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  • 351.
    Svantesson, Mia
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Postpone death?: Nurse-physician perspectives on life-sustaining treatment and ethics rounds2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The starting point of the present thesis is nurses’ reported experiences of disagreements with physicians for pushing life sustaining treatment too far. The overall aim was to describe and compare nurses’ and physicians’ perspectives on the boundaries for life-sustaining treatment and to evaluate whether ethics rounds could promote mutual understanding and stimulate ethical reflection. A mixed methods design with qualitative and quantitative data was used, including interviews and questionnaires. The health professionals’ experiences/perceptions were based on known patients foremost from general wards, but also intensive care units, at four Swedish hospitals. The first two studies treated the perspective on boundaries for life-sustaining treatment and the last two evaluated philosopher- ethicist led ethics rounds. Analysis of data was performed using a phenomenological approach and content analysis as well as comparative and descriptive non-parametric statistics.

    In the first study, the essence of the physicians’ decision-making process to limit life-sustaining treatment for ICU patients, was a process of principally medical considerations in discussions with other physicians. In the second study, there were more similarities than differences between nurses’ and physicians’ opinions regarding the 714 patients studied. The physicians considered limited treatment as often as the nurses did. The ethics rounds studies generated mixed experiences/perceptions. It seemed that more progress was made toward the goal of promoting mutual understanding than toward the goal of stimulating ethical reflection. Above all, the rounds seemed to meet the need for a forum for crossing over professional boundaries. The most salient finding was the insight to enhance team collaboration, that the interprofessional dialogue was sure to continue. Predominating new insights after rounds were interpreted as corresponding to a hermeneutic approach. One of nurses’ negative experiences of the ethics rounds was associated with the lack of solutions. Based on the present findings, one suggestion for improvement of the model of ethics rounds is made with regard to achieving a balance between ethical analyses, conflict resolution and problem solving. In conclusion, the present thesis provides strong evidence that differences in opinions regarding boundaries for life-sustaining treatment are not associated with professional status. The findings support the notion of a collaborative team approach to end-of-life decision-making for patients with diminished decisionmaking capacity. There is an indication that stimulation of ethical reflection in relation to known patients may foremost yield psychosocial insights. This could imply that social conflicts may overshadow ethical analysis or that ethical conflicts and social conflicts are impossible to distinguish.

  • 352.
    Svensson, C.
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Alvasen, K.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Eldh, Ann Catrine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Health Services Research.
    Frossling, J.
    Natl Vet Inst, Dept Dis Control & Epidemiol, Uppsala, Sweden;Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Environm & Hlth, Skara, Sweden.
    Lomander, H.
    Swedish Board Agr, Dist Vet Org, Tibro, Sweden.
    Veterinary herd health management: Experience among farmers and farm managers in Swedish dairy production2018In: Preventive Veterinary Medicine, ISSN 0167-5877, E-ISSN 1873-1716, Vol. 155, p. 45-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A preventive herd health approach will most likely reduce incidences of clinical and subclinical disease. Swedish veterinary organizations offer specific veterinary herd health management (HHM) programs, but these services are not used to a large extent. The aim of this study was to investigate dairy farmers' experience of HHM and the conditions for collaboration with veterinarians in HHM. Six focus group discussions were conducted in March 2015 in West Sweden. In total, 33 dairy farmers participated. The recordings were transcribed and coded using thematic analysis, and the transcripts were reviewed to identify potential factors indicating barriers for farmers to engage a veterinarian in HHM. The participants reported HHM to be important, but they had difficulty defining the actions included in the concept. They described a wide range of their work duties as preventive. The farmers' list of potential contributions by the veterinarians in HHM was strikingly short compared to the considerable number of preventive measures they performed themselves. Four main obstacles for farmers and farm managers to engage a veterinarian in HHM on their farm were identified in the analysis: "costs", "veterinary knowledge, skills, and organization", "farmer attitudes", and "veterinarian-farmer relationships". Costs were proposed as the main reason against engaging a veterinarian in HHM and included a high veterinary bill, low cost-benefit of veterinary services, and high costs to implement advice. Poor veterinary competence in HHM and poor knowledge about effective measures, practical farming, and farm economics were other important obstacles. Veterinarians were perceived to insufficiently describe their services and their benefits, and several participants felt they had never been offered veterinary HHM. Although veterinary HHM may be initiated by the farmer, the participants expected the veterinarian to have special responsibility for the initiation. A firm trust between farmer, staff, and veterinarian was considered crucial for veterinary HHM, but such trust takes a long time to build and can easily be disrupted by, for example, a veterinarian's poor communication skills or lack of time. Our findings suggest that Swedish dairy farmers and herd managers find disease prevention important and that they perform a wide range of tasks to prevent disease in their animals. However, they do not see what role the veterinarian can play, and veterinarians were mainly associated with treating unhealthy cows. In order to increase the use of veterinary HHM programs the services and potential benefits of such programs need to be communicated more proactively.

  • 353. Svensson, E. M.
    et al.
    Hasler, S.
    Nussbaumer, M.
    Rehazek, A.
    Omrak, Ayca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies. Uppsala University.
    Götherström, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Medieval cattle in Bern (Switzerland): An archaeozoological, genetic and historical Approach2014In: Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde, ISSN 0036-7281, E-ISSN 1664-2848, Vol. 156, no 1, p. 17-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study deals with genetic analyses of an assemblage of mediaeval (1361 century) cattle metapodials from Bern that had previously been osteometrically examined regarding sex, shape and wither height. The results from the genetic sexing of these small (height 100 to 120 cm) cattle correlate well with the osteometric interpretations. Some few exceptions we interpreted as cows used as draft animals with stouter bones and thus osteometrically determined as males. Two morphologically different groups of cow metatarsals however, we took as proof of the historical fact that Bern relied on livestock from different geographical origins: the town's vicinity and the alpine pastures with their favourable grazing conditions. It was not possible to distinguish them genetically. An analysis of one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the melanocortin receptor 1 (MC1R) showed that predominant coat colour most likely was red-brown. Furthermore, an analysis of the SNP in the Y-chromosomal intron UTY19 that divide modern taurine cattle in two major haplogroups (Y1 and Y2) showed that the mediaeval cattle belonged to the haplogroup Y2 with one single exception of a Yl.

  • 354.
    Svensson, Gustaf
    et al.
    Bla Stjarnans Djursjukhus, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Simonsson, Ulrika S H
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Vetaid, Helsingborg, Sweden.
    Schwarz, Tobias
    Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, The University of Edinburgh, Roslin, Midlothian, UK.
    Residual Spinal Cord Compression Following Hemilaminectomy and Mini-Hemilaminectomy in Dogs: A Prospective Randomized Study2017In: Frontiers in veterinary science, ISSN 2297-1769, Vol. 4, article id 42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to compare the reduction of spinal cord compression after surgical treatment of dogs with acute thoracolumbar intervertebral disc (IVD) extrusion achieved using hemilaminectomy versus mini-hemilaminectomy techniques. This was a prospective randomized study with client-owned dogs presented with acute IVD extrusion that were allocated to surgical treatment using hemilaminectomy (n = 15) or mini-hemilaminectomy (n = 15) techniques. Plain and intravenous-contrast computed tomography was performed pre- and postoperatively. The preoperative minimal cross-sectional dimension of the spinal cord (MDSCpre) and the postoperative minimal cross-sectional dimension of the spinal cord (MDSCpost) were measured at the level of greatest compression. The minimal diameter of the uncompressed spinal cord was measured in a similar way both pre- (MDUSCpre) and postoperatively (MDUSCpost). Dogs in the mini-hemilaminectomy group had significantly greater reduction of compression (RC) (p < 0.01) after surgery compared to dogs in the hemilaminectomy group. The mean RC in the hemilaminectomy group was 34.6% and in the mini-hemilaminectomy group 62.6%. Our results showed a significantly greater reduction of spinal cord compression for mini-hemilaminectomy compared to hemilaminectomy. Additionally, mini-hemilaminectomy could be a preferred method due to its minimal invasiveness and easier access to lateral fenestration.

  • 355. Swanson, DA
    et al.
    Adler, PH
    Malmqvist, B
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Spatial stratification of host-seeking Diptera in boreal forests of northern Europe2012In: Medical and Veterinary Entomology, ISSN 0269-283X, E-ISSN 1365-2915, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 56-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The stratification of haematophagous Diptera was assessed in two boreal forests in northern Sweden by placing traps baited with carbon dioxide at 1.5 m, 5.0 m and 10.0 m above the ground. More than 40 000 specimens were captured, including 617 biting midges (Ceratopogonidae), 4029 mosquitoes (Culicidae) and 36 092 black flies (Simuliidae). Catches at the various trap heights reflected the general vertical distribution of the preferred hosts, with mammalophilic flies predominating (68.6%) in catches at 1.5 m and ornithophilic flies (42.4%) in catches at 10.0 m; however, most flies that use host birds at ground level were caught in the lowest traps (e.g. 85.1% of Simulium annulus were collected at 1.5 m). Within-species variation in vertical patterns between forests suggests plasticity in responses to environmental factors such as vegetative structure.

  • 356.
    Talvitie, Heidi
    et al.
    Department of Oncology–Pathology, Karolinska Institutet.
    Åstrom, Kristina
    Department of Oncology–Pathology, Karolinska Institutet.
    Larsson, Olle
    Department of Oncology–Pathology, Karolinska Institutet.
    Åhlen, Jan
    Department of Surgery, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm .
    Bergh, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Egevad, Lars
    Department of Oncology–Pathology, Karolinska Institute .
    Solitary fibrous tumor of the prostate: A report of two cases2011In: Pathology international (Print), ISSN 1320-5463, E-ISSN 1440-1827, Vol. 61, no 9, p. 536-538Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We here report two cases of solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) arising in the prostate. Two men, 66 and 69 years old, with urinary tract symptoms were diagnosed with SFT on transrectal needle biopsy and transurethral resection of the prostate, respectively. The tumors were removed by a low anterior resection including tumor, prostate and rectum en bloc and cystoprostatectomy, respectively. Both tumors were well-circumscribed but also showed some infiltration of the prostate glands. They were composed of storiform bundles of bland spindle cells that stained strongly for CD34 and vimentin but negative for muscle markers. Although rare, SFT should be considered as differential diagnosis of spindle cell lesions on prostate biopsies.

  • 357.
    Tejle, Katarina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Leishmania donovani Lipophosphoglycan: Modulation of Macrophage and Dendritic Cell Function2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Leishmania donovani is a blood-borne tropicial parasite, which infects humans through bites by Phlebotomus sandflies. The parasite survives and multiplies inside macrophages in inner organs, and causes the deadly disease visceral leishmaniasis (Kala-Azar).

    Macrophages and dendritic cells (DC) are professional antigen-presenting cells involved in the initiation of immune responses. Immature DC are present in all tissues where they internalise and process antigen, in response to which they migrate from tissue, into draining lymphoid organs, undergo maturation and present antigens to lymphocytes. Control measures for leishmaniasis include testing of new diagnostics and development of affordable and effective vaccines for humans.

    Lipophosphoglycan (LPG) is the major surface component of Leishmania donovani promastigotes. LPG comprises a membrane-anchoring lysophosphatidylinositol part and an extracellular chain of disaccharide phosphates. These repetitions are crucial for parasite survival inside macrophages following phagocytosis. LPG has several specific effects on the host cell including inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) activity, and inhibition of phagosomal maturation, a process requiring depolymerization of periphagosomal F-actin.

    Confocal microscopy and image analysis were used to follow F-actin dynamics in single macrophages during phagocytosis of L. donovani promastigotes and LPG-coated particles. F-actin did not depolymerize, but instead progressively polymerized around phagosomes with LPG-containing prey. This correlated with reduced translocation of PKCα to the phagosome and blocked phagosomal maturation. LPG also inhibited cortical actin turnover, which could be the underlying cause of the reduced uptake of LPG-containing prey. Extracellular- and intracellular calcium was necessary for phagocytosis, periphagosomal F-actin breakdown and phagosomal maturation in macrophages interacting with unopsonized prey,and for the action of LPG.

    We also studied F-actin turnover in macrophages overexpressing dominant-negative (DN) PKCα. DN PKCα macrophages showed increased amounts of cortical F-actin, decreased phagocytic capacity, inhibition of periphagosomal F-actin breakdown and defective phagosomal maturation. When DN PKCα macrophages interacted with LPG-containing prey, phagocytosis was almost completely blocked.

    Moreover, we found that Leishmania promastigotes and particularly LPG inhibit DC maturation and detachment from distinct surfaces. Thus, LPG from Leishmania donovani could directly inhibit DC migration to lymphoid organs, antigen-presentation and development of immunity.

  • 358.
    Tham, Wilhelm
    et al.
    Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swed. Univ. of Agricultural Science, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Bannerman, Elisabeth
    Ctr. Hosp. Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne, Switzerland .
    Bille, Jacques
    Ctr. Hosp. Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne, Switzerland .
    Danielsson-Tham, Marie-Louise
    Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swed. Univ. of Agricultural Science, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Eld, Karin
    National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ericsson, Henrik
    Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swed. Univ. of Agricultural Science, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Gavier-Widén, Dolores
    National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rocourt, Jocelyne
    Institut Pasteur, Paris, France .
    Mörner, Torsten
    National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Listeria monocytogenes subtypes associated with mortality among fallow deer  (Dama dama)1999In: Journal of zoo and wildlife medicine, ISSN 1042-7260, E-ISSN 1937-2825, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 545-549Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different subtypes of Listeria monocytogenes were isolated from various animal and environmental samples during an episode of increased mortality on a fallow deer (Dama dama) farm. During a 4-wk period, six fallow deer died, including four does, one fawn, and one adult buck. Prior to death, one of the does had exhibited central nervous system signs characteristic of listeriosis. Postmortem examination of the six deer showed no histologic changes typical of listeriosis, although inflammatory changes were present in several organs. Different subtypes of L. monocytogenes were isolated from brain samples from six deer, from fodder and soil from the deer feeding area, and from faces of some healthy animals on the farm. Listeria monocytogenes, which was frequently isolated in the environment of the farm, was considered the probable major cause of mortality in these fallow deer.

  • 359.
    Tham, Wilhelm
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Danielsson-Tham, Marie-Louise
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Vadan och varthän med Listeria monocytogenes1997In: Veterinärmötet 1997. Sammanställning av föredrag / [ed] Sveriges Veterinärförbund & Sveriges Veterinärmedicinska Sälllskap, 1997, p. 112-115Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 360.
    Thirugnanam, Vasanthakumar
    Mälardalen University. Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare. Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Effect of combined treatment with R-(+)-methanandamide and chemotherapeutic drugs in mantle cell lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia: MCLIndependent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma with very bad prognosis. The genetic hallmark of MCL, is the translocation t(11;14)(q13;q32) which leads to overexpression of cyclin D1, a D-type cyclin that is not usually expressed at high levels in normal B lymphocytes.

     

    Previous studies indicate that cannabinoid receptors are expressed in lymphoma and have shown that lymphoma cell death is induced as a result of exposure to cannabinoids (ligands).

     

    The aim of this diploma work was to combined cytostatics with the cannabinoid receptor ligand R (+)-Methanandmide (R-MA). Our data suggest that combination treatment with cytostatics and R-MA induces synergistic effects in most cases.

  • 361.
    Thorberg, Britt-Marie
    et al.
    Division of Food Hygiene and Bacteriology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kühn, Inger
    Microbiology and Tumour Biology Centre, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Møller Aarestrup, Frank
    Danish Institute for Food and Veterinary Research, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Brändström, Boel
    The National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Per
    County Administrative Board of Södermanland, Nyköping, Sweden.
    Danielsson Tham, Marie-Louise
    Division of Food Hygiene and Bacteriology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Pheno- and genotyping of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from bovine milk and human skin2006In: Veterinary Microbiology, ISSN 0378-1135, E-ISSN 1873-2542, Vol. 115, no 1-3, p. 163-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to improve our knowledge concerning the epidemiology and strain diversity of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from bovine milk in commercial dairy herds. A total of 341 S. epidermidis isolates obtained from cows' milk (317), farmers (17) and patients (7) were characterized. Of these 105 isolates were from cows' milk in two farms, where also 17 isolates were sampled from farmers. The remaining 212 isolates from cows' milk were from 170 farms. All isolates were examined by antimicrobial susceptibility, whereas 202 were examined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and 122 by ribotyping. PFGE showed single patterns in the human strains with one exception; one strain was categorised as the same clone as four of the milk strains. PFGE divided 73 of the milk strains into 62 different patterns. The PFGE method had high discriminatory power and shows that many different S. epidermidis types exist in milk samples. Antibiotic resistance patterns matched the SmaI profiles closely in the two herds, but poorly in the routinely collected milk samples. Isolates from herd I showed one to five patterns, depending on the typing method used. Isolates from the milker's skin showed one pattern, which was identical to the most common pattern found in the milk isolates. Isolates from herd 2 showed three to four patterns, two of these being identical to skin isolates from the milker. As dairy cows are not a natural host for S. epidermidis the results suggest a human source of these udder infections.

  • 362.
    Thorfinn, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Studies on sitting pressure and buttock microcirculation: aiming at developing an alarm in the prevention of pressure ulcers in patients with spinal cord injuries2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Pressure ulcers in patients with spinal cord injuries are a major problem, the prevalence in this group being reported as high as 20 – 30 percent. Most pressure ulcers develop around the pelvic girdle, and the key-contributing factor in the development of pressure ulcers is ischaemia due to longstanding pressure. Loss of mobility and lack of sensation below the level of injury are prominent risk factors for the development of pressure ulcers. Although many factors are known to contribute to pressure ulcer development, the exact aetiology is not completely clear. Prevention is suggested as the best way to deal with the problem. The studies in this thesis investigate some aspects of the physiology of sitting in patients with spinal cord injuries and healthy controls, aiming at developing a pressure ulcer alarm device to aid in the prevention of pressure ulcers. Methods used are laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI) for measurement of superficial skin blood flow, as well microdialysis and a microelectrode (Licox®) to measure direct and indirect signs of ischaemia. In addition sitting pressures are mapped. The main findings are that patients with spinal cord injuries have almost four-fold mean maximum sitting pressures 43 and 49 N/cm2, left and right buttock) compared with healthy controls 12 and 13 N/cm2, left and right buttock). In the subcutaneous fat in healthy individuals, the tissue oxygen pressure decreases significantly during 30 minutes of sitting on a wheel chair cushion 13,7 mmHg) compared with 30 minutes of sitting on a hard surface 19,8 mmHg) implying that the tissues deep in the skin are exposed to a reduction in blood supply. This is also confirmed by a decrease in extracellular glucose during sitting for 30 minutes on a hard surface 1,8 mmol/L) and on a wheel chair cushion 1,7 mmol/L). The post-sitting reactive hyperaemia is dependent on duration of sitting in both patients and healthy subjects. It seems to be attenuated in patients in the sitting position but intensified while lying prone. Furthermore, four repeated loadings on a hard surface 15 minutes of sitting followed by five minutes of rest) without allowing the tissues to return to resting perfusion results in a significantly increasing reactive hyperaemia for each loading in healthy subjects, suggesting that it is important to unload the buttock skin completely before the next sitting period starts. This thesis also describes the construction of an alarm device that measures surface interface pressures during sitting continuously in eight predefined points, to alert the user by an audible signal after a given period of time when the pressure has reached a dangerously high level. It is concluded that the reactive hyperaemia that is observed in the buttock skin after sitting, as well as the reduction in glucose and oxygen in adipose tissue during sitting, are due to a reduction in blood supply relative or absolute ischaemia) caused by a compression of the vasculature by the ischial tuberosities. These findings imply a multilayer aetiology in pressure ulcer development. The altered hyperaemic reaction in patients with spinal cord injuries after sitting is possibly related to alterations in sympathetic activity due to the cord lesion. Lastly, the alarm device is supposed to be an aid to pressure ulcer prevention in patients with spinal cord injuries who lack normal sensory feedback.

  • 363.
    Thors, Lina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Bergh, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Persson, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Hammarsten, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Stattin, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology.
    Egevad, Lars
    Granfors, Torvald
    Fowler, Christopher J
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Fatty acid amide hydrolase in prostate cancer: association with disease severity and outcome, CB1 receptor expression and regulation by IL-42010In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 5, no 8, p. e12275-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Recent data have indicated that there may be a dysregulation of endocannabinoid metabolism in cancer. Here we have investigated the expression of the endocannabinoid metabolising enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) in a well characterised tissue microarray from patients diagnosed with prostate cancer at transurethral resection for voiding problems.

    Methodology/Principal Findings

    FAAH immunoreactivity (FAAH-IR) was assessed in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded non-malignant and tumour cores from 412 patients with prostate cancer. CB1 receptor immunoreactivity (CB1IR) scores were available for this dataset. FAAH-IR was seen in epithelial cells and blood vessel walls but not in the stroma. Tumour epithelial FAAH-IR was positively correlated with the disease severity at diagnosis (Gleason score, tumour stage, % of the specimen that contained tumour) for cases with mid-range CB1IR scores, but not for those with high CB1IR scores. For the 281 cases who only received palliative therapy at the end stages of the disease, a high tumour epithelial FAAH-IR was associated with a poor disease-specific survival. Multivariate Cox proportional-hazards regression analyses indicated that FAAH-IR gave additional prognostic information to that provided by CB1IR when a midrange, but not a high CB1IR cutoff value was used. Interleukin-4 (IL-4) receptor IR was found on tumour epithelial cells and incubation of prostate cancer PC-3 and R3327 AT1 cells with IL-4 increased their FAAH activity.

    Conclusions/Significance

    Tumour epithelial FAAH-IR is associated with prostate cancer severity and outcome at mid-range, but not high, CB1IR scores. The correlation with CB1IR in the tumour tissue may be related to a common local dysregulation by a component of the tumour microenvironment.

  • 364.
    Toss, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lönnqvist, Susanna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, David
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Sawatdee, Anurak
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Nissa, Josefin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kratz, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery.
    Simon, Daniel T
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ferroelectric Surfaces for Cell Release2017In: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, Vol. 228, p. 99-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adherent cells cultured in vitro must usually, at some point, be detached from the culture substrate. Presently, the most common method of achieving detachment is through enzymatic treatment which breaks the adhesion points of the cells to the surface. This comes with the drawback of deteriorating the function and viability of the cells. Other methods that have previously been proposed include detachment of the cell substrate itself, which risks contaminating the cell sample, and changing the surface energy of the substrate through thermal changes, which yields low spatial resolution and risks damaging the cells if they are sensitive to temperature changes. Here cell culture substrates, based on thin films of the ferroelectric polyvinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene (PVDF-TrFE) co-polymer, are developed for electroactive control of cell adhesion and enzyme-free detachment of cells. Fibroblasts cultured on the substrates are detached through changing the direction of polarization of the ferroelectric substrate. The method does not affect subsequent adhesion and viability of reseeded cells.

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-04-25 14:36
  • 365.
    Tvedten, H. W.
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Univ Anim Hosp, Box 7038, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Andersson, V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Lilliehook, I. E.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Fac Vet Med & Anim Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Feline Differential Leukocyte Count with ProCyte Dx: Frequency and Severity of a Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Error and How to Avoid It2017In: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, ISSN 0891-6640, E-ISSN 1939-1676, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 1708-1716Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Erroneous neutrophil and lymphocyte counts from analysis of feline blood samples were transferred directly into the hospital information system from the ProCyte Dx hematology instrument in our after-hours laboratory. Errors usually were not detected by the users.

    Hypothesis/Objectives: To quantify the frequency and severity of errors associated with the ProCyte Dx analyzer and to identify methods to avoid the errors.

    Animals: One-hundred six EDTA blood samples routinely submitted from feline hospital patients were analyzed.

    Methods: ProCyte differential leukocyte counts were compared to 2 reference methods: Advia 2120 hematology instrument and manual enumeration. Limits for unacceptable deviation from the reference methods were defined as 18 for % lymphocytes and 23 for % neutrophils.

    Results: Fourteen of 106 samples had unacceptable errors for both lymphocytes and neutrophils compared to both reference methods. Median % lymphocytes in those 14 samples were 11.2, 15.0, and 53.0% for Advia, manual, and ProCyte, respectively. Median % neutrophils were 85.4, 81.5, and 34.2% for Advia, manual, and ProCyte, respectively. All errors were avoided by rejecting automated ProCyte differential leukocyte results whenever the dot plot appeared clearly incorrect, but only 9 of these 14 samples had a ProCyte WBC distribution error flag.

    Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Results reported by ProCyte had markedly falsely increased lymphocyte and decreased neutrophil counts in 13% of feline patient samples. Users must reject automated differential leukocyte count results when the WBC dot plot appears overtly incorrect. Rejection based only on ProCyte WBC error flag was insufficient.

  • 366. Tvedten, H. W.
    et al.
    Ouchterlony, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Lilliehook, I. E.
    Comparison of specific gravity analysis of feline and canine urine, using five refractometers, to pycnometric analysis and total solids by drying2015In: New Zealand Veterinary Journal, ISSN 0048-0169, E-ISSN 1176-0710, Vol. 63, no 5, p. 254-259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: To compare the performance of five refractometers for determination of urine specific gravity in cats and dogs, with reference to weight of total solids and pycnometer analysis. METHODS: Urine samples from 27 cats and 31 dogs submitted for routine urinalysis were included. Urine specific gravity was determined with five refractometers. Four were optical, hand-held refractometers with a temperature compensation method and one was a digital model. Urine was dried to determine the precise weight of total solids. The total solids (g/L) were converted to an estimated specific gravity by division with 2.33. Urine specific gravity of four feline and seven canine samples were analysed with a pycnometer. Limits of agreement analysis was used to evaluate the agreement between specific gravity (analysed as specific gravity minus 1) measured by the refractometers and estimated from dried total solids, or pycnometer results. RESULTS: The five refractometers reported clearly different results from each other. Proportional negative bias was noted for refractometer results compared to estimated specific gravity from total solids and a constant negative bias compared to pycnometer results. The two refractometers designed for cat urine reported similar and lowest specific gravity results with a mean negative bias of 0.007 and 0.008 units compared to estimated specific gravity from total solids, and a mean negative bias of 0.006 units compared to pycnometer results. CONCLUSIONS: Refractometer results did not increase consistently with increasing urine specific gravity compared to reference methods or to other refractometers. Two feline refractometers reported consistently lower specific gravity results than reference methods and other refractometers. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Because of this imprecision, veterinarians should not use precise cut off values such as 1.030 or 1.035 for evaluation of renal concentrating ability in dogs and cats. Veterinarians should consider the variability of refractometric specific gravity results in their clinical assessment. Two feline refractometers appeared to report falsely low specific gravity results.

  • 367.
    Tvedten, Harold W.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Univ Anim Hosp, Uppsala, Sweden.
    What is your diagnosis?: Unusual cells in feline blood2018In: Veterinary clinical pathology, ISSN 0275-6382, E-ISSN 1939-165X, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 313-314Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 368. Tvedten, Harold W.
    et al.
    Ljusner, Jessika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Biomedical Informatics and Engineering.
    Lilliehook, Inger E.
    Enumeration of feline platelets in ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid anticoagulated blood with the ADVIA 2120 system and two manual methods: Leucoplate and Thrombo-TIC2013In: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, ISSN 1040-6387, E-ISSN 1943-4936, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 493-497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A manual method (Thrombo-TIC; Bioanalytic GmbH, Umkirch/Freiburg, Germany) was advertised to disaggregate platelet clumps and to make human platelets spherical to improve platelet enumeration. The current study's hypothesis was that this method would perform better than current methods for feline blood anticoagulated with ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA), which often contains platelet aggregates. Platelet concentrations (PLTs) were determined in 21 feline blood samples by 3 methods. Thrombo-TIC was compared to the manual method (Leucoplate; Sobioda, Montbonnot-Saint-Martin, France) currently used in the authors' laboratory along with an ADVIA 2120 (Siemens AG, Eschborn, Germany) optical platelet concentration. Feline blood samples often contained platelet aggregates. ADVIA flagged for platelet aggregates in 11 of the 21 feline blood samples, and examination of blood smear revealed platelet aggregates in 14 of the 21 samples. The hemocytometers displayed more platelet aggregates with the Thrombo-TIC method than with Leucoplate. The method giving the greatest PLT was considered most accurate. The Leucoplate median PLT (238 x 10(9)/1) was greater than Thrombo-TIC (202 x 10(9)/1) or ADVIA (157 x 10(9)/1). Intra-assay precision was determined for the 3 methods using the 21 feline blood samples. Median Thrombo-TIC and Leucoplate precision (7.4% and 7.3% coefficient of variation [CV], respectively) were similar and not much worse than ADVIA (5.9% CV). The Thrombo-TIC method did not appear to perform better than the current manual method (Leucoplate). Leucoplate appeared least affected by platelet aggregation in feline blood. The ADVIA automated PLT appeared to be most negatively affected by platelet aggregation. The Thrombo-TIC method did not appear to prevent platelet aggregation in feline EDTA blood samples and, thus, is not recommended for such use.

  • 369.
    Türkmen, Sahruh
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Löfgren, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Birzniece, Vita
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Bäckström, Torbjörn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Johansson, Inga-Maj
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Tolerance development to Morris water maze test impairments induced by acute allopregnanolone2006In: Neuroscience, ISSN 0306-4522, E-ISSN 1873-7544, Vol. 139, no 2, p. 651-659Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The progesterone metabolite allopregnanolone, like benzodiazepines, reduces learning and impairs memory in rats. Both substances act as GABA agonists at the GABA-A receptor and impair the performance in the Morris water maze test. Women are during the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and during hormone replacement therapy exposed to allopregnanolone or allopregnanolone-like substances for extended periods. Long-term benzodiazepine treatment can cause tolerance against benzodiazepine-induced learning impairments. In this study we evaluated whether a corresponding allopregnanolone tolerance develops in rats. Adult male Wistar rats were pretreated for 3 days with i.v. allopregnanolone injections (2 mg/kg) one or two times a day, or for 7 days with allopregnanolone injections 20 mg/kg intraperitoneally, twice a day. Thereafter the rats were tested in the Morris water maze for 5 days and compared with relevant controls. Rats pretreated with allopregnanolone twice a day had decreased escape latency, path length and thigmotaxis compared with the acute allopregnanolone group that was pretreated with vehicle. Pretreatment for 7 days resulted in learning of the platform position. However, the memory of the platform position was in these tolerant rats not as strong as in controls only given vehicle. Allopregnanolone treatment was therefore seen to induce a partial tolerance against acute allopregnanolone effects in the Morris water maze.

  • 370.
    Unnerstad, Helle
    et al.
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swed. Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Romell, A.
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swed. Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ericsson, Henrik
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swed. Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Danielsson-Tham, Tham
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swed. Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Tham, Wilhelm
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swed. Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Listeria monocytogenes in faeces from clinically healthy dairy cows in Sweden2000In: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, ISSN 1751-0147, E-ISSN 1751-0147, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 167-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Faecal samples from 102 clinically healthy dairy cows, representing 34 farms in the Swedish province of Uppsala, were analysed for the presence of Listeria spp. using an enrichment procedure. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from six (6%) and L. innocua from 2 (2%) cows. From each of the 6 samples positive for L. monocytogenes, 5 isolates were further characterised by restriction enzyme analysis using the 3 enzymes Apa I, Sma I, and Asc I, followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Three of the L. monocytogenes positive cows lived at the same farm, and they all harboured the same clonal type. One of these 3 cows also harboured a further clonal type of L. monocytogenes. The fact that one of the cows harboured 2 different clonal types of L. monocytogenes is important from an epidemiological point of view when routes of infection are to be investigated.

  • 371. van den Berg, L
    et al.
    Vos-Loohuis, M
    Schilder, M B H
    van Oost, B A
    Hazewinkel, H A W
    Wade, C M
    Karlsson, E K
    Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Liinamo, A E
    Leegwater, P A J
    Evaluation of the serotonergic genes htr1A, htr1B, htr2A, and slc6A4 in aggressive behavior of golden retriever dogs2008In: Behavior Genetics, ISSN 0001-8244, E-ISSN 1573-3297, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 55-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aggressive behavior displays a high heritability in our study group of Golden Retriever dogs. Alterations in brain serotonin metabolism have been described in aggressive dogs before. Here, we evaluate whether four genes of the canine serotonergic system, coding for the serotonin receptors 1A, 1B, and 2A, and the serotonin transporter, could play a major role in aggression in Golden Retrievers. We performed mutation screens, linkage analysis, an association study, and a quantitative genetic analysis. There was no systematic difference between the coding DNA sequence of the candidate genes in aggressive and non-aggressive Golden Retrievers. An affecteds-only parametric linkage analysis revealed no strong major locus effect on human-directed aggression related to the candidate genes. An analysis of 41 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 1 Mb regions flanking the genes in 49 unrelated human-directed aggressive and 49 unrelated non-aggressive dogs did not show association of SNP alleles, genotypes, or haplotypes with aggression at the candidate loci. We completed our analyses with a study of the effect of variation in the candidate genes on a collection of aggression-related phenotypic measures. The effects of the candidate gene haplotypes were estimated using the Restricted Maximum Likelihood method, with the haplotypes included as fixed effects in a linear animal model. We observed no effect of the candidate gene haplotypes on a range of aggression-related phenotypes, thus extending our conclusions to several types of aggressive behavior. We conclude that it is unlikely that these genes play a major role in the variation in aggression in the Golden Retrievers that we studied. Smaller phenotypic effects of these loci could not be ruled out with our sample size.

  • 372. Van Lith, Lindy
    et al.
    Soba, Barbara
    Vizcaino, Vivian Villalba
    Svärd, Staffan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Microbiology.
    Sprong, Hein
    Tosini, Fabio
    Pozio, Edoardo
    Caccio, Simone M.
    A real-time assemblage-specific PCR assay for the detection of Giardia duodenalis assemblages A, B and E in fecal samples2015In: Veterinary parasitology, ISSN 0304-4017, E-ISSN 1873-2550, Vol. 211, no 1-2, p. 28-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Giardiosis is a common gastrointestinal infection caused by the flagellate Giardia duodenalis, and affects both humans and animals, worldwide. Animals are infected with both zoonotic and host-specific G. duodenalis assemblages, and their role in the transmission of the infection to humans has been a subject of intense research and debate. Conventional PCR assays are appropriate to determine G. duodenalis assemblages, but lack sensitivity for the detection of mixed infections. Previous surveys demonstrated the occurrence of mixed infections with G. duodenalis assemblage A and B in humans, and with assemblages A and E in cattle, but are likely to be underestimated. In this study, we designed a set of assemblage-specific primers by exploiting sequence variability in homologous genes from assemblages A, B and E. Primers were designed to amplify fragments of different size that generated different melting curves from each assemblage in real-time PCR (rt-PCR) experiments. The assay has been tested on a large panel of human and farm animal isolates, and shown to possess high specificity (no cross reactions observed) and sensitivity (detection limit close to 20 copies). Therefore, this assay can be useful to detect zoonotic and host-specific G. duodenalis assemblages in fecal samples from farm animals, particularly when a large number of samples is to be tested.

  • 373.
    Van Vliet, Jolanda S
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rasanen, Leena
    Department of Food and Environmental Sciences, Division of Nutrition, University of Helsinki, Finland..
    Gustafsson, Per A
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Nelson, Nina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Overweight perception among adolescent girls in relation to appearance of female characteristics2014In: Paediatrics and Health, ISSN 2052-935X, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Overweight perception has been shown to be important for health related adolescent behavior, particularly in girls. Body perception may be affected by bodily changes, especially changes visible for others. Female pubertal development is characterized by many physical changes, such as accelerated growth and altered body fat distribution. This study examined the role of appearance of female characteristics in the risk for overweight perception among healthy adolescent girls.

    Methods: 220 girls, aged 11–16, provided self-reports on body perception and pubertal maturation before anthropometric measurements of height, weight, hip and waist circumference (WC). Logistic regression modeling was used to study the appearance of pubertal characteristics in relation to body perception.

    Results: Of the 76 girls (35%) perceiving themselves as overweight, only 14 and 36 girls were overweight according to body mass index and waist circumference respectively. Girls reporting breast development and acne (n=144) were more likely to perceive themselves as overweight than girls who did not report this appearance (n=76). These findings persist after adjusting for overweight according to WC. Non-overweight (n=170) rather than overweight girls reporting characteristics (n=50) were at risk of perceiving themselves overweight.

    Conclusions: Girls may confuse natural changes occurring during adolescent development with being overweight. It is therefore important to improve the understanding about the physical changes that normally occur during puberty along with the girls' own perception of these bodily changes among girls themselves, their parents, at schools, and other healthcare services.

  • 374.
    Vicente Carrillo, Alejandro
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Sperm Membrane Channels, Receptors and Kinematics: Using boar spermatozoa for drug toxicity screening2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Internal fertilization usually implies that a spermatozoon, with intact attributes for zygote formation, passes all hurdles during its transport through the female genitalia and reaches the oocyte. During this journey, millions to billions of other spermatozoa perish. Spermatozoa are highly differentiated motile cells without synthetic capabilities. They generate energy via glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation to sustain motility and to maintain the stability and functionality of their plasma membrane. In vivo, they spend their short lifespan bathing in female genital tract fluids of different origins, or are in vitro exposed to defined media during diverse sperm handling i.e. extension, cryopreservation, in vitro fertilization, etc. Being excitable cells, spermatozoa respond in vivo to various stimuli during pre-fertilization (capacitation, hyperactivation, oocyte location) and fertilization (acrosome reaction, interaction with the oocyte) events, mediated via diverse membrane ion-conducting channels and ligand-gated receptors. The present Thesis has mapped the presence and reactivity (sperm intactness and kinematics) of selected receptors, water and ion channels in ejaculated boar spermatozoa. The final aim was to find a relevant alternative cell type for in vitro bioassays that could ease the early scrutiny of candidate drugs as well as decreasing our needs for experimental animals according to the 3R principles. Spermatozoa are often extended, cooled and thawed to warrant their availability as fertile gametes for breeding or in vitro testing. Such manipulations stress the cells via osmotic variations and hence spermatozoa need to maintain membrane intactness by controlling the exchange of water and the common cryoprotectant glycerol, via aquaporins (AQPs). Both AQPs-7 and -9 were studied for membrane domain changes in cauda- and ejaculated spermatozoa (un-processed, extended, chilled or frozen-thawed). While AQP-9 maintained location through source and handling, thawing of ejaculated spermatozoa clearly relocated the labelling of AQP-7, thus appearing as a relevant marker for non-empirical studies of sperm cryopreservation. Alongside water, spermatozoa interact with calcium (Ca2+) via the main Ca2+ sperm channel CatSper. Increments in intracellular Ca2+ initiate motility hyperactivation and the acrosome reaction. The four subunits of the CatSper channel were present in boar spermatozoa, mediating changes in sperm motility under in vitro capacitation-inducing conditions (increased extracellular Ca2+ availability and bicarbonate) or challenge by the CatSper antagonists mibefradil and NNC 55-0396. Uterine and oviduct fluids are richest in endogenous opioids as β-endorphins during mating and ovulation. Both μ- and δ- opioid receptors were present in boar spermatozoa modulating sperm motility, as in vitro challenge with known agonists (μ: morphine; δ: DPDPE and κ: U 50488) and antagonists (μ: naloxone; δ: naltrindole and κ: nor-binaltrorphimine) showed that the μ-opioid receptor maintained or increased motility while the δ-opioid receptor mediated decreased motility over time. Finally, boar spermatozoa depicted dose-response effects on sperm kinematics and mitochondrial potential following in vitro challenge with 130 pharmacological drugs and toxic compounds as well as with eight known mito-toxic compounds. In conclusion, boar spermatozoa expressing functional water (AQPs-7 and -9) and ion (CatSper 1-4) channels as well as μ- and δ-opioid receptors are able to adapt to stressful environmental variations, capacitation and pharmacological compounds and drug components. Ejaculated sperm suspensions are easily and painlessly obtained from breeding boars, and are suitable biosensors for in vitro drug-induced testing, complying with the 3R principles of reduction and replacement of experimental animals, during early toxicology screening.

  • 375. Vymetalkova, Veronika
    et al.
    Vodicka, Pavel
    Pardini, Barbara
    Rosa, Fabio
    Levy, Miroslav
    Schneiderova, Michaela
    Liska, Vaclav
    Vodickova, Ludmila
    Nilsson, Torbjorn K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Farkas, Sanja A.
    Epigenome-wide analysis of DNA methylation reveals a rectal cancer-specific epigenomic signature2016In: Epigenomics, ISSN 1750-1911, Vol. 8, no 9, p. 1193-1207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of the present study is to address a genome-wide search for novel methylation biomarkers in the rectal cancer (RC), as only scarce information on methylation profile is available. Materials & methods: We analyzed methylation status in 25 pairs of RC and adjacent healthy mucosa using the Illumina Human Methylation 450 BeadChip. Results: We found significantly aberrant methylation in 33 genes. After validation of our results by pyrosequencing, we found a good agreement with our findings. The BPIL3 and HBBP1 genes resulted hypomethylated in RC, whereas TIFPI2, ADHFE1, FLI1 and TLX1 were hypermethylated. An external validation by TCGA datasets confirmed the results. Conclusion: Our study, with external validation, has demonstrated the feasibility of using specific methylated DNA signatures for developing biomarkers in RC.

  • 376.
    Vánky, Farkas
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Thoracic Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Surgery for aortic stenosis: with special reference to myocardial metabolism, postoperative heart failure and long-term outcome2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Postoperative heart failure (PHF) remains a major determinant of the outcome after cardiac surgery. However, characteristics of and risk factors for PHF after valve surgery have received little attention.

    Post-ischaemic disturbances of myocardial metabolism that may contribute to PHF and are amenable to metabolic treatment have been identified early after coronary surgery (CABG). Knowledge derived from these studies may not be applicable to other patient groups. We therefore studied myocardial energy metabolism in 20 elective patients undergoing aortic valve replacement (AVR) for isolated aortic stenosis (AS). The metabolic studies indicated that myocardial oxidative metabolism had not fully recovered when the procedure was completed. Free fatty acids were the only major substrates taken up by the heart. Signs of preoperative and postoperative metabolic adaptation with substantial uptake of glutamate, previously demonstrated in patients with coronary artery disease, were found. Postoperative infusion of glutamate, (2 mL/kg body weight and hour of 0.125 M solution) based on assessment of myocardial glutamate requirements in CABG patients, resulted in a two-fold increase in myocardial glutamate uptake and a seven-fold increase in AV differences across the leg. This was associated with a significant myocardial uptake of lactate and metabolic changes in the leg suggesting mitigation of net amino acid loss and peripheral tissue lipolysis.

    Characteristics of and risk factors for PHF were evaluated in 398 patients undergoing isolated AVR for AS from 1 January 1995 to 31 December 2000. These were compared with 398 patients, matched for age and sex, undergoing on-pump isolated CABG. Forty-five AVR and 47 CABG patients fulfilled criteria for PHF and these were studied in detail. PHF usually presented at weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass. After CABG it was closely associated with preoperative ischaemic events and intraoperatively acquired myocardial infarction. Potential causes and eliciting events of PHF after AVR for AS were obvious only in one-third of the patients. Risk factors for PHF after AVR for AS indicated either pre-existing myocardial dysfunction, increased right or left ventricular after-load, or intraoperatively acquired myocardial injury. PHF was associated with high early mortality after CABG, whereas the consequences of PHF after AVR for AS became evident only with time, resulting in a 42% five-year mortality. Although PHF had a different temporal impact on late mortality after CABG and AVR for AS, it emerged as the statistically most significant risk factor for mortality occurring within 5 years from surgery both after AVR for AS and after CABG. Potential implications of our findings include needs for greater focus on preoperative surveillance of patients with AS for optimal timing of surgery, mitigation of intraoperatively acquired myocardial injury and tailoring of treatment for PHF. Furthermore, the findings have implications for long-term follow up of AS patients after surgery.

  • 377.
    Waak, Elisabet
    et al.
    Arla Research and Development, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tham, Wilhelm
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Danielsson-Tham, Marie-Louise
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Detection and characterisation of Listeria monocytogenes isolates in a Swedish dairy plant1998In: XVIII Nordic Veterinary Congress: Helsinki, 4th – 7th Augsut 1998. PROCEEDINGS / [ed] Nordic Veterinary Congress, Helsinki, 1998Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 378.
    Waara, Kristin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kroppens fysiologiska reaktioner vid arbete i värme: en studie på brandmän2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The purpose was to compare physical work in a normal temperature to physical work during heat exposure and in that way investigate how physical work during heat exposure affects the human body in a physiological perspective. My questions were: How does submaximal work during heat, affect heart rate, water loss, body temperature, lactate level and blood glucose level? How does smoke-diving affect heart rate, water loss, and body temperature? How is the heart rate, lactate level and blood glucose level affected in work during heat exposure compared to work in a normal temperature?

    Method

    Six firefighters performed at three different occasions four tests. VO2 tests in cycle-ergometer (submaximal and maximal) in a normal temperature. A smoke-diving test during heat exposure and a submaximal cycle test in a sauna. VO2, heart rate, lactate level and blood glucose level was measured during the tests in the normal temperature. Heart rate, water loss, body temperature, lactate level and blood glucose level was measured during the smoke-diving test and the submaximal cycle test in sauna.

    Results

    Mean heart rate during the smoke-diving test was 174 ± 7,7 bpm (93 ± 1,4 % of maximal heart rate attained in the cycle-ergometer test). Water loss measured to 1,1 ± 0,1 % from bodyweight, body temperature was increased with 2,1 ± 1,2 °C. The blood glucose levels were higher compared to the maximum test during cycling. Concentration at start was 5,04 ± 0,59 vs. 5,64 ± 1,00 mmol/l and 2 min after the test 6,79 ± 1,26 vs. 6,46 ± 1,25 mmol/l. Water loss during the submaximal cycling in sauna was 0,6 ± 0,1 % of bodyweight, body temperature were increased with 0,8 ± 0,3 °C. Lactate levels during the submaximal cycling in sauna were significant lower than cycling in a normal temperature 1,23 ± 0,17 mmol/l vs 3,43 ± 1,46 mmol/l (175W).

    Conclusions

    During the smoke-diving test the firefighters had a mean heart rate which was near the maximal heart rate attained in the cycle-ergometer test. The smoke-diving test was physically very demanding for the subjects since the tasks lasted in 13-18 min and the heart rate was in such high levels in general. During physical work in  85 °C wearing a self-contained breathing apparatus and fire-protective clothing, no difference in heart rate compared to work in a normal temperature could be measured. Water loss and increased body temperatures depends on which kind of physical work and heat exposure the firefighters was exposed to. Lactate levels during physical work in  85 °C was significant lower than the same work in a normal temperature. This might result from the cool air from the breathing apparatus, which lead to a higher oxygen uptake in the muscles. There were no difference in blood glucose levels during physical work in  85 °C compared to work in a normal temperature. After more physically demanding work during higher temperature, elevated levels was measured.

  • 379. Wahlström, Helene
    et al.
    Carpenter, Tim
    Giesecke, Johan
    Andersson, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics. Matematisk statistik.
    Englund, Lena
    Vågsholm, Ivar
    Herd-based monitoring for tuberculosis in extensive swedish deer herds by culling and meat inspection rather than by intradermal tuberculin testing.2000In: Preventive Veterinary Medicine, ISSN 0167-5877, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 103-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of random slaughter and meat inspection as a tool to detect or eradicate tuberculosis in large, extensive deer herds in Sweden was evaluated. A computer spreadsheet model based on the Reed-Frost method was developed. Numbers of new infections and of infected deer slaughtered as well as probability of detecting tuberculosis or slaughtering all infected deer in a herd, were simulated. The model predicted that, given a 20% annual slaughter and that disease was introduced with one infected deer, the infection would be detected or eliminated in most herds (90%) after 15 years.

  • 380. Wambugu, S. N.
    et al.
    Towett, P. K.
    Kiama, S. G.
    Abelson, Klas S. P.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Comparative Medicine.
    Kanui, T. I.
    Effects of opioids in the formalin test in the Speke's hinged tortoise (Kinixy's spekii)2010In: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, ISSN 0140-7783, E-ISSN 1365-2885, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 347-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about analgesia in lower vertebrates such as the Speke's hinged tortoise (Kinixy's spekii), yet of late they are increasingly being adopted as pets. The effects of morphine (5, 7.5, 10 and 20 mg/kg), pethidine (10, 20, and 50 mg/kg) and naloxone (5 mg/kg) on nociception induced by the formalin test (12.5%, 100 mu L) were studied in the Speke's hinged tortoise. Formalin induced a monophasic limb retraction behavioural response and its duration was recorded. The behaviour lasted for 16.4 +/- 0.8 min. Morphine (7.5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) and pethidine (20 and 50 mg/kg) induced significant decrease in the duration of limb retraction in the formalin test. The anti-nociceptive effects were naloxone (5 mg/kg) reversible. The data suggest that the formalin test is a good test for studying nociception and anti-nociception in tortoises and that the opioidergic system plays a role in the control of nociception in these animals.

  • 381.
    Wanby, Pär W.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    On certain genetic and metabolic risk factors for carotid stenosis and stroke2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study evaluated genetic and metabolic factors influencing the risk of acute cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and internal carotid artery stenosis (ICA stenosis) in a Swedish community. The threonine (T) containing protein of the FABP2 A54T gene polymorphism has a greater affinity for long chain fatty acids (FFAs) than the alanine (A) containing protein. This altered affinity for FFAs has been shown to affect the intestinal absorption of fatty acids and consequently the fatty acid composition of serum lipids, in particularly postprandially. Endothelium derived NO is a potent vasodilator and antiatherogenic agent. Asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA) is an endogenous competitive inhibitor of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). ADMA has been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic disease, and ADMA inhibits eNOS by displacement of L-arginine from the enzyme, which in turn is believed to affect the amount of NO available within the endothelium.

    The FABP2 A54T gene polymorphism was analyzed in 407 patients with acute CVD and also in a subset of these patients whose carotids had been evaluated with ultrasound. Both the FABP2 polymorphism and a common polymorphism of the eNOS gene, Glu298Asp, were analyzed in a different population consisting of 54 matched pairs of patients with ICA stenosis and controls. ADMA levels were measured in both study populations.

    We found that the T54 allele was more frequent in patients with transient ischaemic attacks (TIA), and that the TT genotype was more prevalent in young, non-smoking patients with CVD than in controls.

    Increased concentrations of ADMA were observed in cardio-embolic infarction and TIA, but not significantly in non-cardio-embolic infarction nor in haemorrhagic stroke. In multivariate logistic regression models, CVD increased across quartiles of ADMA in all subgroups, but this association was only significant in the TIA group. A decreased arginine/ADMA ratio, a measure of NO availability was associated with CVD in the entire study population. Patients with severe carotid stenosis had significantly higher ADMA levels than the controls. Allele and genotype frequencies of the FABP2 and eNOS polymorphisms did not differ between patients with ICA stenosis and controls.

    Our results indicate that ADMA is a strong marker for TIA and severe ICA stenosis, and that relative defiency of arginine, measured as L-arginine/ADMA, is present in acute CVD.

    We also conclude that a common polymorphism of the FABP2 gene increases susceptibility to ischaemic stroke and TIA.

  • 382.
    Weis, Jan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Radiology.
    Johansson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Radiology.
    Ortiz-Nieto, Francisco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Radiology.
    Ahlström, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Radiology.
    Assessment of lipids in skeletal muscle by LCModel and AMARES2009In: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, ISSN 1053-1807, E-ISSN 1522-2586, Vol. 30, no 5, p. 1124-1129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To process single voxel spectra of the human skeletal muscle by using an advanced method for accurate, robust, and efficient spectral fitting (AMARES) and by linear combination of model spectra (LCModel). To determine absolute concentrations of extra- (EMCL) and intramyocellular lipids (IMCL). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (PRESS) was used to obtain the spectra of the calf muscles. Unsuppressed water line was used as a concentration reference. A new prior knowledge for AMARES was proposed to estimate the concentrations of EMCL and IMCL. The prior knowledge was derived from the spectrum of vegetable oil. The results were compared with the values estimated by LCModel. Absolute concentrations of total lipid content in millimoles per kilogram wet weight were used for the comparisons. RESULTS: Absolute concentrations of total lipid content in skeletal muscle were estimated by AMARES and LCModel. Very good correlation of the total fat (EMCL + IMCL) and IMCL concentrations was achieved between both data processing approaches. CONCLUSION: Assessment the absolute concentrations of muscular lipids by AMARES and LCModel can be performed with comparable accuracy.

  • 383. Wejdmark, A-K
    et al.
    Bonnett, B
    Hedhammar, Å
    Fall, Tove
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences; Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet.
    Lifestyle risk factors for progesterone-related diabetes mellitus in elkhounds: a case-control study2011In: Journal of Small Animal Practice, ISSN 0022-4510, E-ISSN 1748-5827, Vol. 52, no 5, p. 240-245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate lifestyle risk factors for the development of progesterone-related diabetes mellitus in female elkhounds.

    METHODS: Owners of 48 diabetic elkhounds and 58 healthy elkhounds were interviewed by phone concerning lifetime diet and exercise routines. A logistic model was developed to assess the impact of diet and exercise on diabetes diagnosis. The agreement between lifetime owner-perceived body condition score (BCS) and veterinary-perceived BCS at inclusion was estimated in healthy control dogs using the Kappa statistic.

    RESULTS: The model showed that diabetic dogs had increased odds for having been overweight (before diagnosis) compared with controls (OR=2·8, 95% confidence interval 1·1-7·5, P=0·034). Although feeding other food than commercial dog feed was associated with diabetes case status, the effect was not significant after BCS was entered into the model. The overall agreement between lifetime owner- and veterinary-perceived BCS at inclusion in the study was 75% and had a Kappa statistic of 0·16 (P=0·12).

    CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This study indicates that a high owner-perceived lifetime BCS is associated with progesterone-related diabetes in elkhounds.

  • 384. Welsh, Michelle
    et al.
    Sharpe, Richard M
    Moffat, Lindsey
    Atanassova, Nina
    Saunders, Philippa TK
    Kilter, Sigrid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Bergh, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Smith, Lee B
    Androgen action via testicular arteriole smooth muscle cells is important for Leydig cell function, vasomotion and testicular fluid dynamics2010In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 5, no 10, p. e13632-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Regulation of blood flow through the testicular microvasculature by vasomotion is thought to be important for normal testis function as it regulates interstitial fluid (IF) dynamics which is an important intra-testicular transport medium. Androgens control vasomotion, but how they exert these effects remains unclear. One possibility is by signalling via androgen receptors (AR) expressed in testicular arteriole smooth muscle cells. To investigate this and determine the overall importance of this mechanism in testis function, we generated a blood vessel smooth muscle cell-specific AR knockout mouse (SMARKO). Gross reproductive development was normal in SMARKO mice but testis weight was reduced in adulthood compared to control littermates; this reduction was not due to any changes in germ cell volume or to deficits in testosterone, LH or FSH concentrations and did not cause infertility. However, seminiferous tubule lumen volume was reduced in adult SMARKO males while interstitial volume was increased, perhaps indicating altered fluid dynamics; this was associated with compensated Leydig cell failure. Vasomotion was impaired in adult SMARKO males, though overall testis blood flow was normal and there was an increase in the overall blood vessel volume per testis in adult SMARKOs. In conclusion, these results indicate that ablating arteriole smooth muscle AR does not grossly alter spermatogenesis or affect male fertility but does subtly impair Leydig cell function and testicular fluid exchange, possibly by locally regulating microvascular blood flow within the testis.

  • 385.
    Wergård, Eva-Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Westlund, Karolina
    Spångberg, Mats
    Fredlund, Helene
    Forkman, Björn
    Training success in group-housed long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) is better explained by personality than by social rank2016In: Applied Animal Behaviour Science, ISSN 0168-1591, E-ISSN 1872-9045, Vol. 177, p. 52-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using training to prepare laboratory animals for biomedical research is one important behavior management task. With increased knowledge about factors influencing training success, training programs may be optimized, resulting in a refinement of primate husbandry. Even when animals are trained under the same conditions there are individual differences in how they respond to training. The current paper focuses on two of the factors potentially influencing training success: social rank and personality. Five observers rated the personality and the social rank of 34 long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in an observer trait rating survey. Training success was measured in 22 of these individuals and from four of their shaping protocols; hand-feeding, target training, presenting hands and presenting feet. From the factor analysis four personality traits could be identified: 'Emotionality', 'Activity', 'Sociability', and 'Tolerance'. A Multiple linear regressions with backward elimination showed that the personality trait 'Activity' was associated with training success (adj.R-2 = 0.71, p < 0.0005), and unexpectedly, social rank had less influence (adj.R-2 = 0.30, p = 0.005) on training success in group-housed long-tailed macaques. We propose that training success can be conceptualized as consisting of two components: access to the trainer and problem solving. In the case of personality, the two components combine to promote training success: curious animals gain access to trainers, and playful animals are good problem solvers; both these adjectives were present in the trait 'Activity'. In contrast, with regards to rank, qualities that increase access to the trainer (dominance) and traits that promote problem solving (subordinance) counteract one another, potentially explaining why in this study, training was better explained by personality than by rank. We discuss the importance of successfully training different types of personalities in order for the selection of animals in biomedical research to remain random and non-biased, rather than excluding those that do not respond well to training.

  • 386.
    Weseloh, D.V. Chip
    Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    14. Contaminants in Colonial Waterbirds of the North American Great Lakes, 1955-20072012In: Ecology and Animal Health / [ed] Leif Norrgren and Jeffrey Levengood, Uppsala: Baltic University Press , 2012, 1, p. 116-121Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 387.
    Westergren, Jens
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Sodium bicarbonate ingestion increases pH in blood but does not attenuate exercise induced arterial hypoxemia or enhance performance2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The exact causes of Exercise Induced Arterial Hypoxemia (EIAH) are not yet known. Earlier studies on the ergogenic effects of NaHCO3 have neglected to investigate the occurrence of EIAH among their subject, something that could explain the conflicting results, EIAH cannot be over looked since reportedly 50% of well trained athletes experience EIAH. One possible ergogenic effect of NaHCO3 would be to attenuate EIAH through an increase in blood pH in a subject. This has been shown previously by means of intravenous infusion during maximal rowing.

    Aim: The aim of the study was to examine the effect of oral intake of NaHCO3 on EIAH and performance in trained cyclists.

    Method: Seven male cyclists (age 23.7 (22-27) years, VO2peak 64 (60-72) ml min-1 (kg body mass) -1 volunteered for the study. The subjects performed two maximal exercise tests to exhaustion 48 hours apart in a counter balanced cross over double blind fashion. Subjects received 0.3 g kg BW-1 CaCO3 and 0.3 g kg BW-1 NaHCO3 in the placebo and bicarbonate trial respectively.

    Free flowing arterialized capillary blood was sampled at rest and exhaustion and analyzed for pH, O2 Saturation, pO2, pCO2, and blood lactate. Ventilatory variables were measured continuously throughout the test V'O2, V’CO2, V'E, V'E/VO2, RER and HR. In addition pulse oximetry was used to evaluate O2 saturation.

    Results/Discussion: At rest pH and PCO2 was elevated (p<0.05) in the bicarbonate trial compared to the placebo trial. At exhaustion in the bicarbonate trial pH, blood lactate, RER, was significantly elevated (p<0.05) when compared to the placebo trial. O2 saturation from blood samples at exhaustion in the bicarbonate trial showed a trend towards improving (p=0.061). No difference was seen between the two trials in PO2, VO2peak, V'Emax, HRmax or performance. During exercise, bicarbonate ingestion increased blood pH but did not improve arterial saturation or performance. The increase in blood pH achieved by ingestion of bicarbonate was not as large as the increase achieved by intravenous infusion in another study. Even with the larger increase in blood pH in those studies, there was only a small improvement in performance. One possible explanation for the performance improvement with bicarbonate infusion in that study was a reduced ventilation that could effect respiratory muscle work and thereby work capacity. The bicarbonate ingestion in the present study did not reduce ventilation. This could possible be achieved with higher doses of NaHCO3, which would most likely result in increased frequency of gastrointestinal distress among subjects.

  • 388.
    Westin, Lars
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Danielson, Ella
    Sahlgrens Acad, Inst Hlth & Care Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden / Mid Sweden Univ, Dept Hlth Serv, Östersund, Sweden.
    Encounters in Swedish nursing homes: a hermeneutic study of residents' experiences2007In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 60, no 2, p. 172-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim. This paper is a report of a study to illuminate and interpret the meaning of residents' experiences of encounters with nurses in nursing homes.

    Background. A large number of older people suffer from illness and become dependent on other people in their daily living. These people are often in need of care in nursing homes. It is assumed that encounters between nurses and residents are of importance in how residents experience care in nursing homes.

    Method. Twelve residents from three nursing homes in Sweden were interviewed in 2004–2005 about their experiences in encounters with nurses. The interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim. A hermeneutic method was used to describe and interpret the meaning of residents' experiences.

    Findings. Three themes emerged: 'being somebody', 'being nobody' and 'being in a community'. The encounters had both positive and negative influences on residents, expressed as being somebody and belonging somewhere or being nobody and not being seen as a person or simply being left out of things. Encounters between residents and nurses have a mutual dependency where residents certainly have some influence on the relationship. The nurses have both an influence on the relationship and a professional responsibility for the outcome of encounters with residents.

    Conclusion. The insights gained from the study can guide nurses in their encounters with residents in nursing homes so that they feel respected as unique human beings and part of a community.

  • 389. Widgren, Stefan
    et al.
    Engblom, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Scientific Computing. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computational Science.
    Bauer, Pavol
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Scientific Computing. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computational Science.
    Frössling, Jenny
    Emanuelson, Ulf
    Lindberg, Ann
    Data-driven network modelling of disease transmission using complete population movement data: spread of VTEC O157 in Swedish cattle2016In: Veterinary research (Print), ISSN 0928-4249, E-ISSN 1297-9716, Vol. 47, p. 81:1-17, article id 81Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 390.
    Widgren, Stefan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Scientific Computing.
    Engblom, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Scientific Computing. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computational Science.
    Emanuelson, Ulf
    Lindberg, Ann
    Spatio-temporal modelling of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli O157 in cattle in Sweden: exploring options for control2018In: Veterinary research (Print), ISSN 0928-4249, E-ISSN 1297-9716, Vol. 49, p. 78:1-13, article id 78Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 391.
    Wierup, Martin
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    25. Principles and Strategies for the Prevention and Control of Infectious Diseases in Livestock and Wildlife2012In: Ecology and Animal Health / [ed] Leif Norrgren and Jeffrey Levengood, Uppsala: Baltic University Press , 2012, 2, p. 203-211Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 392.
    Wierup, Martin
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Bengtsson, Björn
    National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden.
    28. Antimicrobial Resistance in Scandinavia after Termination of Antimicrobials for Growth Promotion2012In: Ecology and Animal Health / [ed] Leif Norrgren and Jeffrey Levengood, Uppsala: Baltic University Press , 2012, 2, p. 222-227Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 393.
    Wigert, Annsofi
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Har syrgaskoncentrationen någon inverkan på lungfunktionen vid endotrakeal sugning och lungrekrytering?: En experimentell studie på gris2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION

    One of the most common routines in mechanically ventilated patients is endotracheal suction,

    (ETS). To avoid desaturation connected to this routine, it is common to increase oxygen

    concentration for a few minutes. High fractions of oxygen can be damaging, and it causes

    athelectasis which impairs gas exchange in the lung. A physiological respond due to the

    athelectasis is redirecting the bloodstream from poorly ventilated lungparts which leads to an

    increased pulmonary pressure. The aim of this study was to investigate if preoxygenation and

    lung recruitment with different oxygen concentrations influences hemodynamics, lung mechanics

    and lung volume.

    METHOD

    In six anaesthetised pigs with assisted mechanical ventilation preoxygenation was given with

    100 % or 60 % O2 for 5 minutes and followed by suction in the endotracheal tube. Thereafter, in

    3 out of 4 protocols a deep sigh was delivered with 21 %, 60 % or 100 % O2 at a pressure 15

    cmH2O above plateau pressure. Hemodynamics and lung mechanics were measured. For control

    in the studie no lungrecruitment was performed in one of the protocols.

    RESULTS

    Mean pulmonary pressure was induced in the protocol where there was no regain of lung volume

    after suction, 29±3 mmHg compared to bas line value of 22±2 mmHg (p<0.05). There was a clear

    difference in lung compliance, whether the lung volume was recruited, 22±1 (100 % O2), 21±3

    (21% O2), 21±3 (60 % O2) or not recruited, (13±1 mL cmH2O) after suction (p<0.001). The same

    were seen for changes in VT (p<0.001) and EELV (p<0.05).

    CONCLUSION

    The oxygen concentration when performing endotracheal suctioning is in this experimental

    model of no influence regarding hemodynamics, lung mechanics- or lung volumes, provided

    recruitment of the lung is done directly after suctioning.

  • 394.
    Wille, Michelle
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Mem Univ Newfoundland, 230 Elizabeth Ave, St John, NF A1B 3X9, Canada..
    McBurney, Scott
    Univ Prince Edward Isl, Canadian Wildlife Hlth Cooperat, Atlantic Reg, Atlantic Vet Coll, 550 Univ Ave, Charlottetown, PE C1A 4P3, Canada..
    Robertson, Gregory J.
    Environm & Climate Change Canada, Sci & Technol Branch, Wildlife Res Div, 6 Bruce St, Mt Pearl, NF A1N 4T3, Canada..
    Wilhelm, Sabina I.
    Environm & Climate Change Canada, Canadian Wildlife Serv, 6 Bruce St, Mt Pearl, NF A1N 4T3, Canada..
    Blehert, David S.
    US Geol Survey, Natl Wildlife Hlth Ctr, 6006 Schroeder Rd, Madison, WI 53711 USA..
    Soos, Catherine
    Environm & Climate Change Canada, Sci & Technol Branch, Ecotoxicol & Wildlife Hlth Div, 115 Perimeter Rd, Saskatoon, SK S7N 0X4, Canada..
    Dunphy, Ron
    Whitney, Hugh
    Forestry & Agrifoods Agcy, Div Anim Hlth, POB 7400, St John, NF A1E 3Y5, Canada..
    A Pelagic Outbreak Of Avian Cholera In North American Gulls: Scavenging As A Primary Mechanism For Transmission?2016In: Journal of Wildlife Diseases, ISSN 0090-3558, E-ISSN 1943-3700, Vol. 52, no 4, p. 793-802Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Avian cholera, caused by the bacterium Pasteurella multocida, is an endemic disease globally, often causing annual epizootics in North American wild bird populations with thousands of mortalities. From December 2006 to March 2007, an avian cholera outbreak caused mortality in marine birds off the coast of Atlantic Canada, largely centered 300-400 km off the coast of the island of Newfoundland. Scavenging gulls (Larus spp.) were the primary species detected; however, mortality was also identified in Black-legged Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) and one Common Raven (Corvus corax), a nonmarine species. The most common gross necropsy findings in the birds with confirmed avian cholera were acute fibrinous and necrotizing lesions affecting the spleen, air sacs, and pericardium, and nonspecific hepatomegaly and splenomegaly. The etiologic agent, P. multocida serotype 1, was recovered from 77 of 136 carcasses examined, and confirmed or probable avian cholera was diagnosed in 85 cases. Mortality observed in scavenging gull species was disproportionately high relative to their abundance, particularly when compared to nonscavenging species. The presence of feather shafts in the ventricular lumen of the majority of larid carcasses diagnosed with avian cholera suggests scavenging of birds that died from avian cholera as a major mode of transmission. This documentation of an outbreak of avian cholera in a North American pelagic environment affecting primarily scavenging gulls indicates that offshore marine environments may be a component of avian cholera dynamics.

  • 395.
    Winberg, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Nordström, Lisbeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Strinnholm, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Nylander, Annica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Jonsäll, Anette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Rönnmark, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    West, Christina E.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    New validated recipes for double-blind placebo-controlled low-dose food challenges2013In: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, ISSN 0905-6157, E-ISSN 1399-3038, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 282-287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges are considered the most reliable method to diagnose or rule out food allergy. Despite this, there are few validated challenge recipes available. The present study aimed to validate new recipes for low-dose double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges in school children, by investigating whether there were any sensory differences between the active materials containing cow's milk, hen's egg, soy, wheat or cod, and the placebo materials. The challenge materials contained the same hypoallergenic amino acidbased product, with or without added food allergens. The test panels consisted of 275 school children, aged 810 and 1415yr, respectively, from five Swedish schools. Each participant tested at least one recipe. Standardized blinded triangle tests were performed to investigate whether any sensory differences could be detected between the active and placebo materials. In our final recipes, no significant differences could be detected between the active and placebo materials for any challenge food (p>0.05). These results remained after stratification for age and gender. The taste of challenge materials was acceptable, and no unfavourable side effects related to test materials were observed. In summary, these new validated recipes for low-dose double-blinded food challenges contain common allergenic foods in childhood; cow's milk, hen's egg, soy, wheat and cod. All test materials contain the same liquid vehicle, which facilitates preparation and dosing. Our validated recipes increase the range of available recipes, and as they are easily prepared and dosed, they may facilitate the use of double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges in daily clinical practice.

  • 396.
    Wright, Dominic
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Rubin, Carl-Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Martinez Barrio, Alvaro
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, The Linnaeus Centre for Bioinformatics.
    Schütz, K.
    Kerje, Susanne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Brändström, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Kindmark, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Jensen, P.
    Andersson, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    The genetic architecture of domestication in the chicken: effects of pleiotropy and linkage2010In: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 19, no 23, p. 5140-5156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The extent of pleiotropy and epistasis in quantitative traits remains equivocal. In the case of pleiotropy, multiple quantitative trait loci are often taken to be pleiotropic if their confidence intervals overlap, without formal statistical tests being used to ascertain if these overlapping loci are statistically significantly pleiotropic. Additionally, the degree to which the genetic correlations between phenotypic traits are reflected in these pleiotropic quantitative trait loci is often variable, especially in the case of antagonistic pleiotropy. Similarly, the extent of epistasis in various morphological, behavioural and life-history traits is also debated, with a general problem being the sample sizes required to detect such effects. Domestication involves a large number of trade-offs, which are reflected in numerous behavioural, morphological and life-history traits which have evolved as a consequence of adaptation to selective pressures exerted by humans and captivity. The comparison between wild and domestic animals allows the genetic analysis of the traits that differ between these population types, as well as being a general model of evolution. Using a large F(2) intercross between wild and domesticated chickens, in combination with a dense SNP and microsatellite marker map, both pleiotropy and epistasis were analysed. The majority of traits were found to segregate in 11 tight 'blocks' and reflected the trade-offs associated with domestication. These blocks were shown to have a pleiotropic 'core' surrounded by more loosely linked loci. In contrast, epistatic interactions were almost entirely absent, with only six pairs identified over all traits analysed. These results give insights both into the extent of such blocks in evolution and the development of domestication itself.

  • 397.
    Wårdell, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kefalopoulou, Zinovia
    Unit of Functional Neurosurgery, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, UK.
    Diczfalusy, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Åström, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Limousin, Patricia
    Unit of Functional Neurosurgery, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, UK.
    Zrinzo, Ludvic
    Unit of Functional Neurosurgery, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, UK.
    Hariz, Marwan
    Unit of Functional Neurosurgery, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, UK / Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Deep Brain Stimulation of the Pallidum Internum for Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome: A Patient-Specific Model-Based Simulation Study of the Electric Field2015In: Neuromodulation (Malden, Mass.), ISSN 1094-7159, E-ISSN 1525-1403, no 2, p. 90-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    The aim of this study was to investigate the deep brain stimulation (DBS) electric field distribution in proton-density MRI scans visualizing the globus pallidus internus (GPi) of patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS), along with its relation to the anatomy.

    Methods

    Patient-specific brain tissue models (n = 7) with bilateral DBS electrodes in the GPi were set up using the finite element method in five patients who had undergone stereotactic proton-density MRI-guided surgery and showed variable improvement with DBS. Simulations (n = 27) of the electric field were performed and the results visualized on the respective preoperative stereotactic MRI scans. The mean electric field volumes (n = 81) within the 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2 V/mm isosurfaces were calculated and compared with the anatomy.

    Results

    Visualization of the simulated electric field confirmed that the anteromedial limbic GPi was the main stimulated target for four of the patients and the posteromedial sensorimotor GPi for one. Larger volumes extended asymmetrically, with parts of fields stretching into the lamina between GPi and globus pallidus externus and into the internal capsule. There was a high correlation (r = 0.994, n = 54) between volumes and brain sides, but with a systematic shift toward the right side, especially for the larger volumes. Simulations with homogeneous tissue models showed no differences.

    Conclusions

    Patient-specific DBS electric field simulations in the GPi as visualized on proton-density MR scans can be implemented in patients with GTS. Visualization of electric fields together with stereotactic thin-slice MRI can provide further support when predicting anatomical structures possibly influenced by DBS in this complex disorder.

  • 398. Yakymovych, Ihor
    et al.
    Yakymovych, Mariya
    Zang, Guangxiang
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Mu, Yabing
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Bergh, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Landström, Maréne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Heldin, Carl-Henrik
    CIN85 modulates TGF beta signaling by promoting the presentation of TGF beta receptors on the cell surface2015In: Journal of Cell Biology, ISSN 0021-9525, E-ISSN 1540-8140, Vol. 210, no 2, p. 319-332Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Members of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) family initiate cellular responses by binding to TGF beta receptor type II (Tf3R11) and type I (TpRI) serine/threonine kinases, whereby Srnad2 and Smad3 are phosphorylated and activated, promoting their association with Smadzi. We report here that T beta RI interacts with the SH3 domains of the adaptor protein CIN85 in response to TGF beta stimulation in a TRAF6-dependent manner. Small interfering RNA mediated knockdown of CIN85 resulted in accumulation of T beta RI in intracellular compartments and diminished TGF beta-stimulated Sniad2 phosphorylation. Overexpression of CIN85 instead increased the amount of T beta RI at the cell surface. This effect was inhibited by a dominant-negative mutant of Rab11, suggesting that CIN85 promoted recycling of TGF beta receptors. CIN85 enhanced TGF beta-stimulated Smad2 phosphorylation, transcriptional responses, and cell migration. CIN85 expression correlated with the degree of malignancy of prostate cancers. Collectively, our results reveal that CIN85 promotes recycling of TGF beta receptors and thereby positively regulates TGF beta signaling.

  • 399.
    Yaraghi, Niam
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Critical Success Factors for Risk Management Systems2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the existence of extensive literature regarding risk management, there still seems to be lack of knowledge in identification of Critical Success Factors (CSFs) in this area. In this research Grounded Theory is implemented to identify CSFs in Risk Management Systems (RMS). Factor analysis and one-sample t-test are then used to refine and rank the CSFs based on the results of a survey which has been performed among Risk Management practitioners in various types of Swedish corporations. CSFs are defined from three different perspectives: (a) the factors that have influence on the inclination and readiness of corporation for implementing RMS. (b) the factors that are important during the design and implementation of RMS in corporation and can significantly affect the success of RMS design and implementation and (c) the factors that are crucially important to successfully run, maintain and administrate RMS after the closure of the project of RMS design and Implementation.

    This systematic approach towards understanding the taxonomy of the success dimension in RMS is important for re-enforcing effective risk management practices.

  • 400.
    Zebunke, Manuela
    et al.
    Institute of Behavioural Physiology, Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology (FBN), Dummerstorf, Germany.
    Repsilber, Dirk
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Nuernberg, Gerd
    Institute of Genetics and Biometry, Leibnitz Institute for Farm Animal Biology (FBN), Dummerstorf, Germany.
    Wittenburg, Doerte
    Institute of Genetics and Biometry, Leibnitz Institute for Farm Animal Biology (FBN), Dummerstorf, Germany.
    Puppe, Birger
    Institute of Behavioural Physiology, Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology (FBN), Dummerstorf, Germany; Behavioural Sciences, Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany.
    The backtest in pigs revisited: an analysis of intra-situational behaviour2015In: Applied Animal Behaviour Science, ISSN 0168-1591, E-ISSN 1872-9045, Vol. 169, p. 17-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The occurrence of different behavioural phenotypes in animals (regarding temperament and personality) has increasingly attracted the attention of scientists dealing with farm animal breeding, management and welfare. As part of the adaptation repertoire, coping behaviour describes how animals deal with challenging situations. To detect different coping strategies (active vs. passive) in domestic pigs, Hessing et al. (1993) suggested using the backtest at an early age. However, the literature contains ambiguous results and criticism of the backtest. Thus, referring to Jensen (1995), the aim of our study was to analyse the backtest in terms of intra-situational behaviour (frequency distribution, behavioural consistency, heritability) in a large sample of domestic piglets (n = 3555). By using a statistical resampling analysis we wanted to verify whether the individual variation in the behaviour of the piglets in the repeated backtest indicates coping strategies or just random variation. The backtest was repeated four times between the first and fourth week of life (ages 5, 12, 19 and 26 days), and the latency, total duration and frequency of all struggling attempts were recorded. Our results show a continuous, unimodal distribution in the frequency parameter and an apparent bimodal distribution in the latency and duration parameter, that probably represents a unimodal distribution with a 'ceiling-effect'. The intra-test consistency of the behaviour (Spearman rank correlation (r(S)) and repeatability (R)) was moderate (r(S) = 0.19-0.45, p < 0.001; R = 0.25-0.39), indicating at least a certain degree of behavioural consistency. The resampling analysis revealed that the piglets did not show just random variation in behaviour. Moreover, the piglets did not display a general habituation to the repeated backtest. Based on a large pedigree, we calculated that the heritability of the behavioural parameters ranged from 0.17 to 0.43. In conclusion, the repeated backtest does not provide evidence for definitive coping strategies that are clearly separable. We instead found pronounced individual dispositions that are partly determined by genetics along a continuum from active to passive coping behaviour. This means that individuals show both behavioural consistency and flexibility in behaviour.

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