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  • 34551.
    Woestenenk, Esmeralda A.
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Biotechnology.
    Gongadze, George M.
    Shcherbakov, Dmitry V.
    Rak, Alexey V.
    Garber, Maria B.
    Härd, Torleif
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Biotechnology.
    Berglund, Helena
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Biotechnology.
    The solution structure of ribosomal protein L18 from Thermus thermophilus reveals a conserved RNA-binding fold2002In: Biochemical Journal, ISSN 0264-6021, E-ISSN 1470-8728, Vol. 363, no 3, p. 553-561Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have determined the solution structure of ribosomal protein L18 from Thermus thermophilus. L18 is a 12.5 kDa protein of the large subunit of the ribosome and binds to both 5 S and 23 S rRNA. In the uncomplexed state L18 folds to a mixed α/β globular structure with a long disordered N-terminal region. We compared our high-resolution structure with RNA-complexed L 18 from Haloarcula marismortui and T. thermophilus to examine RNA-induced as well as species-dependent structural differences. We also identified T. thermophilus S11 as a structural homologue and found that the structures of the RNA-recognition sites are conserved. Important features, for instance a bulge in the RNA-contacting β-sheet, are conserved in both proteins. We suggest that the L18 fold recognizes a specific RNA motif and that the resulting RNA-protein-recognition module is tolerant to variations in sequence.

  • 34552.
    Woestenenk, Esmeralda A.
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Biotechnology.
    Hammarström, Martin
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Biotechnology.
    van den Berg, Susanne
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Biotechnology.
    Härd, Torleif
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Biotechnology.
    Berglund, Helena
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Biotechnology.
    His tag effect on solubility of human proteins produced in Escherichia coli: A comparison between four expression vectors2004In: Journal of Structural and Functional Genomics, ISSN 1345-711X, E-ISSN 1570-0267, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 217-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have compared four different vectors for expression of proteins with N- or C-terminal hexahistidine (His6) tags in Escherichia coli by testing these on 20 human proteins. We looked at total recombinant protein production levels per gram dry cell weight, solubility of the target proteins, and yield of soluble and total protein when purified by immobilized metal ion affinity purification. It was found that, in general, both N- and C-terminal His6 tags have a noticeable negative effect on protein solubility, but the effect is target protein specific. A solubilizing fusion tag was able to partly counteract this negative effect. Most target proteins could be purified under denaturing conditions and about half of the proteins could be purified under physiological conditions. The highest protein production levels and yield of purified protein were obtained from a construct with a C-terminal His tag. We also observe a large variation in cell growth rate, which we determined to be partly caused by the expression vectors and partly by the targets. This variation was found to be independent of the production level, solubility and tertiary structure content of the target proteins.

  • 34553.
    Wohlfarth Hasle, Inger-Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology.
    Tranors förekomst på fält kring Tåkern påverkas av vägar, vatten, byggnader, träd och buskage2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Every year the Eurasian crane travel from northern Africa to northern Europe and Asia. On their migration route they need to rest and often choose places around shallow lakes in agriculture landscapes. During their time in these resting sites the cranes forage in agriculture fields surrounding the lakes, which often cause crop-damage and thereof also financial loses. The last 30 years the population has increased radically, resulting in more extensive crop-damage. This study was set out to gain a better understanding how these migrating cranes choose sites to forage, based on four environment factors: roads, water, buildings, trees and shrub. A study-area in north of Lake Tåkern was selected and during six days in the spring all the cranes in the area were counted and marked on a map. The results showed that the factors affected the occurrence of cranes in the fields. They wanted to be close to shallow water and keep a distance to buildings, roads, trees and shrub. The cranes often spend the night in shallow water and search for food in the area close by to not lose too much energy, which probably was the main reason for the birds to stay close to the water. The distance to buildings and roads suggests that the cranes want to avoid interference from humans and the distance to trees and shrub that they want to have a good awareness of their surroundings. Through this understanding, areas with higher risk to attract groups of cranes can more easily be identified.

  • 34554.
    Wohlgemuth, Gert
    et al.
    University of California Davis.
    Kumar Haldiya, Pradeep
    University of California Davis.
    Willighagen, Egon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Kind, Tobias
    University of California Davis.
    Fiehn, Oliver
    University of California Davis.
    The Chemical Translation Service (CTS): a web-based tool to improve standardization of metabolomic reports2010In: Bioinformatics, ISSN 1367-4803, E-ISSN 1367-4811, Vol. 26, no 20, p. 2647-2648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metabolomic publications and databases use different database identifiers or even trivial names which disable queries across databases or between studies. The best way to annotate metabolites is by chemical structures, encoded by the International Chemical Identifier code (InChI) or InChIKey. We have implemented a web-based Chemical Translation Service that performs batch conversions of the most common compound identifiers, including CAS, CHEBI, compound formulas, Human Metabolome Database HMDB, InChI, InChIKey, IUPAC name, KEGG, LipidMaps, Pub-Chem CID+SID, SMILES, and chemical synonym names. Batch conversion downloads of 1,410 CIDs are performed in 2.5 minutes. Structures are automatically displayed.

  • 34555. Woin, P
    et al.
    Larsson, Per
    Department of Ecology, Limnology, University of Lund.
    Phthalate esters reduce predation efficiency of dragonfly larvae (Odonata; Aeshna)1987In: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, ISSN 0007-4861, E-ISSN 1432-0800, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 220-225Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34556.
    Woin, Per
    et al.
    Department of Ecology, Chemical Ecology and Ecotoxicology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Wendt-Rasch, Lina
    Department of Ecology, Chemical Ecology and Ecotoxicology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Pirzadeh, P.
    Department of Ecology, Chemical Ecology and Ecotoxicology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Effects of metsulfuron methyl and cypermethrin exposure on freshwater model ecosystems2003In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 63, no 3, p. 243-256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term (2 weeks) effects of the herbicide metsulfuron methyl alone and in combination with the insecticide cypermethrin in freshwater enclosures (80 l). We used a factorial design with four levels of herbicide (0, 1, 5, 20 mg/l) and two levels of insecticide (0 and 0.05 mg/l). The root growth of the macrophyte species Elodea canadensis and Myriophyllum spicatum decreased following exposure to the lowest concentration of metsulfuron methyl tested. Metsulfuron methyl exposure resulted in a decreased pH in the aquatic enclosure at the lowest concentration tested, which is most likely a further indication of decreased macrophyte primary production. The biomass of periphytic algae growing on the leaves of M. spicatum increased in the enclosures exposed to metsulfuron methyl. The species composition of the periphytic algae differed significantly from the controls in the enclosures exposed to 20 mg/l of the herbicide. The increased biomass of periphytic algae on the leaves of the macrophytes is probably an indirect effect of the herbicide exposure. The exposure to metsulfuron methyl possibly induced a leakage of nutrients from the macrophyte leaves, which promoted an increased algal growth. The exposure to metsulfuron methyl did not alter the biomass or the species composition of the phytoplankton community. The zooplankton communities in the enclosures were dominated by rotifers, which were not affected by the exposure to cypermethrin. However, a cypermethrin exposure of 0.05 mg/l initially decreased the abundance of copepod nauplii. Ten days after exposure, the abundance of nauplii was significantly higher in the insecticide-exposed enclosures compared with the non-exposed enclosures. This might be an indication of a sub-lethal stress response, which either increased the number of offspring produced or induced an increased hatching of copepod resting stages. No combined effects of the herbicide and insecticide exposure, either direct or indirect, were observed in the enclosure study. Significant effects on the macrophytes were observed following exposure to 1 mg metsulfuron methyl per litre in the enclosure study. Furthermore, a single species laboratory assay indicated that the shoot elongation of E. canadensis decreased following exposure to ]/0.1 mg metsulfuron methyl per litre. These concentrations are well within the range of expected environmental concentrations, thus this study shows that aquatic ecosystems, in particular those which are macrophyte- dominated, may be affected by metsulfuron methyl at concentrations that may well occur in water bodies adjacent to agricultural land.

  • 34557.
    Wojcik, Andrzej
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Ctr Radiat Protect Res, MBW Dept, Svante Arrhenius Vag 20C, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Jan Kochanowski Univ Humanities & Sci, Inst Biol, Kielce, Poland..
    Hamza, Karim
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Math & Sci Educ, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lundegard, Iann
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Math & Sci Educ, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Enghag, Margareta
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Math & Sci Educ, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Haglund, Karin
    Tumba Gymnasium, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Arvanitis, Leena
    Blackeberg Gymnasium, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Schenk, Linda
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy. Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Work Environm Toxicol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Educating about radiation risks in high schools: towards improved public understanding of the complexity of low-dose radiation health effects2019In: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics, ISSN 0301-634X, E-ISSN 1432-2099, Vol. 58, no 1, p. 13-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The levels of stochastic health effects following exposure to low doses of ionising radiation are not well known. A consequence of the uncertainty is that any radiation exposure is met with deep concernboth by the public and by scientists who disagree about how the partly conflicting results from low-dose studies should be interpreted. The concern is not limited to ionising radiation but is inherent to other areas of modern technologies such as biotechnology or electromagnetic fields. The everyday presence of advanced technologies confronts people with the necessity to take decisions and there is an ongoing debate regarding both the nature and magnitude of potential risks and how education efforts may empower peoples ' decision-making. In the field of radiation research there are different opinions regarding the optimal education methods, spanning from the idea that peoples' fears will be eliminated by introducing dose thresholds below which the risk is assumed to be zero, to suggestions of concentrating research efforts in an attempt to eliminate all uncertainties regarding the effects of low doses. The aim of this paper was to present our approach which is based on developing an education program at the secondary school level where students learn to understand the role of science in society. Teaching about radiation risk as a socio-scientific issue is not based on presenting facts but on showing risks in a broader perspective aiming at developing students' competency in making decisions based on informed assessment. We hope to stimulate and encourage other researchers to pursue similar approaches.

  • 34558.
    Wojcik, Andrzej
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute. Jan Kochanowski University, Poland.
    Harms-Ringdahl, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Radiation protection biology then and now2019In: International Journal of Radiation Biology, ISSN 0955-3002, E-ISSN 1362-3095, Vol. 95, no 7, p. 841-850Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Radiation biology is a branch of the radiation research field which focuses on studying radiation effects in cells and organisms. Radiation can be used in biological investigations for two, mutually non-exclusive reasons: (1) to study biological processes by perturbing their functioning (qualitative approach) and (2) to assess consequences of radiation-induced damage (quantitative approach). While the former approach has a basic research character, the latter has an applied character that is driven by needs of medical applications and radiological protection. Radiation protection biology is defined in the sense of the second approach. The aim of the article is to provide a historical review of how radiation protection biology developed and how it influences radiological protection.Conclusions: While radiobiological investigations started immediately after the discovery of X-rays, the qualitative approach dominated until the end of World War II. After 1945, the nuclear weapons race and nuclear energy programs initiated quantitative radiobiological research. Radiation protection biology does not provide results from which radiation risks can be directly derived. Rather, it provides data that is necessary for understanding the nature of risks. Most recent years have seen, especially in Europe, a growing interest in coordinated studies on the effects of low radiation doses.

  • 34559.
    Wojcik, Andrzej
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology.
    Lloyd, David
    Romm, Horst
    Roy, Laurence
    Biological dosimetry for triage of casualties in a large-scale radiological emergency: capacity of the EU member states2010In: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 138, no 4, p. 397-401Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, a number of events have occurred that highlight the necessity of being prepared for a possible large-scale radiological event. An important question is how well are European Union (EU) Member States prepared to cope with mass radiological casualties. A survey to establish the current status of biological dosimetry across the EU was carried out with the aim of assessing capacity to perform biodosimetric triage of accident victims. Information was sought from the radiation protection authorities of the 27 Member States plus Switzerland and Norway. Biology dosimetry is established in 15 EU countries. Their total capacity for dosimetric triage is about 1500 cases per week analysed with a dicentric assay or about 800 cases analysed with a micronucleus assay. Although these numbers appear encouraging, there is not much collaboration between the laboratories and what is required is a network at the EU level.

  • 34560.
    Wojcik, Andrzej
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute. Jan Kochanowski University, Poland.
    Oestreicher, Ursula
    Barrios, Lleonard
    Vral, Anne
    Terzoudi, Georgia
    Ainsbury, Elizabeth
    Rothkamm, Kai
    Trompier, Francois
    Kulka, Ulrike
    The RENEB operational basis: complement of established biodosimetric assays2017In: International Journal of Radiation Biology, ISSN 0955-3002, E-ISSN 1362-3095, Vol. 93, no 1, p. 15-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To set up an operational basis of the Realizing the European Network of Biodosimetry (RENEB) network within which the application of seven established biodosimetric tools (the dicentric assay, the FISH assay, the micronucleus assay, the PCC assay, the gamma-H2AX assay, electron paramagnetic resonance and optically stimulated luminescence) will be compared and standardized among the participating laboratories. Methodology: Two intercomparisons were organized where blood samples and smartphone components were irradiated, coded and sent out to participating laboratories for dosimetric analysis. Moreover, an accident exercise was organized during which each RENEB partner had the chance to practice the procedure of activating the network and to handle large amounts of dosimetric results. Results: All activities were carried out as planned. Overall, the precision of dose estimates improved between intercomparisons 1 and 2, clearly showing the value of running such regular activities. Conclusions: The RENEB network is fully operational and ready to act in case of a major radiation emergency. Moreover, the high capacity for analyzing radiation-induced damage in cells and personal electronic devices makes the network suitable for large-scale analyses of low doses effects, where high numbers of samples must be scored in order to detect weak effects.

  • 34561. Wojcik, Anna
    et al.
    Broclawik, Ewa
    Siegbahn, Per E. M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Borowski, Tomasz
    Mechanism of Benzylic Hydroxylation by 4-Hydroxymandelate Synthase: A Computational Study2012In: Biochemistry, ISSN 0006-2960, E-ISSN 1520-4995, Vol. 51, no 47, p. 9570-9580Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydroxymandelate synthase (HMS) and 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) are highly related enzymes using the same substrates but catalyzing hydroxylation reactions yielding different products. The first The first steps of the HMS and I-IPPD catalytic reactions are believed to proceed in the same way and lead to an Fe(IV)=O-hydroxyphenylacetate (HPA) intermediate. Further, down the, catalytic cycles, HMS uses Fe(IV)=O to perform hydroxylation of the benzylic carbon, Whereas in HPPD, the reactive oxoferryl intermediate attacks the aromatic ring of HPA. This study focuses on this part of the HMS catalytic cycle that starts from the oxoferryl intermediate and aims to identify interactions within the active site that are responsible for enzyme specificity. To this end, a HMS-Fe(IV)=O-HPA complex was modeled with molecular dynamics simulations On the basis. of the molecular: dynamics. equilibrated structure, active site model suitable for quantum chemical Investigations was constructed and used for density functional theory. (B3LYP) Calculations of the mechanism of the native reaction of HMS, i.e., benzylic hydroxylation, and the alternative electrophilic attack on the ring, which is a step Of the HPPD catalytic cycle: The most important, result of this study is the finding that the conformation of the Ser201 side chain in the second coordination shell has a key role in directing the of Fe(IV)=O. into either the HMS or the HPPD channel

  • 34562.
    Wojczulanis-Jakubas, Katarzyna
    et al.
    Univ Gdansk, Dept Vertebrate Ecol & Zool, Fac Biol, Wita Stwosza 59, PL-80308 Gdansk, Poland..
    Drobniak, Szymon M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Gronostajowa 7, PL-30387 Krakow, Poland.
    Jakubas, Dariusz
    Univ Gdansk, Dept Vertebrate Ecol & Zool, Fac Biol, Wita Stwosza 59, PL-80308 Gdansk, Poland..
    Kulpinska-Chamera, Monika
    Univ Gdansk, Dept Vertebrate Ecol & Zool, Fac Biol, Wita Stwosza 59, PL-80308 Gdansk, Poland..
    Chastel, Olivier
    CNRS, CEBC, UMR 7372, F-79360 Villiers En Bois, France.;Univ Rochelle, F-79360 Villiers En Bois, France..
    Assortative mating patterns of multiple phenotypic traits in a long-lived seabird2018In: Ibis, ISSN 0019-1019, E-ISSN 1474-919X, Vol. 160, no 2, p. 464-469Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Choosing the right mate is crucial for successful breeding, particularly in monogamous species with long and extensive bi-parental care, and when the breeding pair is presumed to last many seasons. We investigated the degree of assortative mating in the Little Auk Alle alle, a long-lived seabird with long-term pair bonds and bi-parental care for fixed (morphological) and labile (physiological, behavioural) traits. Using randomization tests, we suggest assortative mating with respect to wing length, extent of the white area on the upper eyelid and hormonal stress response (the difference between stress-induced and baseline corticosterone levels). We discuss how the assortative mating patterns that we found in the Little Auk may be adaptive.

  • 34563.
    Woksepp, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Kalmar County Hospital.
    Individualized treatment and control of bacterial infections2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Infectious diseases cause substantial morbidity and mortality, exacerbated by increasing antibiotic resistance. In critically ill patients, recent studies indicate a substantial variability in β-lactam antibiotic levels when standardized dosing is applied. New methods for characterizing nosocomial outbreaks of bacterial infections are needed to limit transmission. The goals of this thesis were to investigate new strategies towards individualized treatment and control of bacterial infections. 

    In Paper I we confirmed high variability in β-lactam antibiotic levels among intensive care unit (ICU) patients from southeastern Sweden, where 45 % failed to reach treatment targets (100 % fT>MIC). Augmented renal clearance and establishing the minimum inhibitory concentration of the bacteria were important for evaluating the risk of not attaining adequate drug levels. In Paper II a rapid ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous quantification of 11 commonly used antibiotics was developed and tested in clinical samples. Performance goals (CV<15%) were reached. A microbiological method for quantification of β-lactam antibiotics in serum was developed in Paper III. The method could be important for hospitals without access to an LC-MS method. Paper IV and Paper V investigated ligation-mediated qPCR with high resolution melt analysis (LMqPCR HRMA), for transmission investigation of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli and other common bacterial pathogens. Results comparable to the reference method (PFGE) could be achieved within one day in a closed system and confirmed a nosocomial outbreak in Kalmar County. In Paper VI whole genome sequencing followed by bioinformatic analysis resolved transmission links within a nosocomial outbreak due to improved discriminatory power compared to LMqPCR HRMA.

    The high proportion of ICU patients with insufficient β-lactam drug levels emphasizes the need for individualized treatment by therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). TDM is enabled by a highly sensitive method, such as UPLC-MS/MS, but if unavailable, also by a microbial method. Molecular typing methods used for transmission investigation can detect nosocomial outbreaks. LMqPCR HRMA can be used for screening purposes. For enhanced resolution, whole genome sequencing should be used, but always together with a rigorous epidemiological investigation. 

  • 34564.
    Woksepp, Hanna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Ryberg, Anna
    Linköping University.
    Billström, Hanna
    Publ Hlth Agcy Sweden, Solna, Sweden.
    Hallgren, Anita
    Linköping University.
    Nilsson, Lennart E.
    Linköping University.
    Marklund, Britt-Inger
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Olsson-Liljequist, Barbro
    Publ Hlth Agcy Sweden, Solna, Sweden.
    Schön, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Kalmar County Hospital ; Linköping university.
    Evaluation of High-Resolution Melting Curve Analysis of Ligation-Mediated Real-Time PCR, a Rapid Method for Epidemiological Typing of ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter Species) Pathogens2014In: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, ISSN 0095-1137, E-ISSN 1098-660X, Vol. 52, no 12, p. 4339-4342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A single-tube method, ligation-mediated real-time PCR high-resolution melt analysis (LMqPCR HRMA), was modified for the rapid typing of Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter spp. (ESKAPE) pathogens. A 97% agreement (60/62 isolates) was achieved in comparison to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) results, which indicates that LMqPCR HRMA is a rapid and accurate screening tool for monitoring nosocomial outbreaks.

  • 34565.
    Wolanski, E
    et al.
    Australian Institute of Marine Science, Australia.
    Newton, A
    Universidade do Algarve, Portugal.
    Rabalais, N
    Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium, USA.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Coastal Zone Management2013In: Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences / [ed] Scott A. Elias (editor in chief), Oxford: Elsevier, 2013Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a scientific overview of the processes and the impact of environmental degradation of coastal waters due to human activities on the adjoining land. The direct effects range from eutrophication and harmful algal blooms, to hypoxia and anoxia. The indirect effects are more subtle and can also lead to the collapse of the ecosystem as in the case of coral reefs or seagrass meadows. Engineering solutions alone are not available to prevent this degradation that can only be reversed, or prevented, using a basin-wide ecohydrology approach.

  • 34566. Wolbers, F.
    et al.
    Andersson, Helene
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Biotechnology.
    van den Berg, A.
    Vermes, I.
    Apoptosis induced kinetic changes in autofluorescence of cultured HL60 cells-possible application for single cell analysis on chip2004In: Apoptosis (London), ISSN 1360-8185, E-ISSN 1573-675X, Vol. 9, no 6, p. 749-755Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: This paper presents a new method using natural cellular fluorescence (autofluorescence, AF) to study apoptosis. Measurement of AF reduces sample preparation time and avoids cellular toxicity due to the fact that no labelling is required. Methods: Human promyelocytic leukemic HL60 cells were incubated with camptothecin (CPT), tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha in combination with cycloheximide (CHX), or irradiated with 6 or 10 Gray, during varying time periods, to initiate apoptosis. AF was measured at the flow cytometer. Results: Induction of apoptosis results in the shrinkage of the cell and the fragmentation into apoptotic bodies. With flow cytometry, 4 subpopulations, viable, early apoptotic, late apoptotic and the necrotic cells, can be distinguished. Induction of apoptosis results in a decrease in AF intensity compared to untreated HL60 cells, especially seen in the late apoptotic subpopulation. The AF intensity is found to decrease significantly in time (between 2 h and 24 h) for all the four apoptotic inducers used. Conclusions: Our results show that it is possible to specifically measure the apoptotic-induced kinetic changes in AF in HL60 cells. A decrease in AF intensity is seen from 2 h till 24 h. These results open a door for future developments in single-cell analysis.

  • 34567.
    Woldegebriel, Teklu
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Role of Autophagy Gene Atg13 in Cancer Cell Proliferation and DNA Damage Response2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Autophagy is a process of cellular self-digestive pathway that degrades organelles and accumulated protein aggregates. Due to the promiscuous role of autophagy in the viability and death of tumor cells, its effect on lung cancer cells remained to be clarified. Atg13 is essential for autophagy induction and cells deficient of this protein are characterized by a firmly compromised autophagic activity. In the present study, our main objective was to elucidate the mechanism by which autophagy regulates cell proliferation through Atg13. Using NSCLC, U1810 and A549 cell lines as models, we found that silencing of Atg13 significantly inhibited the proliferation of cells. Furthermore, changes in the distribution of cell cycle and the expression levels of cell cycle related proteins were assessed. In this regard, we showed that the cell cycle distribution was not affected in cells transduced with shRNA targeting Atg13; however, reduction of Atg13 was associated with repression of cyclin A levels. Eventually, in response to DNA damage induced by therapeutic drugs, cells were arrested in the G2 phase indicating the increased sensitivity of Atg13 deficient cells to such drugs. In conclusion our data propose a mechanism that connect Atg13 and cell proliferation in lung cancer cells.

     

  • 34568.
    Woldegiorgis, Andreas
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemistry.
    Jansson, K.
    Curcio, Mario
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemistry.
    Roeraade, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemistry.
    Nanowires for surface enlargement of narrow-bore fused-silica tubing2004In: Electrophoresis, ISSN 0173-0835, E-ISSN 1522-2683, Vol. 25, no 21-22, p. 3660-3668Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for preparation of silica nanowires with dimensions of d = 10-100 nm, 5-500 nm, is described. The nanostructured material is an integral part of the inner surface of narrow bore fused-silica capillary tubing. The wire preparation method is based on a decomposition of 2-chloro-1,1,2-trifluoroethyl methyl ether at elevated temperature and pressure. The silica bulk material is rearranged via a sustained silica-hydrogen fluoride chemistry, and reaction mechanisms for this process are proposed. The method is suitable for preparing long lengths of tubing with the modified surface. It is our belief that the texture of the capillary wall with its increased surface area is useful for applications such as microreactions, catalysis, and high-resolution pressure and/or electrodriven open-tubular liquid chromatography.

  • 34569.
    Woldu, Zerihun
    et al.
    Addis Ababa University.
    Backéus, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecological Botany.
    The shrubland vegetation in western Shewa, Ethiopia and its possible recovery1991In: Journal of Vegetation Science, ISSN 1100-9233, E-ISSN 1654-1103, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 173-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shrubland vegetation and environmental data in western Shewa, Ethiopia have been analysed. Vegetation data include cover-abundance values of vascular plant species; en- vironmental data comprise physical and chemical properties of the soil, altitude, slope, grazing and browsing pressure.

    The vegetation data were subjected to hierarchical and non-hierarchical classification and ordination with correspondence analysis. The classification resulted in seven different vegetation types, ranging from grassland with scattered shrubs to degen- erated forest. Ordination of the data and biplot analysis showed that the vegetation is influenced by anthropogenic factors and altitudinal variation. Sand content is related to a low level of anthropogenic influence whereas silt content is related to a high level. This is explained by historical events rather than by the present situation. Total nitrogen, organic carbon, altitude and slope are positively correlated and these variables are negatively related to anthropogenic influences.

    The shrubland vegetation may have expanded from lower altitudes and drier sites as forests gradually disappeared.

    The recovery of an economically more rewarding vegetation type may be achieved through providing alternative sources of fuel and construction and through prohibiting cultivation and grazing in the shrublands on the hillsides. Regeneration can be accelerated by actively introducing seedlings of tree species that do not need a heavy canopy cover for establishment and growth.

  • 34570.
    Wolf, Annett
    Linnaeus University, The University Administration. Forest Ecology, Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems, Department of Environmental Science, ETH Zurich, Universitätsstrasse 16, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Estimating the potential impact of vegetation on the water cycle requires accurate soil water parameter estimation2011In: Ecological Modelling, ISSN 0304-3800, E-ISSN 1872-7026, Vol. 222, no 15, p. 2595-2605Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that vegetation dynamics at the catchment scale depends on the prevailing weather and soil moisture conditions. Soil moisture, however, is not equally distributed in space due to differences in topography, weather patterns, soil properties and the type and amount of vegetation cover. To elucidate the complex interaction between vegetation and soil moisture, the dynamic vegetation model LPJ-GUESS (Smith et al., 2001), which provides estimations of vegetation dynamics, but does not consider lateral water fluxes was coupled with the hydrological TOPMODEL (cf. Beven, 2001) in order to be able to evaluate the importance of these lateral fluxes. The new model LG-TM was calibrated and validated in two climatically different mountain catchments. The estimations of runoff were good, when monthly and weekly time scales were considered, although the low flow periods at winter time were somewhat underestimated. The uncertainty in the climate induced change vegetation carbon storage caused by the uncertainty in soil parameters was up to 3–5 kg C m−2 (depending on elevation and catchment), compared to the total change in vegetation carbon storage of 5–9 kg C m−2. Therefore accurate estimates of the parameters influencing the water holding capacity of the soil, for example depth and porosity, are necessary when estimating future changes in vegetation carbon storage. Similarly, changes in plant transpiration due to climatic changes could be almost double as high (88 mm m−2) in the not calibrated model compared to the new model version (ca 50 mm m−2 transpiration change). The uncertainties in these soil properties were found to be more important than the lateral water exchange between grid cells, even in steep topography at least for the temporal and spatial resolution used here.

  • 34571.
    Wolf, Annett
    Forest Ecology, Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems, Department of Environmental Science, ETH Zurich, Universitätsstrasse 16, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Estimating the potential impact of vegetation on the water cycle requires accurate soil water parameter estimation2011In: Ecological Modelling, ISSN 0304-3800, E-ISSN 1872-7026, Vol. 222, no 15, p. 2595-2605Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that vegetation dynamics at the catchment scale depends on the prevailing weather and soil moisture conditions. Soil moisture, however, is not equally distributed in space due to differences in topography, weather patterns, soil properties and the type and amount of vegetation cover. To elucidate the complex interaction between vegetation and soil moisture, the dynamic vegetation model LPJ-GUESS (Smith et al., 2001), which provides estimations of vegetation dynamics, but does not consider lateral water fluxes was coupled with the hydrological TOPMODEL (cf. Beven, 2001) in order to be able to evaluate the importance of these lateral fluxes. The new model LG-TM was calibrated and validated in two climatically different mountain catchments. The estimations of runoff were good, when monthly and weekly time scales were considered, although the low flow periods at winter time were somewhat underestimated. The uncertainty in the climate induced change vegetation carbon storage caused by the uncertainty in soil parameters was up to 3–5 kg C m−2 (depending on elevation and catchment), compared to the total change in vegetation carbon storage of 5–9 kg C m−2. Therefore accurate estimates of the parameters influencing the water holding capacity of the soil, for example depth and porosity, are necessary when estimating future changes in vegetation carbon storage. Similarly, changes in plant transpiration due to climatic changes could be almost double as high (88 mm m−2) in the not calibrated model compared to the new model version (ca 50 mm m−2 transpiration change). The uncertainties in these soil properties were found to be more important than the lateral water exchange between grid cells, even in steep topography at least for the temporal and spatial resolution used here.

  • 34572.
    Wolf, Jochen B. W.
    et al.
    Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology, August-Thienemannstr. 2, 24306 Plön, Germany.
    Bayer, Till
    Haubold, Bernhard
    Schilhabel, Markus
    Rosenstiel, Philip
    Tautz, Diethard
    Nucleotide divergence versus gene expression differentiation: comparative transcriptome sequencing in natural isolates from the carrion crow and its hybrid zone with the hooded crow2010In: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 19, no Suppl. 1, p. 162-175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advances in sequencing technology promise to provide new strategies for studying population differentiation and speciation phenomena in their earliest phases. We focus here on the black carrion crow (Corvus [corone] corone), which forms a zone of hybridization and overlap with the grey coated hooded crow (Corvus [corone] cornix). However, although these semispecies are taxonomically distinct, previous analyses based on several types of genetic markers did not reveal significant molecular differentiation between them. We here corroborate this result with sequence data obtained from a set of 25 nuclear intronic loci. Thus, the system represents a case of a very early phase of species divergence that requires new molecular approaches for its description. We have therefore generated RNAseq expression profiles using barcoded massively parallel pyrosequencing of brain mRNA from six individuals of the carrion crow and five individuals from a hybrid zone with the hooded crow. We obtained 856 675 reads from two runs, with average read length of 270 nt and coverage of 8.44. Reads were assembled de novo into 19 552 contigs, 70% of which could be assigned to annotated genes in chicken and zebra finch. This resulted in a total of 7637 orthologous genes and a core set of 1301 genes that could be compared across all individuals. We find a clear clustering of expression profiles for the pure carrion crow animals and disperse profiles for the animals from the hybrid zone. These results suggest that gene expression differences may indeed be a sensitive indicator of initial species divergence.

  • 34573.
    Wolf, Jochen B. W.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Bayer, Till
    Haubold, Bernhard
    Schilhabel, Markus
    Rosenstiel, Philip
    Tautz, Diethard
    Nucleotide divergence vs. gene expression differentiation: comparative transcriptome sequencing in natural isolates from the carrion crow and its hybrid zone with the hooded crow2010In: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 19, no Suppl. 1, p. 162-175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advances in sequencing technology promise to provide new strategies for studying population differentiation and speciation phenomena in their earliest phases. We focus here on the black carrion crow (Corvus [corone] corone), which forms a zone of hybridization and overlap with the grey coated hooded crow (Corvus [corone] cornix). However, although these semispecies are taxonomically distinct, previous analyses based on several types of genetic markers did not reveal significant molecular differentiation between them. We here corroborate this result with sequence data obtained from a set of 25 nuclear intronic loci. Thus, the system represents a case of a very early phase of species divergence that requires new molecular approaches for its description. We have therefore generated RNAseq expression profiles using barcoded massively parallel pyrosequencing of brain mRNA from six individuals of the carrion crow and five individuals from a hybrid zone with the hooded crow. We obtained 856 675 reads from two runs, with average read length of 270 nt and coverage of 8.44. Reads were assembled de novo into 19 552 contigs, 70% of which could be assigned to annotated genes in chicken and zebra finch. This resulted in a total of 7637 orthologous genes and a core set of 1301 genes that could be compared across all individuals. We find a clear clustering of expression profiles for the pure carrion crow animals and disperse profiles for the animals from the hybrid zone. These results suggest that gene expression differences may indeed be a sensitive indicator of initial species divergence.

  • 34574.
    Wolf, Jochen B. W.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Bryk, Jaroslaw
    Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology.
    General lack of global dosage compensation in ZZ/ZW systems?: Broadening the perspective with RNA-seq2011In: BMC Genomics, ISSN 1471-2164, E-ISSN 1471-2164, Vol. 12, p. 91-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Species with heteromorphic sex chromosomes face the challenge of large-scale imbalance in gene dose. Microarray-based studies in several independent male heterogametic XX/XY systems suggest that dosage compensation mechanisms are in place to mitigate the detrimental effects of gene dose differences. However, recent genomic research on female heterogametic ZZ/ZW systems has generated surprising results. In two bird species and one lepidopteran no evidence for a global dosage compensating mechanism has been found. The recent advent of massively parallel RNA sequencing now opens up the possibility to gauge the generality of this observation with a broader phylogenetic sampling. It further allows assessing the validity of microarray-based inference on dosage compensation with a novel technology.Results: We here expemplify this approach using massively parallel sequencing on barcoded individuals of a bird species, the European crow (Corvus corone), where previously no genetic resources were available. Testing for Z-linkage with quantitative PCR (qPCR,) we first establish that orthology with distantly related species (chicken, zebra finch) can be used as a good predictor for chromosomal affiliation of a gene. We then use a digital measure of gene expression (RNA-seq) on brain transcriptome and confirm a global lack of dosage compensation on the Z chromosome. RNA-seq estimates of male-to-female (m:f) expression difference on the Z compare well to previous microarray-based estimates in birds and lepidopterans. The data further lends support that an up-regulation of female Z-linked genes conveys partial compensation and suggest a relationship between sex-bias and absolute expression level of a gene. Correlation of sex-biased gene expression on the Z chromosome across all three bird species further suggests that the degree of compensation has been partly conserved across 100 million years of avian evolution.Conclusions: This work demonstrates that the study of dosage compensation has become amenable to species where previously no genetic resources were available. Massively parallele transcriptome sequencing allows re-assessing the degree of dosage compensation with a novel tool in well-studies species and, in addition, gain valuable insights into the generality of mechanisms across independent taxonomic group for both the XX/XY and ZZ/ZW system.

  • 34575.
    Wolf, Jochen B. W.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology. Ludwig Maximilian Univ Munich, Dept Biol 2, Sect Evolutionary Biol, Grosshaderner Str 2, D-82152 Planegg Martinsried, Germany..
    Ellegren, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Making sense of genomic islands of differentiation in light of speciation2017In: Nature reviews genetics, ISSN 1471-0056, E-ISSN 1471-0064, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 87-100Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As populations diverge, genetic differences accumulate across the genome. Spurred by rapid developments in sequencing technology, genome-wide population surveys of natural populations promise insights into the evolutionary processes and the genetic basis underlying speciation. Although genomic regions of elevated differentiation are the focus of searches for 'speciation genes', there is an increasing realization that such genomic signatures can also arise by alternative processes that are not related to population divergence, such as linked selection. In this Review, we explore methodological trends in speciation genomic studies, highlight the difficulty in separating processes related to speciation from those emerging from genome-wide properties that are not related to reproductive isolation, and provide a set of suggestions for future work in this area.

  • 34576.
    Wolf, Jochen B. W.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Kuenstner, Axel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Nam, Kiwoong
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Jakobsson, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Ellegren, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Nonlinear Dynamics of Nonsynonymous (d(N)) and Synonymous (d(S)) Substitution Rates Affects Inference of Selection2009In: Genome Biology and Evolution, ISSN 1759-6653, Vol. 1, p. 308-319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Selection modulates gene sequence evolution in different ways by constraining potential changes of amino acid sequences (purifying selection) or by favoring new and adaptive genetic variants (positive selection). The number of nonsynonymous differences in a pair of protein-coding sequences can be used to quantify the mode and strength of selection. To control for regional variation in substitution rates, the proportionate number of nonsynonymous differences (d(N)) is divided by the proportionate number of synonymous differences (d(S)). The resulting ratio (d(N)/d(S)) is a widely used indicator for functional divergence to identify particular genes that underwent positive selection. With the ever-growing amount of genome data, summary statistics like mean d(N)/d(S) allow gathering information on the mode of evolution for entire species. Both applications hinge on the assumption that d(S) and mean d(S) (similar to branch length) are neutral and adequately control for variation in substitution rates across genes and across organisms, respectively. We here explore the validity of this assumption using empirical data based on whole-genome protein sequence alignments between human and 15 other vertebrate species and several simulation approaches. We find that d(N)/d(S) does not appropriately reflect the action of selection as it is strongly influenced by its denominator (d(S)). Particularly for closely related taxa, such as human and chimpanzee, d(N)/d(S) can be misleading and is not an unadulterated indicator of selection. Instead, we suggest that inconsistencies in the behavior of d(N)/d(S) are to be expected and highlight the idea that this behavior may be inherent to taking the ratio of two randomly distributed variables that are nonlinearly correlated. New null hypotheses will be needed to adequately handle these nonlinear dynamics.

  • 34577.
    Wolf, Jochen B. W.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Lindell, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Backström, Niclas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Speciation genetics: current status and evolving approaches Introduction2010In: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8436, E-ISSN 1471-2970, Vol. 365, no 1547, p. 1717-1733Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The view of species as entities subjected to natural selection and amenable to change put forth by Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace laid the conceptual foundation for understanding speciation. Initially marred by a rudimental understanding of hereditary principles, evolutionists gained appreciation of the mechanistic underpinnings of speciation following the merger of Mendelian genetic principles with Darwinian evolution. Only recently have we entered an era where deciphering the molecular basis of speciation is within reach. Much focus has been devoted to the genetic basis of intrinsic postzygotic isolation in model organisms and several hybrid incompatibility genes have been successfully identified. However, concomitant with the recent technological advancements in genome analysis and a newfound interest in the role of ecology in the differentiation process, speciation genetic research is becoming increasingly open to non-model organisms. This development will expand speciation research beyond the traditional boundaries and unveil the genetic basis of speciation from manifold perspectives and at various stages of the splitting process. This review aims at providing an extensive overview of speciation genetics. Starting from key historical developments and core concepts of speciation genetics, we focus much of our attention on evolving approaches and introduce promising methodological approaches for future research venues

  • 34578.
    Wolf, Jochen B. W.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Traulsen, Arne
    James, Richard
    Exploring the Link between Genetic Relatedness r and Social Contact Structure k in Animal Social Networks2011In: American Naturalist, ISSN 0003-0147, E-ISSN 1537-5323, Vol. 177, no 1, p. 135-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our understanding of how cooperation can arise in a population of selfish individuals has been greatly advanced by theory. More than one approach has been used to explore the effect of population structure. Inclusive fitness theory uses genetic relatedness r to express the role of population structure. Evolutionary graph theory models the evolution of cooperation on network structures and focuses on the number of interacting partners k as a quantity of interest. Here we use empirical data from a hierarchically structured animal contact network to examine the interplay between independent, measurable proxies for these key parameters. We find strong inverse correlations between estimates of r and k over three levels of social organization, suggesting that genetic relatedness and social contact structure capture similar structural information in a real population.

  • 34579. Wolf, Max
    et al.
    van Doorn, G Sander
    Leimar, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Etologi.
    Do animal personalities emerge? Reply2008In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, Vol. 451, no 7182, p. E9-E10Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34580. Wolf, Max
    et al.
    van Doorn, G Sander
    Leimar, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Etologi.
    Weissing, Franz J
    Evolution of animal personalities - Reply.2007In: Nature, ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 450, no 7167, p. E5-E6Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34581. Wolf, Max
    et al.
    van Doorn, G Sander
    Leimar, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Etologi.
    Weissing, Franz J
    Life-history trade-offs favour the evolution of animal personalities.2007In: Nature, ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 447, no 7144, p. 581-4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years evidence has been accumulating that personalities are not only found in humans but also in a wide range of other animal species. Individuals differ consistently in their behavioural tendencies and the behaviour in one context is correlated with the behaviour in multiple other contexts. From an adaptive perspective, the evolution of animal personalities is still a mystery, because a more flexible structure of behaviour should provide a selective advantage. Accordingly, many researchers view personalities as resulting from constraints imposed by the architecture of behaviour (but see ref. 12). In contrast, we show here that animal personalities can be given an adaptive explanation. Our argument is based on the insight that the trade-off between current and future reproduction often results in polymorphic populations in which some individuals put more emphasis on future fitness returns than others. Life-history theory predicts that such differences in fitness expectations should result in systematic differences in risk-taking behaviour. Individuals with high future expectations (who have much to lose) should be more risk-averse than individuals with low expectations. This applies to all kinds of risky situations, so individuals should consistently differ in their behaviour. By means of an evolutionary model we demonstrate that this basic principle results in the evolution of animal personalities. It simultaneously explains the coexistence of behavioural types, the consistency of behaviour through time and the structure of behavioural correlations across contexts. Moreover, it explains the common finding that explorative behaviour and risk-related traits like boldness and aggressiveness are common characteristics of animal personalities.

  • 34582.
    Wolf, Peter
    et al.
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Arndt, Anton
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Nester, Christopher
    Liu, Anmin
    Jones, Richard
    Lundgren, Paul
    Lundberg, Arne
    In vivo Bewegungen der Fussknochen im Gehen und langsamen Joggen2012In: Orthopädieschuhtechnik, ISSN 0344-6026, no 2, p. 24-27Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 34583.
    Wolfbrandt, Jeanette
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Beteende hos lekvandrande lax i Klarälven – utvärdering av en fiskfälla2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the migration season in 2013 a study on spawning migrating salmon and the effect of water flow on the behavior was conducted of the salmon at the Forshaga hydropower station in the River Klarälven. The River Klarälven with its nine hydropower plants on the Swedish side, constituting migration obstacles for the migrating salmon. Fortum Generation AB has together with the County Administrative Board restored a salmon trap at the lowermost hydropower station in Forshaga, aiming at making it possible for the salmon to swim into the trap, and thereafter be transported by truck past the power plants and then continue their journey to the spawning grounds on their own. Unfortunately, it is believed that the trap does not work as well as it should. In this study, I focused on salmon position in relation to water flow and if the number of salmon that swam into the fish trap differed between salmon with previous experience of the trap (experienced) and salmon without experience (unexperienced). My results showed that there were significantly more inexperienced salmon that entered the trap than experienced salmon. The salmon, regardless of experience, chose a position where the flow was highest. To increase catches of salmon in the fish trap I suggest that one use more attraction water and keep the trap open more hours. My results should be of interest to managers as the trap efficiency has never been evaluated, and no earlier studies about the effect of salmon experience on trap efficiency exist.

  • 34584. Wolfe, Kenneth H.
    et al.
    Armisen, David
    Proux-Wéra, Estelle
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab). Trinity College Dublin, Ireland.
    OhEigeartaigh, Sean S.
    Azam, Haleema
    Gordon, Jonathan L.
    Byrne, Kevin P.
    Clade- and species-specific features of genome evolution in the Saccharomycetaceae2015In: FEMS yeast research (Print), ISSN 1567-1356, E-ISSN 1567-1364, Vol. 15, no 5, article id fov035Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many aspects of the genomes of yeast species in the family Saccharomycetaceae have been well conserved during evolution. They have similar genome sizes, genome contents, and extensive collinearity of gene order along chromosomes. Gene functions can often be inferred reliably by using information from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Beyond this conservative picture however, there are many instances where a species or a clade diverges substantially from the S. cerevisiae paradigm-for example, by the amplification of a gene family, or by the absence of a biochemical pathway or a protein complex. Here, we review clade-specific features, focusing on genomes sequenced in our laboratory from the post-WGD genera Naumovozyma, Kazachstania and Tetrapisispora, and from the non-WGD species Torulaspora delbrueckii. Examples include the loss of the pathway for histidine synthesis in the cockroach-associated species Tetrapisispora blattae; the presence of a large telomeric GAL gene cluster in To. delbrueckii; losses of the dynein and dynactin complexes in several independent yeast lineages; fragmentation of the MAT locus and loss of the HO gene in Kazachstania africana; and the patchy phylogenetic distribution of RNAi pathway components.

  • 34585.
    Wolf-Watz, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Novel "order-disorder-order" mechanism for adenylate kinase conformational change2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 34586.
    Wolf-Watz, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Bäckström, Stefan
    Umeå Centre for Molecular Pathogenesis (UCMP) (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Grundström, Thomas
    Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Sauer, Uwe
    Umeå Centre for Molecular Pathogenesis (UCMP) (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Härd, Torleif
    Chloride binding by the AML1/Runx1 transcription factor studied by NMR2001In: FEBS Letters, ISSN 0014-5793, Vol. 488, no 1-2, p. 81-4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is known that the DNA binding Runt domain of the AML1/Runx1 transcription factor coordinates Cl(-) ions. In this paper we have determined Cl(-) binding affinities of AML1 by (35)Cl nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) linewidth analysis. The Runt domain binds Cl(-) with a dissociation constant (K(d,Cl)) of 34 mM. If CBFbeta is added to form a 1:1 complex, the K(d,Cl) value increases to 56 mM. Homology modeling suggests that a high occupancy Cl(-) binding site overlaps with the DNA binding surface. NMR data show that DNA displaces this Cl(-) ion. Possible biological roles of Cl(-) binding are discussed based on these findings.

  • 34587.
    Wolf-Watz, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Kovermann, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Dynamics of a Naturally Hidden State Restricts Adenylate Kinase Activity2015In: Biophysical Journal, ISSN 0006-3495, E-ISSN 1542-0086, Vol. 108, no 2, p. 30A-30AArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 34588.
    Wolf-Watz, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Rogne, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Sauer-Eriksson, A. Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Sauer, Uwe H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Hedberg, Christian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Positive and Negative Substrate Interference Supported by Coinciding Enzyme Residues2019In: Biophysical Journal, ISSN 0006-3495, E-ISSN 1542-0086, Vol. 116, no 3, p. 485A-485AArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 34589.
    Wollberg, Patrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science.
    Growth-associated expression of glycolytic isoenzymes in mitogen activated human T lymphocytes1994Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 34590. Wollrab, Sabine
    et al.
    de Roos, Andre M.
    Diehl, Sebastian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Ontogenetic diet shifts promote predator-mediated coexistence2013In: Ecology, ISSN 0012-9658, E-ISSN 1939-9170, Vol. 94, no 12, p. 2886-2897Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is widely believed that predation moderates interspecific competition and promotes prey diversity. Still, in models of two prey sharing a resource and a predator, predator-mediated coexistence occurs only over narrow ranges of resource productivity. These models have so far ignored the widespread feature of ontogenetic diet shifts in predators. Here, we theoretically explore the consequences of a diet shift from juvenile to adult predator stages for coexistence of two competing prey. We find that only very minor deviations from perfectly identical diets in juveniles and adults destroy the traditional mechanism of predator-mediated coexistence, which requires an intrinsic trade-off between prey defendedness and competitive ability. Instead, predator population structure can create an emergent competition-predation trade-off between prey, where a bottleneck in one predator stage enhances predation on the superior competitor and relaxes predation on the inferior competitor, irrespective of the latter's intrinsic defendedness. Pronounced diet shifts therefore greatly enlarge the range of prey coexistence along a resource gradient. With diet shifts, however, coexistence usually occurs as one of two alternative states and, once lost, may not be easily restored.

  • 34591. Wollrab, Sabine
    et al.
    Diehl, Sebastian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Univ Munich, Dept Biol 2, Planegg Martinsried, Germany.
    Bottom-up responses of the lower oceanic food web are sensitive to copepod mortality and feeding behavior2015In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 60, no 2, p. 641-656Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The functional response, describing consumption rate as a function of food abundance, critically links consumer-resource dynamics. Yet, little is known about how its shape affects communities of multiple, dynamically linked species. We theoretically investigated how the functional response of copepods (saturating type 2 vs. sigmoidal type 3, both of which have been observed) mediates bottom-up and top-down influences on the lower oceanic food web as described by five compartments (pentagon web): a shared limiting nutrient, small and large algae, ciliates feeding on small algae, and copepods feeding on ciliates and large algae. We compare system dynamics in response to nutrient enrichment and copepod mortality, the latter being varied first directly and then indirectly through inclusion of planktivores (fish or jellyfish). Regardless of functional response type, when planktivores are absent, equilibrium densities of all members of the even food chain (nutrients-small algae-ciliates-copepods) typically increase with nutrient enrichment whereas large algae decrease. In contrast, and congruent with conventional wisdom, large algae increase with nutrient enrichment when copepods are controlled by planktivores. A type 2 response in copepods strongly destabilizes the pentagon web, whereas stable equilibria are possible when copepods have a type 3 response. High copepod mortality (e.g., caused by increasing planktivore pressure under nutrient enrichment) destabilizes such systems, however. Moreover, because community feedbacks produce a negative correlation between the copepod's alternative prey, type 3 switching behavior is amplified in the pentagon web. This prevents extinctions but can give rise to an alternative state with small algal dominance at high enrichment.

  • 34592. Wolowicz, Maciej
    et al.
    Smolarz, Katarzyna
    Sokolowski, Adam
    Neoplasia in estuarine bivalves. Effect of feeding behaviour and pollution in the Gulf of Gdansk (Baltic Sea, Poland)2005In: The Comparative Roles of Suspension-Feeders in Ecosystems: Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on The Comparative Roles of Suspension-Feeders in Ecosystems Nida, Lithuania 4–9 October 2003 / [ed] Richard F. Dame and Sergej Olenin, Dordrecht: Springer , 2005, p. 165-182Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The incidence of tumors in bivalve molluscs is receiving increased attention due to possible detrimental effects on harvested stocks. Although the etiology or causes of neoplasias remains unclear, pollution by carcinogenic agents is implicated in the heavily exploited littoral zones of coastal waters. In the Gulf of Gdańsk, southern Baltic Sea, a higher prevalence of the disorder was observed in infaunal facultative (deposit/suspension) feeders compared to epifaunal obligate suspension-feeders, providing a new behavioural aspect of the tumor. Recent studies also reveal a potential cause-and-effect relationship between sediment factors and the incidence of neoplasia across a range of environmental properties

  • 34593. Wong, B. B. M.
    et al.
    Svensson, P. Andreas
    School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, 3800, Australia.
    Strategic male signalling effort in a desert-dwelling fish2009In: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, ISSN 0340-5443, E-ISSN 1432-0762, Vol. 63, no 4, p. 543-549Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Males often use elaborate courtship displays to attract females for mating. Much attention, in this regard, has been focused on trying to understand the causes and consequences of signal variation among males. Far less, by contrast, is known about within-individual variation in signal expression and, in particular, the extent to which males may be able to strategically adjust their signalling output to try to maximise their reproductive returns. Here, we experimentally investigated male courtship effort in a fish, the Australian desert goby, Chlamydogobius eremius. When offered a simultaneous choice between a large and a small female, male gobies spent significantly more time associating with, and courting, the former, probably because larger females are also more fecund. Male signalling patterns were also investigated under a sequential choice scenario, with females presented one at a time. When first offered a female, male courtship was not affected by female size. However, males adjusted their courtship effort towards a second female depending on the size of the female encountered previously. In particular, males that were first offered a large female significantly reduced their courtship effort when presented with a subsequent, smaller, female. Our findings suggest that males may be able to respond adaptively to differences in female quality, and strategically adjust their signalling effort accordingly.

  • 34594. Wong, Bob
    et al.
    Candolin, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Lindström, Kai
    Environmental deterioration compromises socially enforced signals of male quality in three-spined sticklebacks2007In: American Naturalist, ISSN 0003-0147, E-ISSN 1537-5323, Vol. 170, no 2, p. 184-189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social costs are often important in promoting the honesty of sexually selected traits. What happens, then, when social costs are relaxed? In species that breed in shallow coastal waters, increases in the frequency and severity of phytoplankton blooms may undermine the value of visual signals by reducing visibility and, in so doing, lead to dishonest signaling by relaxing the social consequences of high signaling effort for poor-quality individuals. Here, we experimentally test the effects of algally induced water turbidity on the role of male-male competition in facilitating reliable sexual displays in three-spined sticklebacks. We found that males in poor condition reduced their courtship effort in the presence of competition in turbid water. This reduction, however, was to a much lesser extent than that observed in clear water. Thus, courtship under conditions of algal turbidity did not reflect male condition as honestly as courtship in clear water. Algal turbidity also influenced breeding coloration, with males in poor condition reducing their area of red nuptial coloration in turbid conditions. Our findings suggest that anthropogenic disturbance to the signaling environment can potentially reduce the evolutionary potential of sexual selection by diminishing the efficacy of visual displays and weakening socially enforced signals of male quality.

  • 34595.
    Wong, Fiona
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    MacLeod, Matthew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Bounding uncertainties in intrinsic human elimination half-lives and intake of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the North American population2013In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 59, p. 168-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the balance between intake, intrinsic elimination half-lives and human body burdens measured in biomonitoring for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the North American population using the population-level pharmacokinetic model developed by Ritter et al. (2011). Empirical data are collected from two studies that made total intake estimates for the North American population for the years 2004 and 2005, and eight biomonitoring studies for the years 1992 to 2009. We assume intake of PBDEs increased exponentially to a peak in 2004, and has since exponentially declined. The model is fitted to the empirical PBDE intake and biomonitoring data on PBDE body burden using a least-square optimization method by adjusting the intake in 2004 and 2038, and the intrinsic elimination rate constants, which can be expressed as equivalent half-lives. We. fit the model in two types of scenarios using different combinations of PBDE intake estimates and biomonitoring data. Our modeling results indicate that there is an inconsistency between the PBDE intake estimates and the biomonitoring data, and that the inconsistency is likely due to underestimation of population-level intake. More efforts are needed to better characterize intake rates and identify potentially-unrecognized exposure pathways. Additional age-stratified biomonitoring data, and time trends of PBDE intakes would better constrain the model and provide an improved estimation of the intrinsic elimination half-lives.

  • 34596. Wong, Gane Ka-Shu
    et al.
    Liu, Bin
    Wang, Jun
    Zhang, Yong
    Yang, Xu
    Zhang, Zengjin
    Meng, Qingshun
    Zhou, Jun
    Li, Dawei
    Zhang, Jingjing
    Ni, Peixiang
    Li, Songgang
    Ran, Longhua
    Li, Heng
    Zhang, Jianguo
    Li, Ruiqiang
    Li, Shengting
    Zheng, Hongkun
    Lin, Wei
    Li, Guangyuan
    Wang, Xiaoling
    Zhao, Wenming
    Li, Jun
    Ye, Chen
    Dai, Mingtao
    Ruan, Jue
    Zhou, Yan
    Li, Yuanzhe
    He, Ximiao
    Zhang, Yunze
    Wang, Jing
    Huang, Xiangang
    Tong, Wei
    Chen, Jie
    Ye, Jia
    Chen, Chen
    Wei, Ning
    Li, Guoqing
    Dong, Le
    Lan, Fengdi
    Sun, Yongqiao
    Zhang, Zhenpeng
    Yang, Zheng
    Yu, Yingpu
    Huang, Yanqing
    He, Dandan
    Xi, Yan
    Wei, Dong
    Qi, Qiuhui
    Li, Wenjie
    Shi, Jianping
    Wang, Miaoheng
    Xie, Fei
    Wang, Jianjun
    Zhang, Xiaowei
    Wang, Pei
    Zhao, Yiqiang
    Li, Ning
    Yang, Ning
    Dong, Wei
    Hu, Songnian
    Zeng, Changqing
    Zheng, Weimou
    Hao, Bailin
    Hillier, Ladeana W
    Yang, Shiaw-Pyng
    Warren, Wesley C
    Wilson, Richard K
    Brandström, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Biology. Evolutionsbiologi.
    Ellegren, Hans
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Biology. Evolutionsbiologi.
    Crooijmans, Richard P M A
    van der Poel, Jan J
    Bovenhuis, Henk
    Groenen, Martien A M
    Ovcharenko, Ivan
    Gordon, Laurie
    Stubbs, Lisa
    Lucas, Susan
    Glavina, Tijana
    Aerts, Andrea
    Kaiser, Pete
    Rothwell, Lisa
    Young, John R
    Rogers, Sally
    Walker, Brian A
    van Hateren, Andy
    Kaufman, Jim
    Bumstead, Nat
    Lamont, Susan J
    Zhou, Huaijun
    Hocking, Paul M
    Morrice, David
    de Koning, Dirk-Jan
    Law, Andy
    Bartley, Neil
    Burt, David W
    Hunt, Henry
    Cheng, Hans H
    Gunnarsson, Ulrika
    Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Wahlberg, Per
    Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Andersson, Leif
    Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Kindlund, Ellen
    Tammi, Martti T
    Andersson, Björn
    Webber, Caleb
    Ponting, Chris P
    Overton, Ian M
    Boardman, Paul E
    Tang, Haizhou
    Hubbard, Simon J
    Wilson, Stuart A
    Yu, Jun
    Wang, Jian
    Yang, Huanming
    A genetic variation map for chicken with 2.8 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms.2004In: Nature, ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 432, no 7018, p. 717-22Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34597.
    Wong, Grace Yee
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Luttrell, Cecilia
    Loft, Lasse
    Yang, Anastasia
    Thuy, Thu
    Naito, Daisuke
    Assembe-Mvondo, Samuel
    Brockhaus, Maria
    Narratives in REDD plus benefit sharing: examining evidence within and beyond the forest sector2019In: Climate Policy, ISSN 1469-3062, E-ISSN 1752-7457, Vol. 19, no 8, p. 1038-1051Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    REDD+ was designed globally as a results-based instrument to incentivize emissions reduction from deforestation and forest degradation. Over 50 countries have developed strategies for REDD+, implemented pilot activities and/or set up forest monitoring and reporting structures, safeguard systems and benefit sharing mechanisms (BSMs), offering lessons on how particular ideas guide policy design. The implementation of REDD+ at national, sub-national and local levels required payments to filter through multiple governance structures and priorities. REDD+ was variously interpreted by different actors in different contexts to create legitimacy for certain policy agendas. Using an adapted 3E (effectiveness, efficiency, equity and legitimacy) lens, we examine four common narratives underlying REDD+ BSMs: (1) that results-based payment (RBP) is an effective and transparent approach to reducing deforestation and forest degradation; (2) that emphasis on co-benefits risks diluting carbon outcomes; (3) that directing REDD+ benefits predominantly to poor smallholders, forest communities and marginalized groups helps address equity; and (4) that social equity and gender concerns can be addressed by well-designed safeguards. This paper presents a structured examination of eleven BSMs from within and beyond the forest sector and analyses the evidence to variably support and challenge these narratives and their underlying assumptions to provide lessons for REDD+ BSM design. Our findings suggest that contextualizing the design of BSMs, and a reflexive approach to examining the underlying narratives justifying particular design features, is critical for achieving effectiveness, equity and legitimacy. Key policy insights A results-based payment approach does not guarantee an effective REDD+; the contexts in which results are defined and agreed, along with conditions enabling social and political acceptance, are critical. A flexible and reflexive approach to designing a benefit-sharing mechanism that delivers emissions reductions at the same time as co-benefits can increase perceptions of equity and participation. Targeting REDD+ to smallholder communities is not by default equitable, if wider rights and responsibilities are not taken into account Safeguards cannot protect communities or society without addressing underlying power and gendered relations. The narratives and their underlying generic assumptions, if not critically examined, can lead to repeated failure of REDD+ policies and practices.

  • 34598.
    Wood, Heather
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Jakobsson, Simon
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    European Union tree density limits do not reflect bat diversity in wood-pastures2017In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 210, p. 60-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union's Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) recommends subsidies are only granted for wood-pastures with < 100 trees/ha. This guidance exists despite these habitats being among the most biodiverse in boreal Europe and currently under threat due to land conversion. Bats are important bio-indicators of agricultural landscapes, but bat diversity has not explicitly been studied in relation to this policy. We investigate how bat activity, foraging, species richness and functional groups are affected in twenty-six wood-pastures along a gradient of tree density, from open to dense. In parallel, open fields and deciduous forests were sampled and the effect of the surrounding landscape configuration was explored. Our results show a consistent increase in total bat activity, foraging activity and species richness within wood-pastures along the tree density gradient. We find optimal tree densities within wood-pastures are higher than values reported in previous studies, and suggest thresholds might depend on the landscape context. Shrub density was a strong predictor of total bat activity and foraging; whilst structural variation of tree size in wood-pastures was most strongly correlated with species richness. We show that wood-pastures are an important habitat and in comparison to forests they contribute to higher bat species richness and activity levels. Interestingly, higher activity levels of forest feeding specialists were observed in wood-pastures compared to forests. At the landscape level, amount of water in the landscape was the strongest predictor of bat activity whilst deciduous forest mostly influenced foraging activity. This study demonstrates that tree density within wood-pastures is not a limiting factor of bat activity and foraging and that other habitat and landscape parameters are important. Thereby focusing solely on tree density limits will not help to promote the ecological requirements for bats. Instead we suggest that a results based approach to CAP payments would be preferable.

  • 34599. Wood, Matthew
    et al.
    Rawe, Melissa
    Johansson, Gunnar
    Division of Experimental Hematology and Cancer Biology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine.
    Pang, Shu
    Soderquist, Ryan S
    Patel, Ami V
    Nelson, Sandra
    Seibel, William
    Ratner, Nancy
    Sanchez, Yolanda
    Discovery of a small molecule targeting IRA2 deletion in budding yeast and neurofibromin loss in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor cells2011In: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, ISSN 1535-7163, E-ISSN 1538-8514, Vol. 10, no 9, p. 1740-1750Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) is a life-threatening complication of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). NF1 is caused by mutation in the gene encoding neurofibromin, a negative regulator of Ras signaling. There are no effective pharmacologic therapies for MPNST. To identify new therapeutic approaches targeting this dangerous malignancy, we developed assays in NF1(+/+) and NF1(-/-) MPNST cell lines and in budding yeast lacking the NF1 homologue IRA2 (ira2Δ). Here, we describe UC1, a small molecule that targets NF1(-/-) cell lines and ira2Δ budding yeast. By using yeast genetics, we identified NAB3 as a high-copy suppressor of UC1 sensitivity. NAB3 encodes an RNA binding protein that associates with the C-terminal domain of RNA Pol II and plays a role in the termination of nonpolyadenylated RNA transcripts. Strains with deletion of IRA2 are sensitive to genetic inactivation of NAB3, suggesting an interaction between Ras signaling and Nab3-dependent transcript termination. This work identifies a lead compound and a possible target pathway for NF1-associated MPNST, and shows a novel model system approach to identify and validate target pathways for cancer cells in which NF1 loss drives tumor formation.

  • 34600. Wood, Rebecca J.
    et al.
    Ormsby, Angelique R.
    Radwan, Mona
    Cox, Dezerae
    Sharma, Abhishek
    Vöpel, Tobias
    Ebbinghaus, Simon
    Oliveberg, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Reid, Gavin E.
    Dickson, Alex
    Hatters, Danny M.
    A biosensor-based framework to measure latent proteostasis capacity2018In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 9, article id 287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pool of quality control proteins (QC) that maintains protein-folding homeostasis (proteostasis) is dynamic but can become depleted in human disease. A challenge has been in quantitatively defining the depth of the QC pool. With a new biosensor, flow cytometrybased methods and mathematical modeling we measure the QC capacity to act as holdases and suppress biosensor aggregation. The biosensor system comprises a series of barnase kernels with differing folding stability that engage primarily with HSP70 and HSP90 family proteins. Conditions of proteostasis stimulation and stress alter QC holdase activity and aggregation rates. The method reveals the HSP70 chaperone cycle to be rate limited by HSP70 holdase activity under normal conditions, but this is overcome by increasing levels of the BAG1 nucleotide exchange factor to HSPA1A or activation of the heat shock gene cluster by HSF1 overexpression. This scheme opens new paths for biosensors of disease and proteostasis systems.

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