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  • 3201. Wang, Z.
    et al.
    Koutsopoulos, Harilaos N.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Calibration of urban rail simulation models: A methodology using SPSA algorithm2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rail simulation model calibration is a process of adjusting model parameters while comparing model output with observations from the real rail system. There is a lack of systematic methodology for calibrating urban rail simulation models. Based on a simulator developed for urban rail operations and control, the paper demonstrates a methodology of calibrating model parameters, and specifically, fine-tuning some of the simulation inputs. The calibration process is modeled as a multi-variate optimization problem and solved by the Simultaneous Perturbation Stochastic Approximation (SPSA) algorithm. A case study of the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA) Red Line shows that the methodology improves the simulation model dramatically in terms of replicating the track block runtimes. At the same time, it upgrades the station specific dwell time parameters and enhances a-priori boarding rates at stations fairly effectively.

  • 3202. Wardman, Mark
    et al.
    Batley, Richard
    Laird, James
    Mackie, Peter
    Fowkes, Tony
    Lyons, Glenn
    Bates, John
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Valuation of travel time savings for business travellers: Main Report. Prepared for the Department for Transport2013Report (Other academic)
  • 3203.
    Warg, Jennifer
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Economic evaluation of timetable strategies with simulation2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Capacity shortfalls on railway lines often lead to disturbances in operation and limited possibilities for traffic increase. Static and dynamic characteristics describing the capacity are an important input for cost-benefit analysis. However, they are rarely used in economics. At the same time, economic parameters are hardly ever included in capacity studies.

    This paper focuses on measurements of dynamic timetable and capacity characteristics. The purpose is to identify the determining variables that influence capacity and by the railway users. Is simulation a useful method to reveal the decisive parameters? A structure for economic evaluation of the identified characteristics is to be developed.

    Using mixed methods data analysis, relevant capacity characteristics are retrieved and relationships between these, static criteria and socio-economic impacts identified. The study is mainly based on passenger rail traffic between Stockholm and Gothenburg in Sweden and the focus is on long-distance passenger traffic. Simulation is shown to be advantageous as future scenarios can be evaluated concerning operational parameters – which according to the results of this paper are important to travelers. A structure for a future model where timetable analysis and microscopic simulation are used to reveal relevant capacity characteristics based on the findings is presented.

  • 3204.
    Warg, Jennifer
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Effects of increased traffic volume and speed heterogeneity on the capacity of a railway with dense mixed traffic2012In: Computers in Railways XIII: Computer System Design and Operation in the Railway and Other Transit Systems, WIT Press, 2012, p. 485-497Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing demand for train travel implies a need for improved traffic. More frequent departures and new regional stops have to be coordinated with the desire to shorten travel times for passengers and on the same line be mixed with freight operations. This paper analyses how increased traffic predicted for 2020 affects the capacity of a 400-km section of the Southern Main Line in Sweden, a highly-utilised double-track line with heterogeneous and dense traffic with low punctuality, particularly as regards high-speed trains. In a second step, the consequences of raising the maximum speed for high-speed trains from 200 to 250 km/h are analysed. The purpose of the paper is to show the effects of these measures and discuss strategies for improving punctuality and increasing timetable flexibility based on the revealed weaknesses of the system by combining timetable analysis and simulation. The evaluation shows that an increase in traffic volume and speed differences leads to a decrease in the flexibility and reliability of the timetable. The punctuality of the high-speed trains becomes unacceptably low. The tested approaches to normalise the effects of increased traffic and speed on flexibility and punctuality are shown to be insufficient. Capacity utilisation on the line is so high that recovery is not possible.

  • 3205.
    Warg, Jennifer
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. Järnvägsgruppen.
    Timetable evaluation with focus on quality for travellers2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Punctuality and reliability are important for travellers. Railway lines with heterogeneous and dense traffic have proved to be prone to generate delays. Faster services and increased traffic have to be counterbalanced with measures for increased reliability. Efficient timetable planning can improve the use of such lines. Usually, that aim is treated from either a capacity or a socio-economic point of view. Because both are important, this thesis aims to combine the fields. A new method to evaluate timetable alternatives is developed. Commonly used methods are combined in a novel way to reveal values for different variables as input for evaluation of alternatives. That enables the comparison of timetable strategies using relevant input data. The idea is to estimate the benefits of a timetable for a traveller by expressing them as a timetable performance index (TTPI). For this purpose, quality indicators and methods to reveal them are identified. In the next step, traditional valuations for relationships between the indicators are used to test different model configurations for evaluation of alternatives, for example alternative departures on the same line or different timetables. 

    To treat this multidisciplinary task, several case studies were performed on the Swedish Southern and Western Main lines. As part of a study focussing on methods to measure and evaluate capacity based on travellers’ valuations, the importance of delays was analysed in a questionnaire study and relationships between several variables describing the timetable were found. The other case studies aimed to identify relevant variables and use them to evaluate alternatives. Static and dynamic variables are distinguished. The static ones describe the timetable before operation, the dynamic ones the result of operation or estimated outcome revealed by means of, for example, simulation. Empirical delay data is used in one study, simulation with the microscopic tool RailSys in the others. In one of the studies, analysis is combined with the macroscopic timetabling tool TVEM (Lindfeldt, 2010). The case studies showed the characteristics of the analysed lines described by the chosen variables and which methods and variables are relevant to use for a comparison of timetable slots or evaluation of effects of changes in the timetable. An evaluation method was developed where simulation and timetable analysis reveal the variables. The idea is to construct an analytical function using traditional weights for relationships between the variables to convert the values of the variables into a performance index (PI). Based on a PI for each train slot (TSPI), the TTPI for the whole timetable is estimated. It describes the quality of a timetable in terms of timetable time, i.e. the resulting value is a time that is comparable to the scheduled travel time of one train departure, but includes additional information. With this method, complex timetables can be evaluated regarding their robustness to perturbations, which is valuable for socio-economic analysis of effects of measures applied on the railway system.

    As shown in a one of the case studies, quality in terms of punctuality and reliability is important for travellers, at the same time as the design of the timetable has significant impact on these aspects. Timetable analysis and simulation are relevant methods to reveal variables that describe these characteristics and evaluation with the presented method is recommended. The configuration of the TTPI is essential for the outcome whereas it is important to choose variables and parameters adequately. If this is taken into account, the approach can be an efficient way to adjust timetables and choose the best alternative, for instance if a train path or timetable change is to be chosen among several.

  • 3206.
    Warg, Jennifer
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Utvärdering av tidtabellsalternativ med hjälp av simulering2015In: Transportforum, Linköping, 2015, 2015Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3207.
    Warg, Jennifer
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Ait-Ali, Abderrahman
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    Assessment of Commuter Train Timetables Including Transfers2019In: 21st EURO Working Group on Transportation Meeting, EWGT 2018, 17th – 19th September 2018, Braunschweig, Germany, 2019, Vol. 37, p. 11-18Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many railway networks suffer from high capacity utilisation. For scheduling all services, adjustments to the desired slots are often needed. Such adjustments might lead to longer travel times, crowded trains, longer waiting times for boarding and for transfers. All of this has an important socio-economic impact on both travellers and train operators. This raises the question of the socio-economic assessment of changes in commuter train timetables including transfers. Thus, the aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of adjustments of commuter train timetables on the traveller (i.e. consumer costs) and the train operator (i.e. producer costs). These costs are estimated based on all train trips and operations in the network. In a case study, the effect of changes in departure times (resulting in non-regular interval timetables) is analysed. Further, the price of cancelling a two-way service during different times of the day is compared. The results show that changing departure times can both decrease and increase the total costs, and that regularity for parallel services might not be as important as expected if it is kept for each separate service. For the second study, waiting times for transfers were indicated to have a (too) large impact which can lead to misleading results and might be adjusted in future work. The model is adequate for such kind of questions but needs some more adjustments. For railway networks with dense and heterogeneous traffic (as is the case in Sweden), the contributions of this model are useful for making the challenging timetabling process easier and commuter train services less costly.

  • 3208.
    Warg, Jennifer
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Bohlin, Markus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering. Mälardalens Högskola.
    The Use of Railway Simulation as an Input to Economic Assessment2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Capacity is an important factor for assessing a railway. Capacity limitations restrict the possibilities to adjust the service supply to the market demand and can lead to disturban­ces that affect the travellers negatively. For this reason, it is important that the available capacity and the effects of using it are estimated and assessed when benefits are analysed. However, estimations often focus on either socio-economic or capacity aspects only.

    In this paper, a method for evaluating timetable alternatives using time equivalents by combining economic assessment and capacity analysis is developed. Parameters describing each alternative´s characteristics and their effect are stepwise added to an existing model. Both real and simulated delay statistics for express trains on a double-track line with dense, mixed traffic are used to first determine relevant input parameters and calibrate the model, and later compare different alternatives. The results show that the choice of input parameters for the delays and the way how to include them in the model affected the result to a large extent. That highlights the importance of making adequate classifications of data and choosing the right parameters. Simulation is suitable for estimating the effect of changes on reliability which is an important input in an estimation model combining capacity and socio-economic aspects.

  • 3209.
    Warg, Jennifer
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Bohlin, Markus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    The use of railway simulation as an input to economic assessment of timetables2016In: Journal of Rail Transport Planning & Management, ISSN 2210-9706, E-ISSN 2210-9714Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessment of capacity for highly-used railways is an important and challenging task. This paper describes a method for evaluation of timetables based on capacity and economic assessment. Common methods from both fields are combined. For developing and analysing purposes, the model is first tested with historical delay data for express trains on a double-track line with dense, mixed traffic in Sweden. An assessment aiming to compare the departures is made by combining common weights for different variables. Differences in the results based on the model structure are discussed. In the second step, microscopic simulation is used to reveal delay characteristics of timetable alternatives that are then compared and discussed in a similar way to step 1.

    The presented method using simulation makes it possible to reveal and evaluate characteristics that are important for both timetable planning and economic analysis, for example evaluation of strategies. Timetable and delay times are important input variables that affect the travellers' choice. Using simulation and other methods from capacity planning gives the opportunity to find characteristics for analysing alternatives and improve economic evaluation, at the same time as the use of economic parameters provides more possibilities to make a relevant capacity analysis.

  • 3210. Warmelink, Harald
    et al.
    Bekebrede, Geertje
    Harteveld, Casper
    Mayer, Igor
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Lessons learned from a decade of geme development for higher education in Delft2012In: Simulations, Games and Role Play in University Education / [ed] Nygaard, C., Courtney N., & Leigh, E., Libri Publishing , 2012, 1, p. 171-188Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 3211.
    Wasell, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Leveranstid vs. Kostnad: En fallstudie inom postorderbranschen2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When customers make purchases from the distance trade industry the delivery time is an important aspect. E-commerce companies, and many mail-order companies, have successfully managed to adapt to this and provides relatively fast deliveries. But those mail-order companies, whose business idea is to provide subscription of consumables, has not kept pace with these developments and still provide relatively long delivery times for new orders. This affects customer satisfaction negatively, and results in a decrease in sales. Efforts should therefore be made to reduce the delivery time. A shortened delivery time is, however, associated with a higher cost of the supply-chain that has the obligation to serve the customers. The purpose of this master thesis is to balance the increased costs against the increased sales revenue expected to be generated by a reduced delivery time. By doing so, mail-order companies could achieve higher profitability.

    Through a case study on EFI AB, together with support of theoretical assumptions, it has been analysed how mail order company can respond to customers' expectations on delivery time. A survey and analysis of the case- company's current supply-chain has generated proposals for two alternative supply-chains with reduced delivery times. The different processes' delivery times and costs were then compared with each other, and translated relative to customer expectations.

    The case study concludes that customers have lower requirements on delivery time from mail-order companies than from e-commerce companies. Mail- order companies thus do not relate to the same demanding requirements of e- commerce consumers regarding e-commerce companies’ delivery time. However, mail order companies could gain competitive advantage by reducing the delivery time. Reduced delivery times can be achieved through relatively simple restructures of the supply-chain, and do not necessarily result in excessive additional costs. Furthermore, mail-order companies can use both marketing and customer service as tools to reduce the importance of delivery time for customer.

  • 3212.
    Washington, Simon
    et al.
    Queensland University of Technology, Australia.
    Whitehead, Jake
    Queensland University of Technology, Australia.
    Measuring Transport Sustainability and Resilience2012Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3213. Waygood, Owen
    et al.
    Susilo, Yusak
    University of the West of England.
    Distinguishing universal truth from country-specific influences on children’s sustainable travel: A comparison of children in the UK and the Osaka regional area2011In: Journal of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, ISSN 1881-1124, Vol. 9, p. 271-286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The analysis of children’s activity-travel patterns has gained increasing attention in a variety of research fields. Most of the previous studies suggested that more compact development promotes less car-dependent travel among children. Unfortunately distinguishing what was a cultural artefact and what was a ‘universal’ truth of children’s travel is difficult as existing literature on children’s travel vary not just by country, but also by measures and analysis. The aim of this paper is to help bridge this gap of knowledge. Using the UK National Travel Survey and the Osaka Regional Area person trip datasets, this paper compares children’s travel behaviour in two countries with significantly different cultures. This paper discusses both consistencies and discrepancies of travel behaviours between the countries to highlight what factors are consistent despite cultural differences, and what may vary within cultures or different built environments.

  • 3214. Waygood, Owen
    et al.
    Susilo, Yusak
    University of the West of England.
    East or West, does it matter? Comparison of children activity-travel behaviours in the UK and Japan2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3215.
    Weinholt, Åsa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Tobias
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    New collaborations in daily emergency response: Applying cost benefit analysis to new first response initiatives in the Swedish fire and rescue service2015In: International Journal of Emergency Services, ISSN 2047-0894, E-ISSN 2047-0908, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 177-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    – The purpose of this paper is to analyse costs and benefits from new collaborations in daily emergency response and to demonstrate how cost-benefit analysis (CBA) can be used for evaluating effects from these kinds of collaborations.

    Design/methodology/approach

    – CBA is used to evaluate two collaborations. The cases are: security officers that respond to fire and rescue service (FRS) calls; and home care nurses that assist the FRSs when they respond to urgent medical calls. Interviews, public documents and incident reports have been used as sources of data.

    Findings

    – Most costs are relatively straightforward to estimate. More difficult to estimate are the turn-out costs, including the services that cannot be performed when the new actors take on new assignments. One important benefit from these kinds of collaborations is reduced response time. Other benefits include increased situational awareness and improved preventive work in Case 1, as well as improved working conditions for the traditional resources and increased medical competence in Case 2. The analysis indicate that the case with the security officers most likely was socially beneficial, while the case with the home care nurses at the time of the study was not.

    Originality/value

    – The authors provide a thorough description and analysis of two interesting new ways of performing daily emergency response. Furthermore, the authors depict how CBA can be used to structure the analysis and evaluation of new initiatives in emergence services and how it can be used for identifying improvement potential. The authors also identify and discuss what is needed in terms of documentation as well as research, for it to be possible to improve the quantitative analysis of these kinds of initiatives

  • 3216.
    Weinholt, Åsa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holmgren, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The Influence of Organizational Changes on Cost Efficiency in Fire and Rescue ServicesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fire and rescue services in Sweden have recently undergone organizational changes aiming at improving service quality and efficiency. Among those changes are an increased number of formalized cooperations between FRSs in neighboring municipalities, increased collaboration with other sectors in day-to-day operations, changes in the structure of rescue teams, and an increase in the tasks performed by the services. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether these policy changes have resulted in increased cost efficiency in the Swedish FRS. We used stochastic frontier analysis of annual data from 2009 to 2012 for 205 Swedish municipalities, taking into account the relevant differences in conditions among them. The conclusion is that there is no evidence to be found of improved efficiency in the FRS. The policy changes that have been implemented have not had the desired effects, and most of the policy variables tested for inclusion in the model were not found significant. Recommendations for future research are to further investigate why these policy changes have not yet given the expected results, to examine how and if collaboration with different types of organizations (public, private and non-profit) affects efficiency differently and to make further in-depth comparisons between the most efficient and least efficient FRSs for there are great variations between them.

  • 3217.
    Welde, Morten
    et al.
    Statens vegvesen Vegdirektoratet/Concept, Norway.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH.
    Odeck, James
    Statens vegvesen Vegdirektoratet/NTNU, Noway .
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH.
    Planprosesser, beregningsverktöy og bruk av nytte-kostnadsanalyser i vegsektor: En sammenligning av praksis i Norge och Sverige2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Planning, analytic tools and the use of cost-benefit analysis in the transport sector in Norway and Sweden. Economic impact assessment is frequently used both nationally and internationally to appraise and evaluate large public investment projects. It is used to demonstrate the consequences of using resources in the public sectors and determines whether a given project is economically viable or not. In this report, we compare the use of Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA), which is an element of economic impact assessment, in prioritizing road projects, in Norway and Sweden. The overall objective is to shed light on the differences that may exist such that the two countries can learn from each other and improve their use of CBA when selecting investment portfolios. Specifically, we explore the differences in planning processes, methodological approaches used and the unit prices used in CBAs. Using data from the countries’ latest national transport plans, we compare the significance of CBA in the prioritization of projects.

  • 3218.
    Welde, Morten
    et al.
    Statens vegvesen Vegdirektoratet/Concept, Norway.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Odeck, James
    Statens vegvesen Vegdirektoratet/NTNU, Noway .
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Planprosesser, beregningsverktöy og bruk av nytte-kostnadsanalyser i vegsektor. En sammenligning av praksis i Norge och Sverige.2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Planning, analytic tools and the use of cost-benefit analysis in the transport sector in Norway and Sweden.Economic impact assessment is frequently used both nationally and internationally to appraise and evaluate large public investment projects. It is used to demonstrate the consequences of using resources in the public sectors and determines whether a given project is economically viable or not. In this report, we compare the use of Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA), which is an element of economic impact assessment, in prioritizing road projects,inNorway and Sweden. The overall objective is to shed light on the differences that may exist such that the two countries can learn from each other and improve theiruse of CBAwhen selecting investment portfolios. Specifically, we explore the differences in planningprocesses, methodological approaches used and the unit prices used in CBAs. Using data from the countries’ latestnational transport plans,we compare the significance of CBAin the prioritization of projects.

  • 3219.
    Wen, Yuanqiao
    et al.
    Wuhan Univ Technol, Sch Nav, Wuhan, Hubei, Peoples R China.;Hubei Key Lab Inland Shipping Technol, Wuhan, Hubei, Peoples R China..
    Geng, Xiaoqiao
    Wuhan Univ Technol, Sch Nav, Wuhan, Hubei, Peoples R China..
    Wu, Lichuan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Yip, Tsz Leung
    Hong Kong Polytech Univ, Dept Logist & Maritime Studies, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Huang, Liang
    Wuhan Univ Technol, Sch Nav, Wuhan, Hubei, Peoples R China..
    Wu, Dingyong
    Wuhan Univ Technol, Sch Nav, Wuhan, Hubei, Peoples R China..
    Green routing design in short seas2017In: International Journal of Shipping and Transport Logistics, ISSN 1756-6517, E-ISSN 1756-6525, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 371-390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, with the development of shipping industry, the mass of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions originating from ships is also increasing rapidly. To reduce the GHG emissions from ships, designing the optimised routes with higher energy use efficiency is becoming more important for ships navigating in short seas. Based on the innovative application of energy efficiency operational index (EEOI), a route optimisation model is established. To solve the model, we divide one single voyage into several voyage segments and consider the variable speed across voyage segments. Then the navigation strategy is used to find out the sailing route of the minimum EEOI value, this sailing route is called as the green route. Finally, numerical experimental results show that the EEOI values of the experimental groups which used the optimised navigation method are 4.67%-16.95% lower than that of the control group. The results demonstrate that the green route designed in this paper can effectively improve the energy use efficiency of ships.

  • 3220.
    Wennberg, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics. Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Standardiserat utförande och förbättring av avropsprocessen: En fallstudie på Balco AB2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Course: Degree project in logistics, 4FE05E, spring 2013

    Author: Maria Wennberg

    Supervisor: Petra Andersson

    Examiner: Helena Forslund

    Title: Standardization and improvement of the outbound process execution

     

    Background: Transportation represents a critical part of companies’ logistics. Special management and control is needed when using a third party logistics. Balco uses a third party logistics for their deliveries of balcony parts and before it takes place the outbound process is executed. Currently, Balco experience difficulties with the process’ many ways to be performed by the project managers and logistics department. It results in unnecessary expenditure of time, as well as quality problems and additional costs. A standardized and improved outbound process that guarantees the same execution should resolve the problems that Balco now is experiencing.

    Purpose: to identify the present situation by describing and mapping in what ways the project managers and logistics department execute the outbound process. This to identify where it exists differences that results in unnecessary expenditure of time. The purpose is also to provide suggestions for improvement based on the existing differences and problems, to enable reduction of unnecessary expenditure of time.

    Method: The research is a qualitative case study of Balco AB where the data collection was conducted by interviews, observations and focus groups. First, the outbound process was mapped and timed. Then the existing differences and problems were identified. Remaining parts of the research consists of the standardization of the outbound process and improvements of the inventory, which are presented in separate chapters.

    Conclusions: It exists differences in the execution of the outbound process between project managers and the logistics department that results in unnecessary expenditure of time. With a standardization 24 to 52 minutes can be saved, depending on who is executing the process. Improved article placement, inventory zones and coding can reduce the expenditure of time with another 31 minutes. Balco needs to ensure that the standardization is followed, purchase electronic tablets, introduce an inventory system, divide the inventory areas into zones and initiate electronic bar coding. Besides from the reduced expenditure of time, Balco should also be able to experience fewer errors, increased quality as well as decreased costs.

  • 3221.
    Wentjärv, Erika
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Organisering av interna transporter inom tillverkningsindustrin: En fallstudie vid Gestamp Hardtech2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Within the world economy, the automobile industry is the largest industrial sector and has since a long time reached a level of overcapacity. The majority of components used in a vehicle is produced by subcontractors and the competition on the market is large. To survive on the market, the companies need to be competitive and often need to offer high quality products with low prices. There are a lot of methods to be more cost effective in an industrial environment and many companies’ choses to use the method Lean which focuses on minimizing waste. Internal transportation is one costs that does not increase the value of the product and is therefore seen as a waste. With this in mind it is important to optimize the internal transportations in order to lower the costs related to them.

    A case study has been performed at Gestamp Hardtech since they had identified shortcomings within their internal transportation. These are shortcomings such as low utilization of the forklifts and that the production is limited due to the fact that the drivers does not have time to perform their tasks on time. Further, Gestamp Hardtech also has a focus on reducing costs within their manufacturing which leads to their need to increase the utilization on the transportation and shortening the lead times. Having that in mind, the purpose of this study is to see how the utilization of the internal transportations can be increased and lead times can be reduced by an improved logistical organisation. The study is limited to studying the current logistical organisation at Gestamp Hardtech. Further, the study is also limited to current machine and stock positions.

    The study was started by illustrating the entire logistical organisation. That is, five different forklift areas in the factory. During the study the utilization of the frequently used forklifts were established. The utilization of the mainly used forklifts in the organization were around 50 percent of the total work-time and the utilization of the lesser used forklifts were lower then 10 percent. Further, the total time machines are forced to wait due to a forklift being late and how frequently tasks are performed together with how long time it takes to perform a task is established. To complement the data gathered from the case company two benchmarking studies were performed at two other manufacturing companies in the same branch. Analysis of the data collection showed that the forklift positions used ad the case company is based on geographical areas which are compressed. However, all of the forklift positions also includes trips which forces the driver to leave the main geographical area.

    Machines are forces to stand in order to wait for the forklifts but the utilization of the transportation is low. The fact that the drivers are leaving their main area does not conform with how the competitive companies organizes their internal transportation. These deviant routes also create a problem is one of the machines were to stop producing whilst the driver performed a task outside of the main area. Because of these two areas are combined and later divided into two new forklift positions. One of the forklifts are to handle the material which is connected to the machines and one forklift are to handle the material which is carried of the main area. In Gestamp Hardtechs case this is emptying scrap tubs, stock and package handling.

    In theory the forklift that are to handle the machines were to be utilized up to maximum 90 percent whilst the forklift handling deviating routes would be utilized to less than 50 percent. In reality, both of the forklifts would be utilized less than this which will enable for adding more tasks onto the deviating are. A suggestion is to ass other deviating routes from the other forklift positions or other types of scrap handling.

  • 3222.
    Wernersson, Emil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wiksborg, Tim
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Evaluation of measures to deal with space constraints in BillerudKorsnäs finished goods inventory in Skärblacka.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Denna studie genomfördes på BillerudKorsnäs bruk i Skärblacka och undersökte hur utrymmesbegränsningar i ett färdigvarulager kan hanteras med olika åtgärder. Bakgrunden till studien är att färdigvarulagret i BillerudKorsnäs bruk i Skärblacka redan i dagsläget, när denna studie genomfördes, upplever en hög belastning på grund av en begränsad lagringsyta. Detta är dock hanterbart i dagsläget men i början av 2018 ska en ny pappersmaskin (PM10) implementeras. Detta kommer att medföra en ökad produktion av MG produkter som är de mest svårhanterliga produkterna. Därmed förväntas det att färdigvarulagret överbelastas om inga åtgärder vidtas. Inledningsvis i denna studie presenterade BillerudKorsnäs ett tjugotal åtgärder och av dessa åtgärder valdes åtta åtgärder ut i samråd med BillerudKorsnäs, som vidare kallas för det planerade åtgärdspaketet. De åtta åtgärderna är: lastbilspendel mellan Skärblacka och Norrköpings hamn (Pampus och Öhmansterminalen), ny lagerindelning, flytta all avsalumassa till Pampus, konsolidering av terminaler, alla översjötransporter av MG produkter går via Pampus, en extra ledtidsdag för direktlastbilar, utökad bemanning i magasinet och dokumenterade rutiner för ”onödig” lagring. Studiens syfte är därmed att utvärdera om det planerade åtgärdspaketet är en hållbar lösning för att hantera utrymmesbegränsningarna i färdigvarulagret när PM10 är i drift. För att analysera det planerade åtgärdspaketet skapades två simuleringsmodeller i simuleringsprogrammet Arena. En modell med PM10 och det planerade åtgärdspaketet och en modell med enbart PM10 för att kunna jämföra och analysera effekten av åtgärdspaketet. Analyserna tyder på att färdigvarulagret kommer att överbelastas om inga åtgärder vidtas. Samtidigt tyder analyserna också på att det planerade åtgärdspaketet är en hållbar lösning på de förväntade lagringsproblemen när PM10 är i drift. Vidare indikerade analyserna att andelen lastbilstransporter relativt tågtransporter kommer att öka när PM10 är i drift och att antalet lastbilstransporter per dag har en stor påverkan på lagernivåerna.

  • 3223.
    West, Jens
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. Sweco.
    Congestion Effects in Transport Modelling and Forecasting2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Transport investments and policies are increasingly turned towards dealing with transport congestion rather than with shortening the potential free flow travel time. However, appraisal methodologies for projects meant to reduce congestion are relatively less well developed compared to methodologies for projects aiming to reduce travel times. Static assignment models are for instance incapable of predicting the build-up and dissipation of traffic queues and capturing the experienced crowding caused by uneven on-board passenger loads. Despite of the availability of dynamic traffic assignment and despite of fairly concrete ideas of how integration with demand models could take place, only few model systems have been developed for real applications.

    The predicted reduction of traffic volume across the Gothenburg congestion charge cordon in the peak, 11%, turned out to be an accurate estimate of the observed reduction, 12%. The reduction in the off-peak, however, was overpredicted, as it was also in the Stockholm case. To analyse congestion charges in Stockholm it is necessary and fully possible to integrate DTA with the demand model. In the performed tests it could be seen that both tested models had problems replicating the flow on the main bypass early in the morning but otherwise performed well. A case study of a metro extension in Stockholm demonstrated that congestion effects constitute more than half of the total benefits and that these effects are excessively underestimated by a conventional static model. Effects of various operational measures can be analysed with BusMezzo and the results have been validated against observed data. The findings indicate that all three tested measures in a case study (boarding through all doors, headway-based holding and bus lanes) had an overall positive impact on service performance and that there are synergetic effects.

    Using a continuous VTT distribution and hierarchical route choice was demonstrated as a successful method of modelling the multi-passage rule implemented in Gothenburg congestion charges and was shown to give realistic predictions of route choice effects. First results from integration of DTA with a travel demand model for the Stockholm region show that even without systematic calibration the DTA is in reasonable agreement with observed traffic counts and travel times. The presented experiments did not reveal a striking difference between using a macroscopic and a microscopic assignment package. While travel time savings are often the only benefit included in public transport project appraisals, the best practice assigns weighted value of time to average load/capacity measures. However, failure to represent dynamic congestion effects may lead to substantial underestimation of the benefits of projects primarily designed to increase capacity rather than reduce travel times. The impact of small operational measures should not be underestimated. These measures are relatively cheap compared to investments in new transit infrastructure and large societal gains can therefore be achieved by their implementation.

  • 3224.
    West, Jens
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. Sweco, Sweden.
    Modelling and Appraisal in Congested Transport Networks2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Appraisal methodologies for congestion mitigation projects are relatively less well developed compared to methodologies for projects reducing free flow travel times. For instance, static assignment models are incapable of representing the build-up and dissipation of traffic queues, or capturing the experienced crowding caused by uneven on-board passenger loads. Despite the availability of dynamic traffic assignment, only few model systems have been developed for cost-benefit analysis of real applications. The six included papers present approaches and tools for analysing traffic and transit projects where congestion relief is the main target.

    In the transit case studies, we use an agent-based simulation model to analyse congestion and crowding effects and to conduct cost-benefit analyses. In the case study of a metro extension in Stockholm, we demonstrate that congestion and crowding effects constitute more than a third of the total benefits and that a conventional static model underestimates these effects vastly. In another case study, we analyse various operational measures and find that the three main measures (boarding through all doors, headway-based holding and bus lanes) had an overall positive impact on service performance and that synergetic effects exist.

    For the congestion charging system in Gothenburg, we demonstrate that a hierarchal route choice model with a continuous value of time distribution gives realistic predictions of route choice effects although the assignment is static. We use the model to show that the net social benefit of the charging system in Gothenburg is positive, but that low income groups pay a larger share of their income than high income groups. To analyse congestion charges in Stockholm however, integration of dynamic traffic assignment with the demand model is necessary, and we demonstrate that this is fully possible.

    Models able to correctly predict these effects highlight the surprisingly large travel time savings of pricing policies and small operational measures. These measures are cheap compared to investments in new infrastructure and their implementation can therefore lead to large societal gains.

  • 3225.
    West, Jens
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. SWECO, Sweden.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    The Gothenburg congestion charges: CBA and equityManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 3226.
    West, Jens
    et al.
    KTH.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH.
    The Gothenburg congestion charges: CBA and equity2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper performs an ex-post cost- benefit and equity analysis of the Gothenburg congestion charges introduced in 2013. We base the analysis on observed effects transport model that is able to predict the effect of the charges on travel times and traffic volumes with high accuracy. We find that the net social benefit of the charge is positive. However, we also show that the system is regressive. Low income citizens pay a larger share of their income for three reasons. First, all income classes are highly car dependent in Gothenburg, due to the relatively low public transport share. Second, workers in the highest income class have considerably higher access to company cars, and are therefore either exempt from paying the charge, or can deduce the charge from their income tax. Third, high income individuals have higher values of time. Moreover, the revenue is spent mainly on a rail tunnel, which primarily benefits commuters residing far out in the region.

  • 3227.
    West, Jens
    et al.
    KTH.
    Börjesson, Maria
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics. KTH.
    The Gothenburg congestion charges: cost–benefit analysis and distribution effects2018In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, p. 1-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper performs an ex-post cost–benefit and distribution analysis of the Gothenburg congestion charges introduced in 2013, based on observed effects and an ex-post evaluated transport model. Although Gothenburg is a small city with congestion limited to the highway junctions, the congestion charge scheme is socially beneficial, generating a net surplus of €20 million per year. From a financial perspective, the investment cost was repaid in slightly more than a year and, from a social surplus perspective, is repaid in < 4 years. Still, the sums that are redistributed in Gothenburg are substantially larger than the net benefit. In the distribution analysis we develop an alternative welfare rule, where the utility is translated to money by dividing the utility by the average marginal utility of money, thereby avoiding putting a higher weight on high-income people. The alternative welfare rule shows larger re-distribution effects, because paying charges is more painful for low-income classes due to the higher marginal utility of money. Low-income citizens pay a larger share of their income because all income classes are highly car dependent in Gothenburg and workers in the highest income class have considerably higher access to company cars for private trips. No correlation was found between voting pattern and gains, losses or net gain.

  • 3228.
    West, Jens
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. SWECO, Sweden.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Engelson, Leonid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Accuracy of the Gothenburg congestion charges2016In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 94, p. 266-277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the accuracy of the transport model forecast of the Gothenburg congestion charges, implemented in 2013. The design of the charging system implies that the path disutility cannot be computed as a sum of link attributes. The route choice model is therefore implemented as a hierarchical algorithm, applying a continuous value of travel time (VTT) distribution. The VTT distribution was estimated from stated choice (SC) data. However, based on experience of impact forecasting with a similar model and of impact outcome of congestion charges in Stockholm, the estimated VTT distribution had to be stretched to the right. We find that the forecast traffic reductions across the cordon and travel time gains were close to those observed in the peak. However, the reduction in traffic across the cordon was underpredicted off-peak. The necessity to make the adjustment indicates that the VTT inferred from SC data does not reveal the travellers’ preferences, or that there are factors determining route choice other than those included in the model: travel distance, travel time and congestion charge.

  • 3229.
    West, Jens
    et al.
    KTH.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH.
    Engelson, Leonid
    KTH.
    Accuracy of the Gothenburg congestion charges2016In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 94, p. 266-277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the accuracy of the transport model forecast of the Gothenburg congestion charges, implemented in 2013. The design of the charging system implies that the path disutility cannot be computed as a sum of link attributes. The route choice model is therefore implemented as a hierarchical algorithm, applying a continuous value of travel time (VTT) distribution. The VTT distribution was estimated from stated choice (SC) data. However, based on experience of impact forecasting with a similar model and of impact outcome of congestion charges in Stockholm, the estimated VTT distribution had to be stretched to the right. We find that the forecast traffic reductions across the cordon and travel time gains were close to those observed in the peak. However, the reduction in traffic across the cordon was underpredicted off-peak. The necessity to make the adjustment indicates that the VTT inferred from SC data does not reveal the travellers’ preferences, or that there are factors determining route choice other than those included in the model: travel distance, travel time and congestion charge.

  • 3230.
    West, Jens
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. SWECO, Sweden.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Engelsson, Leonid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Ex-post evaluation of national transport model: Gothenburg congestion charges application2014Report (Other academic)
  • 3231.
    West, Jens
    et al.
    KTH.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH.
    Engelsson, Leonid
    KTH.
    Forecasting effects of congestion charges2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper performs an ex-post evaluation of the transport model forecast of the effects of the Gothenburg congestion charges, implemented in 2013. We find that the predicted traffic reductions across the cordon and travel time gains were close to those observed in the peak. However, the reduction in traffic across the cordon was under-predicted in off-peak. The design of the charging system implies that the path disutility cannot be computed as a sum of link attributes. The route choice model is therefore implemented as a hierarchical algorithm, including a continuous value of travel time (VTT) distribution. The VTT distribution was estimated from stated choice (SC) data, but had to be adjusted to be consistent with observed outcome. One reason for the discrepancy may be that VTT inferred from SC data does not reveal travellers’ long-term preferences. Another reason may be that apart from distance, travel time and charge there are other factors that determine drivers’ route choice.

  • 3232.
    West, Jens
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. SWECO, Sweden.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Individual and Synergetic Effects of Transit Service Improvement Strategies: Simulation and Validation2017In: Journal of transportation engineering, ISSN 0733-947X, E-ISSN 1943-5436, Vol. 143, no 6, article id 04017061Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessment of transit service improvements such as bus lanes, allowing boarding through all doors, and headway-based holding control requires detailed simulation capabilities. However, because the usage of models advanced enough to simultaneously analyze physical and operational measures has been limited, their validity has hitherto remained low. This paper assesses the implementation of several bus service improvement measures in a simulation model. The paper analyzes the effect of isolated and combinations of measures, and validates the model using field experiment data. The model predicted travel time improvements accurately (1–2% difference), while overestimating some of the headway variability effects. The three tested measures exercised negative synergy effects, with their combined effect being smaller than the sum of their marginal contributions, except for headway-based holding, which exercised positive synergy effects with the two other measures.

  • 3233.
    West, Jens
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. SWECO, Sweden.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Modelling transit user adaptation and learningManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 3234.
    Westerlund, Linnéa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Wåågh, Martina
    Utformning av metodik för effektivisering av produktionslayout: En fallstudie hos Eco Log Sweden AB2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to design a methodology to streamline layouts for production and associated material flow. In order to test and evaluate the methodology a case study was performed at Eco Log Sweden AB, a company in Söderhamn producing forestry Machines.

    The purpose was answered by comprehensive interviews, observations and literature reviews. With supported by relevant theory and the case the methodology were composed to be used for streamlining production layouts. The methodology consists of five steps and is inspired by systematic layout planning (SLP) and further methods and factors. As organizations look different the methodology may be needed to be adapted in the specific case when applying to other companies.

    By applying the methodology at Eco Log a number of different wastes were identified. In order to reduce waste four layout proposals has been produced. Eco Log was recommended to select the layout that after evaluation is considered to best meet the needs of the company. In addition to the layout, suggestions for further improvements have been provided.

    Using the methodology identified factors that are important for production efficiency and factors affecting the layout design. For further work on the methodology can be broadened through cover more aspects that may be relevant to a production efficiency and material flow. Regarding generalizability considered it good then use the theory has taken from the publicly known literature on the subject, but to strengthen the generalizability of these topics may be tested at other companies. 

  • 3235.
    Westin, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Efficiency and acceptability of pricing policies and transport investments in distorted economies2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis contains five papers studying the economic efficiency and political acceptability of road pricing policies and transport investments in distorted economies. Interactions between the transport market and other distorted markets, such as the labor market, can have a large impact on the welfare effect of a road pricing policy or a transport investment. Many road pricing studies therefore try to incorporate effects from other distorted markets in the analysis. Paper I analyzes how the economic efficiency of a road toll in a distorted economy depends on assumptions about the initial tax system. In the road pricing literature, the welfare effect of a road toll is often found to depend on revenue use. Using a simple general equilibrium model paper I shows that the relative efficiency of marginal revenue recycling policies depends more on assumptions regarding inefficiencies in the initial tax system than on the road toll per se. Paper II studies the effect on welfare, equity and labor supply from a road toll in a commuting population with heterogeneous value of time and endogenous labor supply. When explicitly taking into account that commuters have different value of time, the road toll can increase total labor supply even when the revenues are not recycled back to the commuters. The analysis stresses the importance of recognizing traveler heterogeneity when analyzing congestion pricing. Road pricing policies are often characterized by conflicting interests between different stakeholders and different geographical areas. Papers III and IV study the economic efficiency and political acceptability of pricing and investment policies in different institutional and geographical settings. The main contribution of the papers is to explain how political constraints can lead to inefficient tolling strategies. The papers contribute to the existing literature on political acceptability of road pricing by analyzing the conflict and potential trade-off between political acceptability and economic efficiency. A difficulty when assessing the welfare effect of a future transport policy is also that many factors and parameters needed for the analysis are uncertain. Paper V studies the climate benefit of an investment in high speed rail by calculating the magnitude of annual traffic emission reduction required to compensate for the annualized embedded emissions from the construction of the line. The paper finds that to be able to balance the annualized emissions from the construction, traffic volumes of more than 10 million annual one-way trips are usually required, and most of the traffic diverted from other transport modes must come from aviation.

  • 3236.
    Westin, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Evaluating road tolls in the presence of tax distortions: Revenue recycling revisitedManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A well-known result in the road pricing literature is that the welfare potential of a road toll critically depends on revenue use. Using a simple general equilibrium model we show that the relative efficiency of different revenue recycling policies depends more on assumptions regarding inefficiencies in the initial tax system than on the road toll per se. Without a thorough analysis of the initial tax systemand the political situation surrounding the decision, it might make more sense to analyze the effect of road pricing “as if” the policy instruments in the no-toll situation are chosen on welfare maximizing principles.

  • 3237.
    Westin, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Fördjupade godsflödesanalyser för Trafikverket region Nord och Mitt2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport är framtagen och finansierad på uppdrag av Trafikverket Region Nord och Region Mitt. Syftet med rapporten har varit är att genomföra en fördjupad analys av godsflöden längs vägar, järnvägar och sjörutter i Trafikverkets region Nord och Mitt så som de beskrivs i Trafikverkets Samgodsmodell. Trafikverkets Samgodsmodell är central för Trafikverkets inriktnings- och åtgärdsplanering, vid skapandet av en lägesbild över godsflöden och godstransportefterfrågan i regionen är det därför viktigt att bygga arbetet utifrån denna modell. I ett tidigare projekt har en lägesbild över godstransportefterfrågan i Trafikverkets regioner Nord och Mitt baserat på data från Trafikverkets Samgodsmodell redovisats. Målsättningen med detta projekt har varit att fördjupa och analysera resultat från detta tidigare arbete.

  • 3238.
    Westin, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Förslag på process för fortsatt arbete med regional systemanalys och länstransportplaner i Norrbotten och Västerbotten2015Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3239.
    Westin, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Labor Market Effects of Congestion Pricing in a Heterogeneous PopulationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Do congestion pricing reduce labor supply? Since a congestion charge raises the monetary cost of car commuting, concerns have been raised that the toll may decrease labor supply at the extensive margin in a similar way as an income tax. The paper studies the effect of a congestion charge on welfare, equity and labor supply in a commuting population with heterogeneous value of time and endogenous labor supply. The congestion charge decreases labor supply among commuters who change from car to public transport, but increases labor supply among the remaining car commuters. When explicitly taking into account that commuters have different value of time, aggregate labor supply is found to increase even when the revenues are not recycled back to the commuters. This indicates that a congestion charge by itself does not reduce aggregate labor supply. The analysis hence stresses the importance of recognizing traveler heterogeneity when analyzing congestion pricing.

  • 3240.
    Westin, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301), Transport and Location Analysis (closed 20110301). KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Labor Market Effects of Road Pricing in a Population with Continuously Distributed Value of Time2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the presentation is to analyze the labor market effects of a congestion charge when commuters have continuously distributed value of time. Since a congestion charge raises the cost of commuting to work, it can decrease employment at the extensive margin in a similar way as an income tax. Without any form of revenue recycling, the resulting welfare loss from the decreased employment can even exceed the Pigouvian welfare gain from internalizing the congestion externality. A common conclusion in the literature, when comparing different revenue recycling schemes, is that it in general is more effective to use the revenues to cut taxes in the labor market compared to subsidizing public transport or returning them in a lump-sum transfer. A critical assumption in many of the previous cost-benefit analyses of congestion charges is however that there only exists a single value of time. This is somewhat surprising since one of the main features of a congestion charge is that it sorts people according to their value of time, given the existence of feasible transport alternatives. This paper intends to challenge this conclusion by analyzing how previous results hold if we, instead of using a representative individual, consider a population with a continuously distributed value of time. The model used in the paper is created with the Stockholm congestion charging trial in mind, but the analysis can just as well be applied to any city with a well developed public transport service. In the paper a simple traffic model is embedded within a general equilibrium framework where a large number of individuals with different values of time choose labor supply at the extensive margin and mode of transportation. In contrast to previous models, a modal-choice approach is used to model how the value of time for different individuals affects their choice of travel mode. The disaggregated travel demand model makes it possible to analyze how self-selection of mode choice affects labor supply, total welfare and the relative performance of the different revenue recycling schemes. Special attention will also be given to the distributional impacts of the different recycling schemes.

  • 3241.
    Westin, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Olika aspekter av arbetsmarknadseffekter för trängselskatt2012Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3242.
    Westin, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Räkneövning banavgifter2011Report (Other academic)
  • 3243.
    Westin, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    The Climate Effect of High Speed Rail2011Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3244.
    Westin, Jonas
    Umeå universitet.
    Trängselavgifter utan trängsel – när är det en bra idé?2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3245.
    Westin, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Välfärdseffekter av trängselavgifter2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3246.
    Westin, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301), Transport and Location Analysis (closed 20110301). KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Welfare Effects of Road Pricing in a Population with Continuously Distributed Value of Time2010Report (Other academic)
  • 3247.
    Westin, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Basck, Pierre
    LET, Université de Lyon.
    Franklin, Joel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Proost, Stef
    CES, KU Leuven.
    Raux, Charles
    LET, Université de Lyon.
    Achieving political acceptability for new transport infrastructure in congested urban regions2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper analyzes the political acceptability of policies targeted at relieving urban congestion. The paper combines a stylized model of an urban transport network with a somewhat more detailed model of the political process that incorporates interactions between voters, special interest groups and politicians to explore the possibilities to reach political acceptability for efficient transport policies. In a case study of a proposed bypass in Lyon, France, the paper compares a set of potential policies in terms of efficiency, equity and political acceptability. A possible explanation for the difficulty of achieving political support for efficient transport policies is that since urban road pricing policies are characterized by conflicting interest, the political decision making process must balance different interests against each other to reach an efficient outcome. The analysis suggest that the difficulty to achieve political support for efficient road pricing policies is not a lack of political acceptability; instead the difficulty arises because of low political feasibility for efficient transport pricing since non-efficient transport policies are seen as more attractive to the decision makers.

  • 3248.
    Westin, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Basck, Pierre
    Laboratoire d’Economie des Transports.
    Franklin, Joel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Proost, Stef
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Raux, Charles
    Laboratoire d’Economie des Transports.
    Achieving political acceptability for new transport infrastructure in congested urban regions2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3249.
    Westin, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    de Jong, Gerard
    Significance.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI).
    Krüger, Niclas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI).
    Karlsson, Rune
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI).
    Johansson, Magnus
    Transport Analysis.
    Baserunning - analyzing the sensitivity and economies of scale of the Swedish national freight model system using stochastic production-consumption-matrices2015Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the paper is to analyze how sensitive the Swedish national freight model system Samgods is to uncertainties in its production-consumption matrices (PC-matrices). This is done by studying how sensitive outputs from one of its key component, the logistics model, are to changes in the PC-matrices. This paper is, to our knowledge, the first attempt to analyze the sensitivity and economies of scale of a national freight transport model using Monte Carlo simulation. The results indicate that the logistics model is able to find new logistics solutions when larger demand volumes are assumed. Freight volumes are calculated to shift to sea transport. If the transport volume increases with one percent, the logistics cost per tonne is on average reduced by about 0.5 percent. Part of the cost reduction comes from increased consolidation of shipments due to larger transport volumes. There is also a positive correlation between total transport demand and the load factor for heavier lorries, trains and larger ships. Without empirical data and further analysis it is difficult to assess the estimated strength of the effect. Furthermore, the analysis indicates that it might be possible to reduce runtimes by removing small transport flows from the PC-matrices without affecting aggregate results too much.

  • 3250.
    Westin, Jonas
    et al.
    Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM), Umeå universitet, Umeå, Sweden.
    de Jong, Gerard
    Significance, Leiden, The Netherlands; Institute for Transport Studies, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Krüger, Niclas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Rune
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Transport Analysis, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Baserunning: analyzing the sensitivity and economies of scale of the Swedish national freight model system using stochastic production-consumption-matrices2015Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the paper is to analyze how sensitive the Swedish national freight model system Samgods is to uncertainties in its production-consumption matrices (PC-matrices). This is done by studying how sensitive outputs from one of its key component, the logistics model, are to changes in the PC-matrices. This paper is, to our knowledge, the first attempt to analyze the sensitivity and economies of scale of a national freight transport model using Monte Carlo simulation. The results indicate that the logistics model is able to find new logistics solutions when larger demand volumes are assumed. Freight volumes are calculated to shift to sea transport. If the transport volume increases with one percent, the logistics cost per tonne is on average reduced by about 0.5 percent. Part of the cost reduction comes from increased consolidation of shipments due to larger transport volumes. There is also a positive correlation between total transport demand and the load factor for heavier lorries, trains and larger ships. Without empirical data and further analysis it is difficult to assess the estimated strength of the effect. Furthermore, the analysis indicates that it might be possible to reduce runtimes by removing small transport flows from the PC-matrices without affecting aggregate results too much.

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