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  • 351.
    Brown, Barry
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Barkhuus, Louise
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Changing practices of family television watching2012Ingår i: The Connected Home: The Future of Domestic Life / [ed] Richard Harper, London: Springer , 2012, nr 1, s. 93-110Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 352.
    Brown, Barry
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Bentley, Frank
    Bakhshi, Saeideh
    Shamma, David A.
    Ephemeral Photowork: Understanding the Mobile Social Photography Ecosystem2016Ingår i: Proceedings of the Tenth International AAAI Conference onWeb and Social Media (ICWSM 2016), AAAI Press, 2016, s. 551-554Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    For many years, researchers have explored digital support for photographs and various methods of interaction around those photos. Services like Instagram, Facebook, and Flickr have demonstrated the value of online photographs in social media. Yet we know relatively little about these new practices of mobile social photography and in-situ sharing. Drawing on screen and audio recordings of mobile photo app use, this paper documents the ephemeral practices of social photography with mobile devices. We uncover how photo use on mobile devices is centered around social interactions both through online services, but also face-to-face around the devices themselves. We argue for a new role for the mobile photograph, supporting networks of communication through instantaneous interactions, complemented with rich, in person discussions of captured images with family and friends; photography not for careful selection and archive, but as quick social play and talk. The paper concludes by discussing the design possibilities of ephemeral communication.

  • 353.
    Brown, Barry
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Bødker, Susanne
    Höök, Kristina
    Does HCI scale? Scale hacking and the relevance of HCI2017Ingår i: interactions, ISSN 1072-5520, E-ISSN 1558-3449, Vol. 24, nr 5, s. 28-33Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 354.
    Brown, Barry
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Juhlin, Oskar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Enjoying Machines2015Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The dominant feature of modern technology is not how productive it makes us, or how it has revolutionized the workplace, but how enjoyable it is. We take pleasure in our devices, from smartphones to personal computers to televisions. Whole classes of leisure activities rely on technology. How has technology become such an integral part of enjoyment? In this book, Barry Brown and Oskar Juhlin examine the relationship between pleasure and technology, investigating what pleasure and leisure are, how they have come to depend on the many forms of technology, and how we might design technology to support enjoyment. They do this by studying the experience of enjoyment, documenting such activities as computer gameplay, deer hunting, tourism, and television watching. They describe technologies that support these activities, including prototype systems that they themselves developed.

    Brown and Juhlin argue that pleasure is fundamentally social in nature. We learn how to enjoy ourselves from others, mastering it as a set of skills. Drawing on their own ethnographic studies and on research from economics, psychology, and philosophy, Brown and Juhlin argue that enjoyment is a key concept in understanding the social world. They propose a framework for the study of enjoyment: the empirical program of enjoyment.

  • 355.
    Brown, Barry
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Lampinen, Airi
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Acknowledge Crowdworkers in Crowdwork Research2016Ingår i: Communications of the ACM, ISSN 0001-0782, E-ISSN 1557-7317, Vol. 59, nr 11, s. 8-9Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 356.
    Brown, Barry
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Lampinen, Airi
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    McMillan, Donald
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Rostami, Asreen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Wang, Jinyi
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    The IKEA Catalogue: Design fiction in academic and industrial collaborations2016Ingår i: Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Supporting Group Work, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2016, s. 335-344Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is an introduction to the “Future IKEA Catalogue”, enclosed here as an example of a design fiction produced from a long standing industrial-academic collaboration. We introduce the catalogue here by discussing some of our experiences using design fictionwith companies and public sector bodies, giving some background to the catalogue and the collaboration which produced it.

  • 357.
    Brown, Barry
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Laurier, Eric
    The Normal, Natural Troubles of Driving with GPS2012Ingår i: CHI '12 Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2012, s. 1621-1630Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In-car GPS based satellite navigation systems are now a common part of driving, providing turn-by-turn navigation instructions on smartphones, portable units or in-car dash- board navigation systems. This paper uses interactional analysis of video data from fifteen naturalistically recorded journeys with GPS to understand the navigational practices deployed by drivers and passengers. The paper documents five types of ‘trouble’ where GPS systems cause issues and confusion for drivers around: destinations, routes, maps & sensors, timing and relevance and legality. The paper argues that to design GPS systems better we need to move beyond the notion of a docile driver who follows GPS command blindly, to a better understanding of how drivers, passengers and GPS systems work together. We develop this in discuss- ing how technology might better support ‘instructed action’.

  • 358.
    Brown, Barry
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Laurier, Eric
    The Trouble with Autopilots: Assisted and Autonomous Driving on the Social Road2017Ingår i: Proceedings of the 2017 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2017, s. 416-429Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As self-driving cars have grown in sophistication and ability, they have been deployed on the road in both localised tests and as regular private vehicles. In this paper we draw upon publicly available videos of autonomous and assisted driving (specifically the Tesla autopilot and Google self-driving car) to explore how their drivers and the drivers of other cars interact with, and make sense of, the actions of these cars. Our findings provide an early perspective on human interaction with new forms of driving involving assisted-car drivers, autonomous vehicles and other road users. The focus is on social interaction on the road, and how drivers communicate through, and interpret, the movement of cars. We provide suggestions toward increasing the transparency of autopilots' actions for both their driver and other drivers.

  • 359.
    Brown, Barry
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Laurier, Eric
    University of Edinburgh.
    What it means to change lanes: actions, emotions and wayfinding in the family car2012Ingår i: Semiotica, ISSN 0037-1998, E-ISSN 1613-3692, ISSN 1613-3692, Vol. 191, s. 117-135Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we investigate how the sequential organization and settlement of disagreements comes to shape, and be shaped by, navigation. Using extracts of in-car interaction, we examine the gestalt of projectable aspects of road travel, car movements, and driver-navigator talk. Navigation when accomplished without maps relies on making sense of streets, landmarks, and signs, activities that are displayed through passengers and drivers giving directions to each other, alongside embodied references to passing roadside features and the movement of the vehicle. More broadly, “finding the way” is bound up with the social relationships between passengers — in particular families caring for one another and showing their epistemic and emotional stance on particular matters. To examine this we draw on existing conversation analytic work on epistemics, stance, and emotion to explore the potentially argumentative character of direction-giving and direction-receiving and how this comes to be combined with the task at hand.

  • 360.
    Brown, Barry
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Laurier, Eric
    Word of mouth: products, conversations and consumption2014Ingår i: Consumption, markets & culture, ISSN 1025-3866, E-ISSN 1477-223X, Vol. 17, nr 1, s. 29-49Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    While there is a rich collection of studies of consumption and identity, the role of buying practices in ordinary conversations has been largely neglected. Minor items and major purchases regularly play a key role in furnishing our talk with topics, news, jokes and formulations of what kind of people we are. This paper unpacks the idea of post-purchase conversations contained within the common phrase “word of mouth.” What happens when products are examined in ordinary talk is pursued through the close analysis of a series of conversations around a significant purchase (a mountain bike). Drawing on the work of Harvey Sacks, and conversation analysis more broadly, this paper documents how products as a topic provide not only resources for small talk, but also an opportunity to consider our identity and its transformation. In conclusion, this paper argues that the knowledge and experience that circulate outside of the actual marketplace or point of purchase are part of a domain of economics as ordinary practice.

  • 361. Brown, Barry
    et al.
    Lundin, Johan
    Rost, Mattias
    Lymer, Gustav
    Holmquist, Lars Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap. Mobile Life.
    Seeing ethnographically: Teaching ethnography as part of CSCW2007Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 362.
    Brown, Barry
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    McGregor, Moira
    Laurier, Eric
    iPhone in vivo: video analysis of mobile device use2013Ingår i: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, New York: ACM Press, 2013, s. 1031-1040Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the widespread use of mobile devices, details of mobile technology use 'in the wild' have proven difficult to collect. This paper uses video data to gain new insight into the use of mobile computing devices. Our new method combines screen-capture of iPhone use with video recordings from wearable cameras. We use this data to analyse how mobile device use is threaded into other co-present activities, focusing on the use of maps and internet searches. Close analysis reveals novel aspects of gestures on touch screens, how they serve 'double duty' - both as interface gestures but as as resources for ongoing joint action. We go on to describe how users 'walk the blue dot' to orientate themselves, and how searches are occasioned by the local environment. In conclusion, we argue that mobile devices - rather than pushing us away from the world around us - are instead just another thread in the complex tapestry of everyday interaction.

  • 363.
    Brown, Barry
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    McGregor, Moira
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    McMillan, Donny
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    100 days of iPhone use: understanding the details of mobile device use2014Ingår i: Proceedings of the 16th international conference on Human-computer interaction with mobile devices & services, New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2014, s. 223-232Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet connected mobile devices are an increasingly ubiquitous part of our everyday lives and we present here the results from unobtrusive audio-video recordings of iPhone use -- over 100 days of device use collected from 15 users. The data reveals for analysis the everyday, moment-by-moment use of contemporary mobile phones. Through video analysis of usage we observed how messages, social media and internet use are integrated and threaded into daily life, interaction with others, and everyday events such as transport, delays, establishment choice and entertainment. We document various aspects of end-user mobile device usage, starting with understanding how it is occasioned by context. We then characterise the temporal and sequential nature of use. Lastly, we discuss the social nature of mobile phone usage. Beyond this analysis, we reflect on how to draw these points into ideas for design.

  • 364.
    Brown, Barry
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    McMillan, Donny
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Mcgregor, Moira
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Searchable Objects: Search in Everyday Conversation2015Ingår i: CSCW, ACM Press , 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 365.
    Brown, Barry
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Weilenmann, Alexandra
    McMillan, Donny
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Lampinen, Airi
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Five Provocations for Ethical HCI Research2016Ingår i: Proceedings of the 2016 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2016, s. 852-863Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present five provocations for ethics, and ethical research, in HCI. We discuss, in turn, informed consent, the researcher-participant power differential, presentation of data in publications, the role of ethical review boards, and, lastly, corporate-facilitated projects. By pointing to unintended consequences of regulation and oversimplifications of unresolvable moral conflicts, we propose these provocations not as guidelines or recommendations but as instruments for challenging our views on what it means to do ethical research in HCI. We then suggest an alternative grounded in the sensitivities of those being studied and based on everyday practice and judgement, rather than one driven by bureaucratic, legal, or philosophical concerns. In conclusion, we call for a wider and more practical discussion on ethics within the community, and suggest that we should be more supportive of low-risk ethical experimentation to further the field.

  • 366. Brunnberg, Liselott
    et al.
    Gustavsson, Anton
    Juhlin, Oskar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Games for passengers - Accounting for Motion in loca­tion based applications2009Ingår i: Proceedings of International Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games (ICFDG), Disney Wonder Cruiseship, Florida, USA, 2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 367.
    Bubenko, Janis
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Persson, Anne
    Stirna, Janis
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    An Intentional Perspective on Enterprise Modeling2010Ingår i: Intentional Perspectives on Information Systems Engineering / [ed] Selmin Nurcan, Camille Salinesi, Carine Souveyet, Jolita Ralyté, Berlin Heidelberg: Springer , 2010, s. 215-238Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 368.
    Bylund, Markus
    et al.
    SICS.
    Juhlin, OskarStockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.Fernaeus, YlvaStockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap. SICS.
    Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Human Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services2011Proceedings (redaktörskap) (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 369.
    Bylund, Markus
    et al.
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science, , .
    Svee, Eric-Oluf
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Sanches, Pedro
    Swedish Institute of Computer Sciences, , .
    Collecting and Associating Data2010Patent (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The present invention relates to a method and system for collecting human migration data into a database, comprising the steps of receiving information regarding the spatial movement, here called a path, or stationary position, here called a station, of a mobile device in a communication network, from the same communication network, and associating information or a sequence of information that represents a path or a station, here called a signal, with previously collected specific information regarding an individual associated with the mobile device. The inventive method specifically comprises the steps of de-identifying the information by deleting all information that can uniquely identify the mobile device or the individual from the signal and from the specific information, and storing the signal together with the specific information in the database, the signal and personal information thus being associated with each other and stored without any information that can uniquely identify the mobile device or the individual.

  • 370.
    Byungura, Jean Claude
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Hansson, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Karunaratne, Thashmee
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    User Perceptions on Relevance of a Learning Management System: An Evaluation of Behavioral Intention and Usage of SciPro System at University of Rwanda2015Ingår i: Expanding Learning Scenarios - Opening Out the Educational Landscape: Book of Abstracts / [ed] António Moreira Teixeira, András Szűcs, Ildikó Mázár, 2015, s. 64-64Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 371.
    Byungura, Jean Claude
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Hansson, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Masengesho, Kamuzinzi
    Karunaratne, Thashmee
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    ICT Capacity Building: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Rwandan Policies from Higher Education Perspective2016Ingår i: European Journal of Open, Distance and e-Learning, ISSN 1027-5207, Vol. 19, nr 2, s. 46-62Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    With the development of technology in the 21st Century, education systems attempt to integrate technology-based tools to improve experiences in pedagogy and administration. It is becoming increasingly prominent to build human and ICT infrastructure capacities at universities from policy to implementation level. Using a critical discourse analysis, this study investigates the articulation of ICT capacity building strategies from both national and institutional ICT policies in Rwanda, focusing on the higher education. Eleven policy documents were collected and deeply analyzed to understand which claims of ICT capacity building are made. The analysis shows that strategies for building ICT capacities are evidently observed from national level policies and only in two institutional policies (KIST and NUR). Among 25 components of ICT capacity building used, the ones related to human capacity are not plainly described. Additionally, neither national nor institutional policy documents include the creation of financial schemes for students to acquire ICT tools whilst learners are key stakeholders. Although there is some translation of ICT capacity building strategies from national to some institutional policies, planning for motivation and provision of incentives to innovators is not stated in any of the institutional policies and this is a key to effective technology integration.

  • 372.
    Byungura, Jean Claude
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Hansson, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Mazimpaka, Olivier
    Karunaratne, Thashmee
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Exploring Teacher Adoption and Use of an Upgraded eLearning Platform for ICT Capacity Building at University of Rwanda2016Ingår i: IST-Africa 2016 Conference: Proceedings / [ed] Paul Cunningham, Miriam Cunningham, IEEE Computer Society, 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Integrating technology in pedagogy is a step for ICT capacity building for higher education to meet its current demands. Therefore, the integration of eLearning systems has been problematic, albeit huge investments in ICT infrastructure. This study investigates teacher adoption of a new upgraded eLearning platform being integrated at University of Rwanda. A six-constructs model related to technology adoption was used to design questionnaire and interviews. Closed and open-ended questions seeking perceptions on the UR eLearning environment were used on 87 respondents who were purposively selected. Findings indicate that although participants find the system useful, easy and trustworthy, the intention for adopting and using it is very low due managerial support and technical support. Gaps in policy synergy, incentives, basic infrastructure, managerial and technical support were among the identified bottlenecks contributing negatively to the low degree of teacher intention. The study concludes by proposing some remedies to address the above challenges.

  • 373. Bångens, Lennart
    et al.
    Söderberg, Björn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Mobile banking - Financial services for the unbanked?2008Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 374.
    Büttner, Sebastian
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Cai, Tengjiao
    Uppsala University, , .
    Cramer, Henriette
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Rost, Mattias
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Holmquist, Lars Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Using Computer Vision Technologies to Make the Virtual Visible2011Ingår i: Mobile AR: Design Issues & Opportunities Workshop at MobileHCI’11, Stockholm, Sweden. Proceedings, Stockholm, Sweden: ACM , 2011Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 375.
    Büttner, Sebastian
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Cramer, Henriette
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Rost, Mattias
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Belloni, Nicolas
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Holmquist, Lars Erik
    φ²: Exploring physical Check-Ins for Location-Based Services2010Ingår i: UbiComp'10 -  Proceedings of the 12th ACM international conference adjunct papers on Ubiquitous computing, New York: ACM Press , 2010, s. 395-396Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 376. Caccamisi, A.
    et al.
    Jørgensen, L.
    Dalianis, Hercules
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Rosenlund, M.
    Automatic Extraction and Classification of Patients’ Smoking Status from Free Text Using Natural Language Processing2016Ingår i: Value in Health, ISSN 1098-3015, E-ISSN 1524-4733, Vol. 19, nr 7, artikel-id A373Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    To develop a machine learning algorithm for automatic classification of smoking status (smoker, ex-smoker, non-smoker and unknown status) in EMRs, and validate the predictive accuracy compared to a rule-based method. Smoking is a leading cause of death worldwide and may introduce confounding in research based on real world data (RWD). Information on smoking is often documented in free text fields in Electronic Medical Records (EMRs), but structured RWD on smoking is sparse.

    Methods

    32 predictive models were trained with the Weka machine learning suite, tweaking sentence frequency, classifier type, tokenization and attribute selection using a database of 85,000 classified sentences. The models were evaluated using F-Score and Accuracy based on out-of-sample test data including 8,500 sentences. The error weight matrix was used to select the best model, assigning a weight to each type of misclassification and applying it to the models confusion matrices.

    Results

    The best performing model was based on the Support Vector Machine (SVM) Sequential Minimal Optimization (SMO) classifier using a polynomial kernel with parameter C equal to 6 and a combination of unigrams and bigrams as tokens. Sentence frequency and attributes selection did not improve model performance. SMO achieved 98.25% accuracy and 0.982 F-Score versus 79.32% and 0.756, respectively, for the rule-based model.

    Conclusions

    A model using machine learning algorithms to automatically classify patients smoking status was successfully developed. This algorithm would enable automatic assessment of smoking status directly from EMRs, obviating the need to extract complete case notes and manual classification.

  • 377. Caccamisi, Andrea
    et al.
    Jørgensen, Leif
    Dalianis, Hercules
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Rosenlund, Mats
    Automatic extraction and translation of the patients smoking status from free text using natural language processing2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 378.
    Cakici, Baki
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Sustainability through surveillance: ICT discourses in design documents2013Ingår i: Surveillance & Society, ISSN 1477-7487, E-ISSN 1477-7487, Vol. 11, nr 1/2, s. 177-189Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, I examine design documents from three different ICT design and development projects. I argue that they present intersecting visions of sustainability entailing the wide-spread use of ICT, describe the properties of users compatible with such ICT, and provide ways of judging the users. In the design documents, the inhabitants are made individually responsible for living sustainably, and surveillance is positioned as integral to this future with the help of ICT. Underlying the visions, I identify a translation process that captures the traces of the inhabitants' lives, classifies them according to different criteria of sustainable living, and returns them to the tapestry of everyday life to convince the users to behave differently. In the discourses of these documents, surveillance translates the traces, and the translations exert new pressures on existing power relations.

  • 379.
    Cakici, Baki
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    The Informed Gaze: On the Implications of ICT-Based Surveillance2013Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Information and communication technologies are not value-neutral. I examine two domains, public health surveillance and sustainability, in five papers covering: (i) the design and development of a software package for computer-assisted outbreak detection; (ii) a workflow for using simulation models to provide policy advice and a list of challenges for its practice; (iii) an analysis of design documents from three smart home projects presenting intersecting visions of sustainability; (iv) an analysis of EU-financed projects dealing with sustainability and ICT; (v) an analysis of the consequences of design choices when creating surveillance technologies. My contributions include three empirical studies of surveillance discourses where I identify the forms of action that are privileged and the values that are embedded into them. In these discourses, the presence of ICT entails increased surveillance, privileging technological expertise, and prioritising centralised forms of knowledge.

  • 380.
    Cakici, Baki
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Bylund, Markus
    SICS Swedish ICT.
    Changing Behaviour to Save Energy: ICT-Based Surveillance for a Low-Carbon Economy in the Seventh Framework ProgrammeManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 381.
    Cakici, Baki
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Sanches, Pedro
    KTH.
    Detecting the Visible: The Discursive Construction of Health Threats in Syndromic Surveillance System DesignManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 382.
    Candia, Rodolfo
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap. Programvaruutveckling.
    Glimbert, Lars
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    ICT for Academic Development in Sri Lanka2007Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 383. Canova Calori, Ilaria
    et al.
    Rossitto, Chiara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Divitini, Monica
    Understanding Trajectories of Experience in Situated Learning Field Trips2012Ingår i: ICWL 2012: The 11th International Conference on Web-based Learning, Local Workshop Proceedings / [ed] Dickson Chiu, Elvira Popescu, Qing Li, Berlin, Heidelberg: Elsevier, 2012, s. 11-20Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the role context plays in promoting engagement and exploration in situated learning experiences during field trips. We look at field trips where children engage with the physical and social environment in order to learn about cultural and social aspects of the city they live in. By drawing on empirical data collected by means of qualitative methods, we discuss how learning unfolds along trajectories of experience towards pre-defined and emerging learning objectives. We reflect of the role technology can play in sup-porting learning experiences outside the classroom.

  • 384. Canova Calori, Ilaria
    et al.
    Rossitto, Chiara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Monica, Divitini
    Understanding Trajectories of Experience in Situated Learning Field Trips2013Ingår i: Interaction Design and Architecture(s), ISSN 2283-2998, Vol. 16, s. 17-26Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the role context plays in promoting engagement and exploration in situated learning experiences during field trips. We look at field trips where children engage with the physical and social environment in order to learn about cultural and social aspects of the city they live in. By drawing on empirical data collected by means of qualitative methods, we discuss how learning unfolds along trajectories of experience towards pre-defined and emerging learning objectives. We reflect of the role technology can play in supporting learning experiences outside the classroom.

  • 385. Cardoso, G.
    et al.
    Stadler, M.
    Siddiqui, Afzal
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap. University College London, UK.
    Marnay, C.
    DeForest, N.
    Barbosa-Povoa, A.
    Ferrao, P.
    Microgrid reliability modeling and battery scheduling using stochastic linear programming2013Ingår i: Electric power systems research, ISSN 0378-7796, E-ISSN 1873-2046, Vol. 103, s. 61-69Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the introduction of stochastic linear programming into Operations DER-CAM, a tool used to obtain optimal operating schedules for a given microgrid under local economic and environmental conditions. This application follows previous work on optimal scheduling of a lithium-iron-phosphate battery given the output uncertainty of a 1 MW molten carbonate fuel cell. Both are in the Santa Rita Jail microgrid, located in Dublin, California. This fuel cell has proven unreliable, partially justifying the consideration of storage options. Several stochastic DER-CAM runs are executed to compare different scenarios to values obtained by a deterministic approach. Results indicate that using a stochastic approach provides a conservative yet more lucrative battery schedule. Lower expected energy bills result, given fuel cell outages, in potential savings exceeding 6%.

  • 386.
    Carlsson, Elin
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Dalianis, Hercules
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Influence of Module Order on Rule-Based De-identification of Personal Names in Electronic Patient Records Written in Swedish2010Ingår i: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation, LREC 2010, Valletta, Malta, May 19-21, 2010, European Language Resources Association (ELRA) , 2010, s. 3442-3446Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic patient records (EPRs) are a valuable resource for research but for confidentiality reasons they cannot be used freely. In order to make EPRs available to a wider group of researchers, sensitive information such as personal names has to be removed. Deidentification is a process that makes this possible. Both rule-based as well as statistical and machine learning based methods exist to perform de-identification, but the second method requires annotated training material which exists only very sparsely for patient names. It is therefore necessary to use rule-based methods for de-identification of EPRs. Not much is known, however, about the order in which the various rules should be applied and how the different rules influence precision and recall. This paper aims to answer this research question by implementing and evaluating four common rules for de-identification of personal names in EPRs written in Swedish: (1) dictionary name matching, (2) title matching, (3) common words filtering and (4) learning from previous modules. The results show that to obtain the highest recall and precision, the rules should be applied in the following order: title matching, common words filtering and dictionary name matching.

  • 387. Carlsson, Lars
    et al.
    Ahlberg, Ernst
    Boström, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Johansson, Ulf
    Linusson, Henrik
    Modifications to p-Values of Conformal Predictors2015Ingår i: Statistical Learning and Data Sciences: Third International Symposium, SLDS 2015, Egham, UK, April 20-23, 2015, Proceedings / [ed] Alexander Gammerman, Vladimir Vovk, Harris Papadopoulos, Springer, 2015, s. 251-259Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The original definition of a p-value in a conformal predictor can sometimes lead to too conservative prediction regions when the number of training or calibration examples is small. The situation can be improved by using a modification to define an approximate p-value. Two modified p-values are presented that converges to the original p-value as the number of training or calibration examples goes to infinity.

    Numerical experiments empirically support the use of a p-value we call the interpolated p-value for conformal prediction. The interpolated p-value seems to be producing prediction sets that have an error rate which corresponds well to the prescribed significance level.

  • 388.
    Caroline Kiondo, Caroline
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Kowalski, Stewart
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Yngström, Louise
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Exploring Security Risks in Virtual Economies2011Ingår i: First International Conference on Social Eco-Informatics, 2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A most recent, phenomenon within new socio-eco-systems is the so called Virtual Economies. This paper presents an exploratory study of information security risks that are inherent with the Virtural Economies. A Dynamic Network Analysis Tools (DNAT) was used to perform a risk analysis in the Second life virtual world. The analysis indicates that the currency and user account are the most important assets. User accounts provide access to virtual trading and are critical to the flow of currency within the virtual economy. The removal of both of these from the system will affect the dynamics of the system and defeat the whole purpose of the system. The analysis further identified selling and creation of virtual goods to be important tasks in order to maintain a successful Virtual Economy. If a threat occurs that manipulates the creation of virtual goods then it would affect the trading of virtual goods between the users of the system hence affecting the economy. It is important that users who invest in such an economy to be aware of possible risks associated with this. As the field expands and more internet communities adopt this business model all parties involved need to think of strategies to protect assets that exist within this type of environment.

  • 389. Carstensen, Anders
    et al.
    Holmberg, Lennart
    Sandkuhl, Kurt
    Stirna, Janis
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap. Data- och Systemvetenskap. Informationssystem. Mikroelektronik och tillämpad fysik.
    Integrated Requirement and Solution Modelling: An Approach Based on Enterprise Models2008Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 390.
    Casmir, Respickius
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    A Dynamic and Adaptive Information Security Awareness (DAISA) Approach2005Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Information systems fail not only because of problems with technology used and technical incompetence of professionals administering them but also because of lack of security awareness to the end users. In addition, various research results have revealed that security and reliability of IS/IT systems is a function of technology, processes and people.

    This research has focused on the latter aiming at developing an integrated information security education, training and awareness learning continuum. Particularly, the research has focused on developing countries where a little has been done to address information security learning continuum. The research has been done in two cyclic phases in which cycle one has chiefly addressed security education and training aspects whereas cycle two has mainly focused on security awareness aspects. Based on empirical analysis of security practices in organisations; the thesis proposes a Dynamic and Adaptive Information Security Awareness (DAISA) approach. Founded on six interdependent pillars, the approach delineates high level guidelines for establishing and maintaining information security awareness programs at workplaces.

  • 391.
    Caster, Ola
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Quantitative methods to support drug benefit-risk assessment2014Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Joint evaluation of drugs’ beneficial and adverse effects is required in many situations, in particular to inform decisions on initial or sustained marketing of drugs, or to guide the treatment of individual patients. This synthesis, known as benefit-risk assessment, is without doubt important: timely decisions supported by transparent and sound assessments can reduce mortality and morbidity in potentially large groups of patients. At the same time, it can be hugely complex: drug effects are generally disparate in nature and likelihood, and the information that needs to be processed is diverse, uncertain, deficient, or even unavailable. Hence there is a clear need for methods that can reliably and efficiently support the benefit-risk assessment process. For already marketed drugs, this process often starts with the detection of previously unknown risks that are subsequently integrated with all other relevant information for joint analysis.

    In this thesis, quantitative methods are devised to support different aspects of drug benefit-risk assessment, and the practical usefulness of these methods is demonstrated in clinically relevant case studies. Shrinkage regression is adapted and implemented for large-scale screening in collections of individual case reports, leading to the discovery of a link between methylprednisolone and hepatotoxicity. This adverse effect is then considered as part of a complete benefit-risk assessment of methylpredniso­lone in multiple sclerosis relapses, set in a general framework of probabilistic decision analysis. Two methods devised in the thesis substantively contribute to this assessment: one for efficient generation of utility distributions for the considered clinical outcomes, driven by modelling of qualitative information; and one for computing risk limits for rare and otherwise non-quantifiable adverse effects, based on collections of individual case reports.

  • 392.
    Caster, Ola
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap. Uppsala Monitoring Centre, Sweden.
    Conforti, Anita
    Viola, Ermelinda
    Edwards, I. Ralph
    Methylprednisolone-induced hepatotoxicity: experiences from global adverse drug reaction surveillance2014Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, ISSN 0031-6970, E-ISSN 1432-1041, Vol. 70, nr 4, s. 501-503Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 393.
    Caster, Ola
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap. Uppsala Monitoring Centre (UMC), Sweden.
    Edwards, I. Ralph
    Comparative Quantitative Benefit-Risk Assessment of High- and Low-Dose Methylprednisolone in Multiple Sclerosis Relapse Management2014Ingår i: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, ISSN 1053-8569, E-ISSN 1099-1557, Vol. 23, s. 238-238Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 394.
    Caster, Ola
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap. Uppsala Monitoring Centre (UMC), Sweden.
    Edwards, I. Ralph
    Quantitative benefit-risk assessment of methylprednisolone in multiple sclerosis relapses2015Ingår i: BMC Neurology, ISSN 1471-2377, E-ISSN 1471-2377, Vol. 15, artikel-id 206Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: High-dose short-term methylprednisolone is the recommended treatment in the management of multiple sclerosis relapses, although it has been suggested that lower doses may be equally effective. Also, glucocorticoids are associated with multiple and often dose-dependent adverse effects. This quantitative benefit-risk assessment compares high-and low-dose methylprednisolone (at least 2000 mg and less than 1000 mg, respectively, during at most 31 days) and a no treatment alternative, with the aim of determining which regimen, if any, is preferable in multiple sclerosis relapses. Methods: An overall framework of probabilistic decision analysis was applied, combining data from different sources. Effectiveness as well as risk of non-serious adverse effects were estimated from published clinical trials. However, as these trials recorded very few serious adverse effects, risk intervals for the latter were derived from individual case reports together with a range of plausible distributions. Probabilistic modelling driven by logically implied or clinically well motivated qualitative relations was used to derive utility distributions. Results: Low-dose methylprednisolone was not a supported option in this assessment; there was, however, only limited data available for this treatment alternative. High-dose methylprednisolone and the no treatment alternative interchanged as most preferred, contingent on the risk distributions applied for serious adverse effects, the assumed level of risk aversiveness in the patient population, and the relapse severity. Conclusions: The data presently available do not support a change of current treatment recommendations. There are strong incentives for further clinical research to reduce the uncertainty surrounding the effectiveness and the risks associated with methylprednisolone in multiple sclerosis relapses; this would enable better informed and more precise treatment recommendations in the future.

  • 395.
    Caster, Ola
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap. Uppsala Monitoring Centre, Sweden.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Combining Second-Order Belief Distributions with Qualitative Statements in Decision Analysis2012Ingår i: Managing Safety of Heterogeneous Systems: Decisions under Uncertainties and Risks / [ed] Yuri Ermoliev, Marek Makowski, Kurt Marti, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, s. 67-87Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is often a need to allow for imprecise statements in real-world decision analysis. Joint modeling of intervals and qualitative statements as constraint sets is one important approach to solving this problem, with the advantage that both probabilities and utilities can be handled. However, a major limitation with interval-based approaches is that aggregated quantities such as expected utilities also become intervals, which often hinders efficient discrimination. The discriminative power can be increased by utilizing second-order information in the form of belief distributions, and this paper demonstrates how qualitative relations between variables can be incorporated into such a framework. The general case with arbitrary distributions is described first, and then a computationally efficient simulation algorithm is presented for a relevant sub-class of analyses. By allowing qualitative relations, our approach preserves the ability of interval-based methods to be deliberately imprecise. At the same time, the use of belief distributions allows more efficient discrimination, and it provides a semantically clear interpretation of the resulting beliefs within a probabilistic framework.

  • 396.
    Caster, Ola
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap. Uppsala Monitoring Centre (UMC), Sweden.
    Juhlin, Kristina
    Watson, Sarah
    Norén, G. Niklas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Matematiska institutionen. Uppsala Monitoring Centre (UMC), Sweden.
    A Paradigm Shift for Screening Individual Case Reports: Accounting for Quality and Content2014Ingår i: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, ISSN 1053-8569, E-ISSN 1099-1557, Vol. 23, s. 37-37Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 397.
    Caster, Ola
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap. Uppsala Monitoring Centre, Sweden.
    Juhlin, Kristina
    Watson, Sarah
    Norén, G. Niklas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Matematiska institutionen. Uppsala Monitoring Centre, Sweden.
    Improved Statistical Signal Detection in Pharmacovigilance by Combining Multiple Strength-of-Evidence Aspects in vigiRank2014Ingår i: Drug Safety, ISSN 0114-5916, E-ISSN 1179-1942, Vol. 37, nr 8, s. 617-628Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Detection of unknown risks with marketed medicines is key to securing the optimal care of individual patients and to reducing the societal burden from adverse drug reactions. Large collections of individual case reports remain the primary source of information and require effective analytics to guide clinical assessors towards likely drug safety signals. Disproportionality analysis is based solely on aggregate numbers of reports and naively disregards report quality and content. However, these latter features are the very fundament of the ensuing clinical assessment.

    Objective

    Our objective was to develop and evaluate a data-driven screening algorithm for emerging drug safety signals that accounts for report quality and content.

    Methods

    vigiRank is a predictive model for emerging safety signals, here implemented with shrinkage logistic regression to identify predictive variables and estimate their respective contributions. The variables considered for inclusion capture different aspects of strength of evidence, including quality and clinical content of individual reports, as well as trends in time and geographic spread. A reference set of 264 positive controls (historical safety signals from 2003 to 2007) and 5,280 negative controls (pairs of drugs and adverse events not listed in the Summary of Product Characteristics of that drug in 2012) was used for model fitting and evaluation; the latter used fivefold cross-validation to protect against over-fitting. All analyses were performed on a reconstructed version of VigiBase® as of 31 December 2004, at around which time most safety signals in our reference set were emerging.

    Results

    The following aspects of strength of evidence were selected for inclusion into vigiRank: the numbers of informative and recent reports, respectively; disproportional reporting; the number of reports with free-text descriptions of the case; and the geographic spread of reporting. vigiRank offered a statistically significant improvement in area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) over screening based on the Information Component (IC) and raw numbers of reports, respectively (0.775 vs. 0.736 and 0.707, cross-validated).

    Conclusions

    Accounting for multiple aspects of strength of evidence has clear conceptual and empirical advantages over disproportionality analysis. vigiRank is a first-of-its-kind predictive model to factor in report quality and content in first-pass screening to better meet tomorrow’s post-marketing drug safety surveillance needs.

  • 398.
    Caster, Ola
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap. Uppsala Monitoring Centre, Sweden.
    Norén, G. N.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Matematiska institutionen. Uppsala Monitoring Centre, Sweden.
    Madigan, D.
    Bate, A.
    Logistic regression in signal detection: Another Piece Added to the Puzzle2013Ingår i: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, ISSN 0009-9236, E-ISSN 1532-6535, Vol. 94, nr 3, s. 312-312Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    To the Editor: In their article, “Performance of Pharmacovigilance Signal-Detection Algorithms for the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System,” Harpaz et al.1 report an evaluation of signal-detection algorithms for spontaneous reports in the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System against a benchmark constructed by the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership.

  • 399.
    Caster, Ola
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap. Uppsala Monitoring Centre, Sweden.
    Norén, G. Niklas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Matematiska institutionen. Uppsala Monitoring Centre, Sweden.
    Edwards, I. Ralph
    Computing limits on medicine risks based on collections of individual case reports2014Ingår i: Theoretical Biology Medical Modelling, ISSN 1742-4682, E-ISSN 1742-4682, Vol. 11, artikel-id 15Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Quantifying a medicine's risks for adverse effects is crucial in assessing its value as a therapeutic agent. Rare adverse effects are often not detected until after the medicine is marketed and used in large and heterogeneous patient populations, and risk quantification is even more difficult. While individual case reports of suspected harm from medicines are instrumental in the detection of previously unknown adverse effects, they are currently not used for risk quantification. The aim of this article is to demonstrate how and when limits on medicine risks can be computed from collections of individual case reports. Methods: We propose a model where drug exposures in the real world may be followed by adverse episodes, each containing one or several adverse effects. Any adverse episode can be reported at most once, and each report corresponds to a single adverse episode. Based on this model, we derive upper and lower limits for the per-exposure risk of an adverse effect for a given drug. Results: An upper limit for the per-exposure risk of the adverse effect Y for a given drug X is provided by the reporting ratio of X together with Y relative to all reports on X, under two assumptions: (i) the average number of adverse episodes following exposure to X is one or less; and (ii) adverse episodes that follow X and contain Y are more frequently reported than adverse episodes in general that follow X. Further, a lower risk limit is provided by dividing the number of reports on X together with Y by the total number of exposures to X, under the assumption that exposures to X that are followed by Y generate on average at most one report on X together with Y. Using real data, limits for the narcolepsy risk following Pandemrix vaccination and the risk of coeliac disease following antihypertensive treatment were computed and found to conform to reference risk values from epidemiological studies. Conclusions: Our framework enables quantification of medicine risks in situations where this is otherwise difficult or impossible. It has wide applicability, but should be particularly useful in structured benefit-risk assessments that include rare adverse effects.

  • 400.
    Caster, Ola
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap. Uppsala Monitoring Centre, Sweden.
    Norén, G. Niklas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Matematiska institutionen. Uppsala Monitoring Centre, Sweden.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Edwards, I. Ralph
    Quantitative Benefit-Risk Assessment Using Only Qualitative Information on Utilities2012Ingår i: Medical decision making, ISSN 0272-989X, E-ISSN 1552-681X, Vol. 32, nr 6, s. E1-E15Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Utilities of pertinent clinical outcomes are crucial variables for assessing the benefits and risks of drugs, but numerical data on utilities may be unreliable or altogether missing. We propose a method to incorporate qualitative information into a probabilistic decision analysis framework for quantitative benefit-risk assessment. Objective: To investigate whether conclusive results can be obtained when the only source of discriminating information on utilities is widely agreed upon qualitative relations, for example, ''sepsis is worse than transient headache'' or ''alleviation of disease is better without than with complications.'' Method: We used the structure and probabilities of 3 published models that were originally evaluated based on the standard metric of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs): terfenadine versus chlorpheniramine for the treatment of allergic rhinitis, MCV4 vaccination against meningococcal disease, and alosetron for irritable bowel syndrome. For each model, we identified clinically straightforward qualitative relations among the outcomes. Using Monte Carlo simulations, the resulting utility distributions were then combined with the previously specified probabilities, and the rate of preference in terms of expected utility was determined for each alternative. Results: Our approach conclusively favored MCV4 vaccination, and it was concordant with the QALY assessments for the MCV4 and terfenadine versus chlorpheniramine case studies. For alosetron, we found a possible unfavorable benefit-risk balance for highly risk-averse patients not identified in the original analysis. Conclusion: Incorporation of widely agreed upon qualitative information into quantitative benefit-risk assessment can provide for conclusive results. The methods presented should prove useful in both population and individual-level assessments, especially when numerical utility data are missing or unreliable, and constraints on time or money preclude its collection.

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