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  • 3801.
    Yahaya, Ismael
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden, and London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK .
    Uthman, Olalekan A
    Warwick-Centre for Applied Health Research and Delivery (WCAHRD), Division of Health Sciences, Warwick Medical School, The University of Warwick, United Kingdom, and Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, International Health Group, Liverpool, Merseyside, UK .
    Soares, Joaquim
    Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden, and Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Macassa, Gloria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science. Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden, and Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Social disorganization and history of child sexual abuse against girls in Sub-Saharan Africa: A multilevel analysis2013In: BMC International Health and Human Rights, ISSN 1472-698X, E-ISSN 1472-698X, Vol. 13, no 33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a considerable public health problem. Less focus has been paid to the role of community level factors associated with CSA. The aim of this study was to examine the association between neighbourhood-level measures of social disorganization and child sexual abuse CSA.

    Methods

    We applied multiple multilevel logistic regression analysis on Demographic and Health Survey data for 6,351 adolescents from six countries in sub-Saharan Africa between 2006 and 2008.

    Results

    The percentage of adolescents that had experienced CSA ranged from 1.04% to 5.84%. There was a significant variation in the odds of reporting CSA across the communities, suggesting 18% of the variation in CSA could be attributed to community level factors. Respondents currently employed were more likely to have reported CSA than those who were unemployed (odds ratio [OR] = 2.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.48 to 2.83). Respondents from communities with a high family disruption rate were 57% more likely to have reported CSA (OR=1.57, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.16).

    Conclusion

    We found that exposure to CSA was associated with high community level of family disruption, thus suggesting that neighbourhoods may indeed have significant important effects on exposure to CSA. Further studies are needed to explore pathways that connect the individual and neighbourhood levels, that is, means through which deleterious neighbourhood effects are transmitted to individuals.

  • 3802.
    Yahaya, Ismail
    et al.
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Midsweden University, Sweden, and Centre for Evidence-Based Global Health, Nigeria.
    Ponce de Leon, Antonio
    Division of Social Medicine, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    A. Uthman, Olalekan
    Warwick - Centre for Applied Health Research and Delivery (WCAHRD), Division of Health Sciences, Warwick Medical School, The University of Warwick, Coven try, CV4 7AL, United Kingdom.
    Soares, Joaquim
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Midsweden University, Sweden, and Division of Social Medicine, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Macassa, Gloria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science. Department of Public Health Sciences, Midsweden University, Sweden, and Division of Social Medicine, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Individual and community-level socioeconomic position and its association with adolescents experience of childhood sexual abuse: a multilevel analysis of sixcountries in Sub-Saharan Africa2013In: Journal of Injury and Violence Research, ISSN 2008-2053, E-ISSN 2008-4072, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 21-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a substantial global health and human rights problem and consequently a growing concern in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined the association between individual and community-level socioeconomic status (SES) and the likelihood of reporting CSA.

    METHODS: We applied multiple multilevel logistic regression analysis on Demographic and Health Survey data for 6,351female adolescents between the ages of 15 and 18 years from six countries in sub-Saharan Africa, between 2006 and 2008.

    RESULTS: About 70% of the reported cases of CSA were between 14 and 17 years. Zambia had the highest proportion of reported cases of CSA (5.8%). At the individual and community level, we found that there was no association between CSA and socioeconomic position. This study provides evidence that the likelihood of reporting CSA cut across all individual SES as well as all community socioeconomic strata.

    CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence of socioeconomic differentials in adolescents’ experience of CSA, suggesting that adolescents from the six countries studied experienced CSA regardless of their individual- and community-level socioeconomic position. However, we found some evidence of geographical clustering, adolescents in the same community are subject to common contextual influences. Further studies are needed to explore possible effects of countries’ political, social, economic, legal, and cultural impact on Childhood sexual abuse.

  • 3803.
    Yahaya, Ismail
    et al.
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden; Centre for Evidence-Based Global Health, Nigeria.
    Ponce De Leon, Antonio
    Division of Social Medicine, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Uthman, Olalekan A.
    Centre for Applied Health Research and Delivery (WCAHRD), Division of Health Sciences, Warwick Medical School, The University of Warwick, Coventry, UK.
    Soares, Joaquim J. F.
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden; Division of Social Medicine, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Macassa, Gloria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science. Department of Public Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden; Division of Social Medicine, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Childhood sexual abuse among girls and determinants of sexual risk behaviours in adult life in sub-Saharan Africa2015In: Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, ISSN 1759-6599, E-ISSN 2042-8715, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 67-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between child sexual abuse and sexual risk behaviours as well as its potential mediators.

    Design/methodology/approach This cross-sectional study used data from a cross-sectional study from 12,800 women between 15 and 49 years of age included in the 2008 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was applied to assess the association between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and sexual risk behaviours.

    Findings The authors found that CSA was directly associated with sexual risk behaviours. In addition, the association between CSA and sexual risk behaviour was also partially mediated by alcohol and cigarette use.

    Research limitations/implications The results show that being abused in childhood is important for the subsequent development of sexual risk behaviours in adulthood and the association is mediated by alcohol and cigarette use.

    Practical implications The results may be helpful for policy makers and health care planners in designing cultural sensitive public health intervention that will reduce the burden of CSA, its long-term effects (sexual risk behaviours) and intervening mediators that increase the risks.

    Social implications These findings suggest that to reduce sexual risks, interventions to address sexual abuse needs to include other social problems (smoking, alcohol) that victims result to when faced with trauma.

    Originality/value The current study is the only one so far in sub-Saharan Africa to have explored the relation between CSA and sexual risk behaviours using SEM.

  • 3804.
    Yahaya, Ismail
    et al.
    Mid-Sweden University, Sweden.
    Soares, Joaquim
    Mid-Sweden University, Sweden.
    De Leon, Antonio Ponce
    Mid-Sweden University, Sweden.
    Macassa, Gloria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science. Mid-Sweden University, Sweden.
    A comparative study of the socioeconomic factors associated with childhood sexual abuse in sub-Saharan Africa2012In: Pan African Medical Journal, ISSN 1937-8688, E-ISSN 1937-8688, Vol. 11, no 51, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a problem of considerable proportion in Africa where up to one-third of adolescent girls report their first sexual experience as being forced. The impact of child hood sexual abuse resonates in all areas of health. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse and variations across socioeconomic status in six sub-Saharan countries. Methods: Datasets from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) in six sub-Saharan African countries conducted between 2003 and 2007 were used to access the relationship between CSA and socio economic status using multiple logistic regression models. Results: There was no association between CSA and education, wealth and area of settlement. However, there was contrasting association between CSA and working status of women. Conclusion: This study concurs with other western studies which indicate that CSA transcends across all socio economic group. It is therefore important that effective preventive strategies are developed and implemented that will cross across all socio-economic groups. © Ismail Yahaya et al.

  • 3805.
    Yake, Chanelle
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Jäderholm, Linn
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Det goda åldrandet: En kvalitativ studie av seniorer i den tredje åldern2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att öka kunskapen och förståelsen för äldres sociala behov i den tredje åldern för de som besöker träffpunktsverksamheten. För att genomföra studien har en kvalitativ intervjumetod används med fyra seniorer samt två träffpunktsledare. Detta för att få bådas perspektiv på vad ett gott åldrande innebär, men fokus har legat på seniorerna. Studien utgick ifrån två teorier, den sociala nätverksteorin och aktivitetsteorin. Dessa två är huvudteorier. I förhållande till dessa har gerotranscendensteorin används då den motsäger vad de två ovannämnda teorierna pekar på. Studiens empiriska data har analyserats efter den hermeneutiska cirkeln. Resultatet av studien visade att ett aktivt liv är av stor vikt för seniorerna som besöker träffpunktsverksamheten. Studien visade även att träffpunktsledarnas engagemang och motivation bidrar till att seniorerna upplever att de har ett inflytande i träffpunktsverksamheten. Seniorerna menade att känslan av delaktighet bottnar i den goda relation som de har till träffpunktsledaren.

  • 3806.
    Yang, Liyun
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Dai, Jingjing
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    The utilization of community health service among Han nationality in Lishui,China:: A cross-sectional questionnaire study2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 3807.
    Yangqing, Sun
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Ling, Zou
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Patients’ experiences of living with type Ⅱ diabetes: A descriptive literature review2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 3808.
    Yanhan, Jin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences.
    Yilan, Ling
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences.
    Women’s experience of postpartum depression: : A descriptive literature review2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 3809.
    Ye, Minghui
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Tao, Jun
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Parents' experience of having premature baby: A literature review2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 3810.
    YEHONG, LUO
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Research on the situation of deaf-mute Children of Migrant Workers in Guiyang, China2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report is the outcome of a Field Study project. The aim of the study was to findout how the floating deaf-mute children of migrant workers experience psychologicalproblems in Guiyang, China. Bronfenbrenner’s ecological system theory was used asa theoretical frame. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 4 inner migrantcouples who have deaf-mute children receiving treatment in a Center for disabled inGuiyang. 12 professionals working with treating deaf-mute children are alsointerviewed as well as 5 deaf-mute children. In total together 21 informants areinterviewed. The result of this study shows that three main aspects influence thepsychological problems of floating deaf-mute children with migrant parents most:social welfare policy, family income conditions and the center of treatmentenvironment. This study explored the problems based on Brofenbreener’s ecologicalsystems approach, which for the author had a new perspective to research on thesituation of deaf-mute children of migrant workers in Guiyang, China.

  • 3811.
    Yenigun, Cigdem
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Arbetslöshetens inverkan på nyanlända: En studie om eftergymnasialt utbildade nyanländas upplevelser av arbetslöshet2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine mental health in relation to unemployment among newly arrived with post-secondary education. This was to get a deeper understanding about their experiences regarding unemployment despite their high education, the focus was on mental health and how they think their future looks like. The method used for the following study was an empirical qualitative method in which the author used the semi-structured interviews. Five participants were interviewed, four men and one woman between the ages 20-64. The results of this study found that newly arrived people with post-secondary education had poor mental health because of worries about the future. They also felt that the education they had received from their country was a waste in Sweden. These people also had a temporary residence permit which brought frustration because their future wasn’t secure. The conclusion of this study was that newly arrived individuals with post-secondary education wanted Psychological help from the society so they could start working. 

  • 3812.
    Yermakova, Irena
    et al.
    International scientific training centre for information technologies and systems.
    Boiko, K
    Bortkiewicz, A
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Heart rate, blood pressure and electromyogram in assessment of physical activity fatigue using neural network model2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3813.
    Yi, Fu
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences.
    Qunzhan, Zhang
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences.
    The Effect of life review on depression and depressive symptoms in adults: A descriptive literature review2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 3814.
    Yi, Li
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Xieyan, Yu
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Registered nurses' reflections on nursing students' caring for end-of-life patients in a youth volunteer service: An interview study2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 3815.
    Yi, Wu
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Xia, Mao
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    How registered nurses can work to support the middle aged and aged adults suffering from sleep disorders2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 3816.
    Yi, Xing
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Chen, Zhang
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Patient’s Experiences of Having Lung Cancer: -  A descriptive review2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 3817.
    Yilin, Ding
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Zhou, Zhou
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Women’s experience of living with cervical cancer: – A descriptive  review2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 3818.
    Yilun, Xin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Yinyan, Wang
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Kind of support interventions and effects of them on self-management for patients with hypertension: A descriptive literature review2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 3819.
    Ying, Zhang
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Jamin, Wang
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Registered nurses’ perceptions of nursing bedside handover2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 3820.
    Yingjia, Yao
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Sun, Jiaqing
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Health literacy among middle-aged and elderly patients with cardiovascular disease in Lishui: - a quantitative study2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 3821.
    Yiting, Zhu
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Xinyu, Gong
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Kind of interventions and effects of them on foot ulcers of patients with diabetes: A descriptive literature review2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 3822.
    Yiying, Chen
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Zhulian, Yang
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Self-regulated learning ability among undergraduate nursing students: A Cross-sectional study2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 3823.
    Yiyuan, Shu
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Yan, Feng
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Women’s psychological experience of having unwanted abortion: A descriptive literature review2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 3824.
    Yizhou, MO
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences.
    Hengxing, Hu
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences.
    Parents’ experiences of having a preterm infant: infant - A descriptive literature review2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 3825.
    Yongli, Lu
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Chengcheng, Wang
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    How pressure ulcers can be prevented in intensive care unit (ICU) patients: A descriptive literature review2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 3826.
    Yoo, Ulrika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Social Work.
    Att rädda en förövare: En intervjustudie om våld i nära relation och behandlingen av förövare2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Titel:” To Save a Perpetrator” 

    An interview study about domestic violence and the treatment of the perpetrator

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the treatments available to perpetrators of domestic violence. The study is based on qualitative interviews with four people who all work with perpetrators of domestic violence in some way. The result has been analyzed with the help of attachment theory, behaviorism, violence - dominance and masculinity. The results show that there are various forms of treatment for the perpetrators. According to the interviewees there is no follow-up on whether the efforts help. The interviewees also described that these treatments are all individually adapted to the perpetrator's needs and that there is a resistance among the perpetrators to be included in group treatments. In addition, the treatments were described as often related to volunteerism under some constraint. The lack of attachment and the complexity of the treatment are discussed.

  • 3827.
    You, Junxin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Zheng, Guangjin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Nursing interventions in improving the postoperative recovery of patients with orthopedic hip andknee surgery: A descriptive literature review2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 3828.
    Yuan, Hangjia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Zhang, Hui
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    The prevention of the Ventilator associated pneumonia from the view of registered nurses: A descriptive literature review2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 3829.
    Yung, Marcus
    et al.
    Department of Kinesiology, University of Waterloo.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Wells, Richard
    Department of Kinesiology, University of Waterloo.
    Variation of Force Amplitude and its Effects on Local Fatigue2012In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 112, no 11, p. 3865-3879Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Trends in industry are leaning towards stereotyped jobs with low workloads. Physical variation is an intervention to reduce fatigue and potentially musculoskeletal disorders in such jobs. Controlled laboratory studies have provided insight into the effectiveness of physical variation but very few have been devoted to intermittent activity without muscular rest as a component. This study was undertaken to determine whether the inclusion of muscular rest would result in physiological responses beyond those composed of varying non-zero forces. Five isometric contraction patterns with the same mean amplitude (15% maximum voluntary contraction, MVC), cycle time (6 seconds), and duty cycle (50%) were compared using multiple biophysical approaches. In exercise, sustained (15%Sust) and intermittent contractions including zero force (0%-30%Int) differed significantly in 19 of 27 response variables. Contractions varying by half the mean force (7.5%-22.5%Int) led to 8 and 7 measured responses that were significantly different from 0%-30%Int and 15%Sus, respectively. A sinusoidal condition (0%-30%Sine) resulted in 2 variables that were significantly different from 0%-30%Int and 16 different from 15%Sus. Finally, 10 response variables suggested that varying forces with 1% as the lower contraction level was significantly less fatiguing than 15%Sus while no responses were significantly different from 0%-30%Int. Sustained contractions led to decreased twitch force 24 hours post-exercise whereas intermittent contractions recovered within 60 minutes. This suggests that time varying force may be a useful intervention to reduce local fatigue in workers performing low-load tasks and that rest per se did not seem to cause any extraordinary effects.

  • 3830.
    Yuqing, He
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Xudan, Mao
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Quality of life of end-of-life patients: An interview study2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 3831.
    Zacarias, A. E.
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Macassa, Gloria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science.
    Soares, J.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Women as Perpetrators of IPV: the Experience of Mozambique2012In: Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, ISSN 1759-6599, E-ISSN 2042-8715, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 5-27Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3832.
    Zacarias, Antonio Eugenio
    et al.
    Eduardo Mondlane University, Faculty of Medicine, Maputo, Mozambique.
    Macassa, Gloria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science. Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Soares, Joaquim J. F
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Svanström, Leif
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Social Medicine, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Antai, Diddy
    Division of Global Health and Inequalities, The Angels Trust - Nigeria, Abuja, Nigeria.
    Symptoms of depression, anxiety, and somatization in female victims and perpetrators of intimate partner violence in Maputo City, Mozambique2012In: International Journal of Women's Health, ISSN 1179-1411, E-ISSN 1179-1411, Vol. 4, p. 491-503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Little knowledge exists in Mozambique and sub-Saharan Africa about the mental health (symptoms of depression, anxiety, and somatization) of women victims and perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV) by type of abuse (psychological aggression, physical assault without/with injury, and sexual coercion). This study scrutinizes factors associated with mental health among women victims and perpetrators of IPV over the 12 months prior to the study.

    Methods and materials: Mental health data were analyzed with bivariate and multiple regression methods for 1442 women aged 15–49 years who contacted Forensic Services at Maputo Central Hospital (Maputo City, Mozambique) for IPV victimization between April 1, 2007 and March 31, 2008.

    Results: In bivariate analyses, victims and perpetrators of IPVs scored higher on symptoms of mental health than their unaffected counterparts. Multiple regressions revealed that controlling behaviors, mental health comorbidity, social support, smoking, childhood abuse, sleep difficulties, age, and lack of education were more important in explaining symptoms of mental health than demographics/socioeconomics or life-style factors. Victimization and perpetration across all types of IPV were not associated with symptoms of mental health.

    Conclusion: In our sample, victimization and perpetration were not important factors in explaining mental ill health, contrary to previous findings. More research into the relationship between women’s IPV victimization and perpetration and mental health is warranted as well as the influence of controlling behaviors on mental health.

  • 3833.
    Zacarias, Antonio Eugenio
    et al.
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Social Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden, and do Mondlane University, Faculty of Medicine, Maputo City, Mozambique .
    Macassa, Gloria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science. Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Svanström, Leif
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Social Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Soares, Joaquim JF
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Social Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden, and Department of Health Sciences, Division of Public Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden .
    Antai, Diddy
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Social Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden, and Center for Global & Population Health, The Angels Trust Nigeria, Abuja, Nigeria .
    Intimate partner violence against women in Maputo city, Mozambique2012In: BMC International Health and Human Rights, ISSN 1472-698X, E-ISSN 1472-698X, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    There is limited research about IPV against women and associated factors in Sub-Saharan Africa, not least Mozambique. The objective of this study was to examine the occurrence, severity, chronicity and "predictors" of IPV against women in Maputo City (Mozambique).

    Methods

    Data were collected during a 12 month-period (consecutive cases, with each woman seen only once) from 1,442 women aged 15--49 years old seeking help for abuse by an intimate partner at the Forensic Services at the Maputo Central Hospital, Maputo City, Mozambique. Interviews were conducted by trained female interviewers, and data collected included demographics and lifestyle variables, violence (using the previously validated Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS2), and control (using the Controlling Behaviour Scale Revised (CBS-R). The data were analysed using bivariate and multivariate methods.

    Results

    The overall experienced IPV during the past 12 months across severity (one or more types, minor and severe) was 70.2% (chronicity, 85.8 +/- 120.9).a Severe IPV varied between 26.3-45.9% and chronicity between 3.1 +/- 9.1-12.8 +/- 26.9, depending on IPV type. Severity and chronicity figures were higher in psychological aggression than in the other IPV types. Further, 26.8% (chronicity, 55.3 +/- 117.6) of women experienced all IPV types across severity. The experience of other composite IPV types across severity (4 combinations of 3 types of IPV) varied between 27.1-42.6% and chronicity between 35.7 +/- 80.3-64.9 +/- 110.9, depending on the type of combination. The combination psychological aggression, physical assault and sexual coercion had the highest figures compared with the other combinations.. The multiple regressions showed that controlling behaviours, own perpetration and co-occurring victimization were more important in "explaining" the experience of IPV than other variables (e.g. abuse as a child).

    Conclusions

    In our study, controlling behaviours over/by partner, own perpetration, co-occurring victimization and childhood abuse were more important factors in "explaining" sustained IPV. More investigation into women's IPV exposure and its "predictors" is warranted in Sub-Saharan Africa, particularly Mozambique.

  • 3834.
    Zamani Rivash, Fatemeh
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Att främja livsstilsförändringar hos patienter med hypertoni genom motiverande samtal: en litteraturstudie2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Högt blodtryck, hypertoni, är idag mycket vanligt i Sverige och andra västländer. I Sverige beräknas 1,8 miljoner personer ha hypertoni. Förändringar i livsstil, såsom större intag av frukt och grönsaker, lägre natriumintag, minskad kroppsvikt, minskad alkoholkonsumtion, rökavvänjning och ökad fysisk aktivitet räknas som faktorer som har betydelse för att sänka blodtrycket. Motiverande samtal är en personcentrerad teknik för att utveckla, upprätthålla och stärka den inre motivationen till förändring. Syftet med litteraturstudien var att undersöka om motiverande samtal kan åstadkomma livsstilsförändringar hos personer med hypertoni samt om motiverande samtal kan minska risken för hjärt- kärlsjukdomar som är en vanlig komplikation efter några år med hypertoni. Syftet var också att belysa vilka hinder för livsstilsförändring som kan förekomma. Metoden som användes var en deskriptiv litteraturstudie i vilken 10 artiklar granskades. Resultaten visade att motiverande samtal hade effekt när det gällde förbättring i medicinering, ökad fysisk aktivitet, hälsosam kost och rökavvänjning. Motiverande samtal vid hypertoni hade ingen effekt på kardiovaskulär risk. Vanliga hinder som förekom var: patientens ovilja, otillräckliga kunskap, livsstil samt bristande kommunikation. En slutsats författaren drar är att motiverande samtal har effekt på livsstilsförändringar och det är viktigt att rådgivningen är individanpassad och att patienten inte belastas med hårda krav på livsstilsförändringar.

  • 3835.
    Zecevic, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational Health Science.
    Företagsägares uppfattningar om arbetsmiljöarbete i mikroföretag2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate and describe business owners perceptions of occupational health and safety management in micro enterprises. The data collection was conducted through qualitative interviews and the material from the interviews has been analyzed with a phenomenographic method. The similarities of the study's result are: "necessary for companies and employees", "time consuming" and "important to get help from someone who can". The differences that emerged are: "occupational health and safety management starts with the premises", "costs a lot of money", "not adapted for micro-enterprises", "occupational health and safety management is about leadership", "occupational health and safety management is complex", "occupational health and safety management does not feel amusing" and "occupational health and safety management only consists of requirements". Based on the results that have emerged from the study, the informants who work with the working environment seem to have a positive view while those who do not work with the work environment seem to have a negative view of it. The informants who work and do not work with the environment seem to work in different ways and have different priorities in the occupational health and safety management.

  • 3836.
    Zeka, Suada
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Fältassistenters uppsökande och förebyggande arbete: En kvalitativ studie om hur fältassistenter arbetar med förebyggande socialt arbete för att motverka ungdomskriminalitet i utsatta bostadsområden.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    According to the Social Services Act, SFS (2001: 453), field work is to be used as a method of preventive social work. The purpose of this study was to investigate how field assistants work with preventive social work to combat juvenile delinquency in exposed residential areas in the Stockholm region. The qualitative interview study consists of four field assistants and a prevention coordinator from two vulnerable areas. The interview material was analyzed by using system theory and empowerment theory. The study shows that juvenile delinquency is a symptom of already existing problems in relation to the surrounding system. Exclusion, confinement, machoculture, low socioeconomic status with many living with supply support, low or no education and difficulties for young people to get a job is associated with the problematic behavior according to the systems theory. Because juvenile delinquency is one of the multi-dimensional social issues in relation to vulnerable areas, the field assistants affect by seeking out the activitiees of young people s natural circles and creating mutual contact, trustand voluntility among young people. Their social change work is also linked to empowerment by raiseng awareness of destructive norms, identifying common problems and its causes, in order to create better self-confidence, self-image, skills and knowledge.

     

    Keywords: Exposed residential areas, Youth crime, Social prevention work, Field work

  • 3837.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Uppsala universitet, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    The impact of visually demanding near work on neck/shoulder discomfort and trapezius muscle activity: Laboratory studies2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Musculoskeletal discomfort in the neck and shoulders is common among workers performing visually demanding near work, e.g., on a computer screen, and sustained low-level muscle activity during such work can lead to work-related pain. The relationships between visual demands and muscle activity and discomfort in the neck/shoulder region are at present unclear. Aim: The aims of this thesis were to determine whether neck/shoulder discomfort and trapezius muscle activity increases during visually demanding experimental near work, and to investigate whether eye-lens accommodation is a mediating mechanism behind increased trapezius muscle activity. Methods: The four papers included are based on two experiments with different visually demanding near work tasks (duration 5 and 7 min). Trial lenses of different diopters were used to manipulate the visual demands (i.e., induce more or less accommodation) and thereby create different viewing conditions. Monocular viewing, which does not require active convergence, was used to examine the isolated effect of accommodation. Eye-lens accommodation and trapezius muscle activity were measured continuously during the visual tasks, and in one experiment the participants rated their eye and neck/shoulder discomfort at baseline and after each visual task. Results: Neck/shoulder discomfort and trapezius muscle activity increased during the visually demanding near work and participants experiencing a greater increase in eye discomfort (compared with baseline) also developed more neck/shoulder discomfort with time. There were no significant differences in muscle activity among the viewing conditions, and no effect of isolated accommodation response within the monocular viewing conditions. Conclusion: These findings indicate that accommodation per se is unlikely to mediate trapezius muscle activity. Instead, the increase in trapezius muscle activity observed here may be due to a combination of high visual attention and enhanced requirement for eye-neck (head) stabilisation. Since these results suggest that neck/shoulder discomfort may aggravate with time when the visual demands are high, it is important to provide good visual conditions in connection with visually demanding occupations.

  • 3838.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Forsman, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Richter, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Effects of visually demanding near work on trapezius muscle activity2013In: Journal of Electromyography & Kinesiology, ISSN 1050-6411, E-ISSN 1873-5711, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 1190-1198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poor visual ergonomics is associated with visual and neck/shoulder discomfort, but the relation between visual demands and neck/shoulder muscle activity is unclear. The aims of this study were to investigate whether trapezius muscle activity was affected by: (i) eye-lens accommodation; (ii) incongruence between accommodation and convergence; and (iii) presence of neck/shoulder discomfort. Sixty-six participants (33 controls and 33 with neck pain) performed visually demanding near work under four different trial-lens conditions. Results showed that eye-lens accommodation per se did not affect trapezius muscle activity significantly. However, when incongruence between accommodation and convergence was present, a significant positive relationship between eye-lens accommodation and trapezius muscle activity was found. There were no significant group-differences. It was concluded that incongruence between accommodation and convergence is an important factor in the relation between visually demanding near work and trapezius muscle activity. The relatively low demands on accommodation and convergence in the present study imply that visually demanding near work may contribute to increased muscle activity, and over time to the development of near work related neck/shoulder discomfort.

  • 3839.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Richter, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Undermålig synergonomi kan påverka muskelaktivitet och nacksmärta2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund och syfte:Det är väl dokumenterat att kroppen kompenserar undermåliga synergonomiska förhållanden med ogynnsamma arbetsställningar. Det är däremot inte klarlagt om ökad belastning av ögats muskler påverkar muskelaktivitet och smärta i nackens muskulatur. Syftet med studien var att experimentellt fastställa om ökad belastning på ögats fokuseringsmuskler vid simulerat bildskärmsarbete ger ökad aktivitet i m. trapezius och ökad upplevd nacksmärta.Metoder:Sextiosex forskningspersoner (20-47 år, 54 kvinnor, 12 män) utförde en synuppgift under tre olika randomiserade synförhållanden (binokulärt -3.5D, monokulärt -3.5D och ±0D). Uppgiften var att fokusera blicken på ett mönster på en bildskärm, placerad på 1.5 m avstånd, under 7 minuter. Förhållanden med -3.5D gjorde mönstret oskarpt och personen instruerades att viljemässigt fokusera bort oskärpan. Belastning på ögats fokuseringsmuskel mättes indirekt med en kamera (Plusoptix, Nürnberg, Tyskland). Muskelaktivitet i m. trapezius mättes med EMG. Före och efter experimentet skattade personen sin upplevda nacksmärta med Borgs CR10-skala. Under experimentet satt försökspersonen lätt tillbakalutad i en kontorsstol med nackstöd. Personerna instruerades att sitta bekvämt och avslappnat och att upprätthålla kontakt med nackstödet.Resultat:Resultatet visade att personer med en högre grad av fokusering i binokulärt förhållande (-3.5D), hade högre amplitud EMG i m. trapezius. De två monokulära förhållandena visade inget samband mellan grad av fokuserig och EMG amplitud. Detta tyder på ett positivt samband mellan ögats fokusering (ackommodation och konvergens) och aktivering i trapezius muskulaturen. Resultatet visar också att personer skattar högre nacksmärta efter experimentet jämfört med före. Konklusion:Vid simulerat bildskärmsarbete med undermåliga synförhållanden, kan förhöjd aktivitet i m. trapezius och ökad upplevd nacksmärta uppkomma efter kort tid, även om arbetsställningen är god.

  • 3840.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Uppsala universitet, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Institutet för miljömedicin, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Richter, Hans O.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Neck/shoulder discomfort due to visually demanding near work is influenced by previous neck pain, task duration, astigmatism, eye discomfort and accommodation2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 8, article id e0182439Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Visually demanding near work can cause eye discomfort, and eye and neck/shoulder discomfort during, e.g., computer work are associated. Here, to investigate direct effects of experimental near work on eye and neck/shoulder discomfort, 33 individuals with chronic neck pain and 33 healthy control subjects performed four visual tasks, rating eye and neck/shoulder discomfort at baseline and after each task. The cumulative performance time (reflected in the temporal order of the tasks), astigmatism, concurrent eye discomfort, and extent of accommodation all aggravated neck/shoulder discomfort. There was an interaction effect between the temporal order and eye discomfort: participants with a greater mean increase in eye discomfort also developed more neck/shoulder discomfort with time. Since moderate musculoskeletal symptoms are a risk factor for more severe symptoms, it is important to ensure a good visual environment in occupations involving visually demanding near work.

  • 3841.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Heiden, Marina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lindberg, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Nylén, Per
    The Swedish Work Environment Authority, and The Royal Institute of Technology.
    Hemphälä, Hillevi
    Lund University.
    Intra-rater reliability of the Visual Ergonomics Risk Assessment Method (VERAM)2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Visually demanding near work can cause eye discomfort, and eye and neck/shoulder discomfort during, e.g., computer work are associated. Apart from visual demands and dryness a number of environmental factors including design of the work station, lighting, glare, and the quality of the computer screen might exert an impact on eye-related symptoms. To date, there is a lack of valid and reliable instruments assessing factors associated with eye- or visual symptoms. Therefore, a new method to assess visual ergonomics at workplaces was developed in Sweden between 2014 and 2016, the Visual Ergonomics Risk Assessment Method - VERAM. A first version of the method was drafted by the researchers mainly from existing checklists and instruments, and tested in the field by trained visual ergonomists. The method was then revised and used in the field to collect data for validity and reliability analyses. The final version of VERAM includes both a questionnaire for the employee, and an expert evaluation of the employee’s workplace. The questionnaire consists of subjective ratings in six domains: eye discomfort (frequency and intensity), musculoskeletal discomfort (frequency and intensity), ratings of visual symptoms (e.g. blurred and double vision) and ratings of the visual environment (e.g. illumination levels, glare and reflexes from a work object or a computer screen). The expert evaluation consists of both objective measurements and subjective assessments resulting in an overall expert risk assessment (no risk, low risk or high risk) of eight factors: daylight, lighting, illuminance, glare, flicker, work space, work object and work posture.

    Aim: At the IEA conference 2018 the new VERAM method will be presented together with results from intra-rater reliability analyses.

    Results: Intra-rater reliability was evaluated with a re-test interval of minimum two and maximum three weeks. 99 employees were included in the analyses and 32 visual ergonomists performed the corresponding expert evaluations. The Intraclass Correlations (ICC) were between 0.70 and 0.87 for the six subjective domains, and there were no significant systematic differences between the first and second rating for any of the subjective domains (rmANOVA, p > 0.05, α = 0.008). For the eight environmental factors the expert estimated the risk equally during the first and the second assessment in 69-92% of the cases, and, as seen for the subjective domains, there were no significant systematic differences for any of the eight factors (Wilcoxon sign rank test, p > 0.014, α = 0.006). To control for multiple comparisons the Bonferroni method was used.

    Conclusion: The Visual Ergonomics Risk Assessment Method – VERAM showed good intra-rater reliability, both for the subjective questionnaire for the employee, and for the expert evaluation of the employee’s workplace when performed by a trained visual ergonomist.

  • 3842.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Heiden, Marina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lindberg, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Nylén, Per
    Swedish Work Environment Authority, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hemphälä, Hillevi
    Division of Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology, Design Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Reliability of a new risk assessment method for visual ergonomics2019In: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 72, p. 71-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    The Visual Ergonomics Risk Assessment Method (VERAM) is a newly developed and validated method to assess visual ergonomics at workplaces. VERAM consists of a questionnaire and an objective evaluation.

    Objective

    To evaluate reliability of VERAM by assessing test-retest reliability of the questionnaire, and intra- and inter-rater reliability of the objective evaluation.

    Methods

    Forty-eight trained evaluators used VERAM to evaluate visual ergonomics at 174 workstations. The time interval for test-retest and intra-rater evaluations was 2–3 weeks, and the time interval for inter-rater evaluations was 0–2 days. Test-retest reliability was assessed by intraclass correlation (ICC), the standard error of measurement (SEM) and the smallest detectable change (SDC). Intra- and inter-rater reliability were assessed with weighted kappa coefficients and absolute agreement. Systematic changes were analysed with repeated measures analyses of variance and Wilcoxon sign rank test.

    Results

    The ICC of the questionnaire indices ranged from 0.69 to 0.87, while SEM ranged from 7.21 to 10.19 on a scale from 1 to 100, and SDC from 14.42 to 20.37. Intra-rater reliability of objective evaluations ranged from 0.57 to 0.85 (kappa coefficients) and the agreement from 69 to 91%. Inter-rater reliability of objective evaluations ranged from 0.37 to 0.72 (kappa coefficients) and the agreement from 52 to 87%.

    Conclusion

    VERAM is a reliable instrument for assessing risks in visual work environments. However, the reliability might increase further by improving the quality of training for evaluators. Complementary evaluations of VERAM's sensitivity to changes in the visual environment are needed.

    Relevance to industry

    It is advantageous to set up a work environment for maximal visual comfort to avoid negative effects on work postures and movements and thus prevent visual- and musculoskeletal symptoms. This method, VERAM, satisfies the need of a valid and reliable tool for determining risks associated with the visual work environment.

  • 3843.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Medical Sciences, Section of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Hemphälä, Hillevi
    Ergonomics, Design Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Nylén, Per
    The Swedish Work Environment Authority, and The Royal Institute of Technology.
    Lighting, visual ergonomics and health implications : A workshop2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim of the workshop:

    Deficient visual ergonomics is a problem across many occupations. Poor viewingand lighting conditions is associated with both visual and neck/shoulder discomfort,and can also impact productivity. According to the provision from the Swedish WorkEnvironment Authority on prevention of musculoskeletal disorders (AFS 2012:02), riskassessment of the visual conditions are mandatory. The aim of this workshop is toincrease knowledge about visual ergonomics among practitioners working with riskassessment, and to allow participants hands-on practice in assessing the visual environment.

    Format of the workshop:

    The first part of the workshop will involve a brief presentation of the subject visualergonomics and its implications on health and performance. The impact of progressiveglasses, too small or blurred font letters, or blurred vision on posture at e.g. computerwork will be demonstrated together with advice how to proceed to improve the conditions.The second part of the workshop will allow participants some hands-on practicein for example; how to measure light (luminance and illuminance); how different lightconditions impact pupil size and visual comfort; how to measure and quantify amountof flicker, light modulation and colour rendering in different light sources. Several usefulmobile phone applications concerning light and vision will be demonstrated.

  • 3844.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hemphälä, Hillevi
    Lund University.
    Nylén, Per
    The Swedish Work Environment Authority, and The Royal Institute of Technology.
    Workshop in visual ergonomics2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased use of computers is common across many work sectors. Prolonged near work at a computer screen is associated with both visual discomfort and neck/shoulder discomfort and pain. Inadequate visual ergonomics at a computer workstation can also influence both visual and neck/shoulder discomfort. The new provision from the Swedish Work Environment Authority on prevention of musculoskeletal disorders includes risk assessment of occupational visual conditions. These assessments require practitioners to have knowledge of the topic, as well as experience with practical assessment tools.

    The first part of the workshop proposed here will involve a presentation of the theories underlying visual ergonomic practices and a discussion of the most important factors to assess at a computer workstation. These factors include contrast, font size, resolution, glare, reflexion, non-visual flicker, and edge sharpness. The second part of the workshop, will allow participants hands-on practice in measuring and evaluating visual ergonomics at a computer workstation.

  • 3845.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Medical Sciences, Section of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Richter, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Forsman, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Temporal co-variation between eye lens accommodation and trapezius muscle activity during a dynamic near-far visual task2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 5, article id e0126578Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Near work is associated with increased activity in the neck and shoulder muscles, but the underlying mechanism is still unknown. This study was designed to determine whether a dynamic change in focus, alternating between a nearby and a more distant visual target, produces a direct parallel change in trapezius muscle activity. Fourteen healthy controls and 12 patients with a history of visual and neck/shoulder symptoms performed a Near-Far visual task under three different viewing conditions; one neutral condition with no trial lenses, one condition with negative trial lenses to create increased accommodation, and one condition with positive trial lenses to create decreased accommodation. Eye lens accommodation and trapezius muscle activity were continuously recorded. The trapezius muscle activity was significantly higher during Near than during Far focusing periods for both groups within the neutral viewing condition, and there was a significant co-variation in time between accommodation and trapezius muscle activity within the neutral and positive viewing conditions for the control group. In conclusion, these results reveal a connection between Near focusing and increased muscle activity during dynamic changes in focus between a nearby and a far target. A direct link, from the accommodation/vergence system to the trapezius muscles cannot be ruled out, but the connection may also be explained by an increased need for eye-neck (head) stabilization when focusing on a nearby target as compared to a more distant target.

  • 3846.
    Zetterberg, Elin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Har ungdomars deltagande i organiserade fritidsaktiviteter och framtidstro betydelse för normbrytande beteende?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Has youth participation in organized extracurricular activities and future expectation relevance for antisocial behavior?

     

    Zetterberg, E. (2015). Has youth participation in organized extracurricular activities and future expectation relevance for antisocial behavior? Bachelor thesis in Public Health science. Department of work- and public health science. The academy of health and working life. University of Gävle, Sweden.

    Adolescent drug use is a threat to public health. Therefore it is important to identify how different factors interact in order to develop successful preventive interventions against youth drug use. The purpose of this study is to investigate the association of participation in organized extracurricular activity, future expectation and drug use.

    Method: The study is cross-section designed and based on the data material from the last survey, Life and Health Young in 2013 in Uppsala County. The study included 1648 high school students residing in the municipalities of Uppsala, Enköping and Älvkarleby (response rate of 60 %). The data were analyzed by bivariate and multivariate methods.

    Results: The results indicate that there is an association between participation in organized sports-related extracurricular activity, future expectation and drug use. Young people who have a positive expectation about their future have used less drugs (16%) compared with adolescents who have a negative future expectation (27%). Positive future expectation was also strongly associated with participation in organized sports-related extracurricular activity (both p< 0.001).

    Conclusions: Being involved in organized extracurricular activity appears to be a determinant of a positive future expectation as well as a positive future expectation seems to be a determining factor for decreased drug use among adolescents.

     

  • 3847.
    Zetterlund, Christina
    et al.
    Centre for Rehabilitation Research, Örebro University Hospital.
    Lundqvist, Lars-Olof
    Centre for Rehabilitation Research, Örebro University Hospital.
    Richter, Hans
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science.
    The relationship between low vision and musculoskeletal complaints: A case control study between age-related macular degeneration patients and age-matched controls with normal vision2009In: Journal of Optometry, ISSN 1888-4296, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 127-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) patients often describe complaints from neck and scapula area muscles and a decreased postural control. In clinical assessment, these complaints are considered to be due to old age. Purpose: This study focuses on low vision patients with AMD, compared to age matched controls, without eye disease, in order to evaluate if a linkage between self-rated visual and muskuloskeletal complaints are more prominent when low vision is present. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 24 AMD patients, aged 65-85 years, were compared to 24 controls of similar ages without visual problems. Visual acuity, the need for magnification plus other optical and visual data, were obtained. Visual, muskuloskeletal and balance/propriopceptive complaints were collected with a self-rating questionnaire. The Visual Functioning Questionnaire -Near Activities Subscale (VFQ-NAS) was used to evaluate visual function and related complaints. Results: The correlation coefficient between visual and musculoskeletal complaints yielded significant values when computed separately within each group as well as when calculated on the entire material (AMD ρ = 0.60, P = 0.002; control group ρ = 0.59, P = 0.004; both groups together ρ = 0.50 P < 0.001). Stepwise multiple regression analysis supported the hypothesized effect of vision (Visual complaints + Minimal readable typefaces) on musculoskeletal complaints, (R2 = 0.42, P < 0.05). Conclusions: The results in this study support the hypothesis of a relationship between visual and muskuloskeletal problems.

  • 3848.
    Zetterlund, Christina
    et al.
    School of Health and Medicine, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Lundqvist, Lars-Olov
    Centre for Rehabilitiation Research, Örebro County Council, Örebro, Sweden.
    Richter, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Visual, musculoskeletal and balance symptoms in individuals with visual impairment and with age-normal vision2019In: Clinical and experimental optometry, ISSN 0816-4622, E-ISSN 1444-0938, Vol. 102, no 1, p. 63-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Visual impairment is globally among the most prevalent disabilities. Research concerning the health consequences of visual deficits is challenged by confounding effects of age, because visual impairment becomes more prevalent with age. This study investigates the influence of visual deficits on visual, musculoskeletal and balance symptoms in adults with and without visual impairment, while controlling for age effects.

    METHODS:

    Thirty-nine patients with visual impairment, aged 18-72 years, were compared to 37 age-matched controls with normal vision, allocated to two age groups: < 45 and ≥ 45 years. Self-reported symptoms were measured using the Visual, Musculoskeletal and Balance Symptoms Questionnaire and compared with demographic and optometric variables.

    RESULTS:

    In total, patients with visual impairment reported more symptoms than age-matched normally sighted controls. Younger adults in the control group were almost free from symptoms, whereas younger adults with visual impairment reported levels of symptoms equal to older adults with visual impairment. Multiple logistic regression modelling identified use of eyeglasses, magnifying aids and presence of anisometropia to be the most influential risk factors for reporting visual, musculoskeletal and balance symptoms, with accentuated influence on balance symptoms.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    People with visual impairments and people with age-related normal visual deficits are both predisposed to report visual, musculoskeletal and balance symptoms relative to people without visual defects or need for eye-wear correction. Age-related variations in symptoms were observed in the control groups but not in the visual impairment groups, with younger visual impairment patients reporting as many symptoms as older visual impairment patients. These findings indicate a need for a wider interdisciplinary perspective on eye care concerning people with visual impairment and people with need for habitual daily use of eye wear correction.

  • 3849.
    Zetterlund, Christina
    et al.
    The Low Vision Centre, Region Örebro County, Örebro, Sweden; University Health Care Research Center, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Richter, Hans O.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lundqvist, Lars-Olov
    University Health Care Research Center, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Visual, Musculoskeletal, and Balance Complaints in AMD: A Follow-Up Study2016In: Journal of Ophthalmology, ISSN 2090-004X, E-ISSN 2090-0058, Vol. 2016, article id 2707102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. To investigate whether patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) run a potentially higher risk of developing visual, musculoskeletal, and balance complaints than age-matched controls with normal vision. Methods. Visual assessments, self-rated visual function, self-rated visual, musculoskeletal, and balance complaints, and perceived general health were obtained in 37 AMD patients and 18 controls, at baseline and after an average of 3.8 years later. Results. At follow-up both groups reported decreased visual acuity (VA) and visual function, but only AMD patients reported significantly increased visual, musculoskeletal, and balance complaints. Decreased VA, need for larger font size when reading, need for larger magnification, and decreased self-rated visual function were identified as risk markers for increased complaints in AMD patients. These complaints were also identified as risk markers for decreased health. For controls, decreased VA and self-reported visual function were associated with increased visual and balance complaints. Conclusions. Visual deterioration was a risk marker for increased visual, musculoskeletal, balance, and health complaints in AMD patients. Specifically, magnifying visual aids, such as CCTV, were a risk marker for increased complaints in AMD patients. This calls for early and coordinated actions to treat and prevent visual, musculoskeletal, balance, and health complaints in AMD patients.

  • 3850.
    Zhao, Jiaying
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Zhao, Yi
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    How to improve quality of life in patients with Alzheimer´s disease: A descriptive literature review2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
747576777879 3801 - 3850 of 3931
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