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  • 3051.
    Zhong, Yuan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Rännar, Lars-Erik
    Wikman, Stefan
    Koptyug, Andrey
    Liu, Leifeng
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Cui, Daqing
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Shen, Zhijian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Additive manufacturing of ITER first wall panel parts by two approaches: Selective laser melting and electron beam melting2017In: Fusion engineering and design, ISSN 0920-3796, E-ISSN 1873-7196, Vol. 116, 24-33 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fabrication of ITER First Wall (FW) Panel parts by two additive manufacturing (AM) technologies, selective laser melting (SEM) and electron beam melting (EBM), was supported by Fusion for Energy (F4E). For the first time, AM is applied to manufacture ITER In-Vessel parts with complex design. Fully dense SS316L was prepared by both SLM and EBM after developing optimized laser/electron beam parameters. Characterizations on the density, magnetic permeability, microstructure, defects and inclusions were carried out. Tensile properties, Charpy-impact properties and fatigue properties of SLM and EBM SS316L were also compared. ITER FW Panel parts were successfully fabricated by both SLM and EBM in a onestep building process. The SLM part has smoother surface, better size accuracy while the EBM part takes much less time to build. Issues with removing support structures might be solved by slightly changing the design of the internal cooling system. Further investigation of the influence of neutron irradiation on materials properties between the two AM technologies is needed.

  • 3052. Zhou, D. Q.
    et al.
    Xu, X. Q.
    Mao, Huahai
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Computational Thermodynamics.
    Yan, Y. F.
    Nieh, T. G.
    Lu, Z. P.
    Plastic flow behaviour in an alumina-forming austenitic stainless steel at elevated temperatures2014In: Materials Science & Engineering: A, ISSN 0921-5093, Vol. 594, 246-252 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The deformation behaviour of a newly developed alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steel at elevated temperatures was investigated. It was found that the steady-state data could be well described by a stress power law that considered the threshold stress and temperature dependence of the shear modulus and self-diffusion coefficient, suggesting that the deformation of the austenite matrix was controlled by the lattice self-diffusion. The threshold stress was temperature-dependent and appeared to be caused by Orowan bowing stress. At temperatures below 1023 K, the secondary NbC phase was the major hardening precipitate, but at temperatures above 1023 K, the Laves Fe2Nb phase became dominant. The apparent interaction energy required for mobile dislocations to overcome the particle obstacles decreased from 163 to 34 kJ/mol with increasing temperature, which was most likely associated with the formation of the two different precipitates.

  • 3053. Zhou, D. Q.
    et al.
    Zhao, W. X.
    Mao, Huahai
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Computational Thermodynamics.
    Hu, Y. X.
    Xu, X. Q.
    Sun, X. Y.
    Lu, Z. P.
    Precipitate characteristics and their effects on the high-temperature creep resistance of alumina-forming austenitic stainless steels2015In: Materials Science & Engineering: A, ISSN 0921-5093, Vol. 622, 91-100 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the dynamic evolution of precipitates and its influence on the high-temperature mechanical properties of newly developed AFA steels were systematically investigated. At 1023 K or above, three main types of precipitates, i.e., the B2-NiAl, Laves-Fe2Nb, and delta/sigma phases, were formed in the base steel, and the major strengthening medium is Laves-Fe2Nb, which coarsened quickly, leading to undesirable creep properties. Phase competition between the most effective strengthening NbC nanosized precipitates and the Laves-Fe2Nb phase was analyzed, and it was found that adjusting the Nb/C ratio in the steels could enable the precipitation of highly stable, fine NbC particles. In addition, the formation of detrimental sigma phases could be suppressed by lowering the Mo and Si content in the alloy. Eventually, a new type of AFA steel consisting of a high density of nanosized NbC particles homogeneously dispersed in the austenitic matrix was successfully developed, and significant enhancement in the creep resistance was achieved due to the effective strengthening resulting from the tiny secondary NbC particles.

  • 3054.
    Zhou, Jing
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Physical Metallurgy.
    An Atom-Probe Tomography Study of Phase Separation in Fe-Cr Based Steels2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Stainless steels are very important engineering materials in a variety of applications such as in the food industry and nuclear power plants due to their combination of good mechanical properties and high corrosion resistance. However, ferrite-containing stainless steels are sensitive to the so-called ‘475°C embrittlement’, which is induced by phase separation of the ferrite phase, where it decomposes into Fe-rich ferrite (α) and Cr-rich ferrite (α'). The phase separation is accompanied with a severe loss of toughness. Therefore, the upper service temperature of ferrite-containing stainless steels in industrial applications has been limited to around 250°.

    In the present work, Fe-Cr based steels were mainly investigated by atom probe tomography. A new method based on the radial distribution function (RDF) was proposed to quantitatively evaluate both the wavelength and amplitude of phase separation in Fe-Cr alloys from the atom probe tomography data. Moreover, a simplified equation was derived to calculate the amplitude of phase separation. The wavelength and amplitude was compared with evaluations using the auto-correlation function (ACF) and Langer-Bar-on-Miller (LBM) method, respectively. The results show that the commonly used LBM method underestimates the amplitude of phase separation and the wavelengths obtained by RDF shows a good exponential relation with aging time which is expected from the theory. The RDF is also an effective method in detecting the phenomena of clustering and elemental partitioning.

    Furthermore, atom probe tomography and the developed quantitative analysis method have been applied to investigate the influence of different factors on the phase separation in Fe-Cr based alloys by the help of mainly mechanical property tests and atom probe tomography analysis. The study shows that: (1) the external tensile stress during aging enhances the phase separation in ferrite. (2) Phase separation in weld bead metals decomposes more rapidly than both the heat-affected-zone metals and the base metals mainly due to the high density of dislocations in the welding bead metals which could facilitate the diffusion. (3) The results show that Ni and Mn can enhance the phase separation comparing to the binary Fe-Cr alloy whereas Cu forms clusters during aging. (4) Initial clustering of Cr atoms was found after homogenization. Two factors, namely, clustering of Cr above the miscibility gap and clustering during quenching was suggested as the two responsible mechanisms. (5) The homogenization temperatures significantly influence the evolution of phase separation in Fe-46.5at.%Cr.

  • 3055.
    Zhou, Jing
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Physical Metallurgy.
    Hedström, Peter
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Physical Metallurgy.
    Odqvist, Joakim
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Physical Metallurgy.
    Hertzman, Staffan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Computational Thermodynamics. Outokumpu Stainless Research Foundation, Sweden .
    Thuvander, Mattias
    Tillämpad Fysik, Mikroskopi och mikroanalys, Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    A study of duplex stainless steels aged at 325°C under applied tensile load2011In: 7th European Stainless Steel Conference: Science and Market, Proceedings, Associazione Italiana di Metallurgia , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3056.
    Zhou, Jing
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Physical Metallurgy.
    Odqvist, Joakim
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Physical Metallurgy.
    Höglund, Lars
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Physical Metallurgy.
    Thuvander, M.
    Barkar, Thomas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Physical Metallurgy.
    Hedström, Peter
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Physical Metallurgy.
    Initial clustering - A key factor for phase separation kinetics in Fe-Cr-based alloys2014In: Scripta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6462, E-ISSN 1872-8456, Vol. 75, 62-65 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Clustering of alloying elements in solution-treated Fe-Cr-based alloys is of considerable importance for their microstructure stability upon aging. The clustering of Cr after solution treatment in three stainless steel alloy categories has been studied by atom probe tomography. Furthermore, phase-field simulations are applied to examine the effect of initial clustering on phase separation evolution. It is concluded that the clustering of Cr found in solution-treated ferritic and duplex alloys plays a critical role in the nanostructure evolution during aging.

  • 3057.
    Zhou, Jing
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Odqvist, Joakim
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Physical Metallurgy.
    Thuvander, M.
    Hertzman, Staffan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Hedström, Peter
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Physical Metallurgy.
    Concurrent phase separation and clustering in the ferrite phase during low temperature stress aging of duplex stainless steel weldments2012In: Acta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6454, E-ISSN 1873-2453, Vol. 60, no 16, 5818-5827 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concurrent phase separation and clustering of alloying elements in the ferrite phase of duplex stainless steel weldments after stress aging at 325 degrees C have been investigated by atom probe tomography analysis. Both phase separation, into Fe-rich and Cr-rich ferrite, and solute clustering were observed. Phase separation in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) is most pronounced in the high alloyed SAF 2507, followed by SAF 2205 and SAF 2304. Moreover Cu clustering was observed in the HAZ of SAF 2507. However, decomposition in the weld bead (25.10.4L) was more pronounced than in the HAZs, with both phase separation and clustering of Ni-Mn-Si-Cu. The observed differences in the decomposition behaviors in the HAZ and weld bead can be attributed to the high Ni content and the characteristic microstructure of the weld bead with high internal strains. In addition, an applied tensile stress during aging of weldments has been found to further promote the kinetics of phase separation and clustering.

  • 3058.
    Zhou, Nian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry. Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Peng, Ru Lin
    Pettersson, Rachel
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry. Jernkontoret, Sweden.
    Schonning, Mikael
    Residual Stress in Stainless Steels after Surface Grinding and its Effect on Chloride Induced SCC2017In: Residual Stresses  2016: ICRS-10 / [ed] Holden, TM Muransky, O Edwards, L, Materials Research Forum LLC , 2017, 289-294 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The induced residual stresses in stainless steels as a consequence of surface grinding as well as their influence on the chloride induced stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility have been investigated. Three types of materials were studied: 304L austenitic stainless steel, 4509 ferritic stainless steel and 2304 duplex stainless steel. Surface grinding using 60# and 180# grit size abrasives was performed for each material. Residual stress depth profiles were measured using X-ray diffraction. The susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking was evaluated in boiling MgCl2 according to ASTM G36. Specimens were exposed without applying any external loading to evaluate the risk for SCC caused solely by residual stresses. Induced residual stresses and corrosion behavior were compared between the austenitic, ferritic and duplex stainless steels to elucidate the role of the duplex structure. For all materials, the grinding operation generated tensile residual stresses in the surface along the grinding direction but compressive residual stresses perpendicular to the grinding direction. In the subsurface region, compressive stresses in both directions were present. Micro cracks initiated due to high grinding-induced tensile residual stresses in the surface layer were observed in austenitic 304L and duplex 2304, but not in the ferritic 4509. The surface residual stresses decreased significantly after exposure for all specimens.

  • 3059.
    Zhou, Xiaobin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Mathematical and Physical Simulation of a BOF Converter2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 3060.
    Zhou, Xiaobin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Mathematical and Physical Simulations of BOF Converters2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to develop mathematical models to explore the mixing and its related phenomena in converter bath. Specifically, first, a mathematical model of a physical model converter, which was scaled down to 1/6th of a 30 t vessel, was developed in this study. A number of parameters were studied and their effects on the mixing time were recorded in a top blown converter. Second, a mathematical model for a combined top-bottom blown was built to investigate the optimization process. Then, a side tuyere was introduced in the combined top-bottom blown converter and its effects on the mixing and wall shear stress were studied. Moreover, based on the above results, the kinetic energy transfer phenomena in a real converter were investigated by applying the mathematical models.

    A simplified model, in which the calculation region was reduced to save calculation compared to simulations of the whole region of the converter, was used in the mathematical simulation. In addition, this method was also used in the simulation of real converters. This approach makes it possible to simulate the Laval nozzle flow jet and the cavity separately when using different turbulence models.

    In the top blown converter model, a comparison between the physical model and the mathematical model showed a good relative difference of 2.5% and 6.1% for the cavity depth and radius, respectively. In addition, the predicted mixing time showed a good relative difference of 2.8% in comparison to the experimental data. In an optimization of a combined top-bottom blown converter, a new bottom tuyere scheme with an asymmetrical configuration was found to be one of the best cases with respect to a decreased mixing time in the bath. An industrial investigation showed that the application effects of the new tuyere scheme yield a better stirring condition in the bath compared to the original case. Furthermore, the results indicated that the mixing time for a combined top-bottom-side blown converter was decreased profoundly compared to a conventional combined top-bottom blown converter. It was found that the side wall shear stress is increased by introducing side blowing, especially in the region near the side blowing plume.

    For a 100 t converter in real, the fundamental aspects of kinetic energy transfer from a top and bottom gas to the bath were explored. The analyses revealed that the energy transfer is less efficient when the top lance height is lowered or the flowrate is increased in the top blowing operations. However, an inverse trend was found. Namely, that the kinetic energy transfer is increased when the bottom flowrate is increased in the current bottom blowing operations. In addition, the slag on top of the bath is found to dissipate 6.6%, 9.4% and 11.2% for the slag masses 5, 9 and 15 t compared to the case without slag on top of the surface of the bath, respectively. 

  • 3061.
    Zhou, Xiaobin
    et al.
    Institute of Ferrous Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang, China.
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Zhong, L.
    Yu, J.
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Mathematical and physical simulation of a top blown converter2014In: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, Vol. 85, no 2, 273-281 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A mathematical model of a top blown converter, which was based on a physical model of a 30 t vessel, was developed in this study. A simplified model consisting of the converter was used in the mathematical simulation. With the simplified model, it is possible to run a large number of tracer calculations within a short time, compared to solving for the entire flow evolution each time. A cavity depth and radius comparison has been done between the physical model and the mathematical model, which showed a good relative difference of 2.5% and 6.1% for the cavity depth and radius, respectively. The velocity change in the bath of the converter was monitored by setting several monitoring points in the physical model. A fully developed flow field was assumed to occur when the fluctuations in these points were small or periodic. It took approximately 25 s to get a developed flow field. In addition, the predicted mixing time showed a good relative difference of 2.8% in comparison to the experimental data. A simplified model consisting of the converter has been used in the mathematical simulation. The comparison between the physical model and the mathematical model shows that the simplified top blown model can successfully be used to calculate long-time simulations, and the mixing time calculations in frozen field can save a large amount of time compared to the simulation time using a transient flow field.

  • 3062.
    Zhou, Xiaobin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy. University Shenyang, China.
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Zhong, Liangcai
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Numerical and Physical Simulations of a Combined Top-Bottom-Side Blown Converter2015In: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, E-ISSN 1869-344X, Vol. 86, no 11, 1328-1338 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a side tuyere was introduced to investigate how it is possible to lower the mixing time and to avoid problems of a reduced stirring when using the application of slag splashing process in the combined top and bottom blown converter. Both physical and mathematical models were applied to study the flow in the bath. Specifically, the effects of a side-blowing gas jet on the bath stirring intensity was studied. The results indicate that the mixing time for a side blown converter is decreased profoundly compared to a conventional combined top and bottom blown converter. Overall, the mathematical model showed similar trends and a good agreement with that of the physical modeling data. Furthermore, the shear stress at the wall in the top-bottom-side (TBS) converter was considered, since the furnace lining is important when side blowing is used in the converter. It was found that the side wall shear stress is increased by introducing side blowing, especially in the region near the side blowing plume. Three side tuyeres with different locations in the same level did not show any obvious effects on the mixing of the bath, but showed apparent differences in the shear stress and the oscillation of the bath. Overall, the results showed that the mathematical model can be used to design the configuration of the metallurgical vessels when it is necessary to consider the oscillation and the shear stress of the bath.

  • 3063.
    Zhou, Xiaobin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy. Northeastern University Shenyang, China.
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Zhong, Liangcai
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Numerical Simulations of the Kinetic Energy Transferin the Bath of a BOF Converter2016In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 47, no 1, 434-445 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper focuses on the fundamental aspects of the kinetic energy transfer from a top andbottom gas injection to the bath of the basic oxygen furnace (BOF) by applying a mathematicalmodel. The analyses revealed that the energy transfer is less efficient when top lance height islowered or the flowrate is increased in the top blowing operations. However, an inverse trendwas found that the kinetic energy transfer is increased when the bottom flowrate is increased forthe current bottom blowing operation conditions. The kinetic energy transfer index resultsindicated that the energy transfer for the bottom blowing is much more efficient than that of thetop blowing operations. To understand the effects of the upper buoyant phase on the energydissipation of the bulk liquid in the bath, different mass and physical properties of slag and foamwere considered in the bottom blowing simulations. The slag on top of the bath is found todissipate by 6.6, 9.4, and 11.2 pct for slag mass values of 5, 9, and 15 t compared to the casewithout slag atop the surface of the bath, respectively. The results showed that the kinetic energytransfer is not largely influenced by the viscosity of the upper slag or the foaming phases.

  • 3064.
    Zhou, Xiaobin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy. University Shenyang, China.
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Zhong, Liangcai
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Optimization of Combined Blown Converter Process2014In: ISIJ International, ISSN 0915-1559, E-ISSN 1347-5460, Vol. 54, no 10, 2255-2262 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A 1/6th scaled down physical model was used to study and optimize the stirring condition of a 30 t converter. A number of parameters were studied and their effects on the mixing time were recorded. A new bottom tuyere scheme with an asymmetrical configuration was found to be one of the best cases with respect to a decreased mixing time in the bath. Mathematical modeling was employed to study the flow field characteristics caused by the new tuyere scheme. In the mathematical model, a comparison between the existing and the new tuyere setups was made with regards to the mixing time and turbulence in the bath. In addition, a new volumetric method for calculating the mixing time was applied. The results showed that, on average, a 23.1% longer mixing time resulted from the volumetric method compared to the standard method where discrete point are used to track the mixing time. Furthermore, an industrial investigation was performed to check the effects of the new tuyere scheme in a converter by analyzing the [O], [C] and [P] contents in the bath. The results showed that the application effects of the new tuyere scheme yield a better stirring condition in the bath compared to the original case.

  • 3065.
    Zhu, Baiwei
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    On the influence of Si on anodising and mechanical properties of cast aluminium alloys2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The combination of two cost-effective processes, i.e. casting and anodising, would be an interest for the aluminium component applications. However, there are some obstacles in the application of anodising on cast Al alloys. The challenges mostly relate to the alloying elements especially Si and the surface quality. With the development of casting process, cast aluminium alloys with low Si content can be casted, and a complex geometry component with reasonably good surface finish can be achieved. This study aims to identify the influence of Si on anodising and mechanical properties of Al-Si alloys.

    In this study, six Al-Si alloys with three different Si level and two different Sr level were investigated. Sr acts as a modifier to change the morphology of Si particles. The directional solidification technology was used to vary the microstructure coarseness by controlling the cooling rate to study the influence of Si level, Si particle morphology and cooling rate on mechanical properties, oxide layer formation and corrosion protection performance in cast Al-Si alloys.

    This study has observed that Si has a significant influence on anodising. During anodising, Si particles are anodised at a lower rate than the Al phase. The presence of Si particles in eutectic phase make the oxide layer locally thinner and more defected due to the low oxide growth rate in eutectic phase. This study observed the presence of residual metallic Al phase beneath or between Si particles. Due to their presence and their geometry, Al can be shielded by Si particles and prevented from oxidation. Si particles also act as a key role in the corrosion protection of oxide layer in Al-Si alloys. The corrosion attack propagates along Si particles as well as oxide defects to the Al substrate.

    It is found that the morphology of Si particles has a significant influence on the oxide layer formation and corrosion protection performance of the oxide layer on cast Al-Si alloys. A substantially improvement the corrosion resistance of anodised layer on Al-Si alloys is attributed to the morphology change from interconnected flakes to disconnected Si fibres when Sr is added, with less oxide defects and better oxide distribution.

    The Si level governs the mechanical properties of Al-Si based alloys. An increase of Si content in Al alloys improves the mechanical properties such as ultimate tensile and yield strength as well as hardness of the materials, but decreases the ductility. However, an increase of Si level in Al alloys decreases the thickness of oxide layer, and thereby, the corrosion protection of the oxide layer is deteriorated.

  • 3066.
    Zhu, Baiwei
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Fedel, Michele
    Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Trento, Trento, Italy.
    Andersson, Nils-Eric
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Leisner, Peter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing. SP-Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås, Sweden.
    Deflorian, Flavio
    Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Trento, Trento, Italy.
    Zanella, Caterina
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Effect of Si content and morphology on corrosion resistance of anodized cast Al-Si alloys2017In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 164, no 7, C435-C441 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the influence of Si content and Si particle morphology on the corrosion protection of anodized oxide layers on Al-Si alloys. Two Al alloys with low Si concentrations (2.43 wt-% and 5.45 wt-%, respectively) were studied and compared with 6082-T6 via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 3 wt-% NaCl solution prior to oxide layer sealing. Si particles were also modified by the addition of Sr to study the influence of Si particle morphology on the corrosion protection of the oxide layer. The EIS showed that the corrosion protection provided by the oxide layer on Al-Si alloys is significantly affected by the presence of Si particles. Si particles make the oxide layer locally thinner and more defective in the eutectic region, thereby increasing the ease of substrate corrosion attack. However, the addition of Sr can improve the corrosion protection of anodized Al-Si alloys significantly. Furthermore, it was proved that higher Si level influences negatively the anodized oxide corrosion protection due to the higher amount of cracks and defects, but Sr modification is efficient in preventing this negative effect.

  • 3067.
    Zhu, Baiwei
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Leisner, Peter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology.
    Seifeddine, Salem
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Jarfors, Anders E.W.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Influence of Si and cooling rate on microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-Si-Mg cast alloys2015In: VII Aliminum Surface Science & Technology, Madeira, Portugal, 17-21 May, 2015., 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to investigate the effect of Si-content and microstructure on mechanical properties of Al-Si-Mg alloys with the purpose of to develop high strength cast aluminum alloys that are anodizable. The Si-content was 2.5, 3.5 and 5.5 wt% Si and both Sr-modified and unmodified conditions were used. The samples were produced using the gradient solidification furnace to generate a well-controlled microstructure. The resulting secondary dendrite arm spacing was 10µm and 20µm. The microstructural features were evaluated by employing SEM/EDS, and optical microscopy. Furthermore, CT-scan technology was used to provide a 3-D view of high density phases in the microstructure. The mechanical properties of these alloys were studied by means of tensile and hardness testing where the latter were performed on the macro- and micro-level. The results demonstrate clearly how the Si growth in the microstructure is restricted by increased cooling rate and modification and its role in strength development in Al-Si alloys. Additionally, the CT-scan visualized the morphology of intermetallics as well as supported in identifying the oxide layer growth as a result of the anodizing process.

  • 3068.
    Zhu, Baiwei
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Leisner, Peter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology.
    Seifeddine, Salem
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Jarfors, Anders E.W.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Influence of Si and cooling rate on microstructure and mechanical properties of Al–Si–Mg cast alloys2016In: Surface and Interface Analysis, ISSN 0142-2421, E-ISSN 1096-9918, Vol. 48, no 8, 861-869 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to investigate the effect of Si-content and microstructure on mechanical properties of Al–Si–Mg alloys with thepurpose of to develop high-strength cast aluminum alloys that are anodizable. The Si-content was 2.5, 3.5 and 5.5wt% Si, andboth Sr-modified and unmodified conditions were used. The samples were produced using the gradient solidification furnaceto generate awell-controlled microstructure. The resulting secondary dendrite armspacingwas 10 and 20μm. Themicrostructuralfeatures were evaluated by employing SEM/EDS and optical microscopy. Furthermore, computed tomography (CT) scan technologywas used to provide a 3D view of high-density phases in the microstructure. The mechanical properties of these alloys werestudied by means of tensile and hardness testing where the latter was performed on the macrolevel and microlevel. The resultsdemonstrate clearly how the Si growth in the microstructure is restricted by increased cooling rate and modification and its rolein strength development in Al-Si alloys. Additionally, the CT scan visualized the morphology of intermetallics and supported inidentifying the oxide layer growth as a result of the anodizing process.

  • 3069.
    Zhu, Baiwei
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology.
    Leisner, Peter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology.
    Zanella, Caterina
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology.
    Persson, Per O.Å.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Seifeddine, Salem
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Jarfors, Anders E. W.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    A study of formation and growth of the anodized surface layer on Al-Si casting alloys based on different analytical techniques2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3070.
    Zhu, Baiwei
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Leisner, Peter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. SP-Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Zanella, Caterina
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. SP-Technical Research Institute of Sweden; University of Trento, Dept of Industrial Engineering.
    Persson, Per
    Thin Film Physics Division, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University.
    Seifeddine, Salem
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Jarfors, Anders E.W.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    A study of formation and growth of the anodised surface layer on Al-Si casting alloys based on different analytical techniques2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the major limitations in the application of anodizing of aluminum casting alloys is the non-uniform thickness of the oxide layer. Previous researches have studied the formation of the oxide film during anodizing in detail. These investigations have mainly been limited to aluminum and wrought aluminum alloys, and only a few papers have given some insights about the formation of the oxide layer on cast aluminum alloys. The majority of cast aluminum alloys contains relatively higher amounts of Si and other elements (e.g. Cu and Fe) than wrought alloys. This paper aims to investigate the mechanisms of formation and growth of the anodized surface layer on Al-Si casting alloys by applying different analytical techniques such as optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray computer tomography (X-ray CT) scanning. Three different Al alloys with various Si content (2.4%, 3.5% and 5.5%) were investigated. Si morphological modification by Sr addition, as well as gradient solidification was used to vary the microstructural coarseness in a controlled manner to study the influence of these parameters on the growth of the oxide layer. The microstructure features of the anodized layer and the interface between matrix and the oxide layer were studied, employing optical microscopy (figure 1), and SEM/EDS (figure 2). X-Ray CT-scanning (figure 3) was used to examine the high density phases (Fe and Cu bearing phases) and also to give a 3-D view of the anodized oxide surface. Furthermore, TEM was used to examine the general filming behavior of anodized layer and the local effects associated with Si particles in the matrix.

    It was found that: (i) during anodizing, the oxide front grew around the Si particles and tends to engulf them; (ii) the oxide front grew inwards but did expand in other directions in the eutectic areas; (iii) a scalloped interface between substrate and oxide indicated different anodizing rates in dendrites and eutectic phases. The oxide front was moving faster in the primary dendrite Al-phase than in the eutectic, and the growth rate was particularly slow in larger eutectic areas; (iv) different anodizing rates in dendrite and eutectic phases resulted in thinner layers in specimens with lower SDAS (secondary dendrite arm spacing); and (v) a more uniform layer thickness in Sr-modified specimens illustrates that oxide growth speed was faster in modified eutectic phase. However, diffusion of Si or long distance between Si particles after modification could even results in the adverse situation with a bad anodized surface appearance. 

  • 3071.
    Zhu, Baiwei
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Seifeddine, Salem
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Persson, Per O.Å:
    Thin Film Physics Division, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University.
    Jarfors, Anders E.W.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Leisner, Peter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. SP-Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Zanella, Caterina
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. SP-Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    A study of formation and growth of the anodised surface layer on cast AlSi alloys based on different analytical techniques2016In: Materials & design, ISSN 0264-1275, E-ISSN 1873-4197, Vol. 101, 254-262 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to investigate the mechanisms of formation and growth of the anodised surface layer on Al-Si castings by applying different analytical techniques such as optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), and X-ray computer tomography (X-ray CT) scanning. Three different Al alloys with various Si content (2.43%, 3.53% and 5.45%) were investigated. Si particle morphological modification by Sr addition, as well as directional solidification, was used to vary the microstructural coarseness in a controlled manner to study the influence of these parameters on the growth behaviour of the oxide layer. This study observed residual unanodised Al phases trapped beneath or between Si particles in the oxide layer. It was found, depending on the geometry and morphology of Si particles, that Al can be shielded by Si particles and prevented from oxidising.

  • 3072. Zhu, M-Y
    et al.
    Jones, T
    Sichen, Du
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Micro-Modelling.
    Modelling study of slag foaming by chemical reactio2001In: Scandinavian journal of metallurgy, ISSN 0371-0459, Vol. 30, 51-56 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3073.
    Zhu, Ning
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Song, Jun
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Wosinski, Lech
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    He, Sailing
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Etched diffraction grating demultiplexers based on amorphous silicon nanowire platform2008In: 2008 Asia Optical Fiber Communication and Optoelectronic Exposition and Conference, AOE 2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present some theoretical and experimental results of Etched Diffraction Grating demultiplexer based on amorphous silicon nanowire platform, including issues with polarization sensitivity, diffraction efficiency and an application to triplexer.

  • 3074. Zuazo, I.
    et al.
    Hallstedt, B.
    Lindahl, Bonnie
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Computational Thermodynamics.
    Selleby, Malin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Computational Thermodynamics.
    Soler, M.
    Etienne, A.
    Perlade, A.
    Hasenpouth, D.
    Massardier-Jourdan, V.
    Cazottes, S.
    Kleber, X.
    Low-Density Steels: Complex Metallurgy for Automotive Applications2014In: JOM: The Member Journal of TMS, ISSN 1047-4838, E-ISSN 1543-1851, Vol. 66, no 9, 1747-1758 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current aim in the development of third-generation steels for lightweighting automotive applications is to increase strength keeping at least the same formability as current steel concepts. In this philosophy, an optimal concept would be one that brings, in addition, a lower density. For this purpose, low-density steels have been designed with important aluminum additions obtaining density reductions of 8-10% or higher in comparison with low-carbon steels. At the levels required for lightweighting, aluminum introduces complex phenomena in steels. Here, some of the effects of aluminum in phase stability, CALPHAD-type modeling, and microstructure development are described, the latter in relation with mechanical properties. Finally, the potential of two families of lightweight steels for automotive applications is assessed by comparison with a steel currently present in automotive structures.

  • 3075.
    Zuo, Guangging
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Ma, Jitang
    Björkman, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Some applications of neural networks for prediction of blast furnace irregularities1998In: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, E-ISSN 1869-344X, Vol. 69, no 2, 41-48 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The on-line analysis of operational data and prediction of furnace irregularities, though difficult, are essential for the improvement of the control of blast furnace operation. Three models based on artificial neural networks for the recognition of top gas distribution, distributions of the heat fluxes through the furnace wall, and for the prediction of slips have been designed. The off-line test results showed that a trained perceptron network could recognize various types of top gas profiles. A classifier consisting of a self-organizing feature map network and a learning vector quantizer could classify the characteristic patterns of heat flux distribution; and a model based on a back propagation network could properly predict the probability of upcoming slips in advance. The most important operational variables needed for predicting slips have also been extracted. It has been proved that the neural network used has a good capability of predicting furnace irregularities

  • 3076.
    Zuo, Guangqing
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Improving the performance of the blast furnace ironmaking process2000Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to assist the operators' control activities and to further improve the performance of the blast furnace, efforts have been made to develop models for control of blast furnace operation and improvements of burden quality. The main objectives of the work were to design models for diagnosing and forecasting irregular furnace statuses and for predicting the silicon content of the hot metal, and to study the influence of the fluxes on the melting properties of fluxed pellets. A model for diagnosing the process status, consisting of six sub-models - recognition of the top gas profiles, classification of the heat flux distributions, prediction of the slips, comprehensive evaluation of the furnace process, diagnosis of channeling and cool furnace thermal state, has been designed. The off-line test results indicate that these models can detect and predict some upcoming and existing irregular process statuses, e.g. detecting the irregular top gas distribution, predicting slips three hours in advance and cool furnace thermal state two hours in advance. The most important operational parameters for predicting the upcoming slips are also extracted. A hybrid model for predicting the silicon content, consisting of a knowledge-based system and perceptron networks, has also been developed. The knowledge-based sub-system evaluates the process conditions and determines the applicability of a sub-model for forecasting. When the furnace operation is judged as normal, neural network models will make the predictions. When some irregular process statuses occur in the process, the knowledge-based system will perform the forecasting tasks. Test results show that the hybrid model for predicting the silicon content can make the forecasts about two hours in advance under various conditions, except the occurrence of serious irregular process statuses, e.g. more than 2 meters slip. The hit rate - a ratio of correct predictions - reached about 75% and 86% on acceptable prediction errors ±0.05% and 0.08% Si, respectively. Concerning the networks used for designing the model, test results have shown that a three-layer perceptron with two middle nodes trained with the algorithm - back-propagation with momentum, could give the 'best' prediction capability of the model. Algorithms - Quick Propagation and Resilient Propagation, can accelerate the training but cannot enhance the prediction ability of the model. Training using moving 'windowed data' can generate similar prediction results and enable online automatic update of the model. However, this approach demands greater computer resources. Radial basis Function network did not produce a better model. Softening and melting experimental studies show that the addition of basic fluxes, especially BOF-slag to self-fluxed pellets can considerably worsen the melting properties of pellets, even entirely block the separation of metallic iron from slag. The main reason is the high basicity and low FeO content of the slag, formed by the primary slag of pellets and fluxes in the course of melting. Therefore, it can be concluded that when using high-Fe self-fluxed pellets as the main iron-bearing burden, top-charging fluxes is not favorable to blast furnace operation.

  • 3077.
    Zuo, Guangqing
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Softening and melting characteristics of self-fluxed pellets with and without the addition of BOF-slag to the pellet bed2000In: ISIJ International, ISSN 0915-1559, E-ISSN 1347-5460, Vol. 40, no 12, 1195-1202 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When using 100% self-fluxed pellets in the blast furnace burden, top charged fluxes, especially the BOF-slag, may cause irregularities in operation. The major reason has been theoretically attributed to the problematic slag formation in the furnace. As the melting of pellets is the first step of the slag formation process, the softening and melting properties of LKAB's self-fluxed pellets with and without addition of fluxes are studied experimentally. The results show that the softening and melting properties of the two types of LKAB's self-fluxed pellets are quite suitable for blast furnace operation. Contrarily, the melting-down characteristics of BOF-slag are variable and harmful to the slag formation under a reducing atmosphere. Adding 5% BOF-slag to the self-fluxed pellets can considerably worsen the softening and melting properties of pellets. It can either increase the softening and melting temperature interval substantially or cause the precipitation of solid phases, mainly di-calcium silicates, in the slag. It is quite likely that the resulting slag will therefore become very viscous, even entirely blocking the melting down of the pellets up to a temperature 1 520°C.

  • 3078.
    Zuo, Guangqing
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Some applications of artificial neural networks in blast furnace operation1997Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 3079.
    Zuo, Guangqing
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Björkman, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    An expert network for prediction and control of the silicon content of the hot metal1996In: The International Conference on Modelling and Simulation in Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science: June 11 - 13, 1996, Beijing, China / [ed] Zongsen Yu, Beijing: Metallurgical Industry Press , 1996, 417-422 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To predict and control the silicon content of the hot metal ([%Si]) in blast furnace ironmaking process, an expert network consisted of a neural network model and an expert system has been established and tested off-line with the practical process data. The applicability of either the neural network model or the expert system for the prediction of [%Si] is determined by the experiential rules. In general, the predictions are made by the neural network model in the periods of the normal operation of the furnace, and performed by the expert system in the periods of the unsteady operation of the furnace. The operation guidance for adapting the furnace process is recommended by the expert system

  • 3080.
    Zuo, Guangqing
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Björkman, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Monitoring the blast furnace process using neural networks and knowledge-based system2001In: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, E-ISSN 1869-344X, Vol. 72, no 4, 115-124 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To assist the daily control of blast furnace operation, models for diagnosing the irregular process status and for predicting the cool furnace thermal state have been developed. The diagnostic model consists of two sub-models. One is for evaluation of the various aspects of the process status based on fuzzy logic. The other is for the detection of the occurrence of channelling in the furnace based on neural networks. Tests using the actual process data have shown that the former sub-model can promptly detect the existing abnormal process status and give warnings of irregular process statuses, e.g. abnormal permeability of burden, high heat fluxes, etc. The latter sub-model can successfully extract the characteristic data patterns from a large amount of process data in connection with the occurrence of channelling and detect the existing channelling. For appropriately depicting the furnace thermal state, a thermal index and characteristic patterns of cool furnace thermal state have been derived using fuzzy logic and neural networks. Accordingly, two neural network models were designed for predicting the cool furnace thermal state. Either thermal index or characteristic patterns can be used to represent the cool furnace thermal state. Either model can be used to predict the upcoming cool furnace thermal state.

  • 3081.
    Zuo, Guangqing
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Ma, Jitang
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Björkman, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    A neural network model for predicting the silicon content of the hot metal at No. 2 blast furnace of SSAB Lulea1996In: 55th Ironmaking Conference proceedings: Meeting March 24-27, 1996 / [ed] D.H. Wakelin, Warrendale, Pa.: Iron and Steel Society , 1996, 211-221 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To predict the Si content of hot metal at No. 2 blast furnace, SSAB, Lulea Works, a three-layer back-propagation network model has been established. The network consists of twenty-eight inputs, six middle nodes and one output and uses a generalised delta rule for training. Different network structures and different training strategies have been tested. A well-functioning network with dynamic updating has been designed. The off-line test and the on-line application results showed that more than 80% of the predictions can match the actual silicon content in hot metal in a normal operation, if the allowable prediction error was set to plus/minus0.05% Si, while the actual fluctuation of the Si content was larger than plus/minus0.10% Si.

  • 3082. Åberg, J.
    et al.
    Vynnycky, M.
    Fredriksson, Hasse
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Processing.
    Heat-flux measurements of industrial on-site continuous copper casting and their use as boundary conditions for numerical simulations2009In: Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals, ISSN 0019-493X, Vol. 62, no 4-5, 443-446 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An embedded sensor, designed for rapid and accurate response times and using wireless data transmission, has been developed for the on-site measurement of temperatures in industrial continuous casting moulds. The sensor has been used to measure the temperature at several points in the mould during production in a Southwire copper casting process. The measured data has been used to calculate the temperature gradient in the mould to estimate the heat flux through it; this is then used as a boundary condition for numerical simulations of solidification. For these, we employ a method that tracks the solidification front explicitly; this has an advantage over fixed-grid methods in simulations for materials having a short solidification interval, since the release of latent heat at the solidification front can be resolved without resorting to a very fine mesh. The special considerations required for setting the initial condition for the numerical scheme and the time taken for the superheated melt to form a solid shell are also discussed.

  • 3083.
    Åberg, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Processing.
    Fredriksson, Hasse
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Processing.
    An On-site Industrial Experimental Heat Flux Study during Solidification of Pure Copper in the Southwire Process2007In: T INDIAN I METALS, ISSN 0972-2815, Vol. 60, no 2-3, 191-196 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To study the production of pure copper and copper alloys in the Southwire process the temperature in the mould has been measured on-site in the production process in a number of positions. To increase the accuracy and robustness of measurements a new type of thermocouple based temperature sensor has been developed and tested. The test system includes wireless transmission of measured data from the moving mould. The results from the measurements are then used to calculate the energy transfer rate from the solidifying shell as a function of time. An initial in-situ measurement campaign has been performed and the results are very promising.

  • 3084.
    Åberg, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Vynnycky, Michael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Fredriksson, Hasse
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Nassar, Hani
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Bergström, Thomas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    An on-site experimental heat flux study and its interpretation in a FEMLAB finite element simulation of continuous casting of copper in the South-Wire process2005In: Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals, ISSN 0019-493X, Vol. 58, no 4, 509-515 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The South-Wire process, a development of the Properzi process, to continuously cast copper has been studied both experimentally and by finite element computer simulation. The experimental work has been performed on site to get temperature data as a function of time at several locations within the mould. These experimental data have been used to evaluate boundary conditions for the heat transfer from the strand-mould interface and through the mould. A simulation model of the casting process has been developed in the program FEMLAB. In this program temperature varying material data and time varying boundary conditions have been used. The simulation model has been verified by comparing with an analytical solution, and then applied to the real physical process.

  • 3085.
    Ågren, John
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Diffusion in multicomponent phases2008In: The SGTE Casebook: Thermodynamics At Work, Elsevier, 2008, 2, 347-350 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 3086.
    Ågren, John
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Physical Metallurgy.
    Multicomponent diffusion in compound steel2008In: The SGTE Casebook: Thermodynamics At Work, Elsevier Ltd , 2008, 2, 386-391 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3087.
    Ågren, John
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Physical Metallurgy.
    Thermodynamics and Diffusion Coupling in Alloys-Application-Driven Science2012In: Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, ISSN 1073-5623, E-ISSN 1543-1940, Vol. 43A, no 10, 3453-3461 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As emphasized by Stokes (1997), the common assumption of a linear progression from basic research (science), via applied research, to technological innovations (engineering) should be questioned. In fact, society would gain much by supporting long-term research that stems from practical problems and has usefulness as a key word. Such research may be fundamental, and often, it cannot be distinguished from "basic" research if it were not for its different motivation. The development of the Calphad method and the more recent development of accompanying kinetic approaches for diffusion serve as excellent examples and are the themes of this symposium. The drivers are, e.g., the development of new materials, processes, and lifetime predictions. Many challenges of the utmost practical importance require long-term fundamental research. This presentation will address some of them, e.g., the effect of various ordering phenomena on activation barriers, and the strength and practical importance of correlation effects.

  • 3088.
    Ågren, John
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Physical Metallurgy.
    Thermodynamics of phase transformations in steels2012In: Phase Transformations in Steels, Elsevier, 2012, Vol. 1, 56-93 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The basics of thermodynamics are reviewed with special attention to phase transformations. The distinction between internal and external variables is emphasized and the general equilibrium conditions are derived from the combined first and second law. The concepts of entropy production and driving force as well as stability are discussed. The calculation of thermodynamic properties and phase equilibria is considered and the Calphad method is briefly reviewed, including modeling of substitutional and interstitial disorder. The thermodynamic bases of phase diagrams are examined, and finally, the effect of interfaces, fluctuations and thermodynamics of nucleation are reviewed.

  • 3089.
    Ågren, John
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Physical Metallurgy.
    Schmid-Fetzer, Rainer
    True Phase Diagrams2014In: Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, ISSN 1073-5623, E-ISSN 1543-1940, Vol. 45A, no 11, 4766-4769 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the use of today's computer softwares, phase diagrams can readily be plotted with a wide choice of variables on the axes. Hillert defined a true phase diagram as a diagram where each point uniquely defines the stable phases. He also showed that not all choices of axis variables give true phase diagrams. In this note we will demonstrate that although the rules stated by Hillert are necessary they are not sufficient to have true phase diagrams.

  • 3090.
    Ångström, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Hydrogen absorption/desorption properties of the Sc(AlxNi1-x)2 system2011Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sc(AlxNi1-x)2 is a pseudobinary C14 Laves phase and a potential interstitial hydrogen storage material or anode in a Ni-MH battery. A previous study showed that Sc1Al1Ni1 can store hydrogen reversibly; both interstitially and trough decomposition into ScH2 and AlNi. It is also known that the exact composition is very important for the hydrogen storage properties of pseudobinary Laves phases. This thesis work is aimed at synthesising Sc(AlxNi1-x)2 and study the effect of the Ni/Al ratio on the hydrogen absorption/desorption process as well as the interstitial storage capacity. Compositions with high nickel content had the highest capacity (at least 0.67wt% for ScAl0.66Ni1.34) and ones with high aluminium content had the lowest total storage capacity (0wt% for ScAl1.28Ni0.62). The former composition was also shown to absorb and desorb hydrogen during multiple cycles. Desorption of interstitial hydrogen from ScAl0.66Ni1.34 requires 4.6kJ/mol in activation energy.

  • 3091.
    Ångström, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström.
    Structural Basis for Hydrogen Interaction in Selected Metal Hydrides2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Metal hydrides have existing and potential uses in many applications such as in batteries, for hydrogen storage and for heat storage. New metal hydrides and a better understanding of the behaviour of known metal hydrides may prove crucial in the realisation or further development of these applications. The aims of the work described in this thesis have been to characterise new metal hydrides, investigate how the properties of known metal hydrides can be improved and understand how their structure influences these properties. Metal hydrides, in most cases synthesised via high-temperature techniques, were structurally characterised using X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray single crystal diffraction and neutron powder diffraction and their thermodynamic and kinetic properties by in-situ X-ray powder diffraction, thermal desorption spectroscopy and pressure-composition-temperature measurements.

    The investigations showed that: the storage capacity of the hexagonal Laves phase Sc(Al1-xNix)2 decreases with increasing Al content. There is a significant decrease in the stability of the hydrides and faster reaction kinetics when Zr content is increased in the cubic Laves phase Sc1-xZrx(Co1-xNix)2. Nb4M0.9Si1.1 (M=Co, Ni) form very stable interstitial hydrides which have very slow sorption kinetics. MgH2 mixed with 10 mol% ScH2 reaches full activation after only one cycle at 673 K while it takes at least four cycles at 593 K. LnGa (Ln=Nd, Gd) absorb hydrogen in two steps, it is very likely that the first step is interstitial solution of hydride ions into Ln4 tetrahedra and the second step places hydrogen atoms in Ln3Ga tetrahedra. The nature of the Ga-H bond is still unclear.

  • 3092.
    Ånmark, Niclas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Inclusion Characteristics and Their Link to Tool wear in Metal Cutting of Clean Steels Suitable for Automotive Applications2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis covers some aspects of hard part turning of carburised steels using a poly‑crystalline cubic boron nitride (PCBN) cutting tool during fine machining. The emphasis is on the influence of the steel cleanliness and the characteristics of non‑metallic inclusions in the workpiece on the active wear mechanisms of the cutting tool. Four carburising steel grades suitable for automotive applications were included, including one that was Ca‑treated.

    A superior tool life was obtained when turning the Ca-treated steel. The superior machinability is associated with the deposition of lubricating (Mn,Ca)S and (CaO)x-Al2O3-S slag layers, which are formed on the rake face of the cutting tool during machining. Moreover, the transfer of work material to the rake face crater is characteristic in hard part turning of clean steels. It can be because of the lack of sulfides that protect the cutting edge when turning machinability treated steels. This corresponds to the more pronounced crater wear caused by the low‑sulfur steels than that of the steels with higher sulfur contents. It was also concluded that the composition of the non‑metallic inclusions in the Ca‑treated steel is a more important factor than the inclusion number and size, in hard part turning using a PCBN cutting tool. Also, a 3D analysis after electrolytic extraction was found to give a more precise characterisation of non‑metallic inclusions than the conventional 2D analysis by SEM‑EDS. In turn, better correlations to machinability and mechanical properties can be obtained. Hence, the use of this technique is beneficial for future material development.

    Finally, the challenge for future metallurgy is to manufacture high‑performance steels with improved combined properties of mechanical strength and machinability.

  • 3093.
    Ånmark, Niclas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    The influence of microstructure and non-metallic inclusions on the machinability of clean steelsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focused on the evaluation of the machinability of different carburising steel grades by using a cemented carbide cutting tool during semi finishing of steel. The effect of the steel composition, microstructure and inclusion characteristics on the cutting tool wear in the soft part turning was evaluated for a reference steel R (0.028% S, 0.0009% O), a clean C steel (0.003% S, 0.0005% O), and an UC ultra clean steel (0.002% S, 0.0004% O). An improved cutting tool life of about 10-25% was obtained when machining the reference steel R. The favorable machining performance of this steel was attributed to its higher content of non-metallic inclusions, larger grain size and lower micro hardness than that of the clean steels.

  • 3094.
    Ånmark, Niclas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Björk, Thomas
    Swerea KIMAB, Kista.
    Steel characteristics and their link to tool wear in hard part turning of transmission componentsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes the influence of the steel characteristics of Ca-treated carburising steel grades during hard part turning of synchronising rings in gearbox production. The main focus was on the chemical composition of the non-metallic inclusions in the evaluated workpieces and their effect on the PCBN tool wear. In addition, a Ca-treated carburising steel grade was compared to a standard steel grade.

    Machining tests were performed at the transmission machining site at Scania in order to evaluate the PCBN cutting tool life as defined by the generated surface roughness during actual production. The progression of flank and crater wear was evaluated by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) and a secondary electron (SE) detector.

    The Ca-treated steel showed a more than doubled tool life than that of the standard steel grade. The superior machinability was linked to the formation of a Ca-enriched slag barrier composed of (Mn,Ca)S and (Ca,Al)(O,S). It is believed that the stability of the protective deposits is essential to minimise diffusion-induced chemical wear of the PCBN tool. Furthermore, the improved machinability corresponds to a reduced tooling cost of 50% during an industrial production of transmission components at the site of Scania. Therefore, to implement the M-steel on a wider range of components would lead to a significantly reduced manufacturing cost per produced component. However, the capability of Ca-treated steels through the complete production route must be further investigated in order to allow for a large scale introduction of Ca-treated steels in the production.

  • 3095.
    Ånmark, Niclas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Björk, Thomas
    Swerea KIMAB.
    Karasev, Andrey
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Jönsson, Pär Göran
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Effect of Different Inclusions on Mechanical Properties and Machinability of 20NiCrMo Carburizing Steels2015In: The 6th International Congress on the Science and Technology of Steelmaking (ICS2015), Beijing: The Chinese Society for Metals , 2015, 805-808 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In modern steelmaking, carburizing steels are often used for production of automotive components with elevated levels of toughness and fatigue strength. This study is focused on the link between the characteristics of non-metallic inclusions in the steel and the machinability of the given steel grades. For this purpose, inclusion characteristics (such as composition, number, size, morphology etc.) in steel samples were determined by common two-dimensional (2D) observations of inclusions on polished metal surface of samples as well as by three-dimensional (3D) investigations of inclusions after electrolytic extraction from steel samples. The inclusion characteristics were investigated in the three types of 20NiCrMo carburizing steel grades: Steel A ‑ reference steel (410ppm S) having a common level of mechanical properties and machinability, Steel B ‑ steel grade (having 340ppm S) with an improved machinability due to the Ca-treatment and modification of MnS inclusions and Steel C ‑ clean steel grade (40ppm S) having a small amount of inclusions and a higher fatigue strength. It was found that the number of inclusions in Steel B is smaller than that in Steel A and that the inclusion composition is different. At the same time, the estimated machinability (tool life) of the Ca‑treated steel was superior to that of the reference steel. However, the significant decrease of the number of inclusions in the clean steel (Steel C) resulted in a lower machinability in comparison to the reference steel grade.

  • 3096.
    Ånmark, Niclas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy. Swerea KIMAB, Sweden.
    Karasev, Andrey
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Jönsson, Pär Göran
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    The Effect of Different Non-Metallic Inclusions on the Machinability of Steel2015In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 8, no 2, 751-783 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Considerable research has been conducted over recent decades on the role of non-metallic inclusions and their link to the machinability of different steels. The present work reviews the mechanisms of steel fractures during different mechanical machining operations and the behavior of various non-metallic inclusions in a cutting zone. More specifically, the effects of composition, size, number and morphology of inclusions on machinability factors (such as cutting tool wear, power consumption, etc.) are discussed and summarized. Finally, some methods for modification of non-metallic inclusions in the liquid steel are considered to obtain a desired balance between mechanical properties and machinability of various steel grades.

  • 3097.
    Åström, Elin
    et al.
    LKAB Research and Development.
    Björkvall, Johan
    Swerea MEFOS AB.
    Björkman, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Hallberg, Dan
    LKAB, LKAB Research and Development.
    Vanadium oxide solubility in CaO–SiO2–VOX system2017In: Ironmaking & steelmaking, ISSN 0301-9233, E-ISSN 1743-2812, Vol. 44, no 1, 42-51 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The solubility of vanadium oxide in the SiO2–CaO–VOX system was investigated as a function of basicity (CaO/SiO2) at a fixed temperature of 1600°C and oxygen partial pressure of 10−10 atm. Formed phases and microstructures of saturated samples were identified with SEM–EDS analysis and XRD. Maximum solubility of vanadium oxide was between 15 and 20% independent of basicity. Pure karelianite (V2O3) was formed in all samples at saturation of vanadium oxide. The morphology of karelianite changed with the change in basicity in the slag, where needles or threads were formed for slags with basicity B2 = 0.54 and B2 = 0.67 and stars or dendritic patterns were formed with basicity B2 = 1.0 and B2 = 1.22. Wollastonite (CaSiO3) was also formed in the slags with star or dendritic patterns.

  • 3098.
    Öberg, Eva Alldén
    et al.
    LKAB, Research & Development, 983 81 Malmberget.
    Pålsson, Bertil
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Användning av processimulering för att identifiera flaskhalsar i malmbehandlingssystem2008In: Conference in Minerals Engineering 2008, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2008, 1-14 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    LKAB beslöt 2004 att starta en grundläggande studie som underlag för framtida expansion av anläggningarna i Malmberget. En del processer och produktionslinjer riskerade att bli flaskhalsar i framtiden. I den här rapporterade studien är det sovringsverket som undersökts och resultatet visade att flera enhetsoperationer kommer att vara begränsande med nuvarande maskinpark. Därför var ett syfte med studien att undersöka hur byte av maskiner skulle påverka kapacitet och drift samt om de framtida produktionsplanerna kunde innehållas. Sovringsprocessen har genomgående simulerats med ModsimTM för ett antal olika fall, som har skilt sig åt i järnhalt och partikelstorleksfördelningar hos ingående malm. Modelleringsparametrarna har hämtats, till en del från existerande undersökningar i pilotskala, men i största möjliga utsträckning från mätningar i existerande kretsar. Simuleringarna visade att installation av nya siktar skulle ge en väsentligt förbättrad drift, men också att nya krossar skulle vara en förbättring eftersom de skulle kunna köras fullmatade med snävare ansättning, vilket skulle ge process-tekniska fördelar. Under 2007 har de flesta av de föreslagna åtgärderna genomförts och resultatet visar att flaskhalsarna är borta och att halter och massbalanser är till och med bättre än vad som förutsågs i simuleringarna.

  • 3099.
    Öberg, Eva Alldén
    et al.
    LKAB.
    Pålsson, Bertil
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Tano, K.T.
    LKAB.
    The use of process simulation methodology in de-bottlenecking of production lines2008In: Proceedings of XXIV International Mineral Processing Congress: Beijing, China 24-28 September 2008 / [ed] Wang Dian Zuo; Sun Chuan Yao; Wang Fu Liang; Zhang Li Cheng; Han Long, Beijing: American Science Press Inc., 2008, 2388-2395 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3100.
    Ökvist, Lena Sundqvist
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Co-injection of basic fluxes or BF flue dust with PC into a BF charged with 100% pellets: effects on slag formation and coal combustion2004Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on 100% pellets operation at BF No. 3 at SSAB Tunnplåt in Luleå a new pellet with CaO/SiO2=1 was developed during early nineties. The pellet showed good results in metallurgical laboratory test but caused slag formation problems in the bosh. A high basicity slag was formed during interaction with basic fluxes and its melting point was increased when the slag was finally reduced. By injection of basic fluxes, the slag formation problems in the bosh can be avoided. Without a sinter plant, dusts have to be recycled in a cold bonded briquette. Injection of some of BF flue dust would improve the properties of the briquette and may be beneficial for the BF process. Based on top charging or tuyere-injection of basic fluxes and the injection of BF flue dust studies have been done. The studies carried out will clarify some phenomena of slag formation and the effect of co- injection on coal combustion in the blast furnace, including the effect of: 1) basic fluxes on slag formation in the blast furnace, if they are top- charged; 2) basic fluxes on slag formation in the blast furnace, if they are tuyere injected; 3) chemical composition and metallurgical properties of pellet and fluxes on slag formation; 4) reduction conditions on (reduction temperature, reducing gas composition) on bosh slag formation; 5 co- injection of BOF slag or BF flue dust on coal combustion efficiency and BF performance. From the results, it can be concluded that the interaction between pellets and fluxes starts when softening and melting starts in the cohesive layer. By choosing fluxes of a high melting point the dissolution of them in the bosh slag can be delayed and the excessive basicity of the bosh slag can be limited. A basic flux with a low melting point will easily dissolve into the bosh slag causing its basicity to increase, which is beneficial to S refining when acid pellets are used. The formation of a bosh slag of excessive basicity (which causes BF operation disturbances, because its high melting point, increases further during reduction) can be avoided by tuyere injection of basic fluxes with the coal. The positive effect is greatest when a fluxed pellet of basicity B21 and with a high Fe content is used as ferrous burden. In this case, the slag amount can be significantly decreased. BOF slag has suitable high-temperature properties for use as a basic flux in combination with e.g., olivine pellets. It has a low softening and melting temperature, does not shrink, is slowly reduced in the BF shaft and its properties are almost unaffected by the partial reduction occurring in the shaft of the BF. BOF slag absorbs a low content of alkalies, which causes volume increase at elevated temperatures, when the basicity is still high. The results indicate that co-injection of BOF slag or BF flue dust with PC has positive effects on the BF operation. The injection of BOF slag decreases the Si content in HM by an increased basicity of the slag formed during combustion leading to a decreased activity of SiO2 in the slag and by an increased FeO content in the tuyere slag that will be reduced by SiFe in the metal at the tuyere level, if the SiFe is initially high. The consumption of reducing agents can be reduced because of a decreased Si content in HM and a decreased slag amount. The permeability is improved by prohibiting the formation of a shell at the raceway end because of improved melting properties of tuyere slag caused by an increased basicity and FeO content, consumption of coal and coke fines by FeO and improved radial transport of tuyere slag. The injection of BOF slag improves the bosh slag because an excessive basicity caused by top-charged fluxes added for neutralisation of coal and coke ashes and non-uniform slag formation caused by uneven distribution of top-charged fluxes are avoided. The productivity increases because of the possibility to decrease the slag amount. The injection of BOF slag can be done without negative effects on combustion efficiency by using very finely ground BOF slag and because of improved total consumption of coal and coke fines by direct reduction in the coke bed. The injection of BF flue dust decreases the Si content in HM by an increased FeO content of the tuyere slag that will be reduced by SiFe in the metal at the tuyere level, if the SiFe is initially high. The consumption of coal and coke is decreased because of a high of C content in BF flue dust and the decreased Si content in HM. The permeability is improved by prohibiting the formation of a shell at the raceway end because of consumption of coal and coke fines by FeO and improved melting properties of tuyere slag promoting the radial transport of the tuyere slag. The injection of BF flue dust can be done without negative effects on the total consumption of coal and coke fines by direct reduction in the coke bed. Injected BF flue dust supplies oxygen for combustion, but because of endothermic reactions as reduction of hematite and calcination of limestone occurring in the BF flue dust at the same temperatures as release and disintegration of VM, it will have a negative effect on the combustion of HV coal. SSAB Luleå and SSAB Oxelösund have started up projects aiming to make tuyere- injection of BF flue dust part of the standard BF operation.

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