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  • 3201.
    Westin, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM). KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI).
    de Jong, Gerard
    Significance, Institute for Transport Studies, University of Leeds, and CTS, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Rune
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI).
    Krüger, Niclas A.
    Örebro University.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Transport Analysis.
    Analyzing model uncertainty and economies of scale of the Swedish national freight model to changes in transport demand2016In: European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research, ISSN 1567-7133, E-ISSN 1567-7141, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 619-632Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the paper is to analyze model uncertainty and economies of scale of the Swedish national freight transport model system Samgods to changes in its zone-to-zone base matrices. Even though economies of scale is important for freight transport, few studies analyze model uncertainty and economies of scale at a national level. Compared to many large scale networkbased freight models working on aggregated transport flows, an important feature in Samgods is that it simulates logistics behavior at a disaggregated firm level. The paper studies effects on total tonne- and vehicle-kilometre, modal split, consolidation and logistics costs when the base matrices are scaled up and down and estimates economies of scale for Swedish freight transports. The results indicate that the logistics model can find new logistics solutions for larger demand volumes, mainly by shifting freight to sea transport. If transport volume increases with one percent, average logistics cost per tonne is reduced by around 0.5 percent. Part of the cost reduction comes from increased consolidation of shipments due to larger transport volumes. The results derived in the paper can serve as a reference for empirical validation and comparisons with other large scale freight models. The paper is a first contribution that tries to fill the knowledge gap on the impact of base matrices on transport model outcomes, such as economies of scale, in the context of a full-fledged real-world freight transport model.

  • 3202.
    Westin, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå Universitet.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    de Jong, Gerard
    Significance, Netherlands .
    Karlsson, Rune
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Krüger, Niclas A.
    Örebro Universitet.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Trafikanalys.
    Analyzing model uncertainty and economies of scale of the Swedish National Freight model to changes in transport demand2016In: European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research, ISSN 1567-7133, E-ISSN 1567-7141, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 619-632Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the paper is to analyze model uncertainty and economies of scale of the Swedish national freight transport model system Samgods to changes in its zone-to-zone base matrices. Even though economies of scale is important for freight transport, few studies analyze model uncertainty and economies of scale at a national level. Compared to many large scale network-based freight models working on aggregated transport flows, an important feature in Samgods is that it simulates logistics behavior at a disaggregated firm level.

    The paper studies effects on total tonne- and vehicle-kilometre, modal split, consolidation and logistics costs when the base matrices are scaled up and down and estimates economies of scale for Swedish freight transports. The results indicate that the logistics model can find new logistics solutions for larger demand volumes, mainly by shifting freight to sea transport. If transport volume increases with one percent, average logistics cost per tonne is reduced by around 0.5 percent. Part of the cost reduction comes from increased consolidation of shipments due to larger transport volumes.

    The results derived in the paper can serve as a reference for empirical validation and comparisons with other large scale freight models. The paper is a first contribution that tries to fill the knowledge gap on the impact of base matrices on transport model outcomes, such as economies of scale, in the context of a full-fledged real-world freight transport model.

  • 3203.
    Westin, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Westin, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Olsson, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Norin, Henrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Godsflödesanalyser för Trafikverket region Nord och Mitt2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport är framtagen och finansierad på uppdrag av Trafikverket Region Nord och Region Mitt. Syftet med rapporten har varit är att sammanställa och redovisa godsflöden längs vägar, järnvägar och sjörutter i Trafikverkets region Nord och Mitt så som de beskrivs i Trafikverkets Samgodsmodell. Trafikverkets Samgodsmodell är central för Trafikverkets inriktnings- och åtgärdsplanering, vid skapandet av en lägesbild över godsflöden och godstransportefterfrågan i regionen är det därför viktigt att bygga arbetet utifrån denna modell.

  • 3204.
    Whitehead, Jake
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Energy Efficient Vehicle Policy: Lessons Learnt: An analysis of the effects of incentive policies on the demand, usage and pricing of energy efficient vehicles.2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Encouraging the uptake of energy efficient vehicles (EEVs) is an aspiration of critical importance in a day and age in which we are confronted with the increasingly dire consequences of human behaviour on our planet, and on the planet for generations to come. The transport sector is one of the highest contributors of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, whilst pollution from this sector is responsible for a large proportion of human deaths each and every year. Given the severity of these issues, it is more important than ever for policy-makers, and researchers alike, to encourage a transition within the community towards more sustainable lifestyles. Transportation is key to this change.

    As a service that every human being uses, almost every day of his or her life, the transport sector presents a unique opportunity for behavioural change. Through efficient and targeted policies, consumers can be incentivised to make more sustainable transport choices and to consider the consequences of their own actions. Foremost amongst these initiatives is that of encouraging a transition towards energy efficient vehicles.

    This thesis has been produced in order to shed further light on issues affecting this transition. In particular for policy-makers, this document includes a series of recommendations based on prevailing findings in the current literature, in addition to the novel and significant findings of this research effort. These include the various lessons learnt from government policies that have already been implemented in regions around the globe.

    As a thesis by publication, this document consists of four research articles that investigate factors affecting the EEV market, specifically in terms of: consumer demand, vehicle usage and product pricing. A number of other demographic and economic factors have also been examined, including the role of economies-of-scale. 

  • 3205.
    Whitehead, Jake
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. Queensland University of Technology.
    Making the Transition to a ‘Green’ Vehicle Fleet: An analysis of the choice and usage effects of incentivising the adoption of low-emission vehicles2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Making the transition to a ‘green’ vehicle fleet is a noteworthy endeavour for any policy maker. Under the current global pressures of increasing greenhouse gas emissions there is no doubt that all efforts that can be adopted in order to improve the sustainability of our cities should be explored. In saying this however, it is crucial when designing such policies that proper cost-benefit analyses are performed; taking into account the potentially negative rebound effects of such measures and understanding which individuals are affected by such policies.

    Comprising of two papers, this thesis analyses the choice and usage effects of an exemption for low-emission vehicles (LEVs) from Stockholm’s congestion charging scheme. The ambition of this study has been to understand: the extent to which this exemption policy influenced the demand for LEVs; which individuals were targeted; whether the policy led to any rebound effects (increased LEV usage); and ultimately what the effect of this policy was in terms of changes in emissions.

    Paper I employs a MNL model to examine the demographics of those individuals who purchased an LEV in Stockholm during 2008 and the extent to which the exemption policy influenced this demand. It was found that those owners living within the cordon but who commuted across the boundary for work had the highest propensity towards purchasing an exempt LEV. The exemption policy was found to have increased the share of exempt LEVs by 1.9% to 18.9% in total, corresponding to an additional 550 exempt LEV purchases in 2008 due to this policy.

    In Paper II, the differences in annual usage rates between demographically-similar LEV and conventional vehicle owners are calculated using propensity score matching in order to control for potential self-selection effects. Through this procedure it was found that the direct emissions of vehicle owners who adopted LEVs were reduced by 52.4%. Although the exemption policy was partially responsible for increasing the number of LEVs, it also appears to have encouraged an increase in annual usage, leading to rebound effects that offset the potential reduction in emissions (increase in LEV usage: 12.2% for owners that lived inside / worked outside cordon; 8.5% for owners that lived outside / worked inside cordon).

    Through the analysis detailed in the two papers of this thesis, the effects of an incentive based policy in Stockholm upon both the demand and usage of LEVs have been highlighted. The benefits, as well as the possible complications of this initiative have also been discussed, in the hope of enlightening policy makers to ensure that potential emissions reductions are maximised for similar policy initiatives in the future. With personal vehicles likely to continue dominating the share of home-work trips over the coming years, cities must continue their efforts in encouraging the transition to a ‘green’ vehicle fleet. It is important, however, that these efforts lead to incentive based policies that are balanced, reasonable, and designed to minimise potentially substantial rebound effects.

  • 3206.
    Whitehead, Jake
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    PUSHING THE MARKET TOWARDS ITS “TIPPING-POINT”: What conditions support a sustainable transition towards energy efficient vehicles?Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Economic incentives have been employed around the world to encourage a shift towards Energy Efficient Vehicles (EEVs). In many regions, however, these support programs have been prematurely withdrawn due to either a change in government or a change in sentiment about the ongoing fiscal costs. Soon after the withdrawal of these incentive programs, markets have generally ‘bounced- back’ towards conventional vehicles, possibly because economies-of-scale effects have not been attained. Here, we construct a stylized model of vehicle and mode choice, partly based on data from Stockholm, Sweden, to investigate the impacts of varying the design of an EEV incentive (congestion tax exemption) and levels of economies-of-scale to better understand what is required to ensure a self- sustaining, long-term transition. Findings from this model illustrate how important it is for policy-makers to monitor the cost differentials, for both fixed and variable costs of EEV ownership, in order to identify the market’s “tipping-point” and avoid a market bounce-back after an incentive is phased out. 

  • 3207.
    Whitehead, Jake
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    The Impacts of Incentive Policies on Energy Efficient Vehicle Demand and Price: An International ComparisonManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Significant efforts to incentivize energy efficient vehicles (EEVs) are evident across the globe. Given EEV marketplaces are dynamic and that demand may fluctuate in response to incentives, this may also affect market forces to influence prices. An analysis of EEV incentives, therefore, must account for possible endogeneity between demand and prices. Here we estimate the effects of several different incentives on EEV demand and price premiums across 15 regions between 2008 and 2012. Using error components three-stage least squares (EC3SLS) regression, we dis-entangle the endogeneity between EEV demand and price, finding that increased price premiums lead to reduced marginal demand (MD) and aggregate demand (AD). In turn, increased MD leads to lower price premiums. Upfront subsidies (Type A incentives) are found to increase MD and AD, however, unlike other incentive types, also appear to lead to higher price premiums. We also find fuel price increases lead to higher MD, AD and price premiums. 

  • 3208.
    Whitehead, Jake
    et al.
    Faculty of Built Environment and Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia.
    Bunker, Jonathan
    Chung, Edward
    The Brisbane Cordon scheme: part A - preliminary investigation2011In: eddBE2011 Proceedings, 2011, p. 295-300Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It could be said that road congestion is one of the most significant problems within any modern metropolitan area. For severaldecades now, around the globe, congestion in metropolitan areas has been worsening for two main reasons. Firstly, road congestion hassignificantly increased due to a higher demand for road space because of growth in populations, economic activity and incomes (Hensher &Puckett, 2007). This factor, in conjunction with a significant lack of investment in new road and public transport infrastructure, has seen theroad network capacities of cities exceeded by traffic volumes and thus, resulted in increased traffic congestion. This relentless increase inroad traffic congestion has resulted in a dramatic increase in costs for both the road users and ultimately the metropolitan areas concerned(Bureau of Transport and Regional Economics, 2007). In response to this issue, several major cities around the world, including London,Stockholm and Singapore, have implemented congestion-charging schemes in order to combat the effects of road congestion.A congestion-charging scheme provides a mechanism for regulating traffic flows into the congested areas of a city, whilst simultaneouslygenerating public revenue that can be used to improve both the public transport and road networks of the region. The aim of this paper wasto assess the concept of congestion-charging, whilst reflecting on the experiences of various cities that have already implemented suchsystems. The findings from this paper have been used to inform the design of a congestion-charging scheme for the city of Brisbane inAustralia in a supplementary study (Whitehead, Bunker, & Chung, 2011). The first section of this paper examines the background to roadcongestion; the theory behind different congestion-charging schemes; and the various technologies involved with the concept. The secondsection of this paper details the experiences, in relation to implementing a congestion-charging scheme, from the city of Stockholm inSweden. This research has been crucial in forming a list of recommendations and lessons learnt for the design of a congestion-chargingscheme in Australia. It is these recommendations that directly inform the proposed design of the Brisbane Cordon Scheme detailed inWhitehead et al. (2011).

  • 3209.
    Whitehead, Jake
    et al.
    Faculty of Built Environment and Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia.
    Bunker, Jonathan
    Chung, Edward
    The Brisbane Cordon scheme: part B - investigation into feasibility and effects2011In: eddBE2011 Proceedings, 2011, p. 301-306Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As detailed in Whitehead, Bunker and Chung (2011), a congestion-charging scheme provides a mechanism to combat congestionwhilst simultaneously generating revenue to improve both the road and public transport networks. The aim of this paper is to assess thefeasibility of implementing a congestion-charging scheme in the city of Brisbane in Australia and determine the potential effects of thisinitiative. In order to so, a congestion-charging scheme was designed for Brisbane and modelled using the Brisbane Strategic TransportModel with a base line year of 2026. This paper argues that the implementation of this initiative would prove to be effective in reducing thecities road congestion and increasing the overall sustainability of the region.

  • 3210.
    Whitehead, Jake
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. Queensland University of Technology.
    Franklin, Joel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Washington, Simon
    Queensland University of Technology.
    The impact of a congestion charging exemption scheme on the demand for low-emission vehiclesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To stimulate sales of Low-Emission Vehicles (LEVs) it was decided to exempt some of these automobiles from Stockholm’s congestion charge. In this paper the effect this policy had on the demand for LEVs is estimated by simulating different policy scenarios using the results of a multinomial logit model (MNL). This model was based upon owner-specific demographics merged with vehicle registry data for all new private vehicles registered in Stockholm county during 2008. Through this process the characteristics of individuals who had a higher propensity towards purchasing an exempt LEV were identified. The most significant characteristics included inter-cordon residency (positive), distance of home from cordon boundary (negative), and commuting across the cordon boundary (positive). Inter-cordon residents commuting across the boundary had the highest propensity towards purchasing an exempt LEV. Owners under the age of 30 preferred low CO2 petrol/diesel vehicles, whilst those over 30 preferred electric vehicles. In terms of electric vehicles, those living within the cordon had the highest propensity towards this alternative. By calculating vehicle shares from the MNL model, and comparing these with a simulated scenario where the congestion charging exemption was inactive, the policy was found to have a substantial effect, increasing the share of exempt LEVs in Stockholm by 1.9% to a total share of 18.9% (13.1% increase for inter-cordon residents commuting over the boundary; 5.0% increase for outer city residents commuting over the boundary). In other words, the exemption policy was found to have increased LEV purchases in Stockholm, during 2008, by approximately 550 vehicles.

  • 3211.
    Whitehead, Jake
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. The Royal Institute of Technology and Queensland University of Technology.
    Franklin, Joel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Washington, Simon
    Queensland University of Technology.
    The impact of a congestion pricing exemption on the demand for new energy efficient vehicles in Stockholm2014In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 70, p. 24-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As governments seek to transition to more efficient vehicle fleets, one strategy has been to incentivize ‘green’ vehicle choice by exempting some of these vehicles from road user charges. As an example, to stimulate sales of energy efficient vehicles (EEVs) in Sweden, some of these automobiles were exempted from Stockholm’s congestion tax. In this paper the effect this policy had on the demand for new, privately-owned, exempt EEVs is assessed by first estimating a model of vehicle choice and then by applying this model to simulate vehicle alternative market shares under different policy scenarios. The database used to calibrate the model includes owner-specific demographics merged with vehicle registry data for all new private vehicles registered in Stockholm County during 2008. Characteristics of individuals with a higher propensity to purchase an exempt EEV were identified. The most significant factors included intra-cordon residency (positive), distance from home to the CBD (negative), and commuting across the cordon (positive). By calculating vehicle shares from the vehicle choice model and then comparing these estimates to a simulated scenario where the congestion tax exemption was inactive, the exemption was estimated to have substantially increased the share of newly purchased, private, exempt EEVs in Stockholm by 1.8% (±0.3%; 95% C.I.) to a total share of 18.8%. This amounts to an estimated 10.7% increase in private, exempt EEV purchases during 2008, i.e., 519 privately owned, exempt EEVs.

  • 3212.
    Whitehead, Jake
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Franklin, Joel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Washington, Simon
    Queensland University of Technology, Australia .
    Transitioning to energy efficient vehicles: An analysis of the potential rebound effects and subsequent impact upon emissions2015In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 74, p. 250-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given the shift toward energy efficient vehicles (EEVs) in recent years, it is important that the effects of this transition are properly examined. This paper investigates some of these effects by analyzing annual kilometers traveled (AKT) of private vehicle owners in Stockholm in 2008. The difference in emissions associated with EEV adoption is estimated, along with the effect of a congestion-pricing exemption for EEVs on vehicle usage. Propensity score matching is used to compare AKT rates of different vehicle owner groups based on the treatments of: EEV ownership and commuting across the cordon, controlling for confounding factors such as demographics. Through this procedure, rebound effects are identified, with some EEV owners found to have driven up to 12.2% further than non-EEV owners. Although some of these differences could be attributed to the congestion-pricing exemption, the results were not statistically significant. Overall, taking into account lifecycle emissions of each fuel type, average EEV emissions were 50.5% less than average non-EEV emissions, with this reduction in emissions offset by 2.0% due to rebound effects. Although it is important for policy-makers to consider the potential for unexpected negative effects in similar transitions, the overall benefit of greatly reduced emissions appears to outweigh any rebound effects present in this case study.

  • 3213.
    Whitehead, Jake
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. Queensland University of Technology.
    Franklin, Joel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Washington, Simon
    Queensland University of Technology.
    Transitioning to low-emission vehicles: an analysis of the potential rebound effects and subsequent impact upon emissionsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the annual distances driven between demographically-similar, privately-owned low-emission vehicle (LEV) and conventional vehicle owners in Stockholm during 2008. This analysis was used to assess the potential rebound effects of using financial incentives to encourage a transition in the vehicle fleet from conventional vehicles to LEVs. The potential rebound effects and differences in emissions due to the transition have been estimated, along with an assessment of the effect of an exemption for LEVs from Stockholm’s congestion charging scheme, upon annual distance travelled. The analysis used vehicle registry data merged with owner-specific demographics, including home-work locations. A logistic regression was performed on these demographics to construct scores representing each individual’s propensity to purchase an LEV. These propensity scores were then used to match and compare the odometer-based distance travelled for demographically-similar LEVs and conventional vehicle owners. Rebound effects of 5-12% were identified in regards to the differences in annual distance driven between LEV and conventional vehicle owners, with those who commuted across the cordon boundary found to have the greatest differences suggesting that the exemption policy did increase LEV usage. Overall, it was determined that the direct emissions of LEV owners were reduced by 52.4% due to the transition to these vehicles. The findings suggest, however, that emissions could have been reduced by a further 2.4% if these apparent rebound effects had not occurred. Furthermore, this offset in emissions reductions did not include secondary effects, such as increased congestion, that would have led to greater emissions from conventional vehicles. 

  • 3214.
    Widler, Martina
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Survey and efficiency study of support- and spare parts inventory at Fiskeby Board in Norrköping2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Pappersbruket Fiskeby Board som är placerat i Norrköping tillverkar kartong av 100% returfibrer. Bruket har tillverkat papper i flera århundranden och är en av Europas äldsta tillverkare av papper och kartong. På pappersbruket finns ett underhålls- och reservdelslager som bistår med artiklar till hela företaget. Målet med studien är att ta fram förslag till hur förrådshanteringsprocessen kan förbättras för att göra den mer effektiv. Studien resulterade i 25 stycken förbättringsförslag, dessa förslag delades upp i två delar, de förbättringsförslag som kunde implementeras direkt och de som behövde vidare undersökningar. Vissa förslag täcker flera möjligheter och problem och andra förslag täcker bara ett. Lika så kan ett problem ha flera möjliga förbättringsförslag för att lösa dem. Även förbättringar i from av nya instruktioner där hela aktiviteter är inkluderade har föreslagits.

  • 3215.
    Wiger, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Aronsson, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Decision support by process-oriented cost accounting for the healthcare industry: PFC - patient flow costing2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a cost accounting model with the aim to facilitate process owners in decision-making and to keep track of the patient flow by combining Total cost analysis, Activity based costing and systemic approach. The patient flow costing (PFC) model has been developed through an iterative process with a Swedish hospital. Costs not tied to the patient flows are by the model collected to a residual, which makes them visible and therefore approachable. Furthermore, the PFC-model is a tool to help analyze the cost of logistic decisions as a means to increase the efficiency in the flow of patients.

  • 3216.
    Wigsten, Sebastian
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre of Logistics and Supply Chain Management.
    Mihailenco, Alexandru
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre of Logistics and Supply Chain Management.
    Expansion on the Domestic Market for Fresh Products, A Freight Forwarder’s Perspective. The Case of Schenker Arkas2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing competition on a global scale is forcing companies to rethink their strategiesconcerning their supply chains, launch new products and services, increase customer serviceoriented activities. When launching a new product on a new or an existing market it is crucial toestimate the market potential. The market for fast consumer goods is one of the mostdemanding markets globally and requires special attention from the logistic service providers.There is a lack of theoretical material written on this topic for starting practitioners and forexperienced specialists. Hence we try in this thesis to shed light on what the necessaryprerequisites that a freight forwarder ought to consider when launching a new product in thecategory of fast moving consumer goods, hereafter named “Fresh” products. Schenker Arkasprovides a good example for building a theoretical framework around their case due to theTurkey’s strategic position in the region and the ideal climate for “Fresh” products market.From empirical findings we can conclude that Turkish exports is experiencing a strong growth,in particular “Fresh” products which is growing at a higher rate that the total. For freightforwarders there is a great opportunity capitalize on the steady growth in “Fresh” exports butto completely take advantage of growth it is essential that freight forwarders convincecustomers of the value they bring by participating in the supply chain.

  • 3217.
    Wiklund, Emma
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Eriksson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Hållbarhetsarbete för transportföretag: En fallstudie utförd hos företag i Gävleborg2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Increased transports on the global market is effecting the environment negatively, which has led to an increased interest in sustainable logistics. The logistics service providers (LSPs) play a major role in achieving the set environmental goals.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine how LSPs can be more sustainable today and in the future.

    Methodology: In order to answer the purpose of the paper two phases were used. Literature was collected and used as the basis of knowledge in the field. At the same time interviews were conducted with three LSPs. Their answers were compared with each other and with the literature. From the analysis a conclusion was drawn.

    Results: The two smaller companies had no demands from customers regarding their work with sustainability. For all the involved LSPs sustainability mostly meant the environmental aspect. Their focus is on reducing carbon dioxide emissions, this is achieved by using environmentally certified vehicles, choice of fuels and reducing the fuel consumption. The three LSPs all have an environmental management system and work continuously to be more sustainable. They have trained their drivers and have set up an IT-system for direct feedback. This helps the drivers to see the impact their driving has on the environment. To achieve a high fill ratio the companies avoid empty runs and try to maximize the cargo capacity. The LSPs collaborate with competitors and pick up cargo for each other.

    Conclusion: There are tools to apply to obtain more sustainable transports. These are the choice of vehicle, the choice of fuel, fuel consumption, training, IT-systems, packaging solutions and collaboration. The most important factors for the LSPs today are the choice of vehicles, the choice of fuel and fuel consumptions. A lot is happening in the area of alternative fuels including the development of biofuels, electric vehicles and electric roads. Also a change of attitude from the transport buyers regarding the sustainability is needed because today they mainly focus on the price.

  • 3218.
    Wiklund, Mats
    et al.
    Transport Analysis, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Arne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Olstam, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Effects of desired speeds for queuing and delay on single-lane road segments2015In: Transportmetrica A: Transport Science, ISSN 2324-9935, Vol. 11, no 8, p. 716-728Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To improve road safety on parts of the road network carrying low traffic volumes, road designs are proposed including single-lane road segments and periodic overtaking lanes. These roads have been proven to contribute to substantial benefits in terms of road safety. However, overtaking of slower vehicles is only possible on segments including an overtaking lane and not on the single-lane road segments. Driver and vehicle heterogeneity resulting in differences in desired speeds are consequently decisive for the traffic performance. Sufficient quality of service is relying on an appropriate design and distribution of single-lane segments and overtaking lanes. In this paper, we study the effect of the desired speed distribution on traffic performance on single-lane road segments. Expressions are derived for the travel time, delay and percent time spent following. The derived expressions link the desired speed distribution, the single-lane segment length and the traffic flow to the resulting traffic performance. The results are verified through comparison with measures based on microscopic traffic simulation. The conclusion is that there is a good agreement between derived measures and simulation results. The derived measures should therefore not only be of theoretical interest, but also of practical use to estimate traffic performance on single-lane road segments.

  • 3219.
    Wiklund, Mats
    et al.
    Transportanalys.
    Carlsson, Arne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Olstam, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings Universitet.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings Universitet.
    Effects of desired speeds for queuing and delay on single-lane road segments2015In: Transportmetrica A: Transport Science, ISSN 2324-9935, Vol. 11, no 8, p. 716-728Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To improve road safety on parts of the road network carrying low traffic volumes, road designs are proposed including single-lane road segments and periodic overtaking lanes. These roads have been proven to contribute to substantial benefits in terms of road safety. However, overtaking of slower vehicles is only possible on segments including an overtaking lane and not on the single-lane road segments. Driver and vehicle heterogeneity resulting in differences in desired speeds are consequently decisive for the traffic performance. Sufficient quality of service is relying on an appropriate design and distribution of single-lane segments and overtaking lanes. In this paper, we study the effect of the desired speed distribution on traffic performance on single-lane road segments. Expressions are derived for the travel time, delay and percent time spent following. The derived expressions link the desired speed distribution, the single-lane segment length and the traffic flow to the resulting traffic performance. The results are verified through comparison with measures based on microscopic traffic simulation. The conclusion is that there is a good agreement between derived measures and simulation results. The derived measures should therefore not only be of theoretical interest, but also of practical use to estimate traffic performance on single-lane road segments.

  • 3220.
    Wikner, Joakim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    A service decoupling point framework for logistics, manufacturing, and service operations2012In: International Journal of Services Sciences, ISSN 1753-1446, Vol. 4, no 3/4, p. 330-357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Competing through goods only has turned out to be increasingly difficult unless efficiency and low-cost manufacturing are at the core of the business. Extending the offering by introducing customisation in combination with services has improved the effectiveness capability. Still, much remains to understand how these servitised businesses can be managed in an integrated fashion. Service operations management and manufacturing operations management have evolved along separate paths but are beginning to align, and by focusing on value adding processes some fundamental principles can be identified. Using a value driven and process-based approach the value offering is defined as provided by initial capabilities and adapting capabilities of the provider. From a supply chain perspective this is shown to be identical to the established approach of balancing efficiency and responsiveness (also referred to as leagility) based on the customer order decoupling point. As a consequence focus on efficiency is at the core of goods-based supply and focus on responsiveness is at the core of service-based supply.

  • 3221.
    Wikner, Joakim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Kundorderstyrning och frikopplingszoner2012In: Plans forsknings- och tillämpningskonferens 2012: Logistik i praktisk tillämpning / [ed] Peter Berling, 2012, p. 129-144Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Med kundorderstyrning avses att kundens önskemål på något sätt påverkar, d.v.s. styr, hur denförsörjande enheten agerar. Den här kopplingen till kunder innebär att företag som befinner sig närakunderna kan utveckla konkurrensfördelar som företag på längre avstånd från kunderna har svårt attmöta. Olika grad av kundorderstyrning innebär på så sätt en viktig möjlighet för t.ex. svenska företagatt stärka sin position på hemmamarknaden i förhållande till konkurrenter med produktion i andraländer. Det teoretiska stödet för att beskriva försörjningssystem ur ett kundorderstyrningsperspektiv ärdock relativt begränsat. En viktig komponent är kundorderpunkten men det är ett lite trubbigt verktygsom framförallt är användbart i renodlade fall med en tydlig uppdelning i prognosdrivna ochkundorderdrivna aktiviteter. Här ges en mer omfattande teoretisk plattform för kundorderstyrning sombaseras på en generisk bas av frikopplingspunkter och frikopplingszoner vilka sedan appliceras itermer av processdrivare (kundorderpunkt och kundorderzon) och slutligen tillämpas och tolkas medexempel från MRPII respektive lean produktion.

  • 3222.
    Wikner, Joakim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Kundorderstyrning och frikopplingszoner2012In: Bättre produktivitet, ISSN 1402-1145, no 7, p. 10-18Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Med kundorderstyrning avses att kundens önskemål på någotsätt påverkar, d v s styr, hur den försörjande enheten agerar.Den här kopplingen till kunder innebär att företag som befinnersig nära kunderna kan utveckla konkurrensfördelar somföretag på längre avstånd från kunderna har svårt att möta.Olika grad av kundorderstyrning innebär på så sätt en viktigmöjlighet för t ex svenska företag att stärka sin position påhemmamarknaden i förhållande till konkurrenter med produktioni andra länder. Det teoretiska stödet för att beskrivaförsörjningssystem ur ett kundorderstyrningsperspektiv ärdock relativt begränsat. En viktig komponent är kundorderpunktenmen det är ett lite trubbigt verktyg som framförallt äranvändbart i renodlade fall med en tydlig uppdelning i prognosdrivnaoch kundorderdrivna aktiviteter. Här ges en meromfattande teoretisk plattform för kundorderstyrning sombaseras på en generisk bas av frikopplingspunkter och frikopplingszonervilka sedan appliceras i termer av processdrivare(kundorderpunkt och kundorderzon) och slutligen tillämpasoch tolkas med exempel från MRPII respektive lean produktion

  • 3223.
    Wikner, Joakim
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Johansson, Eva
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Inventory classification based on decoupling points2015In: Production & Manufacturing Research, ISSN 2169-3277, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 218-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ideal state of continuous one-piece flow may never be achieved. Still the logistics manager can improve the flow by carefully positioning inventory to buffer against variations. Strategies such as lean, postponement, mass customization, and outsourcing all rely on strategic positioning of decoupling points to separate forecast-driven from customer-order-driven flows. Planning and scheduling of the flow are also based on classification of decoupling points as master scheduled or not. A comprehensive classification scheme for these types of decoupling points is introduced. The approach rests on identification of flows as being either demand based or supply based. The demand or supply is then combined with exogenous factors, classified as independent, or endogenous factors, classified as dependent. As a result, eight types of strategic as well as tactical decoupling points are identified resulting in a process-based framework for inventory classification that can be used for flow design.

  • 3224.
    Wikström, Per-Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Analys av trafikräknares användbarhet som cykelräknare1999Report (Other academic)
  • 3225.
    Wikström, Per-Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Cykelflöden till och från Luleå centrum under vecka 22, 19992000Report (Other academic)
  • 3226.
    Wikström, Per-Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Trafikantströmmar i Storuman 1998 och 19992000Report (Other academic)
  • 3227. Wikström, Per-Erik
    Trafiknätsanalys i Luleå: området över Skurholmen, Örnäset, Malmudden och Bredviken1999Report (Other academic)
  • 3228.
    Wikström, Per-Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Utvärderingsinstrument för uppföljning av system- och säkerhetseffekter av trafiksäkerhetsåtgärder i tätort: tillämpade i Storuman2002Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this licentiate thesis has been to describe a range of traffic safety measures and their effect on safety. Another objective has been to study when and where different evaluation tools are useful for collecting data on traffic safety in urban areas. System effects as well as point effects are discussed. System effects are defined in this thesis as the effects of the reconstruction on the whole traffic system and the users of it. That includes effects at locations away from the implementation. System effects are also created by several measures being installed in series. The combined effect, the synergy effect, may be different from the sum of the individual effects. A literature review was conducted which focused on describing today's knowledge with respect to traffic-safety measures, system effects, measuring methods and evaluation tools. Practical experiments were carried out using different evaluation instruments in before and after studies in connection to a reconstruction project in Storuman. Hypotheses regarding effects were formulated and tested. The review covers planning tools and a section where seventeen different physical speed reducing devices are described and their known effects on safety are presented. A section on system effects and a summary table describing the functions of the measures conclude the review. Besides these studies, twelve evaluation tools have been compared. The tools are used to evaluate the safety effects of reconstructions and installations of specific measures. A case study has been performed for Storuman. The goal has been to determine how system and safety implications ought to be studied. Several of the tools found in the review of literature were used. Physical measures were implemented in Storuman with the goal to improve safety, comfort and mobility for pedestrians and bicyclists. Thirteen hypotheses were formulated for the Storuman reconstruction. These include changes in flow volumes and speeds in the surrounding network, changes in where pedestrians and bicyclists cross the road, changes in perceived safety and mobility for pedestrians and bicyclists and modal choice modifications among school children. The following tools were used in Storuman: Automatic counts of bicycle volumes, automatic flow and speed measurements including classification by vehicle type, video analyses, behavioral studies using the BARNVIS methodology, speed profiles obtained through car-following measurements, corridor filming, questionnaires and interviews, radar measurements of speeds, expert questionnaire based on WALCYNG Quality Scheme (WQS) for safety assessment and traffic-network analyses based on Lugna Gatan methodology. Some of the tools necessitated measurements along whole corridors whereas other tools could be used only at specific spots. Location specific tools were used at eight sites in Storuman. Traffic-safety measures were implemented at these locations and the tools were applied before and after these implementations. The knowledge gained from these practical experiments are summarized in the thesis. Data from using four of the evaluation tools have been applied in the testing of the hypotheses. These are: automatic flow and speed measurements including classification of motor vehicle types, video analysis, school questionnaires and interviews with road users

  • 3229.
    Windahl, Ronja
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Jansson, Erik
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Strategisk leverantörssegmentering vid indirekta tjänsteinköp2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 3230.
    Winkler, Niklas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Effect of pressure oscillations on in-cylinder heat transfer - through large eddy simulation2015In: International Journal of Engine Research, ISSN 1468-0874, E-ISSN 2041-3149, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 705-715Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As fuel consumption is a key issue for next-generation internal combustion engines, the heat release rate is increased and the duration shortened towards partially premixed combustion and in extreme cases towards homogeneous charge compression ignition to increase thermal efficiency. However, a steep rise in the heat release rate may trigger pressure oscillations in the combustion chamber, which have shown to increase the heat transfer, lowering efficiency and increasing fuel consumption. The aim of this research is to find the physical mechanisms that cause the increased in-cylinder heat transfer in the presence of pressure oscillations. According to the author's knowledge, the physical mechanisms responsible for the increased heat transfer have yet not been well understood for this application. Several of the hypotheses for this work are therefore based on the research performed for pulsating turbulent pipe flow. A numerical study has been performed using the large eddy simulation approach, where the pressure oscillations in the combustion chamber have been triggered by an artificially imposed heat source. The results show an increase in heat transfer in relation to pressure amplitude, in accordance with previous experimental studies. The mechanism found is a rapid transport of high-temperature fluid from the heat source towards the wall due to large-scale velocity fluctuations emerged from the pressure oscillations resulting in increased heat transfer.

  • 3231. Woodcock, A.
    et al.
    Berkeley, N.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Hrin, G. R.
    O'Reilly, O.
    Markucevičiute, I.
    Pimentel, T.
    Measuring quality across the whole journey2014In: Contemporary Ergonomics and Human Factors 2014: Proceedings of the international conference on Ergonomics & Human Factors 2014, Southampton, UK, 7-10 April 2014, Taylor & Francis, 2014, p. 316-323Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many countries are looking to public transport to alleviate problems of congestion and pollution and increase sustainability. In order to develop a large modal shift in traveller behaviour, transport providers and planners need to deliver a high quality passenger experience. This paper firstly introduces the EU funded METPEX project, the aim of which is to develop a Pan European tool to measure the quality of the whole journey experience, and secondly discusses the results of stakeholder interviews in the UK, which show where such a tool might fill gaps in existing knowledge of passenger behaviour and mobility requirements.

  • 3232. Woxenius, Johan
    et al.
    Andersson, Evert
    Bärtel, Fredrik
    Troche, Gerhard
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Infrastructure and Planning.
    Sommar, Robert
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Infrastructure and Planning.
    A Swedish intermodal transport service based on line-trains serving freight forwarders2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3233.
    Wu, Feifei
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Marketing and Entrepreneurship.
    Xue, Ying
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Marketing and Entrepreneurship.
    Innovations of bike sharing industry in China: A case study of Mobike’s station-less bike sharing system2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Through over forty-five years of development, bike sharing is not a fangle in Europe. But it becomes a popular topic in China in recent two years. The Chinese startups exert IoT technologies and GPS modular in shared bikes and launched the world’s first station-less bike sharing system. This new bike sharing system gains in popularity and develops dramatically all across China. In addition, the leading bike sharing service providers such as Mobike, got over $300 million investment since the start of 2017, which caught the attention of the public. More and more venture capitalists want to touch this new tempting pie. This paper mainly focuses on investigating what are the roles of this new bike sharing system in urban mobility in China especially in Shanghai and its influences in the society. Meanwhile, the socio-technological innovations of the new bike sharing are explored together with the application of different theoretical frameworks, such as Porter’s Five Forces and system thinking. This paper also tempted to fill up the gap in the literature that describing the missing part of smart bike sharing business - using the station less bike sharing business model, involving a discussion of its pros and cons. In order to give more detailed insights about the new bike sharing industry, we choose the world’s first station-less bike sharing service company - Mobike, as our case study object to investigate the revolutionary bike sharing system in Chinese major cities, specifically in Shanghai - the representative megacity of China. Conclusions and future development suggestions are provided at the end of this paper so that the stakeholders could have some references for further development of bike sharing industry. 

  • 3234.
    Wu, Jie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    The development of port and the container transport chain: a case study of Tianjin Port2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the booming volume of international trade, the container shipping industry plays an important role in the world now. The previous literature only shows separate factors for the development of the port. And the container transport chain is only analyzed separately without the development of the port.

    With abundant of literatures and theories, the factors influence the development of the port can be divided into two parts. The external factors include the hinterland, the international trade and the policies. And the competition and coordination between different ports constitute the internal factors. The container transport chain is important for the internal factors. It can affect the area of the hinterland and the cost for the customers.

    The Tianjin Port is introduced as the case for this thesis. And for the comparison, the mature port Rotterdam and the competitors within Bohai Rim are showed. The data are from official website of the ports and other organizations with high reputation.

    And the relationships of the inside and external factors are discussed in the analysis. With the SWOT matrix, the case of Tianjin Port is compared with the mature port Rotterdam and its competitors Qingdao Port and Dalian Port.

    The container transport chain in Tianjin has the disadvantages such as complicated information flow system, lower capacity of rail transportation and the over fierce market of the third party logistics companies. By the end of the thesis, how to adopt the container transport chain with the rapid development of the port and some suggestions for the further development of Tianjin Port are given as the conclusion.

  • 3235.
    Wziatek, Ilona
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Ericsson, Sofia
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Utmaningar i en utskrivningsprocess från slutenvården till boende - för att skapa en trygg och effektiv process2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 3236.
    Wänerberger, Alexander
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Said, Sayyed Hamid
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Lagerstyrning och prognostisering av råmateriallagret2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Production to customer order usually requires keeping a supply warehouse. Increased customer demands for short lead-times require that materials must be in stock. This result in increasing stock levels in a company leads to more capital tied up and simultaneously leads to poorer yields. To avoid keeping a large storage warehouse whilst keeping a good service requires an effective inventory control.

    The purpose of this project is to find out how the demand looks like in the current situation of the company and to develop an appropriate forecasting method and calculation model against a certain pace for inventory control. The methods mentioned in this work are the ABC analysis, calculation of safety stock and forecasting methods.

    The results from this work will answer the objectives of the project aims. A variety of analyzes and experiments shall be used to investigate what type of forecasting method that the company should use. The methods and theories raised in the report also aims to be used by similar companies. The aim of the selected forecasting method is also to lead to a better base, from which better forecast precision is one part in order to improve the inventory management. This has, as far as possible, been put in relation to the working methods used in the company today. Some of the work has been to find out how much demand changes during the lead times, i.e. from the ordering of raw material until the material is in the raw material stock. This has also been used to compare forecasting methods against the present approach.

    Because the company wants to expand its production, a calculation model has also been developed. This model indicates the inventory level to a desired pace, i.e. demand level.

  • 3237.
    Xanthopoulos, Panagiotis
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre of Logistics and Supply Chain Management.
    Pejicic, Jerko
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre of Logistics and Supply Chain Management.
    Supply Chain Vulnerability in the automotive industry2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this research study is the empirical analysis of theelements affecting supply chain vulnerability with a focus on theautomotive industry.

    Methodology: This research is based on a deductive approach. In order to fulfilthe purpose of the study, the authors stated three hypotheseswhich were tested with help of quantitative data. Moreover, thesurvey strategy was used while using questioning in order to gatherinformation from subjects. With the help of a web-based questionnairethe data was collected. The collected data was then usedfor statistical analysis, in particular by using a OLS analysis, Mann-Whitney-U-Test and Spearman correlation. By making use of thestatistical results the authors where able to test the stated hypotheses.

    Research limitations: The research was conducted within only one specific industry, inparticular the automotive industry. Furthermore, the relatively lowamount of 32 respondents must be mentioned. The last imitationof the research study is the missing consideration of any interdependenciesbetween the groups of supply chain practices and supplychain risks.

    Theoretical Impl: This research represents a contribution to the existing knowledgein field of supply chain risk management and more precisely to thefield of supply chain vulnerability within the automotive industry.As one of the few quantitative research studies that deal with theanalysis of elements affecting supply chain vulnerability, this researchinvestigates statistically the cause-effect relationships, correlationsand differences of elements affecting supply chain vulnerability.

    Managerial Impl: The results of this study contribute greatly to practitioners withinthe automotive industry. With the help of the comprehensiveSCVM and due to the high degree of detail regarding the supplychain practices and their categorization into source, make and deliverpractices, managers within the various supply chain functionsof a company can easily identify their individual need for actionsbased on the findings of this study.

  • 3238.
    Xiang, Tingting
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Xu, Sujing
    University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Core Enterprise's Partner Selection in a Green Supply Chain2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Core enterprise is the center of Green Supply Chain (GSC) and it helps partners to meet the environmental standards and to improve GSC’s performance. However there are two questions for core enterprise when it establishes GSC: What roles do core enterprise play in GSC? How does core enterprise improve GSC’s performance? What criterions are considered when core enterprise chooses partners in GSC?

     

    In order to answer these questions, this paper will use following methods: firstly, Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and Analytic network process (ANP) have be used to study on three research companies (IKEA, TOYOTA and Apple); Secondly, six interviews with research companies’ employees.

     

    After case study, the results show that when core enterprise chooses partners, it will draw up some criterions and sub-standards for partners to fulfill. Furthermore, core enterprise plays the roles as GSC’s builder, director, coordinator, and designer in the system.

     

    Finally, this paper answered the research questions: Firstly, in order to improve the performance of GSC, core enterprise should direct all partners in GSC to save materials and recycle waste in each link of GSC. Secondly, core enterprise can use four criterions to choose partners. These criterions are: environmental management performance, product-related elements, production-service levels, and enterprise culture.

  • 3239. Xiang, Yiqiang
    et al.
    Liu, Chengxi
    Chao, Chunfeng
    Liu, Huishi
    Risk Analysis and Assessment of Public Safety of Submerged Floating Tunnel2010In: ISAB-2010 - FIRST INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON ARCHIMEDES BRIDGE, 2010, p. 117-125Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Based on the structural characteristics and preliminary design of submerged floating tunnel (SFT) prototype in Qiandao Lake, this paper gives the risk index system of public safety of SFT and risk assessment methods by analyzing different impact factors of SFT public safety. Moreover, the public safety risk is evaluated during construction and operation of SFT prototype in Qiandao Lake by the presented analytic hierarchy process method. The results show that in spite of facing many technical problems and potential risks, these potential risks of SFT can be controlled or reduced to a minimum level with the help of reasonable design and certain measures

  • 3240. Xiang, Yiqiang
    et al.
    Liu, Chengxi
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Wu, Qiangqiang
    Risk analysis and management of submerged floating tunnel and its application2010In: ISAB-2010 - FIRST INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON ARCHIMEDES BRIDGE / [ed] Hong, Y; Mazzolani, FM; Gao, F, 2010, p. 107-116Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Combining with the characteristics of submerged floating tunnel (SFT) and surrounding environment, it is of great theoretical and practical significance to develop research in the areas of potential risk and impact factors, risk index system, risk level of SFT. This paper summarized the main content of risk analysis of SFT, and classified the risk management into six stages: planning, feasibility study, design, tendering, construction and operation. Risk management workflow of SFT was given. Then, we focused on discussing the potential risks of SFT in investment, design, and environmental condition during planning and feasibility study stage. After identifying the risk factors of SFT, the risk assessment method of SFT was described by the presented fuzzy AHP method (FAHP). Finally, taking environment risks assessment of SFT prototype in Qiandao Lake as an example, environment risk assessment of SFT was completed by the programmed integration evaluation system of SFT based on Matlab7.5. Some measures and suggestions in risk control strategy were given.

  • 3241. Xiang, Yiqiang
    et al.
    Tang, Guobin
    Liu, Chengxi
    Dept. of Civil Engineering, Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.
    Cracking Mechanism and Simplified Design Method for Bottom Flange in Prestressed Concrete Box Girder Bridge2011In: Journal of Bridge Engineering, ISSN 1084-0702, E-ISSN 1943-5592, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 267-274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Serious cracking has occurred frequently in the bottom flange of box girders during construction in recent years. This paper aims at studying the cracking mechanism and countermeasures. The stress field in the bottom flange associated with the bottom continuity tendon is presented, and the propagation of cracks during tensioning is simulated by nonlinear analysis according to the actual construction sequence. A cracking mode, which is not easy to detect in field investigation, is illustrated through numerical and theoretical study. It is caused by the deficient shear strength of the bottom flange attributed to the void in tendon ducts. Based on numerical results and field investigation, four types of cracking in the bottom flange are proposed and discussed, and a simplified design method is recommended for control of cracking.

  • 3242.
    Xiao, Yi
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Peng, Ronghe
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Rookie Plan: A New Type of Logistics Service Provider in China2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the development of logistics market, the third party logistics can no longer solve all the problems in supply chain management, the appearance of fourth party logistics is a breakthrough solution to modern supply chain challenge. Since China has become the manufacturing center of the world, it attracts more attentions to its own logistics market. But at the same time, there are few studies on Chinese fourth party logistics.

    This purpose of the study is to research a fourth party logistics service provider in China, including the barriers and the recommendations to promote its development. The fourth party logistics assembles the resources, capabilities, and technologies of its own company and other companies to design, build and run comprehensive supply chain solutions (Foster 1999). The research objectives of the study are 1. Identify what is the smart logistics and the factors comprised smart logistics network in general. 2. Describe the Rookie plan and analysis its property and prospect. And 3. Classify the impact of smart logistics on customer satisfaction or requests, and formulate recommendations on how to improve the performance of Rookie plan.

    Due to such aims, this research pursues a hybrid method which consists both of survey and case study about the ‘Rookie Plan’. Hereby, not only the secondary data for theoretical framework establishment and information gathering of the case project is engaged, but also the primary data through questionnaire to the sellers on the ecommerce platform named ‘Taobao’. For enhancing the reliability and validity of the survey, the overall process is conducted base on a four step guideline, as well as four-phase data analysis method for analyzing the information. What is more, the overall analysis part is led by PEST model. The integration of all methods above confirm the reliability and validity of the research process.

    The results of survey show that there is a necessary to bring smart logistics into e-commerce, and there is a huge potential for the development of fourth party logistics.  This study has demonstrated that Rookie Plan, the new type of logistics service provider in China has obtained a significant achievement and bring the customers huge benefits, but it also faced some risks including it cannot guarantee all aspects of this plan can have well function, and the underdevelopment logistics infrastructure also hinder its development. As the reason of achieving a better development of Rookie plan and shining a light for other 4PL companies in China, the recommendations for Rookie Plan are strengthen the planning and construction of logistics infrastructure, promote the development of third party logistics service provider, and accelerate the integration of e-commerce and modern logistics industry. 

  • 3243.
    Xiong, Zhitao
    et al.
    University of New South Wales,.
    Olstam, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Orchestration of driving simulator scenarios based on dynamic actor preparation and automated action planning2015In: Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, ISSN 0968-090X, E-ISSN 1879-2359, Vol. 56, p. 120-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In driving simulation, a scenario includes definitions of the road environment, the traffic situation, simulated vehicles’ interactions with the participant’s vehicle and measurements that need to be collected. The scenarios need to be designed in such a way that the research questions to be studied can be answered, which commonly imply exposing the participant for a couple of predefined specific situations that has to be both realistic and repeatable. This article presents an integrated algorithm based on Dynamic Actor Preparation and Automated Action Planning to control autonomous simulated vehicles in the simulation in order to generate predefined situations. This algorithm is thus able to plan driving actions for autonomous vehicles based on specific tasks with relevant contextual information as well as handling longitudinal transportation of simulated vehicles based on the contextual information in an automated manner. The conducted experiment shows that the algorithm is able to guarantee repeatability under autonomous traffic flow. The presented algorithm can benefit not only the driving simulation community, but also relevant areas, such as autonomous vehicle and in-vehicle device design by providing them with an algorithm for target pursue and driving task accomplishment, which can be used to design a human-vehicle cooperation system in the coming era of autonomous driving.

  • 3244.
    Xiong, Zhitao
    et al.
    The University of New South Wales.
    Olstam, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Orchestration of driving simulator scenarios based on dynamic actor preparation and automated action planning2015In: Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, ISSN 0968-090X, E-ISSN 1879-2359, Vol. 56, p. 120-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In driving simulation, a scenario includes definitions of the road environment, the traffic situation, simulated vehicles’ interactions with the participant’s vehicle and measurements that need to be collected. The scenarios need to be designed in such a way that the research questions to be studied can be answered, which commonly imply exposing the participant for a couple of predefined specific situations that has to be both realistic and repeatable. This article presents an integrated algorithm based on Dynamic Actor Preparation and Automated Action Planning to control autonomous simulated vehicles in the simulation in order to generate predefined situations. This algorithm is thus able to plan driving actions for autonomous vehicles based on specific tasks with relevant contextual information as well as handling longitudinal transportation of simulated vehicles based on the contextual information in an automated manner. The conducted experiment shows that the algorithm is able to guarantee repeatability under autonomous traffic flow. The presented algorithm can benefit not only the driving simulation community, but also relevant areas, such as autonomous vehicle and in-vehicle device design by providing them with an algorithm for target pursue and driving task accomplishment, which can be used to design a human-vehicle cooperation system in the coming era of autonomous driving.

  • 3245.
    Xylia, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Leduc, S.
    Patrizio, P.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Kraxner, F.
    Developing a dynamic optimization model for electric bus charging infrastructure2017In: Transportation Research Procedia, Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 27, p. 776-783Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban regions account for 64% of global primary energy use and 70% of carbon emissions. For that reason, options to decarbonize urban environments are receiving increasing attention. In this context, public transport shall play a key role in decarbonizing urban road transport. One efficient way to achieve that is shifting towards clean fuels and modern electric buses, an option that is already under implementation in several cities around the world. In this paper, the basis for developing a dynamic optimization model for establishing charging infrastructure for electric buses is presented, using Stockholm, Sweden, as a case study. The model places constraints depending on the bus stop type (end or middle stop) which affects the time available for charging at each particular location. It also identifies the optimal technology type for the buses: conductive or inductive. In addition, the electric buses compete with buses run on biogas or biodiesel. In this paper, we present the results of a cost minimization scenario with constraints placed on the available charging time and power, differentiated between end stops and major public transport hubs. The mean charging time is 7.33 minutes, with a standard deviation of 4.78 minutes for all bus stops. The inner city bus routes require less charging time, which ranges on average at around 3 minutes. The installation of chargers at the locations proposed in the model would require scheduling adjustments and careful planning for the density of charging occasions.

  • 3246.
    Xylia, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA).
    Patrizio, Piera
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA).
    Kraxner, Florian
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA).
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    A future with electric buses? Placing bus chargers in Stockholm2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3247.
    Xylia, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA).
    Patrizio, Piera
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA).
    Kraxner, Florian
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA).
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Locating charging infrastructure for electric buses in Stockholm2017In: Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, ISSN 0968-090X, E-ISSN 1879-2359, Vol. 78, no 2017, p. 183-200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Charging infrastructure requirements are being largely debated in the context of urban energy planning for transport electrification. As electric vehicles are gaining momentum, the issue of locating and securing the availability, efficiency and effectiveness of charging infrastructure becomes a complex question that needs to be addressed. This paper presents the structure and application of a model developed for optimizing the distribution of charging infrastructure for electric buses in the urban context, and tests the model for the bus network of Stockholm. The major public bus transport hubs connecting to the train and subway system show the highest concentration of locations chosen by the model for charging station installation. The costs estimated are within an expected range when comparing to the annual bus public transport costs in Stockholm. The model could be adapted for various urban contexts to promptly assist in the transition to fossil-free bus transport. The total costs for the operation of a partially electrified bus system in both optimization cases considered (cost and energy) differ only marginally from the costs for a 100% biodiesel system. This indicates that lower fuel costs for electric buses can balance the high investment costs incurred in building charging infrastructure, while achieving a reduction of up to 51% in emissions and up to 34% in energy use in the bus fleet.  

  • 3248.
    Xylia, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    The role of charging technologies in upscaling the use of electric buses in public transport: experiences from demonstration projectsIn: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Public transport is crucial for the functionality of urban systems. Electrification of public bus transport services is currently explored in various demonstration projects around the world. The aim of this paper is to discuss the main characteristics and differences between conductive and inductive charging technologies, and evaluate how charging infrastructure strategies could affect future upscaling of electric bus deployment in public transport. The focus is on the Nordic region. A survey with stakeholders involved with electric bus demonstration projects is performed for understanding the benefits and drawbacks of each solution, and identifying the main themes emerging from project implementation and upscaling. Advantages of the conductive charging include the maturity of the technology and its higher maximum charging power compared to currently available inductive alternatives. On the other hand, inductive technology entails other benefits, such as the lack of moving parts which could reduce the maintenance costs for infrastructure, as well as minimal visibility of the equipment. The main issues likely to impact the upscaling of electric bus use are related to the maturity, cost-effectiveness, compatibility, and charging efficiency of the available technologies.

  • 3249.
    Xylia, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Georén, Peter
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Comparative analysis of charging technologies for electric buses: a meta-synthesis of international experiences2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Public transport is crucial for the functionality of urban systems. Globally, much attention is being given lately to reducing transport’s environmental impacts by shifting towards fossil-free fuels, while also improving service availability. In this context, electrification of bus transport is gaining popularity because of the high energy efficiency improvements that can be accrued, together with low emissions and noise reduction compared to conventional buses.

    Although several studies focus on engine performance and powertrain characteristics of electric buses for individual demonstration projects, there are few studies that analyze the role of bus charging technologies and charging strategies. Gathering and systematically analyzing existing experiences from electric bus demonstration projects around the world is necessary for understanding the benefits and drawbacks of emerging solutions. The aim of this paper is to fill this gap and offer a comparative analysis of various alternatives for electric bus charging. What are the characteristics of each technology and what are the main themes emerging when it comes to implementation? 

    The analysis draws from experiences around the world, which are systematically evaluated under guidelines of meta-synthesis, reviewing existing literature and complementing it with expert knowledge gathered from an electronic survey. The respondents belong to stakeholder groups involved with electric bus demonstration projects, such as public transport authorities, transport service operators, charging technology providers, municipalities, regional authorities, and academia. Particular attention is given to the Nordic region, where several successful initiatives are already in place.

    The preliminary results show a variety of choices among charging technologies, and it is not uncommon to have different strategies combined in the demonstration projects. The survey responses indicate that stakeholders participate in such projects primarily in order to gain knowledge about the technologies tested, as well as due to the potential environmental benefits from bus transport electrification. Common unexpected issues faced during project implementation include increased costs for infrastructure installation, difficulties in communication between the stakeholders involved, as well as unexpected technology compatibility issues.

    The decisive factors when choosing charging technologies are related to market-readiness, cost-effectiveness, replicability and operation costs of available technologies, but also the institutional set up that allow for the development of certain options over time. The analysis of the survey results links charging technologies and strategies to their advantages and disadvantages as acquired from experience, and explain the factors behind the choices made.

    The results are useful in helping to enrich the knowledge basis on transport electrification, shifting from individual empirical findings to a generalized framework for evaluation of technology choices when it comes to charging infrastructure. In this way, we extract knowledge that facilitates choosing the most appropriate charging technology, designing implementation strategies and avoiding pitfalls that have already been encountered elsewhere. 

  • 3250.
    Yang, Can
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geoinformatics. KTH, Royal Institute of Technology in Sweden.
    Gidofalvi, Gyözö
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geoinformatics.
    Fast map matching, an algorithm integrating hidden Markov model with precomputation2017In: International Journal of Geographical Information Science, ISSN 1365-8816, E-ISSN 1365-8824, p. 1-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wide deployment of global positioning system (GPS) sensors has generated a large amount of data with numerous applications in transportation research. Due to the observation error, a map matching (MM) process is commonly performed to infer a path on a road network from a noisy GPS trajectory. The increasing data volume calls for the design of efficient and scalable MM algorithms. This article presents fast map matching (FMM), an algorithm integrating hidden Markov model with precomputation, and provides an open-source implementation. An upper bounded origin-destination table is precomputed to store all pairs of shortest paths within a certain length in the road network. As a benefit, repeated routing queries known as the bottleneck of MM are replaced with hash table search. Additionally, several degenerate cases and a problem of reverse movement are identified and addressed in FMM. Experiments on a large collection of real-world taxi trip trajectories demonstrate that FMM has achieved a considerable single-processor MM speed of 25,000–45,000 points/second varying with the output mode. Investigation on the running time of different steps in FMM reveals that after precomputation is employed, the new bottleneck is located in candidate search, and more specifically, the projection of a GPS point to the polyline of a road edge. Reverse movement in the result is also effectively reduced by applying a penalty.

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