all over the world. The number of mobile devices is growing rapidly and the need to have a seamless, user friendly, and stable integration between mobile devices and AAA enabled networks is an important development trend right now.

    This thesis will give an overview of the work taking place in the field of AAA and Mobile IP. Issues when Mobile IP and AAA meet will be discussed.

    The thesis will describe sample tests of a Mobile IP network and a simple test using the forthcoming AAA protocol Diameter.

    Conclusions based on these tests are described along with some obvious future work.

  • 449. Caballero Bayerri, Juan
    et al.
    Malmkvist, Daniel
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Experimental Study of a Network Access Server for a public WLAN access network2002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless access networks have gained popularity due to the flexibility they allow the user, who is able to move away from his or her desk while still being able to access information. Among the different Wireless LAN standards, the most widespread, by far, is IEEE 802.11.

    Public WLAN access networks are being set up in hotspots, i.e. areas expected to have high demand for bandwidth. Access to the Internet and to corporate networks is provided at these hotspots with limited coverage but high available bandwidth. Airports and hotels have often been the first targeted locations for these hotspots, but conference centres, cafes, and train stations follow. In the near future, any person who owns at least one access point and has a connection to the Internet can become a small operator and offer access to the Internet using these resources.

    Existing solutions for such WLAN access networks lack support for security, flexible accounting, mobility, multiaccess, roaming and user-friendly login. The aim of this Master's Thesis was to study if it was possible to solve these problems and how to integrate all this new functionality into existing public WLAN access networks by building and evaluating a prototype of a public WLAN access network

    System requirements were defined, currently available solutions analysed and a prototype was built. Most of the functionality of the prototype is placed in the Network Access Server, which is the main element providing security, mobility, and accounting.

    Flexible accounting, improvements in security, an easy and fast way to login the user, a feedback module to provide information about the current session and integration of the RADIUS architecture with the Mobile IP distribution have all been implemented.

  • 450.
    Cabarkapa, Dragan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Authorization Architecture for SWoT2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Social Web of Things (SWoT) is a user centric framework which facilitates interaction between software agents deployed on smart things and in the cloud. Software agents deployed on smart things are remotely accessible, host sensitive resources, and often represent high value targets. SWoT currently does not feature adequate security mechanisms which could protect software agents from unauthorized access. In this thesis, we aim to rectify this deficiency by introducing platform independent, exible, and user centric authorization mechanism inSWoT.

    We derive requirements and design of abstract authorization architecture from the preceding seminal work performed in SENSEI project. SENSEI and SWoT share same problem domain, but while SENSEI addresses enterprise use cases SWoT focusses on consumer use cases. This single but fundamental difference motivates adaptations of SENSEI contributions for application in SWoT. To realize concrete authorization architecture we perform extensive study of various authorization solutions. Results of our study indicate that novel User Managed Access (UMA) protocol represents promising solution for SWoT.

    We present the Authorization as a Service solution for SWoT framework, based on UMA protocol. This solution enables users to manage and control communication between software agents deployed on smart things and in the cloud from single centralized location. It also features runtime association of software agents, management, evaluation, and enforcement of access permissions for resources provided by software agents.

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