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  • 3051.
    Zhang, Zongxian
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Yu, J.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Kou, Shaoquan
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Lindqvist, Per-Arne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    On study of influences of loading rate on fractal dimensions of fracture surfaces in Gabbro2001In: Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, ISSN 0723-2632, E-ISSN 1434-453X, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 235-242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of the effects of loading rates on rock fracture were performed for decades. However, the previous work on static or dynamic rock fracture was mainly limited to a macro-experimental study. The present investigation measures the fractal dimensions of the fracture surfaces of the gabbro specimens fractured at various loading rates covering static and dynamic loading, and explores the relationship between the fractal dimensions and the fracture toughness of the rock.

  • 3052.
    Zhang, Z.X.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    An empirical relation between mode I fracture toughness and the tensile strength of rock2002In: International Journal of Rock Mechanics And Mining Sciences, ISSN 1365-1609, E-ISSN 1873-4545, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 401-406Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3053.
    Zhang, Z.X.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Estimate of loading rate for a TBM machine based on measured cutter forces2004In: Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, ISSN 0723-2632, E-ISSN 1434-453X, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 239-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Various aspects of a tunnel boring machines (TBM) were presented. The loading rate of a TBM machine can be estimated on the basis of its cutter force measurements. The method can also be used to estimate the loading rate of other similar rock breakage machines. On the basis of the cutter forces measured in the field, the loading rate of the Boretech D1.6 boring machine was estimated. Results show that the loading rate of the machine is within a typical quasi-static loading

  • 3054.
    Zhang, Z.X.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Kou, S.Q.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Lindqvist, Per-Arne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Fracture behaviour of rock under dynamic loading1999In: Comptes-rendus / 9 Congrès international de mécanique de roches, Paris, France 1999 / [ed] Gerard Vouille; Pierre Berest, Rotterdam: Balkema Publishers, A.A. / Taylor & Francis The Netherlands , 1999, Vol. 2, p. 1127-1130Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3055. Zhang, Z.X.
    et al.
    Kou, S.Q.
    Lindqvist, Per-Arne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Measurements of cutter forces for a TBM machine in Aspo underground2000In: Pacific rocks 2000: "rock around the rim". Proceedings of the 4th North American Rock Mechanics Symposium / [ed] Jami Girard, Rotterdam: Balkema Publishers, A.A. / Taylor & Francis The Netherlands , 2000, Vol. 4, p. 11-17Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3056. Zhang, Z.X.
    et al.
    Kou, S.Q.
    Lindqvist, Per-Arne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Yu, J.
    University of Science and Technology of China.
    Jiang, L.G.
    University of Science and Technology of China.
    Dynamic fracture behaviour of rock at high temperatures1999In: Rock mechanics for industry: proceedings of the 37th US Rock Mechanics Symposium /Vail/Colorado/USA/6-9 June 1999 / [ed] Bernard Arnadei, Rotterdam: Balkema Publishers, A.A. / Taylor & Francis The Netherlands , 1999, p. 325-331Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3057.
    Zhang, Z.X.
    et al.
    LKAB, Research & Development, 983 81 Malmberget.
    Lindqvist, Per-Arne
    Naarttijärvi, Torbjörn
    LKAB, Research & Development, 983 81 Malmberget.
    Wikström, K.
    LKAB, Research & Development, 983 81 Malmberget.
    A feasibility study on controlling ground vibrations caused by blasts in Malmberget underground mine2010In: Fragblast, ISSN 1385-514X, E-ISSN 1744-4977, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 3-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to control or reduce the ground vibrations caused by underground blasts in Malmberget mine, a number of blast tests were carried out during production blasts and a series of single shot waveforms were obtained. Then the single shot waveforms from the same ring or different rings were analysed and compared with each other. The results showed that the single shots are reproducible, meaning that the ground vibrations caused by underground blasts can be controlled by means of the interference of the vibration waveforms measured. Finally, a formal test using electronic detonators and employing an optimum delay time of 8 ms was done in production. The test for an 11-borehole ring shows that the maximum vertical ground vibrations are reduced to the maximum vertical vibrations of a single shot. Particularly, the total vibration history for the 11-borehole-ring blast is shortened to about 200 ms over a velocity of 2 mm/s. However, the total vibration history of a normal production blast of 11-borehole ring is always 1400 ms over a velocity of 2 mm/s, namely the total vibration time of a production blast can be reduced to one seventh of that of the common production blasts by using the vibration control method. This indicates that the vibration control method introduced in the paper is feasible for underground mining blasts

  • 3058.
    Zhao, Guanyi
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geodesy and Satellite Positioning.
    Fusion of Ladybug3 omnidirectional camera and Velodyne Lidar2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The advent of autonomous vehicles expedites the revolution of car industry. Volvo Car Corporation has an ambition of developing the next generation of autonomous vehicle. In the Volvo Car Corporation, Active Safety CAE group, enthusiastic engineers have initiated a series of relevant research to enhance the safety function for autonomous vehicle and this thesis work is also implemented at Active Safety CAE with their support.   

    Perception of vehicle plays a pivotal role in autonomous driving, therefore an idea of improving vision by fusing two different types of data from Velodyne HDL-64E S3 High Definition LiDAR Sensor and Ladybug3 camera respectively, is proposed.

     This report presents the whole process of fusion of point clouds and image data. An experiment is implemented for collecting and synchronizing multi-sensor data streams by building a platform which supports the mounting of Velodyne, Ladybug 3 and their accessories, as well as the connection to GPS unit, laptop. Related software/programming environment for recording, synchronizing and storing data will also be mentioned.

    Synchronization is mainly achieved by matching timestamps between different datasets. Creating log files for timestamps is the primary task in synchronization.

    External Calibration between Velodyne and Ladybug3 camera for matching two different datasets correctly is the focus of this report. In the project, we will develop a semi-automatic calibration method with very little human intervention using a checkerboard for acquiring a small set of feature points from laser point cloud and image feature correspondences. Based on these correspondences, the displacement is computed. Using the computed result, the laser points are back-projected into the image. If the original and back-projected images are sufficiently consistent, then the transformation parameters can be accepted. Displacement between camera and laser scanner are estimated through two separate steps: first, we will estimate the pose for the checkerboard in image and get its depth information in camera coordinate system; and then a transformation relation between the camera and the laser scanner will be computed within three dimensional space. 

    Fusion of datasets will finally be done by combing color information from image and range information from point cloud together. Other applications related to data fusion will be developed as the support of future work. 

    In the end, a conclusion will be drawn. Possible improvements are also expected in future work. For example, better accuracy of calibration might be achieved with other methods and adding texture to cloud points will generate a more realistic model.

  • 3059. Zhao, Xiaogang
    et al.
    Zhou, Yi
    Zhao, Jianyu
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Zhan, Guo
    Yang, Peng
    Safety Prediction of Soleplate Corrosion State in Petroleum Storage Tank Based on Grey Theory Model2016In: 3rd International Conference on Applied Engineering, AIDIC - associazione italiana di ingegneria chimica, 2016, p. 271-276Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The corrosion protection of petroleum storage tank is important for safety work in petroleum depot. Precise prediction of soleplate corrosion may reflect the security state of a storage tank, and it can provide scientific references to the anti-corrosion and maintenance in safety management. Grey Model GM (1,1) in the Grey Theory is a good prediction method based on small volume of original data, and it is introduced and applied to predict the soleplate corrosion of No. G-2 petroleum storage tank in Luquan oil depot. In order to improving the calculation speed, the GM (1,1) model is programmed by MATLAB and is further utilized in data processing. Compared with the measurements, the prediction results meet them very well, which shows that this model is practical. Meanwhile, the prediction results also reflect the status and the corrosion rate of a petroleum tank which is of great importance for the future safety management and maintenance works. Meanwhile, the GM (1,1) is suitable for wide applications in other relative fields in oil depots.

  • 3060.
    Zhou, Guanghong
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Low-Carbon City Initiatives in China: Planning Approaches, Dilemmas and Opportunities2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, tackle climate change and move toward sustainable development, the central government in China has proposed low-carbon city development as the national strategy and relevant initiatives have been taken by local governments. This thesis analyses current low-carbon city programmes and planning approaches in China, identifies limitations and proposes a metabolic approach that could be used to account for physical resources, monitor GHG emissions and involve stakeholders in the planning process.

    There are currently two parallel programmes for low-carbon initiatives in China: the “Low-Carbon City” programme and the “Low-Carbon Eco-City” programme. Around thirty cities in the Coastal, Central and Western regions of China have been selected as the national pilot areas for these programmes. This widespread distribution marks a change the previous priority set on development in the Coastal region, meaning that more cities have opportunities to explore low-carbon pathways and obtain support from the state. The large number of cities involved shows China’s determination to transition to low-carbon development in different city contexts. The selected cities have set up local administrative groups to manage low-carbon development and have established integrated approaches to reduce GHG emissions from urban sectors such as energy, transportation, buildings and waste. Some plans have been developed by the cities themselves, while others have involved international cooperation. However, because of limited knowledge on low-carbon city development, an absence of established standards and procedures and the Chinese top-down planning system, low-carbon planning faces specific challenges, such as lack of information about GHG flows, GHG monitoring and stakeholder involvement.

    To overcome these challenges and improve low-carbon city approaches in China, this thesis proposes a holistic approach to low-carbon city development, by integrating Industrial Ecology into urban planning. Such work would benefit greatly from adopting a metabolic approach, within which a metabolic approach-based standard is used to understand low-carbon city from GHG flows; a DPSIR framework is used to address root causes of GHG emissions; and an Eco-Cycle Model is used to describe urban metabolism and account for physical resources, monitor GHG emissions and involve stakeholders in the planning process.

    The thesis also recommends better collaboration between relevant government departments and stakeholders. Moreover, instead of simply transferring approaches developed elsewhere, international cooperation needs to combine the local context and knowledge in China with international knowledge and experience. In return, experiences from China can help improve low-carbon city approaches in other parts of the world.

  • 3061.
    Zhou, Yang
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Nonlinear analysis of reinforced concrete slab on partially softening ground: Ickelinjär analys av armerad betongplatta på delvis uppmjuknande grund2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Reinforced concrete slabs are a conventional type of foundation that is widely used in residential, commercial and industrial buildings. Most of the slab foundations are constructed directly on the ground without another structural medium in between and some of the slabs are therefore influenced by ground softening. A slab foundation is designed to transfer vertical loads and bridge imperfections in the ground, but excessive soil distortion may destroy the support conditions of the slab and through this influence the stability of the superstructures.

    The aim of this project is to study how ground softening and its further development influence a typical concrete slab. Furthermore, an approximate analytical method to evaluate the condition of a slab due to ground softening was studied. A practical case has been studied to capture the actual failure behaviours of a reinforced concrete slab, based on a previous project. For the case studied, possible future mining activities close to a high bay warehouse may cause damaging settlement in the underground. The fault that may appear softens the soils underneath the foundation, which may deteriorate and cause collapse of the concrete slab under the warehouse. Two types of failure scenarios were studied; subsoil softening and subsoil collapse.

    The Finite Element Method (FEM) was used to analyse the behaviour of the slab and the development of the failures in the subsoil. A commercial FEM software package, Abaqus, was used as the analytic tool, with a built-in Concrete Damaged Plasticity model (CDP) that for the concrete material model. Both linear and nonlinear material properties have been used in the analyses with same softening effect of the subsoil. A large number of models were analysed to simulate the development of the fault and capture the failure modes of the slab at different stages.

    Excessive tensile cracks and vertical deformations were found in both failure scenarios studied. A possible internal stability problem of the warehouse due to this was also found. The nonlinear behaviour of the concrete slab was captured through the failure scenarios before damage. It is shown that the serviceability of the reinforced concrete slab can be influenced by softening ground, and a more realistic description of the possible failures was here obtained based on the nonlinear model compared to previous elastic analyses.

    Keywords:     Reinforced concrete slab, Nonlinear, Ground softening, Finite Element Method (FEM), Abaqus, Concrete Damaged Plasticity (CDP).

  • 3062. Zhou, Yi
    et al.
    Zhao, Xiaogang
    Zhao, Jianyu
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Chen, Du
    Research on Fire and Explosion Accidents of Oil Depots2016In: 3rd International Conference on Applied Engineering, AIDIC - associazione italiana di ingegneria chimica, 2016, Vol. 51, p. 163-168Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fire and explosion accidents occurred frequently in oil depots in China which lead to great casualties, severe environmental pollution and large economic losses. Case studies of 435 fire and explosion accidents of oil depots in China from 1951 to 2013 are reviewed in this paper. From the analysis of time scale, area, facilities & equipment, ignition sources, types of accident substances, and responsibility, the statistic results show that the most dangerous area is the loading and unloading operation area, and the most vulnerable facilities & equipment are the storage tanks. Meanwhile, the proportions of ignition sources are so evenly distributed that the prevention of fire and explosion should be equally concentrated to several impact factors. The vapor cloud explosion could be the most common accident type in oil depots, and the management responsibility dominates in all of the accident causes. According to data analysis, special lessons learned from these accidents are proposed, and the majority of fire and explosion accidents in oil depots would have been prevented or avoided if security management had been improved.

  • 3063.
    Zhu, Huiming
    et al.
    College of Business Administration, Hunan University.
    Guan, Haoyun
    College of Business Administration, Hunan University.
    Lin, Jing
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Yu, Keming
    Brunel University.
    Zeng, Zhaofa
    College of Business Administration, Hunan University.
    Bayesian multivariate monitoring models for process mean vectors based on multistage predictive distributions2011In: Hunan Daxue Xuebao (Ziran Kexue Ban), ISSN 1674-2974, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 82-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to utilize sample information in different stages and solve the parameter uncertainty risk in statistical process control. This paper introduces a reference prior distribution for the parameters in quality models, and constructs the warning lines and action lines to monitor the mean vectors change according to the predictive distribution as well as the relationship between the multivariate t distribution and F distribution. When the current stage is under control, the parametric posterior distribution is considered to be their priori distribution in the next stage, in which the sequential Bayesian mean vector control method is established.

  • 3064.
    Zhuo, Yue
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Measuring inaccessible points in land surveying and analysis of their uncertainty2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 3065.
    Zischg, Jonatan
    et al.
    Unit of Environmental Engineering, University of Innsbruck, Austria.
    Goncalves, Mariana L. R.
    Unit of Environmental Engineering, University of Innsbruck, Austria.
    Bacchin, Taneha K.
    Environmental Technology & Design, Department of Urbanism, Faculty of Architecture and the Built Environment, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Leonhardt, Günther
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    van Timmeren, Arjan
    Environmental Technology & Design, Department of Urbanism, Faculty of Architecture and the Built Environment, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Rauch, Wolfgang
    Unit of Environmental Engineering, University of Innsbruck, Austria.
    Sitzenfrei, Robert
    Unit of Environmental Engineering, University of Innsbruck, Austria.
    Info-Gap robustness pathway method for transitioning of urban drainage systems under deep uncertainties2017In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 76, no 5, p. 1272-1281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the urban water cycle, there are different ways of handling stormwater runoff. Traditional systems mainly rely on underground piped, sometimes named ‘gray’ infrastructure. New and so-called ‘green/blue’ ambitions aim for treating and conveying the runoff at the surface. Such concepts are mainly based on ground infiltration and temporal storage. In this work a methodology to create and compare different planning alternatives for stormwater handling on their pathways to a desired system state is presented. Investigations are made to assess the system performance and robustness when facing the deeply uncertain spatial and temporal developments in the future urban fabric, including impacts caused by climate change, urbanization and other disruptive events, like shifts in the network layout and interactions of ‘gray’ and ‘green/blue’ structures. With the Info-Gap robustness pathway method, three planning alternatives are evaluated to identify critical performance levels at different stages over time. This novel methodology is applied to a real case study problem where a city relocation process takes place during the upcoming decades. In this case study it is shown that hybrid systems including green infrastructures are more robust with respect to future uncertainties, compared to traditional network design.

  • 3066.
    Zoghi, Sedigheh
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geodesy and Satellite Positioning.
    On the statistical tests over Fennoscandian GNSS/levelling networks2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Geodesy and Surveying we work with a large amount of observations which alwayscontains different types of errors. The errors decrease the quality of the observations andpropagate to the results. Therefore, detection and removing the gross errors are of vitalimportance. The Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) can be used to measure theellipsoidal height and by subtracting an existing geoid height from that, the orthometric heightcan be determined. There is a simple linear relation amongst these triple heights, whichcannot be fulfilled due to the presence of different types of error. One of the important sort ofthese errors is gross errors.This study concerns about investigation and detection of blunders or gross errors on the 4346GNSS/levelling points over Fennoscandia. Each country has its own data set with specificprecision. The well-known gravity model EGM08 is used to compute the geoid heights withrespect to WGS84 reference ellipsoid. We have a large amount of data and we expect thattheir errors follow the normal distribution. The main aim of this thesis is to apply some datascreening methods both before and after adjustment process in such a way that the normaldistribution of the data set is achieved by eliminating the erroneous data. This will be done byperforming the pre- and post-adjustment data screening. For the pre-adjustment we performeddata filtering, test of normality of observations and test of their variances for theGNSS/levelling data over Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland. We used the 4-, 5- and 7-parameter corrective surfaces for modelling the systematic trends of the differences betweenthe EGM08 geoid model and the ellipsoidal and orthometric height differences. The test ofnormality of residuals, global test of variance, Baarda’s data snooping and Tau test will beperformed after the removal of the trends. Numerical studies show that the GNSS/levellingdata of Sweden, Denmark and Finland are of good qualities, but the claimed errors for thedata are rather optimistic. The situation was complicated for the data of Norway and we couldnot see the normality of the data and even the claimed accuracies seem to be optimistic.

  • 3067.
    Zongqi, Sun
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Fracture mechanics and tribology of rock and rock joints1983Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the first part of the thesis fracture toughness tests of rocks are described. Specimens of Stripa Granite have been tested in three point bending, compact tension and short rod tension. For testing in three point bending two test procedures were used: Specimens without precracking were loaded to complete failure, then approximate fracture toughness, Km , and fracture toughness from secant method, Ksec' were evaluated; Specimens were precracked in a single loading cycle and later loaded and unloaded several times to obtain the apparent fracture tougnesses, K Q Km-data from testing with different notch depth were statistically analyzed in order to determine the relationship between Km and the crack length, a. The main conclusion drawn from the tests are the following. Km-values obtained from specimens without precracking are inevitably lower than KQ-values. This is due to neglect of microcrack growth preceeding crack extension. Acceptable KQ-values can be obtained from the three point bending tests on a common core specimen with 40 mm in diameter and a notch depth ratio of 0.3. Fracture tougness, Ksc' from short rod tests are found to be size independent, and the data is consistent with KQ-values obtained from compact tension tests and three point bending tests. Finally, short rod tests on filled rock joints are presented and the results are shown to be scattered. In the second part of the thesis direct shear tests on joints of granite and slate are presented. A new device to measure vertical and horizontal displacements during shearing is described. A compliance approach is proposed instead of a stiffness approach in evaluating joint behaviour. The joint compliances (normal, shear and off-diagonal) are stress, and or displacement dependent. The normal and off-diagonal compliances obey a power law while the secant shear compliance has a linear relationship with displacement. A study of the complete shear curves shows that not only the shear stress, but also the resultant of the normal stress and shear stress should be considered in evaluation of the shear data. For rough rock surfaces two factors are found to contribute to the shear stress before sliding occurs. The first is the adhesion which occurs at the region of real contact, and the second is a deformation along the fracture surface. A new model for the shear mechanism is proposed. The joint surface parameters of specimens were studied by means of profile measurements. The change of surface parameters is small before and after shear tests. Based on the Hertzian contact theory, new asperity models for closure and shear of rock joints are proposed. The models allow for prediction of normal and shear compliances of rock joints. Good agreement was obtained between experimental data and predicted values according to the theories. For slate the predicted ultimate coefficient of friction is 0.32 - 0.327 and the experimental value is pu = 0.324, and the predicted secant shear compliance is 0.01 m/Gpa, the experimental value is 0.012 m/GPa. Furthermore, the shear model gives a theoretical explanation to some of the phenomenon observed in shear testing.

  • 3068.
    Åberg, Christer
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Österberg, Maya
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Den urbana parkens användning och potential för social interaktion: En studie av Stadsträdgården i Gävle2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Urban green-spaces are considered to be more important today than ever before. Parks arenot only beneficial for their positive effects on human health, but also for their social aspects. Parks are consequently considered to be the most suitable environment for encounters between people with different backgrounds and interests. Urban parks have developed from a place where the city-eliteexpressedtheir power to the public into a common place for all. Even though the parksareconsidered to be an open and welcoming place,users are considered to represent a homogenous group of people, which in turn, eliminates the potential of social interaction between different social groups.

    In this thesis a part of the urban park, Stadsträdgården, is investigated with the intention to study and map its use, its users and the existing supply. The methods used in this project are a questionnaire and observations. During the observations elements like counting, mapping, a qualitative experiment and an inventory of the park-attributes have been implemented. In the park, a broad composition of visitors consisting of varied age, gender and ethnicity, can be found. The focus area of this case study is divided into zones through the area of use and the users. In parks, time is an important dimension controlling whether different people will meet or not. Social interaction between strangers occurs in a small amount, and when it does, it depends on a third component, an event or a physical object that calls for a common interest. The parklacksnumerous qualities in the existing supply of the parkaccording to the users. However, it is uncertain towhat extent the public influencesthe planning of existing urban parks in Gävle, and thus if their considerations are ever involved in the planning process.

  • 3069. Åberg, Sture
    Smörjning av hjul och räls med fordonsinstallerat smörjsystem2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Nötningen av räl och hjul uppstår i kontakytan mellan räl och hjul. Den är störst i kurvor i kontaktytan mellan räl och hjul. De faktorer som påverkar nötningen är bland annat kurvradie, trafikbelastning i Mbton, STAX, fordonshastigheter, rälsmaterial, fordonstyp, rälsstatus, hjulstatus, antalet axelpassager och friktionen mellan räls - hjul. Normalt nöts rälsens yttersträng i kurvor och motsvarande hjulringar ned kraftigast. För att minska slitage på hjul och räls tillsätts smörjmedel. Man skiljer på två olika principer när det gäller smörjning: Flange wear (smörjmedel appliceras på lokens hjulflänsar) Friction management (smörjmedel appliceras på rälshuvudet Top of Rail) Genom att applicera smörjmedel på rälshuvudena i kurvor minskar slitaget på rälsmaterialet. Detta görs i Sverige med fasta Clicomaticutrustningar som är i drift under vår - höst i norra Sverige och hela Sverige i södra delarna av landet. Ingen smörjning sker vintertid. SJ och Green Cargo har lokinstallerade system för smörjning direkt på rälshuvudet i syfte att minska slitaget på efterföljande vagnshjul. Syftet med denna förstudie är att: Översiktligt beskriva befintliga fordonsmonterade system för smörjning av räls och hjulflänsar Kartlägga behovet i Sverige avseende smörjning från lok. Kortfattat beskriva vilka leverantörers smörjsystem som kan uppnå kraven som finns i Sverige avseende kurvradier, vinterförhållanden och STAX. Prisbilder på loksmörjningssystem Styrning av rälssmörjapparater. Förstudien visar att det är tekniskt, underhållsmässigt och ekonomiskt motiverat att använda smörjapparater som är monterade på lok för att minska sidoslitaget i kurvor och samtidigt ge minskat hjulslitage på lok och vagnar. Som ett led i målsättningen att effektivisera smörjningen av hjul och räls bör en fordonsmonterad smörjutrustning provas. Ett på marknaden etablerat system bör testas med dokumenterad erfarenhet från kallt klimat och tunga transporter typ norra USA eller Kanada. Smörjmedlet bör antingen appliceras som Top of Rail alltså på rälshuvudet eller direkt på lokets flänsar. Smörjutrustning bör installeras dels på det första drivande loket dels på det sista multipelkopplade lokets bakre del för smörjning av efterföljande vagnshjul enligt bild 3. Systemet ska kunna avläsa när kurva uppträder samt kurvans radie, lämpligast via inbyggda sensorer. Olika smörjmedel bör testas för att klara kraven avseende risken för glidning, miljökrav, friktion mellan hjul och räls i kurvor och funktion i kallt klimat samt appliceras utan problem med igenstoppning av munstycken. Följande två leverantörer bör studeras närmare före val av testutrustning: Friction Management Services system TrackGlide - Top of Rail Willy Vogel AG system för hjulflänssmörjning. Eftersom det finns flera intressanta leverantörer för hjulflänssmörjning kan inbjudan gå till ytterligare någon eller några. Utifrån en närmare analys där såväl applikation på lok, kostnad för utrustning, styrning, service, förutsättningarna för körning vintertid, dokumenterade smörjeffekter mm väljs en leverantör ut. Installation av testutrustning bör göras på ett av MTAB:s IORE-lok

  • 3070. Åberg, Sture
    et al.
    Sundgren, Anders
    Förstudie ReRail2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Visionen är att Rerail skall bli en framtida ny produkt inom järnvägssektorn som förlänger livslängden, effektiviserar underhållet och ger en lägre livstidskostnad. Design och tillverkning av Rerail ska göras i Norrbotten och levereras till olika kunder runt om i världen. Målet med detta arbete är att: Beskriva och verifiera kraven för att få göra skarpa test i Banverkets spåranläggningar Definiera produkterna och koppling till kundbehov och kundnyttan Definiera krav som underlag för godkännande av Banverket för test Beskriva marknadspotentialen för produkterna Utföra vissa grundläggande tester i laboratoriemiljö Kostnadsanalys för kommande steg enligt projektplanen Analysera konkurrenter och möjliga samarbetspartners Skissa på finansieringsmodeller för det fortsatta arbetet Skapa förutsättningarna för skarpa test hos potentiella kunder Förväntade sluteffekter är att utifrån genomförda mål kunna starta nästa etapp i arbetet med ReRail.

  • 3071.
    Ågren, Ulrika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Laserskanning som metod för byggnadsarkeologisk visualisering2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sigtuna är en av de äldsta städerna i landet. Kyrkan S:t Olof är en av flera medeltida kyrkor i staden. Under hösten 2005 utförde Leica Geosystems en demonstrationsmätning med en laserskanner i S:t Olofs ruin. Från museets håll ville man därefter att hela ruinen skulle mätas upp tredimensionellt för att på ett bättre sätt kunna analysera komplicerade kronologiska händelser och förändringar.

    Man har tidigare inom vetenskapsgrenen byggnadsarkeologi upplevt problem med att åstadkomma en fullständig bild av en byggnad genom tvådimensionella ritningar. I en tredimensionell avbildning synliggörs rummet på ett mer fullkomligt och verklighetstroget sätt. Idag har man då och då börjat använda geodetiska metoder och datavisualisering. Detta kommer med stor sannolikhet att ingå i utvecklingen i framtiden. Det finns därför ett behov av att utvärdera användandet av geodetisk mätningsteknik utifrån byggnadsarkeologens önskemål och avsikter samt att undersöka den tredimensionella modellens kapacitet för visualiseringssyften.

    Målsättningen med detta examensarbete är att göra själva inmätningen av S:t Olofs ruin och undersöka hur den tredimensionella modellen ska kunna användas för att visualisera resultatet av den byggnadsarkeologiska analysen.

    Inom ramen för examensarbetet har ruinen efter kyrkan S:t Olof mätts in med hjälp av en laserskanner av fabrikatet Leica HDS 3000. De inmätta punkterna har georefererats till Sigtuna kommuns koordinatsystem. Objekt i punktmolnet har vektoriserats och importerats till dokumentationssystemet Intrasis.

  • 3072. Åhrén, Thomas
    A study of maintenance performance indicators for the Swedish railroad system2005Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish railway authorities have a long tradition of using performance indicators to follow up their performance. Already in 1915 when they decided to electrify the iron ore line between Kiruna and Riksgränsen, they introduced some indicators to measure and follow up expected benefits of upgrading the transportation system, e.g. total amount and costs per transported iron ore tonnage, employee safety training, and accidents or near-accidents related to the new power source of electricity. Today, one of the requirements on the infrastructure management is to achieve cost-effective maintenance activities and a punctual and cost-effective railroad transportation system. For this, cost-effective maintenance processes are necessary to achieve budget targets, while punctual railroad system is required by different stakeholders. One key issue for Banverket is to verify that undertaken maintenance activities have given expected results, measured in terms of technical, economically, and organizational indicators. The purpose of this thesis is to identify and develop a set of performance indicators that supports the maintenance decision-making process in proportion to punctuality, safety, environmental impact and profitability; i.e. establishing a link and effect model. The main aim is to clarify how different maintenance performance indicators can be used to make optimal decisions in the maintenance process; show and illustrate present status of the infrastructure as well as predict the future condition based upon today's maintenance decisions. The analysis of existing and potential maintenance performance indicators resulted in a useful set of indicators applicable for railway infrastructure assets management, classified into different classes and subgroups appropriate to match a modified link and effect model originally developed for the offshore industry. A link and effect model adjusted to management of railway infrastructure assets is also presented. In order to successfully implement performance indicators it is important to start with the definition of the business goals and overall objectives that later on must be broken down to maintenance objectives. With clear objectives regarding punctuality, safety, environmental impact, and profitability, is it possible to develop and implement indicators, especially performance driver indicators, for a maintenance department or maintenance contract.

  • 3073. Åhrén, Thomas
    Indikatorer: en översikt inom Banverket2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Järnvägssystemet är ett komplext system där en oväntad händelse eller störning drabbar många aktörer, exempelvis de uppmärksammade tågförseningar som inträffade under vintern 2001/2002. Därför måste alla störningar i transportprocessen identifieras, studeras, klassificeras, analyseras och om möjligt elimineras genom bättre underhållsinsatser. Beslut om underhållsinsatser bör fattas på rationella grunder och baseras på en genomtänkt underhållsstrategi. Genom forskning och utvecklingsarbetet förväntar man sig att hitta modeller och Key Performance Indicators (KPI) för att styra underhållsverksamheten för att vidmakthålla befintlig infrastruktur och rullande materiel i bra skick och också förlänga dess livslängd. Litteraturundersökningar visar att det saknas entydiga definitioner för indicators, performance indicators och key performance indicators, samtidigt som det även förekommer andra namn på dessa. I exempelvis Sverige används ofta även beteckningar som nyckeltal och index. Det som litteraturen däremot påvisar är att samtliga typer av indikatorer har ett gemensamt syfte, nämligen att skapa underlag för effektiv styrning och uppföljning av enheter, processer, system och/eller organisationer. Indikatorernas inbördes förhållande kan analogt beskrivas som att indicators är de mått och nyckeltal som används på operativ nivå, dvs fabriksgolvet, medan performance indicators är de aggregerade nyckeltal som återfinns på taktisk mellanchefsnivå. Key performance indicators är slutligen de aggregerade nyckeltal, baserade på performance indicators, som återfinns och används på strategisk ledningsnivå. Den kartläggning som genomförts för att hitta befintliga och presumtiva nyckeltal av offentlig karaktär inom Banverket, visar ingen större skillnad i jämförelse med vilka nyckeltal som används inom andra banförvaltande enheter i exempelvis Italien och Australien. Jämförelsen visar att i princip samma typ av data finns att tillgå inom alla tre förvaltningarna.

  • 3074. Åhrén, Thomas
    Kostnadsdrivare - Ofotenbanen2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ofotenbanen är cirka 40 km lång och är en av Norges mest belastade banor. Då Ofotenbanen är geografiskt isolerad ur ett norskt järnvägsperspektiv medför detta att den, trots sin korta längd, fram till dags dato behöver både en egen förvaltnings- och produktionsorganisation. Vid jämförelser med andra bansträckor i Norge leder detta till relativt höga totalkostnader räknat per kilometer bana. En bidragande orsak till detta är att de fasta kostnaderna måste fördelas på relativt få bankilometer. För att klargöra vilka kategorier av komponenter och fel som driver kostnaderna samt hur dessa kan reduceras har Jernbaneverket (JBV) i Narvik kontaktat JvtC (Järnvägstekniskt Centrum) vid Luleå tekniska universitet för att initiera ett utredningsprojekt för att identifiera kostnadsdrivare. Analysen visar att den dominerande kostnadsdrivaren är isolskarvar. Antalet fel för dessa uppgår till 103 st, vilket motsvarar 37% av totala antalet akuta fel. Noteras bör att detta är cirka 2,5 gånger högre än den anläggningsindivid som kommer på andra plats. Kostnaderna för att åtgärda de akuta felen på isolskarvarna motsvarar cirka 24% av totala akuta felavhjälpningskostnaden. Sammanfattningsvis kan konstateras att isolskarvsproblematiken på sikt bör åtgärdas på ett mer permanent sätt. Detta då den direkt påverkar tågtrafiken genom sin omedelbara koppling till säkerhetsmässiga aspekter.

  • 3075.
    Åhrén, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Maintenance performance indicators (MPIs) for railway infrastructure: identification and analysis for improvement2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With increasing awareness that maintenance not only ensures safety and track performance, but also creates additional value in the business process; many infrastructure managers and owners are treating maintenance as an integral part of the business process. This is also true for the Banverket (Swedish National Rail Administration). One key issue for Banverket is to verify that the undertaken maintenance activities provides expected results, measured through maintenance performance indicators (MPI) related to technical, economical, and organizational issues. It is also necessary to classify the degree of effect for every single MPI, i.e. to create a logical cause-and-effect structure. The main purpose of this research work is to identify and study the existing operation and maintenance performance indicators related to railway infrastructure, their application in short term and long-term perspective to analyse their usefulness for operation and maintenance planning of the railway infrastructure. Furthermore, the study is to find a structured, reliable, and cost effective method using maintenance performance indicators (MPI) such as OEE-values to facilitate the operation and maintenance decision making process both in short term and long term perspective for the railway infrastructure management. A study at Banverket shows that 10 MPIs out of 17 identified ones are in use, where eight of them match the MPIs identified through the documents and two additional ones identified through interviews. Two conducted case studies at Banverket and Jernbaneverket, the Norwegian rail administration, shows that it is possible to quantify and benchmark MPIs between different countries. The comparison from the Iron Ore Line between Kiruna and Narvik indicated more or less the same rail and track related maintenance costs per track kilometre in Norway as in Sweden. The overhead cost per track kilometre results in 12 times higher costs for Jernbaneverket due to different track length in Norway and Sweden, though the number of employees in the infrastructure manager organization work force was the same in both countries. A case study evaluating technical and financial aspects of grinding campaigns on the track section between Kiruna and Riksgränsen shows that the grinding campaign postpone major rail replacements activities into the future. The yearly cost for grinding and renewal is an example of an aggregated MPI that can be used for future follow-ups and benchmarking. The grinding campaign itself seems not to affect the total system in a negative way. One important issue for the infrastructure manager is to focus on the overall railway infrastructure effectiveness. A model for calculating the overall railway infrastructure effectiveness (ORIE) is presented in this thesis. Performed case studies on three track sections shows similar ORIE figures that are significantly higher than the industry OEE, which is required for a punctual railway transportation system. The study indicates that ORIE must be calculated on a monthly basis. The findings of the ORIE and calculation are 89.7 - 100% ORIE values. The findings indicate that ORIE can be used as a key performance indicator by the railway infrastructure manager. It is also visualized that ORIE can provide important input and support in decision making for the infrastructure managers. A railway infrastructure maintenance link and effect model (LinkEM), that supports the overall objectives and focuses on critical strategic areas determined by the nature of the railway industry and public requirements and regulations is suggested. To conclude, in this research study relevant MPIs for effective management of operation and maintenance of the railway infrastructure are identified and analyzed. Further, models like LinkEM and ORIE are suggested for the railway infrastructure managers to facilitate in the decision-making.

  • 3076. Åhrén, Thomas
    et al.
    Espling, Ulla
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Samordnet / Felles drift av järnvägen Kiruna - Narvik2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ofotenbanen är cirka 40 km lång och är en av Norges mest belastade banor. Då Ofotenbanen är geografiskt isolerad ur ett norskt järnvägsperspektiv medför detta att den, trots sin korta längd, fram till dags dato behöver både en egen förvaltnings- och produktionsorganisation. Vid jämförelser med andra bansträckor i Norge leder detta till relativt höga totalkostnader räknat per kilometer bana. En bidragande orsak till detta är att de fasta kostnaderna måste fördelas på relativt få bankilometer. En opartisk undersökning om möjligheterna att samordna eller eventuellt köra gemensam drift på sträckan Kiruna-Riksgränsen har därför utförts av JvtC (Järnvägstekniskt Centrum) på uppdrag av Jernbaneverket (JBV) i Narvik. Analysen visar på likheter i organisationsstruktur (beställar- och utförarorganisation). Beträffande kostnadsbilden har konstaterats att JBV avsätter ca 12% av total budget till förvaltning (overhead-kostnader), medan motsvarande andel på svensk sida uppgår till mindre än 1%. Detta beror på att JBV måste fördela ut dessa kostnader på färre kilometer järnväg än Banverket (BV). Ytterligare bidragande faktor är att samtliga infrastrukturella kostnader på norsk sida belastar/betalas via förvaltarorganisa-tionens budget, vilket inte är fallet för svenskt vidkommande. Exempel på sådana är kostnader för järnvägsrelaterade lokaler som inte används direkt av förvaltningsorganisationen (stationsbyggnader, trafikledningscentralen m.m.). Analys av banrelaterade kostnader visar att de aktiviteter som genomförs i spår genererar likartade kostnader per spårmeter, om än något lägre på norsk sida. På svensk sida finns mer pengar inom budgetramen för preventivt underhåll. För att göra banan mer konkurrenskraftig t.ex genom att kunna pressa vidmakthållandekostnaderna så att det t.ex kan bli möjligt att sänka banavgifter är det viktigt att se över möjligheterna att minska kostnaderna. Eftersom samordning eller gemensam drift med Jernbaneverket i övrigt är starkt begränsat bör möjligheten att samordna verksamheten med den järnväg som ansluter till Ofotenbanan, dvs Malmbanan utredas djupare. Förslag på ett antal arbetsuppgifter möjliga att samordna eller köra i gemensam drift finns uppräknade i kapitel 6.

  • 3077. Åhrén, Thomas
    et al.
    Espling, Ulla
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Benchmarking of maintenance process: two case studies from Banverket, Sweden2005In: Abstracts of the Eighth International Conference Maintenance & Renewal of Permanent Way; Power & Signalling; Structures & Earthworks: Railway Engineering 2005 / [ed] M.C. Forde, Engineering Technics Press , 2005, p. 17-18Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Maintenance is an ongoing process for any system with the purpose to maintain its given function during its lifetime. Since maintenance is an integrated part of the business process, correctly performed maintenance creates increased business values. For this, the management must strive for continuous improvement of maintenance process. One powerful tool for this purpose is benchmarking, eg comparing own performance with best in the class or other high performance organizations and learning what they do to achieve their high level of performance. To make a successful comparison, common performance indicators must be identified and used. Performance indicators can broadly be classified as lead or lag indicators, where lead indicators are performance drivers and lag indicators are outcome measures. Today, there is a lot of performance indicators in use connected to maintenance, covering for example the area of safety, asset condition and asset reliability, maintenance performance and cost control.This paper presents two case studies, the first one deal with benchmarking the maintenance process and where as the second one compares the use of maintenance performance indicators at the Swedish National Rail Administration (Banverket). We discuss some benchmarking results indicating for example how maintenance strategies, i.e. proactive or reactive, impact the maintenance costs and the ratio of unplanned maintenance. We also emphasize that many of the maintenance performance indicators are used by various organizations abroad and thus provide Banverket an opportunity to benchmark its operation internationally to improve its performance. One of the findings in both case studies is that there are two critical parameters that are missing from the list of indicators, namely traffic volume and infrastructure age. An attempt is also made to analyze the impact of chosen indicators, as well as suggesting future maintenance indicators for future benchmarking.

  • 3078. Åhrén, Thomas
    et al.
    Liyanage, Jayantha P.
    University of Stavanger.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Maintenance performance measurement study at Banverket2006In: Condition Monitoring and Diagnostic Engineering Management: COMADEM 2006 ; proceedings of the 19th international congress, Luleºa, Sweden, 12 - 15 June 2006 / [ed] Uday Kumar, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2006, p. 643-649Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maintenance is an ongoing process for any system with the purpose to maintain given function during its lifetime. Since maintenance today is an integral part of the business process, correctly performed maintenance is known to create increased business value. However, still in various business sectors there is a great potential for continuous improvement of the maintenance process. Such improvements can be done by introducing a performance measurement system in a way that it supports the needs of core business processes, focusing on critical-strategic areas determined by the nature of the business, business concerns, and public requirements and regulations. The outcome from the maintenance process can be measured in terms of return on investments (ROI) and health, safety and environment (HSE); driven by such issues as integrity of the plant, adequate competencies, functional internal processes, and good internal and external relationships. This signifies a top-down approach underlying the importance to link the measures for operations and maintenance (i.e. the operations and maintenance performance measurement system) to overall business or organizational objectives by creating a logical cause-and-effect structure. In turn this also can be used as an effective basis to pinpoint those measures that should become ‘key performance indicators'. The final output from this is a link-and-effect model, showing how the operations and maintenance process contributes to overall business objectives. In the last years, a ROI-based framework for operations and maintenance performance measurement systems has been introduced into such industries where maintenance is performed by the company themselves. On the basis of the above, this paper presents how maintenance ROI can be adapted, measured, and linked to overall objectives in governmental appropriated organizations like the Swedish National Rail Administration (Banverket) where maintenance is outsourced.

  • 3079. Åhrén, Thomas
    et al.
    Parida, Aditya
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Maintenance performance indicators (MPI) for benchmarking the railway infrastructure: a case study2009In: Benchmarking: An International Journal, ISSN 1463-5771, E-ISSN 1758-4094, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 247-258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - For railway infrastructure, benchmarking is an effective tool that can support the management in their pursuit of continuous improvement by the use of maintenance performance indicators (MPIs). Hence, there is a need to study the MPIs and link them with benchmarking. The purpose of this paper is to present case studies dealing with the application of benchmarking and maintenance performance indicators for the railway infrastructure. Design/methodology/approach - Case studies were conducted at Banverket (the Swedish Rail Administration) and at Jernbaneverket (the Norwegian National Rail Administration), which is responsible for the Norwegian part of the Iron Ore Line between Kiruna in Sweden and Narvik in Norway. The results from the two case studies are compared and analyzed. The benchmarking data for the railway infrastructure are retrieved, classified and analyzed for best practice improvement. Findings - MPIs can successfully use benchmarking as a tool for improvement by learning from within or from other organizations for continuous improvement, which is a rather new phenomenon in the railway industry. Research limitations/implications - Each railway infrastructure is unique due to its geographical locations and constraints, besides the organization, management and other resources. These factors need to be considered while benchmarking the railway infrastructures. Practical implications - The results obtained in these case studies can be used by the railway infrastructure managers for continuous improvements. Moreover, other relevant MPIs required by the railway infrastructure managers can be benchmarked in a similar manner. Originality/value - The paper presents a structured method for continuous improvement of railway infrastructure by using MPIs for benchmarking.

  • 3080. Åhrén, Thomas
    et al.
    Parida, Aditya
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Overall railway infrastructure effectiveness (ORIE): a case study on the Swedish rail network2009In: Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, ISSN 1355-2511, E-ISSN 1758-7832, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 17-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The main purpose of this paper is to develop an approach to analyzing the factors influencing the performance of railway infrastructure, to propose an approach to measuring the overall railway infrastructure effectiveness (ORIE), and to test these approaches in a case study to verify their effectiveness. Design/methodology/approach - The methodology adopted here was to develop a concept for measurement of the overall effectiveness of a railway infrastructure similar to that for measurement of the OEE. The concept thus developed was applied on Swedish railway track sections for collecting data and for their ORIE validation, as a case study. Findings - The findings of the ORIE case study show that the model can be used for other sections of the Swedish railways. It can also be applied to other railways with some modifications. Practical implications - ORIE can measure the extent to which the railway infrastructure system manages to deliver its agreed performance to the traffic operators. Infrastructure managers can also use the ORIE as a key performance indicator, which can provide important input for effective decision making. Originality/value - The paper presents a structured way of developing a conceptual ORIE model applied to the railway-sector. This model can be used by other railways with suitable modifications.

  • 3081. Åhrén, Thomas
    et al.
    Waara, Patric
    Larsson-Kråik, Per-Olof
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Technical and economic evaluation of maintenance for rail and wheels on Malmbanan2003In: Implementation of heavy haul technology for network efficiency: proceedings : International Heavy Haul Conference, Dallas, Texas, May 5-9, 2001, Virginia Beach, Va.: International Heavy Haul Association , 2003, p. 5.81-5.86Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3082.
    Åkerman, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geoinformatics.
    Adaptiv pan-skärpning av DMC bilder2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2004 Lantmäteriet (the national land survey of Sweden) acquired a digital full frame aerial camera, a Z/I Imaging DMC, that for each exposure gives a high resolution panchromatic black and white image (pan) and four-channel multispectral (MS) image with lower resolution. In the post processing software the pan and MS images are combined to a high resolution MS image, though pan-sharpening. Unfortunately the post processing did not work well enough for Lantmäteriet’s images, probably due to a higher altitude used. The pan-sharpening method used was an IHS method for three bands and where the fourth band was subtracted from the pan band. The relations between the bands were fixed. After the pan-sharpening it was no longer possible to compensate for the radiometric atmospheric and sensor effects (tonal adjustment).

    A new post processing software were created for the radiometric post processing of the DMC images, partly as part of this thesis. The goal with this report is to investigate the effect of doing the tonal adjustment prior to the pan-sharpening, to investigate if the method to find the relations between the MS bands and the pan band works and to investigate if the chosen pan-sharpening method gives a better, or worse, result than other, related pan-sharpening methods.

    The new post processing software was supposed to give four high resolution MS bands with-out disturbing effects from atmosphere and sensor. The RGB bands should also give natural colors. It is not obvious that the tonal adjustment can be done after the pan-sharpening and a tonal adjustment should give better conditions for a pan-sharpening with the same result all over the whole image. Of those reasons the tonal adjustment was done first. A least mean square adjustment was used to minimize the difference between the pan band and the mean pixel values of the stretched bands. The pan-sharpening was done with a four band version of Brovey. This has given a good result and has been used for all of Lantmäteriet’s DMC images.

    Two common pan-sharpening methods are IHS (Intensity, Hue, Saturation) and Brovey. The methods are explained and more methods are listed.

    A re-formulation of IHS, which originally only can use three bands, makes it possible to use it for more bands that three. There is also an explanation for why the IHS has a contrast enhanc-ing effect. It is also shown that if the method tweaked to reduce the tendency of color drift, the IHS can be reformulated into Brovey.

    Three tests are carried out where quantitative measures are calculated for different versions of pan-sharpening methods. The first test investigates the effect of tonal adjustment. The test cannot show that the pan-sharpening is improved by doing a tonal adjustment. At the same time the test shows that the tonal adjustment does not disturb the pan-sharpening, which also is valuable to know.The other test investigates the effect of pre-stretching the bands before the pan-sharpening, which is, just as expected, very important. With good stretching values several of the tested pan-sharpening methods shows similar results, and without stretching none of the results are good.The last test shows which of the tested pan-sharpening gives the best result. The two four band versions of IHS and Brovey give the best result, with a slight advantage for Brovey. Both of them are better than the three band versions tested.

  • 3083.
    Åkesson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Larsson, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Undersökning av reaktionskrafter i upplagen avseende olika brottmoder i ett kompositbjälklag bestående av TP-plåt och trä2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett kompositbjälklag av trapetskorrugerade plåtar sammansatta med reglar och glespanel studeras. Bjälklaget ska vara bärande i två riktningar för att på så sätt uppnå konkurrenskraftig prestanda jämfört med andra bjälklagstyper. Arbetet undersöker de båda bärriktningarnas upplagskapaciteter för att på så sätt ge underlag om praktiskt tillämpbara spännvidder. Svaga punkter/delar redovisas också för att ge underlag om i vilken prioritetsordning förbättringar kan göras.

  • 3084.
    Åström, Jan A.
    et al.
    Centre for Scientific Computing, Esbo.
    Ouchterlony, Finn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Linna, R.P.
    Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä.
    Timonen, J.
    Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä.
    Universal dynamic fragmentation in D dimensions2004In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 92, no 24, p. 245506-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A generic model is introduced for brittle fragmentation in D dimensions, and this model is shown to lead to a fragment-size distribution with two distinct components. In the small fragment-size limit a scale-invariant size distribution results from a crack branching-merging process. At larger sizes the distribution becomes exponential as a result of a Poisson process, which introduces a large-scale cutoff. Numerical simulations are used to demonstrate the validity of the distribution for D = 2. Data from laboratory-scale experiments and large-scale quarry blastings of granitic gneiss confirm its validity for D = 3. In the experiments the nonzero grain size of rock causes deviation from the ideal model distribution in the small-size limit. The size of the cutoff seems to diverge at the minimum energy sufficient for fragmentation to occur, but the scaling exponent is not universal.

  • 3085.
    Öberg, Maria
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Nilsson, Kristina L.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Johansson, Charlotta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Major transport corridors: the concept of sustainability in EU documents2016In: Transportation research procedia, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper results are presented from document- and literature studies examining how the concepts of sustainability and sustainable development (economical, ecological and social) are used in the process of developing main transport corridors in the European Union.  Particular focus has been placed on the Scandinavian-Mediterranean (ScanMed) transport corridor, a strategic part of the trans-European network for transports (TEN-T). European Union transport policy documents were studied along with the legislation for TEN-T and documents regarding implementation of the ScanMed corridor.

    The paper highlights that the concept of sustainable development is used in a multifaceted way, sometimes indicating the overarching goal of sustainability, sometimes indicating certain dimensions, and sometimes referring to conducting efforts in a sustainable way. This implies that stakeholders are led to perceive the concept in various ways, influencing how measures are implemented and how the economic, ecological and social dimensions of sustainability are integrated. Reinforcing a holistic perspective of sustainability and sustainable development as integrating economic, ecological and social benefits for a desired development would avoid the perception of sustainability as merely addressing a specific dimension, like environmental concerns. In part this could be strengthened by clearly framing the particular dimensions of sustainability being addressed in different parts of major transport corridor documents, for example; “economic sustainability” or “social sustainability”.

  • 3086.
    Öberg, Maria
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Nilsson, Kristina L.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Johansson, Charlotta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Major transport corridors: the concept of sustainability in EU documents2017In: Transportation Research Procedia, ISSN 2324-9935, E-ISSN 2352-1465, Vol. 25, p. 3698-3706Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper results are presented from document- and literature studies examining how the concepts of sustainability and sustainable development (economical, ecological and social) are used in the process of developing main transport corridors in the European Union.  Particular focus has been placed on the Scandinavian-Mediterranean (ScanMed) transport corridor, a strategic part of the trans-European network for transports (TEN-T). European Union transport policy documents were studied along with the legislation for TEN-T and documents regarding implementation of the ScanMed corridor.

    The paper highlights that the concept of sustainable development is used in a multifaceted way, sometimes indicating the overarching goal of sustainability, sometimes indicating certain dimensions, and sometimes referring to conducting efforts in a sustainable way. This implies that stakeholders are led to perceive the concept in various ways, influencing how measures are implemented and how the economic, ecological and social dimensions of sustainability are integrated. Reinforcing a holistic perspective of sustainability and sustainable development as integrating economic, ecological and social benefits for a desired development would avoid the perception of sustainability as merely addressing a specific dimension, like environmental concerns. In part this could be strengthened by clearly framing the particular dimensions of sustainability being addressed in different parts of major transport corridor documents, for example; “economic sustainability” or “social sustainability”.

  • 3087.
    Öhrling, Therese
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Kumar, Rupesh
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Abrahamsson, Lena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Assessment of the development and implementation of tools in contract cleaning2012In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 687-694Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper illustrates and discusses problems with the implementation and use of ergonomic tools and techniques in the process of cleaning. Cleaning is an occupation with a high risk of developing work-related disorders. One high-strain task where recommended tools and techniques are difficult to apply is cleaning staircases. This study evaluated the muscular activity of cleaners while mopping staircases using two different mop handles and found that an easily adjustable mop handle can decrease a cleaner’s physical load. The results also show that the implementation and contextualization of the mop are of great importance for how a mop is used. A more holistic approach is needed to improve the benefits of good tools and techniques in cleaning work. More research is needed on how workplace organization can be improved to support the implementation of strategies to increase the health of professional cleaners.

  • 3088.
    Öqvist, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Rustan, Agne
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Sugande ventilation vid eldriven hjullastning under jord1989Report (Other academic)
  • 3089.
    Öqvist, Rikard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics. Tyréns AB.
    Measurement and perception of sound insulation from 20 Hz between dwellings2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Population growth and urbanization are projected by the United Nations to add 2,5 billionpeople to the world’s urban population by 2050. We need to construct buildings in anunprecedented scale to meet global housing demand. Sustainable development is critical.Compared to traditional heavy constructions, lightweight wooden constructions are moreenvironmentally friendly and will play a key role in meeting future demands. However, thereare two major problems with lightweight constructions that need to be addressed: 1) Limitedlow frequency sound insulation and 2) Variations in sound insulation.Annoyance from walking sound tend to be higher in lightweight than in heavy constructionseven with the same measured sound insulation. The Swedish research program AkuLiteindicated that the correlation between measured sound insulation and annoyance wassignificantly improved by extending current evaluation methods from 50 Hz down to 20 Hz.Secondly, large variations in sound insulation between nominally identical lightweightconstructions are common, which leads to larger safety margins. By identifying and quantifyingunderlying causes, production costs can be minimized and the performance can be improved.The aim of the thesis is to develop a new evaluation method for impact sound insulation thatbetter correspond to rated annoyance, and to identify and control underlying causes forvariations in sound insulation. The thesis contains six papers.In Paper I and II, sound insulation measurements were carried out in a large number ofnominally identical rooms of two different industrially prefabricated lightweight woodenconstructions. The purpose was to assess and quantify the variations in impact and airbornesound insulation. In Paper I, 30 nominally identical apartments of a volume based system wasevaluated. The apartments on the highest floor achieved significantly better sound insulationdue to the extra weight on lower floors affecting the elastic connections between stories. InPaper II, 18 rooms of a cross-laminated timber system of plate elements were evaluated.Additionally, several potential parameters related to measurement uncertainty wereinvestigated.Paper III deals with measurement uncertainty. An empirical study of reverberation timemeasurements showed that current methods need to be improved, if sound insulationrequirements are to be extended to 20 Hz.Paper IV and V verified that the frequency range 20-50 Hz is important for walking soundannoyance, and that alternative frequency adaptation terms can improve the correlation betweenmeasured impact sound insulation and annoyance ratings. In Paper IV, the methodology was toperform extensive field measurements in apartment buildings of various construction types andto perform questionnaire surveys among the residents. In Paper V, the methodology was toevaluate annoyance based on binaural recordings of walking sound in a two-part listening test.In Paper VI, 70 measurements in a lightweight wooden system were evaluated to quantify thetotal variations in impact and airborne sound insulation from 20 and 50 Hz, respectively. It wasconcluded that the proposed metrics of impact sound insulation were primarily determined bythe impact sound level 20-40 Hz and that the measurement methods must be evaluatedthoroughly to avoid excessive safety margins.

    A new evaluation method for impact sound insulation from 25 Hz, that correspond to the ratedannoyance for both heavy and lightweight constructions is proposed. By using the proposedmethod and attending the specific causes for variations, the lightweight industry will be able todevelop improved multi-story dwellings with higher perceived acoustic quality.

  • 3090.
    Öqwist, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Sensorer: marknadsinventering av sensorer/givare för gas (NO, NO2, CO), radon, temperatur, lufthastighet, differenstryck samt fordonslägeskontroll för användning i underjordsgruvor1991Report (Other academic)
  • 3091.
    Östblom, Evelina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geodesy and Satellite Positioning.
    Possibilities to make measurements of ground subsidence more effective, using dInSAR, GNSS and levelling2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Ground subsidence is today very common. It can occur due to man-made or natural causes. Today, it is most common that subsidence occurs in urban areas, and there the causes are almost exclusively man-made, including groundwater extraction, construction under or above ground. This can lead to damage of buildings or other constructions and lead to large costs for reparation. To avoid this, subsidence must be detected in an early stage.

    Therefore, this thesis work will study the most effective way to detect and measure subsidence using dInSAR, GNSS and levelling. The thesis work will contain a literature study, a compilation of cases comparing the methods and a quantitative comparison of data, called case Stockholm. The main focus of case Stockholm is to compare the RMS error for the datasets and to determine how well the linear regression of the datasets cohere.

    The literature study and the case compilation presents the strengths and weaknesses of the different methods, where dInSAR’s strength is the ability to measure large areas at once while the weakness is the inability to detect small movements within a large movement. The possibility to measure individual points of interest is the strength of both GNSS and levelling, where the most time-consuming method, levelling, also has the highest accuracy. In case Stockholm, the linear regression for dInSAR mostly follows the linear regression for GNSS and levelling. However, irregular levelling measurements that do not follow the general ground subsidence is missed by dInSAR and the amplitude of the dInSAR measurements differ from both GNSS and levelling measurements. This confirms the strengths and weaknesses mentioned in the literature study.

    The conclusion that can be drawn from this is that the most effective way of using dInSAR, GNSS and levelling is to first screen large areas for any movement using dInSAR. Later only the areas that display movement of any sort is measured with either GNSS or levelling depending on demands on accuracy.

  • 3092.
    Österman, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geoinformatics.
    Lokaliseringsmodellen location-allocation som beslutsunderlag för biblioteksplanering: En fallstudie i södra Stockholm2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Libraries and similar archives have existed for hundreds of years and are an important part of a country's cultural work. It also serves as meeting place for all, regardless of age, social and economic background. However, recent studies state that the physical loaning of literature and the number of visitors at libraries are decreasing. Kulturförvaltningen (The Department of Art and Culture), a part of the municipality of Stockholm, is currently producing a structure plan for the development of the libraries in the coming four years. The purpose of the plan is to evaluate the current circumstances and thereafter set targets on how their business should develop.

    To support the work with the structure plan this study will evaluate the model location-allocation and examine if it is suitable as a decision basis for locating libraries and what impact different types of demand points have on the result. By applying the model in a case study, consisting of the libraries in Stockholm, the model can be evaluated in terms of usefulness in similar problems in the future. With the help of data of where people live, work and how they move, the model will be evaluated in two stages. In the first stage, different demand points will be examined separately and thereafter three methods will be tested to combine the different types to create a more uniform picture.

    The results show that the location-allocation model has a large potential to be used as a decision basis for library planning. With the help of different demand points, strategic locations can be found and a wider picture is given of where people live, work and how they move. Each individual result tells more about where the citizens are and it is also easy to see distinctions between the different types of demand, for example where people live and work and where the libraries should be located to reach the younger population in comparison to the population as a whole. The three methods for merging the results all ended up to be both effective and trustworthy. To show all the sub-results in the same map, preferably with the help of an interactive PDF, highlights the importance and impact different demands have as well as allowing patterns or clusters to be found and marked. The two other methods tested, a MCE-analysis and linearization, are both useful to show strategic locations and to quickly and simply communicate results.

    However, there are some limitations and uncertainties with the model that are important to take into consideration. The algorithm used to solve the problem is heuristic, making it hard to understand exactly how it calculates and what impact different parameters have. Consequently, it is important to make an extensive review of the business that will be examined, more specific, what are their demands, how do they look at their business and what parameters do they believe impact the movement pattern of visitors.

    Finally, it should be emphasized that Kulturförvaltningen has been a part of this study from the beginning and they have given their support and input into the analysis throughout the process. In the end, they considered the model and the results from it to be useful in the decision-making process. It is important to keep in mind that the results of the model do not show an exact reality, the intention of the analysis was to develop an overview of where libraries should be approximately located, rather than to find exact locations. The end result being libraries located to better reach their citizens. However, the above is only looking at one part of many when it comes to library site planning and many other issues such as the libraries lending rate, supply and overall focus play an important role when it comes to evaluating their business.

  • 3093.
    Österman, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geodesy and Geoinformatics.
    Map visualization in ArcGIS, QGIS and MapInfo2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Mapproduction, also called cartography, is one of the processes of visualrepresentation of reality. This practice has for a long time been of hugeinterest to humanity and was initially a handcraft[2]. Today most maps areproduced with the help of computers and are often the last step of a GISanalysis – the way the result is presented. This makes knowledge of mapproduction important and relevant when working with different GIS analysis. Thereare several GIS programs on the market, both free and commercial software.ArcGIS is one of the most common programs used by companies when producing mapsand is often used in universities for teaching. However, there are otherprograms on the market. Two examples of these are QGIS and MapInfo. QGIS isfree open source software and MapInfo is licensed software like ArcGIS. Theobjectives of this thesis are to explore and learn the steps of map productionin these programs and to look at how interchangeable the programs are in mapediting. This is examined by trying to create the same map and map series inthe three programs. From the process and result an evaluation schema is createdto present the functionality as well as a discussion to raise the pros and consof the programs. The result of creating a simple map shows that it is possibleto create the same map in all three programs, except from some minordifferences. When looking at the evaluations schema it is clear that theprograms have almost the same functionality. The biggest difference is thatboth ArcGIS and QGIS have a tool for generating an atlas while MapInfo lacksthis functionality. What the evaluation schema does not show is the differencesin how user-friendly the programs are. This is further narrated in the discussionpart of the report where the pros and cons are reported. The conclusion is thatArcGIS and QGIS are much alike when it comes to producing maps while MapInfoworks differently and are harder to get used to. The result gives a goodindication of which programs to choose and what type of functionality thatexists, though a more profound study could have been done where more types ofmaps were created for more reliable results.

  • 3094.
    Kumar, Uday (Editor)
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Ahmadi, Alireza (Editor)
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Verma, Ajit Kumar (Editor)
    Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, International Institute of Information Technology, P-14, Pune Infotech Park, Phase-1, Hinjawadi.
    Varde, Prabhakar (Editor)
    Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai.
    Current Trends in Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Safety: An Industry Perspective2016Book (Refereed)
  • 3095.
    Rustan, Agne (Editor)
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Försiktig och skonsam sprängning under jord: diskussionsdagar i Luleå 17-18 september 19801980Report (Other academic)
  • 3096.
    Kumar, Uday (Editor)
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Karim, Ramin (Editor)
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Parida, Aditya (Editor)
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Tretten, Phillip (Editor)
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Proceedings of the 3rd international workshop and congress on eMaintenance: June 17-18 Luleå, Sweden : eMaintenance, Trends in technologies & methodologies, challenges, possibilites and applications2014Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Compilation of papers presented in the technical sessions during the eMaintenance 2014.

  • 3097. Hansen, Malin (Editor)
    Böhme, Kai (Editor)
    Lange, Burkhard (Editor)
    Property Development and Land‐ Use Planning around the Baltic Sea: Nordregio Working Paper 2000:52000Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3098.
    Kapur, P.K. (Editor)
    Amity Center for Interdisciplinary Research, Amity University.
    Kumar, Uday (Editor)
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Verma, Ajit Kumar (Editor)
    Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Haugesund .
    Quality, IT and Business Operations: Modeling and Optimization2018Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book discusses action-oriented, concise and easy-to-communicate goals and challenges related to quality, reliability, infocomm technology and business operations. It brings together groundbreaking research in the area of software reliability, e-maintenance and big data analytics, highlighting the importance of maintaining the current growth in information technology (IT) adoption in businesses, while at the same time proposing process innovations to ensure sustainable development in the immediate future. In its thirty-seven chapters, it covers various areas of e-maintenance solutions, software architectures, patching problems in software reliability, preventive maintenance, industrial big data and reliability applications in electric power systems.

    The book reviews the ways in which countries currently attempt to resolve the conflicts and opportunities related to quality, reliability, IT and business operations, and proposes that internationally coordinated research plans are essential for effective and sustainable development, with research being most effective when it uses evidence-based decision-making frameworks resulting in clear management objectives, and is organized within adaptive management frameworks. Written by leading experts, the book is of interest to researchers, academicians, practitioners and policy makers alike who are working towards the common goal of making business operations more effective and sustainable.

  • 3099. Hansen, Malin (Editor)
    Böhme, Kai (Editor)
    Spatial Planning in the Baltic Sea Region: Implications of European Spatial Development Perspectives: Nordregio Electronic Paper 2001:12001Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3100.
    Swan, Graham (Editor)
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    The stiffness of joints: a workshop report1981Report (Other academic)
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