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  • 301.
    Dyverfeldt, Petter
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Klinisk fysiologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärtcentrum, Fysiologiska kliniken.
    Gårdhagen, Roland
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Mekanisk värmeteori och strömningslära. Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sigfridsson, Andreas
    Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Klinisk fysiologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärtcentrum, Fysiologiska kliniken.
    Karlsson, Matts
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Mekanisk värmeteori och strömningslära. Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ebbers, Tinno
    Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Klinisk fysiologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärtcentrum, Fysiologiska kliniken.
    MRI Turbulence Quantification2009Ingår i: Proc. Intl. Soc. Mag. Reson. Med., 2009, s. 1858-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 302.
    Dyverfeldt, Petter
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Klinisk fysiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärtcentrum, Fysiologiska kliniken.
    Sigfridsson, Andreas
    Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Klinisk fysiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärtcentrum, Fysiologiska kliniken.
    Escobar Kvitting, John-Peder
    Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Fysiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärtcentrum, Thorax-kärlkliniken.
    Ebbers, Tino
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Klinisk fysiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärtcentrum, Fysiologiska kliniken.
    Quantification of Turbulance Intensity by Generalizing Phase-Contrast MRI2006Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 303.
    Dzanovic, Elvira
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Biomedicinsk laboratorievetenskap.
    Epidemiologisk klassificering av Staphylococcus epidermidis med Matrix- Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight (MALDI-TOF)2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 304. Dzialanski, Zbigniew
    et al.
    Barany, Michael
    Engfeldt, Peter
    Magnuson, Anders
    Olsson, Lovisa A.
    Nilsson, Torbjörn K.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Klinisk kemi.
    Lactase persistence versus lactose intolerance: Is there an intermediate phenotype?2016Ingår i: Clinical Biochemistry, ISSN 0009-9120, E-ISSN 1873-2933, Vol. 49, nr 3, s. 248-252Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: According to the prevailing theory about the genetic background to lactose intolerance, there are three genotypes but only two adult physiological phenotypes: lactase persistence in individuals with the CT and TT genotypes and lactase non-persistence in individuals with the CC genotype. However, analysis of lactase activity from intestinal biopsies has revealed three distinct levels of activity, suggesting that an intermediate physiological phenotype may exist. Aim: To assess possible disparities between different genotypes with regard to biomarkers of lactase activity and physical symptoms during an oral lactose load test. Methods: A retrospective study using an oral lactose load test (n = 487). Concentrations of hydrogen in exhaled air and blood glucose were measured. Afterwards, subjects were asked to provide oral mucosa samples for genotyping and answer a questionnaire (participation rate 56%, n = 274). Results: Mean hydrogen levels in exhaled air at 120 min were significantly higher in the CT genotype than in the TT genotype. There was no significant difference in blood glucose levels between the two groups. Reported symptoms, with the possible exception of abdominal pain, were equally prevalent in both groups. Conclusions: Subjects with the CT and TT genotypes, hitherto classified as lactase-persistent, differ in their physiological response to lactose intake, indicating differences in phenotype which could have clinical significance. 

  • 305. Dzintars, Eric
    et al.
    Stathakis, Sotirios
    Mavroidis, Panayiotis
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum.
    Sadeghi, Amir
    Papanikolaou, Nikos
    Performance of independent dose calculation in helical tomotherapy: implementation of the mcsim code2012Ingår i: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine, ISSN 0158-9938, Vol. 35, nr 4, s. 423-438Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, a software-based second check dose calculation for helical tomotherapy (HT) is not available. The goal of this study is to evaluate the dose calculation accuracy of the in-house software using EGS4/MCSIM Monte Carlo environment against the treatment planning system calculations. In-house software was used to convert HT treatment plan information into a non-helical format. The MCSIM dose calculation code was evaluated by comparing point dose calculations and dose profiles against those from the HT treatment plan. Fifteen patients, representing five treatment sites, were used in this comparison. Point dose calculations between the HT treatment planning system and the EGS4/MCSIM Monte Carlo environment had percent difference values below 5 % for the majority of this study. Vertical and horizontal planar profiles also had percent difference values below 5 % for the majority of this study. Down sampling was seen to improve speed without much loss of accuracy. EGS4/MCSIM Monte Carlo environment showed good agreement with point dose measurements, compared to the HT treatment plans. Vertical and horizontal profiles also showed good agreement. Significant time saving may be obtained by down-sampling beam projections. The dose calculation accuracy of the in-house software using the MCSIM code against the treatment planning system calculations was evaluated. By comparing point doses and dose profiles, the EGS4/MCSIM Monte Carlo environment was seen to provide an accurate independent dose calculation.

  • 306.
    Ebbers, Tino
    Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Fysiologi. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Mekanisk värmeteori och strömningslära. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Fysiologiska kliniken US.
    Flow Imaging: Cardiac Applications of 3D Cine Phase-Contrast MRI2011Ingår i: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports, ISSN 1941-9074, Vol. 4, nr 2, s. 127-133Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Global and regional blood flow dynamics are of pivotal importance to cardiac function. Fluid mechanical forces can affect hemolysis and platelet aggregation, as well as myocardial remodeling. In recent years, assessment of blood flow patterns based on time-resolved, three-dimensional, three-directional phase-contrast MRI (3D cine PC MRI) has become possible and rapidly gained popularity. Initially, this technique was mainly known for its intuitive and appealing visualizations of the cardiovascular blood flow. Most recently, the technique has begun to go beyond compelling images toward comprehensive and quantitative assessment of blood flow. In this article, cardiac applications of 3D cine PC MRI data are discussed, starting with a review of the acquisition and analysis techniques, and including descriptions of promising applications of cardiac 3D cine PC MRI for the clinical evaluation of myocardial, valvular, and vascular disorders.

  • 307.
    Ebbers, Tino
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Klinisk fysiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärtcentrum, Fysiologiska kliniken.
    Dyverfeldt, Petter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Klinisk fysiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärtcentrum, Fysiologiska kliniken.
    Sigfridsson, Andreas
    Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Klinisk fysiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärtcentrum, Fysiologiska kliniken.
    Escobar Kvitting, John-Peder
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Klinisk fysiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Quantification of Mean and Fluctuating Flow2006Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 308.
    Ebbers, Tino
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Klinisk fysiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärtcentrum, Fysiologiska kliniken.
    Haraldsson, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Klinisk fysiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärtcentrum, Fysiologiska kliniken.
    Dyverfeldt, Petter
    Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Klinisk fysiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärtcentrum, Fysiologiska kliniken.
    Sigfridsson, Andreas
    Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Klinisk fysiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärtcentrum, Fysiologiska kliniken.
    Warntjes, Marcel Jan Bertus
    Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Klinisk fysiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärtcentrum, Fysiologiska kliniken.
    Wigström, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Klinisk fysiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Higher order weighted least-squares phase offset correction for improved accuracy in phase-contrast MRI2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging has the ability to accurately measure blood flow and myocardial velocities in the human body. Unwanted spatially varying phase offsets are, however, always present and may deteriorate the measurements significantly. Some of these phase offsets can be estimated based on the pulse sequence (1), but effects caused by eddy currents are more difficult to predict. A linear fit of the phase values is often estimated from either a number of manually defined areas containing stationary tissue or by semi-automatic detection of stationary tissue using the

  • 309.
    Ebeling, Rebecca
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Biomedicinsk laboratorievetenskap.
    Etablering av fluorescens-baserad western blot detektion av virus i cellkultur2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 310.
    Edberg, Carina
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    Expression of weight and aggression regulating genes in Drosophila melanogaster after exposure to the behavioural pheromone 11-cis-vaccenyl acetate2013Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Obesity is a growing public health issue with few effective treatments. Many of the human genes involved in weight regulation have homologues in other species. In Drosophila melanogaster, 11-cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVA) is a pheromone shown to affect both aggression and feeding behaviour. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cVA exposure on gene expression in wild type flies and to confirm crosses with genetic knockouts in the cVA pathway. The genes studied in the wild type flies were Akh (homologue of glucagon), Dilp2,-3 and -5 (homologues of insulin), Dsk (homologue of cholecystokinin), sNPF (homologue of neuropeptide Y) and TβH. The knockout genes studied were Or65a, Or67d and TβH. RNA was extracted from whole heads, cDNA synthesis was performed and the cDNA was then used in SYBR Green RT-qPCR. The knockout genes were not confirmed, due to methodological problems. The expression of Dilp3, Dilp5 and Dsk were significantly lower in the experimental flies, the expression of the other genes where not affected. The results indicate that exposure to cVA affects the expression of some of the neuropeptides involved in weight regulation. Due to the methodological problems experienced, a recommendation is to confirm the data using different reagents.

  • 311.
    Edin, Alicia
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Klinisk bakteriologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS).
    Granholm, Susanne
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Klinisk bakteriologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS).
    Koskiniemi, Satu
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Klinisk bakteriologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS).
    Allard, Annika
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Virologi.
    Sjöstedt, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Klinisk bakteriologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS).
    Johansson, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Klinisk bakteriologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS).
    Development and Laboratory Evaluation of a Real-Time PCR Assay for Detecting Viruses and Bacteria of Relevance for Community-Acquired Pneumonia2015Ingår i: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics, ISSN 1525-1578, E-ISSN 1943-7811, Vol. 17, nr 3, s. 315-324Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Community-acquired pneumonia may present with similar clinical symptoms, regardless of viral or bacterial cause. Diagnostic assays are needed to rapidly discriminate between causes, because this will guide decisions on appropriate treatment. Therefore, a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay with duplex reactions targeting eight bacteria and six viruses was developed. Technical performance was examined with linear plasmids. Upper and Lower respiratory tract specimens were used to compare the qPCR assay with standard microbiological methods. The limit of detection was 5 to 20 DNA template copies with approximately 1000-fold differences in concentrations of the two competing templates. SDs for positive controls were <5%. The use of the qPCR assay resulted in 113 positive identifications in 94 respiratory specimens compared with 38 by using standard diagnostics. Diagnostic accuracy of the qPCR assay varied between 60% positive agreement with standard tests for Streptococcus pneumoniae and 100% for Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Negative percentage of agreement was >95% for M. pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, respiratory syncytial virus, and influenza A virus; whereas it was only 56% for Haemophilus influenzae. Multiple microbial agents were identified in 19 of 44 sputum and 19 of 50 nasopharynx specimens. We conclude that in parallel qPCR detection of the targeted respiratory bacteria and viruses is feasible. The results indicate good technical performance of the assay in clinical specimens.

  • 312.
    Edsborg, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Biomedicinsk laboratorievetenskap.
    Allelfrekvensen av SNV rs113247976 C>T i KIF5A genen: Regionala skillnader i den svenska populationen2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 313.
    Eduardo Venson, José
    et al.
    Institute of Informatics – INF, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul – UFRGS, Av. Bento Gonçalves, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil / Animati - Computação aplicada à Saúde, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil.
    Bevilacqua, Fernando
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi. Universidade Federal da Fronteira Sul – UFFS, Chapecó, SC, Brazil.
    Onuki, Fabio
    Medvia Diagnósticos, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.
    Cordeiro d’Ornellas, Marcos
    Laboratory for Applied Computing – LaCA, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria – UFSM, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil.
    Anderson, Maciel
    Institute of Informatics – INF, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul – UFRGS, Av. Bento Gonçalves, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.
    Efficient medical image access in diagnostic environments with limited resources2016Ingår i: Research on Biomedical Engineering, ISSN 2446-4732, Vol. 32, nr 4, s. 347-357Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    A medical application running outside the workstation environment has to deal with several constraints, such as reduced available memory and low network bandwidth. The aim of this paper is to present an approach to optimize the data flow for fast image transfer and visualization on mobile devices and remote stationary devices.

    Methods

    We use a combination of client- and server-side procedures to reduce the amount of information transferred by the application. Our approach was implemented on top of a commercial PACS and evaluated through user experiments with specialists in typical diagnosis tasks. The quality of the system outcome was measured in relation to the accumulated amount of network data transference and the amount of memory used in the host device. Besides, the system's quality of use (usability) was measured through participants’ feedback.

    Results

    Contrarily to previous approaches, ours keeps the application within the memory constraints, minimizing data transferring whenever possible, allowing the application to run on a variety of devices. Moreover, it does that without sacrificing the user experience. Experimental data point that over 90% of the users did not notice any delays or degraded image quality, and when they did, they did not impact on the clinical decisions.

    Conclusion

    The combined activities and orchestration of our methods allow the image viewer to run on resource-constrained environments, such as those with low network bandwidth or little available memory. These results demonstrate the ability to explore the use of mobile devices as a support tool in the medical workflow.

  • 314.
    Eggers, Kai M.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Uppsala kliniska forskningscentrum (UCR).
    Aldous, Sally
    Greenslade, Jaimi H.
    Johnston, Nina
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Uppsala kliniska forskningscentrum (UCR).
    Lindahl, Bertil
    Parsonage, William A.
    Pickering, John W.
    Than, Martin
    Cullen, Louise
    Two-hour diagnostic algorithms for early assessment of patients with acute chest pain - Implications of lowering the cardiac troponin I cut-off to the 97.5th percentile2015Ingår i: Clinica Chimica Acta, ISSN 0009-8981, E-ISSN 1873-3492, Vol. 445, s. 19-24Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Assessment of patients with suspected non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) is based on cardiac troponin (cTn) levels with the 99th percentile as cut-off. However, cardiovascular risk starts already at lower troponin concentrations. We therefore, aimed to investigate the utility of 2-hour algorithms using the high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) 97.5th percentile as cut-off which corresponds to the standard URL for most biomarkers. Methods: Hs-cTnI was measured at presentation and 2 h in 1624 chest pain patients. Diagnostic algorithms were developed applying hs-cTnI levels dichotomized at the 99th and 97.5th percentiles combined with hs-cTnI changes and/or ECG findings. Results: The prevalence of NSTEMI was 13.9%. The adjusted odds ratios for 1-year mortality were 2.7(95% CI 1.4-5.1) for the 99th percentile and 3.1 (95% CI 1.6-5.9) for the 97.5th percentile. The best-performing 99th percentile-based algorithms provided a positive predictive value (PPV) of 863% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 993%. Using 97.5th percentile-based algorithms to define NSTEMI resulted in few reclassifications and yielded similar diagnostic estimates (PPV 85.4%, NPV 99.4%). Conclusion: The hs-cTnI 97.5th percentile integrated into 2-hour algorithms provided high diagnostic estimates and could, due to better prognostic properties serve as an alternative to the 99th percentile.

  • 315.
    Eggers, Kai M.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Lindahl, Bertil
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Uppsala kliniska forskningscentrum (UCR).
    Application of Cardiac Troponin in Cardiovascular Diseases Other Than Acute Coronary Syndrome2017Ingår i: Clinical Chemistry, ISSN 0009-9147, E-ISSN 1530-8561, Vol. 63, nr 1, s. 223-235Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Increased cardiac troponin concentrations in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) identify patients with ongoing cardiomyocyte necrosis who are at increased risk. However, with the use of more precise assays, cardiac troponin increases are commonly noted in other cardiovascular conditions as well. This has generated interest in the use of cardiac troponin for prognostic assessment and clinical management of these patients. In this review, we have summarized the data from studies investigating the implications of cardiac troponin concentrations in various acute and chronic conditions beyond ACS,, i.e., heart failure, myocarditis, Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, aortic dissection, supraventricular arrhythmias, valve disease, pulmonary arterial hypertension, stroke, and in the perioperative setting. CONTENT: Cardiac troponin concentrations are often detectable and frankly increased in non-ACS conditions, in particular when measured with high-sensitivity (hs) assays. With the exception of myocarditis and Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, cardiac troponin concentrations carry strong prognostic information, mainly with respect to mortality, or incipient and/or worsening heart failure. Studies investigating the prognostic benefit associated with cardiac troponin guided treatments however, are almost lacking and the potential role of cardiac troponin in the management of non-ACS conditions is not defined. SUMMARY: Increased cardiac troponin indicates increased risk for adverse outcome in patients with various cardiovascular conditions beyond ACS. Routine measurement of cardiac troponin concentrations can however, not be generally recommended unless there is a suspicion of ACS. Nonetheless, any finding of an increased cardiac troponin concentration in a patient without ACS should at least prompt the search for possible underlying conditions and these should be managed meticulously according to current guidelines to improve outcome.

  • 316.
    Einarsson, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Implementation and Performance Analysis of Filternets2006Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    Today Image acquisition equipment produces huge amounts of data that needs to be processed. Often the data describes signals with a dimensionality higher then 2, as with ordinary images. This introduce a problem when it comes to process this high dimensional data since ordinary signal processing tools are no longer suitable. New faster and more efficient tools need to be developed to fully exploit the advantages with e. g. a 3D CT-scan.

    One such tool is filternets, a layered networklike structure, which the signal propagates through. A filternet has three fundamental advantages which will decrease the filtering time. The network structure allows complex filter to be decomposed into simpler ones, intermediate result may be reused and filters may be implemented with very few nonzero coefficients (sparse filters).

    The aim of this study has been to create an implementation for filternets and optimize it with respect to execution time. Specially the possibility to use filternets that approximates a harmonic filterset for estimating orientation in 3D signals is investigated.

    Tests show that this method is up to about 30 times faster than a full filterset consisting of dense filters. They also show a slightly larger error in the estimated orientation compared with the dense filters, this error should however not limit the usability of the method.

  • 317.
    Ekberg, Niklas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Muscle activation during the chin-up exercise versus the lat-pulldown exercise using different workloads: An Electromyography study2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Two commonly used strength training exercises are the chin-up- and the lat-pulldown exercise. Both exercises are performed by using similar movement patterns and by using the same primary muscles. Previous research has shown that each exercise can exhibit unique training stimulus and should not be considered interchangeably. However, there is limited research regarding comparison of muscle activation between the exercises. Knowing the amount of muscle activation when performing the exercises, can help strength training participants to choose exercise and relative workload according to the specific muscles they want to target.

    Purpose: This study sought to compare muscle activation (measured as average) in m. latissimus dorsi (LD), m. biceps brachii (BB), middle m. trapezius (TR) and m. rectus abdominis (RA) between performing the chin-up at 100% of participants’ individual bodyweight (BW) with lat-pulldown at 50%-, 65%- and 75% BW.

    Methods: Twenty strength trained male participants (25.0 ± 3.3 yr; 181.0 ± 5.8 cm; 82.0 ± 7.8 kg) were examined during the study. Surface electromyography (SEMG) was collected from LD, BB, TR & RA during the exercises. Average muscle activation was expressed as percentage of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC). Exercise execution was as identical as possible for both exercises and was performed using pronated handgrip and a grip width equal to 1.5 times the participants individual biacromial distance.

    Results: Statistically significant (p<0.05) increases in average muscle activation were found in LD, BB and RA during chin-up 100% BW compared to lat-pulldown at 50%-, 65% and 75% BW. However, for TR no significant difference (p=0.145) was found between chin-up 100% BW and lat-pulldown when performed at 75% BW.

    Conclusion: These results indicate that performing the lat-pulldown using workload somewhere between 75-100% BW can exhibit the same muscle activation as performing the chin-up at 100% BW.

    Keywords: Strength training, Surface electromyography, Muscle activation, Chin-up exercise, Latpulldown exercise, Different workloads, Randomisation, Cross-over, Observational

  • 318.
    Ekelöf, Josefine
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Detection of Carbapenemases in Klebsiella pneumoniae Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/IonizationTime-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 319.
    Eklo, Niklas
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Bestämning av cytokinproduktion i nasala borstprov som respons på LPS- eller R848-stimulering2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 320.
    Eklund, Anders
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Andersson, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ohlsson, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ynnerman, Anders
    Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Visuell informationsteknologi och applikationer. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Knutsson, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    A Brain Computer Interface for Communication Using Real-Time fMRI2010Ingår i: Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Pattern Recognition, Los Alamitos, CA, USA: IEEE Computer Society, 2010, s. 3665-3669Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the first step towards a brain computer interface (BCI) for communication using real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The subject in the MR scanner sees a virtual keyboard and steers a cursor to select different letters that can be combined to create words. The cursor is moved to the left by activating the left hand, to the right by activating the right hand, down by activating the left toes and up by activating the right toes. To select a letter, the subject simply rests for a number of seconds. We can thus communicate with the subject in the scanner by for example showing questions that the subject can answer. Similar BCI for communication have been made with electroencephalography (EEG). The subject then focuses on a letter while different rows and columns of the virtual keyboard are flashing and the system tries to detect if the correct letter is flashing or not. In our setup we instead classify the brain activity. Our system is neither limited to a communication interface, but can be used for any interface where five degrees of freedom is necessary.

  • 321. Eklund, Ida
    Prevalence of microorganisms in reindeer(Rangifer tarandustarandus)and possible effects of climate changes.2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The climate in the north is changing over time, which affects the nature in many ways. For instance, some microorganisms that cause infections might become more common. This might have negative consequences for reindeer husbandry. In Sweden, this is an industry that is relatively large. However, even though the reindeer is common in the north the knowledge about its diseases is limited.In this study the prevalence of microorganisms that may cause infection in reindeer was investigated. Comparisons between different sami villages and previous studies were performed to detect differences that could occur due to climate changes. The diseases and microorganisms that were analyzed with PCR were malignant catarrhal fever, herpes infections, Chlamydia sp. and bovine viral diarrhea (BVD). The cause of eye problems in reindeer was also investigated. BVD and bovine leukemia virus where analyzed with ELISA. Next generation sequencing where used for broader screening of samples for microorganisms that might be of interest of future analysis in more detailed follow-up studies.Since not enough samples were available at the time of this study findings could not be linked to changing climate. In the reindeer with eye infection Chlamydia sp., Moraxella sp. and Neisseria sp. can probably be involved causing disease. This should be further investigated to be able to determine whether it is true or not by analyzing samples from individuals without changes in the eyes. The prevalence of reindeers with antibodies against BVD has increased in Sweden since 2012. There will be further studies in this field with reindeers from other northern countries.

  • 322.
    Eklund, Lina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Biomedicinsk laboratorievetenskap. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Cytostatikabehandling av kolorektalcancer-celler med olika genetisk bakgrund: Genetisk bakgrund har betydelse för effekten av behandlingen2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 323.
    Ekstedt, Sandra
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för kemi och biomedicin (KOB). Karolinska institutet.
    Effect of IL-13 on Serotonin mediated Airway Smooth Muscle Contraction2013Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Asthma is a disease that occurs worldwide and approximately 300 million people carry this disease. It is characterized by chronic inflammation, airway obstruction and airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR). This T-lymphocyte controlled disease has symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, and chest tightness. In addition to chronic inflammation, asthma is also caused by overproduction of mucus and airway wall remodelling. The chronic inflammation and airway wall remodelling are suggested to contribute to the AHR and airway obstruction. AHR is a way to measure the reactivity in the airways in asthmatics. IL-13 has been shown to play an important role in the development of AHR, and biopsies from bronchial submucosa and air way smooth muscle (ASM) in humans have shown an increased concentration of IL-13 in severe asthma.

    Aim: The aim of this work was to evaluate if IL-13 is able to enhance the 5-HT response in mouse tracheal segments, which had been cultured for 2 days and, if so, try to unravel the underlying mechanism for this phenomenon. Literature reports that IL-13 enhanced contractions in mouse trachea in presence of KCl and CCH. Earlier work within this project did not find any clear proof for this observation. However, in this work this observation will be evaluated in a more controlled fashion by correcting for size and location of the trachea.

    Methods: The trachea was removed from Balp/c mice and cultured in small wells for two days in DMEM medium and various additions were performed to the medium for understanding the effect of e.g. IL-13 on the cells. The contractility change due to IL-13 and various additions in segments challenged with KCL, CCH and 5-HT were measured in a tissue-organ bath.

    Results and Conclusion: A more enhanced CCH induced contraction of IL-13 treated segments was obtained for the lower part compared to the upper part of the trachea. IL-13 enhanced the response in the ASM to 5-HT after two days of culturing. An increased concentration of the cytokine IL-13 in the airways from TH2-cells enhances the reactivity to 5-HT in the ASM. The underlying mechanism might involve JNK and ERK but more experiments are needed to statistically ensure this claim.

  • 324.
    Ekstrand, Annie
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för naturvetenskap och biomedicin.
    Pop, Maria
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för naturvetenskap och biomedicin.
    Placenta growth factor som biomarkör vid screening av preeklampsi: Litteraturfördjupning och verifiering av metodologi2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under år 2003-2009 utgjorde hypertensiva sjukdomar, såsom eklampsi och preeklampsi, 14,0% av värdens mödradödlighet. Preeklampsi kännetecknas vanligtvis av kliniska observationer av hypertoni och signifikant proteinuri i graviditetens andra trimester. Inom diagnostiken används en riskbedömningsprogramvara som kan beräkna vilken sannolikhetsgrad den havande kvinnan har för att utveckla preeklampsi. Förutom mätning av blodtryck och proteinuri har biomarkören placenta growth factor 1 (PlGF-1) visat ett högt prediktivt värde vid bedömningen. Studien syftade till att kartlägga och fördjupa sig i metoderna som analyserar biomarkören samt verifiera metoden för PlGF på instrumentet Brahms Kryptor compact plus. Fördjupningen baserades på granskning av vetenskapliga artiklar och resulterade i två manuella och tre automatiserade metoder. Metoden Quantikine användes i 47% av artiklarna och konstaterades som studiens golden standard. Vid jämförelse av metoderna sågs en lägre bakgrundsstörning, en högre sensitivitet samt en kortare analystid hos de automatiserade metoderna. Den laborativa verifieringen innefattade bestämning av överensstämmelse med externt laboratorium, beräkning av instrumentets provsmitta mellan höga och låga prov samt kvantifiering av inomserie- och mellanliggande precision. Verifieringen resulterade i en god överensstämmelse (r=0,953, p=0,327) med det externa laboratoriet, en konstaterad provsmitta på 0,04% samt en god precision inom leverantörens angivelser.

  • 325.
    Ekström, Sara
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för kemi och biomedicin (KOB).
    Buller som stressor i skolmatsalar: En fördjupning av Barnmiljöhälsorapport 2013 i samarbete med Landstinget i Jönköpings län2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Barnmiljöhälsorapporten 2013 indikerade att 12-åringarna i Jönköpings län känt sig besvärade av ljud i skolmatsalen. Att besväras av ljud är samma sak som att utsättas för buller. Buller har förmåga att aktivera kroppens stressystem och ljud kan bl.a. leda till ökad frisättning av kortikotropinfrisättande hormon, (CRH). Ett hormon som påverkar mag- och tarmkanalen på flera olika sätt som troligen är negativt.  Ljudstörning har förmåga att påverka hälsan hos de som utsätts, buller utgör en hälsorisk.

    Syfte: Syftet med detta arbete är att studera sambandet mellan bullerstörning i skolmatsalen och självskattad hälsa hos 858 12-åringar i Jönköpings län som deltagit i Barnmiljöhälsoenkäten 2011.

    Metod: Analyser av data från Barnmiljöhälsoenkäten 2011 där upplevelse av ljudstörning i skolmatsalen satts i relation till självskattad hälsa.

    Resultat: 12-åringarna i Barnmiljöhälsoenkäten 2011 i Jönköpings län som störts mest av ljud i skolmatsalen har en sämre självskattad hälsa än de som störts mindre eller inte alls av ljud i skolmatsalen.

    Slutsats: För att skapa bättre förutsättningar för en god hälsa hos barn bör fler studier utföras där de stresshormoner ljud kan öka frisättningen av och dess hälsoeffekter utreds. Detta eftersom denna studie indikerar en sämre självskattad hos de deltagare som upplever ljudstörning i skolmatsalen. 

  • 326.
    El Chami El Bayrakdar, Abir
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin.
    Polymorfismen rs1130864 i genen för C-reaktivt protein(CRP) och dess betydelse för CRP-expressionen2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 327.
    El Maatougui, Abdelaziz
    et al.
    Univ Santiago de Compostela, Ctr Singular Invest Quim Biol & Mat Mol CIQUS, Santiago De Compostela 15782, Spain..
    Yanez, Matilde
    Univ Santiago de Compostela, Fac Farm, Dept Farmacol, Santiago De Compostela 15782, Spain..
    Crespo, Abel
    Univ Santiago de Compostela, Ctr Singular Invest Quim Biol & Mat Mol CIQUS, Santiago De Compostela 15782, Spain..
    Fraiz, Nuria
    Univ Santiago de Compostela, Fac Farm, Dept Farmacol, Santiago De Compostela 15782, Spain..
    Coelho, Alberto
    Univ Santiago de Compostela, Fac Farm, Dept Quim Organ, Santiago De Compostela 15782, Spain..
    Ravina, Enrique
    Univ Santiago de Compostela, Fac Farm, Dept Quim Organ, Santiago De Compostela 15782, Spain..
    Laguna, Reyes
    Univ Santiago de Compostela, Fac Farm, Dept Farmacol, Santiago De Compostela 15782, Spain..
    Cano, Ernesto
    Univ Santiago de Compostela, Fac Farm, Dept Farmacol, Santiago De Compostela 15782, Spain..
    Loza, Maria I.
    Univ Santiago de Compostela, Fac Farm, Dept Farmacol, Santiago De Compostela 15782, Spain.;Univ Santiago de Compostela, Ctr Singular Invest Med Mol & Enfermedades, Santiago De Compostela 15782, Spain..
    Brea, Jose
    Univ Santiago de Compostela, Ctr Singular Invest Med Mol & Enfermedades, Santiago De Compostela 15782, Spain..
    Gutiérrez de Terán, Hugo
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi, Beräkningsbiologi och bioinformatik.
    Sotelo, Eddy
    Univ Santiago de Compostela, Ctr Singular Invest Quim Biol & Mat Mol CIQUS, Santiago De Compostela 15782, Spain.;Univ Santiago de Compostela, Fac Farm, Dept Quim Organ, Santiago De Compostela 15782, Spain..
    3-Oxopyridazin-5-yl-Chalcone Hybrids: Potent Antiplatelet Agents That Prevent Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Activation2017Ingår i: CHEMISTRYSELECT, ISSN 2365-6549, Vol. 2, nr 17, s. 4920-4933Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel family of potent and broad-spectrum antiplatelet agents has been discovered by exploration of a library of 3-oxopyridazin-5-yl-chalcone hybrids. The pharmacological evaluation of the collection established the most salient features of the SAR in this series and allowed the identification of lead compounds that exhibit antiplatelet activity that is substantially superior to drugs in clinical use and 3,4-methylenedioxy-β-nitrostyrene (MNS). The derivatives reported herein act on GPIIb/IIIa, but in a different manner to classical antagonists (e.g., tirofiban), by preventing GPIIb/IIIa activation. Given their mechanism of action, these compounds might avoid the adverse effects of antagonists (paradoxical GPIIb/IIIa activation) and constitute attractive pharmacological tools for the development of tailored agents for the treatment of platelet-dependent thrombosis.

  • 328.
    Eldaoi, Zainab
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin.
    Diagnostik samt visualisering av Chlamydia som orsak till luftvägssjukdom2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 329.
    Elebrink, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Biomedicinsk laboratorievetenskap.
    Utveckling av en in vitro-modell för studier av sekundärt immunsvar mot Francisella tularensis2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 330.
    Elfving, Adam
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Biomedicinsk laboratorievetenskap. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Virologi.
    Förekomst av myggburna virus i Västerbotten2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 331.
    Elfving, Caitlin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Biomedicinsk laboratorievetenskap.
    Förekomst av multiresistenta koagulasnegativa stafylokocker2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 332.
    El-Ghezzaoui, Mohammad
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    DEVELOPMENTAL LOW-DOSE EXPOSURE TO BISPHENOL A ALTERS ADIPOCYTE CELL DENSITY AND INDUCES HYPERLIPIDEMIA IN FISCHER 344 RATS2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Developmental exposure to endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC), such as Bisphenol A (BPA) has been shown to affect the health during early stages in life.Aim: To assess whether developmental low-dose exposure to BPA alters adipocyte distribution and blood lipid levels in Fischer 344 (F344) rats.Method: Pregnant F344 rats were exposed to BPA via their drinking water from gestational day 3.5 throughout lactation. Doses given were one below the current European Food Safety Authority´s preliminary tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 4 μg BPA/kg bw/day, 0.5 [lower dose, Ld] and one equal to the previous TDI; 50 [higher dose, Hd] μg BPA/kg bw/day. Half the offspring was sacrificed at 5, and half at 52 weeks of age. Body weight was registered, and plasma lipid levels were analyzed. Inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) was weighed, Oil red O-stained and analyzed histologically.Results: Five-week-old Ld males and females Hd exhibited significantly higher triglyceride levels (31%, p<0.01; 41%,p<0.05, respectively) compared to control. Total cholesterol was borderline significantly increased (9%, p=0.0554) in 5-week-old Ld males, compared with control. Adipocyte cell density in the 5-week-old offspring was significantly increased; Ld female rats had increased cell density compared to control and Hd (22% and 23%,p<0.05, respectively), whereas the cell density of Hd males increased compared to Ld (29%, p<0.05). In the 52-week-old offspring blood lipid levels and iWAT cell density were not significantly affected.Conclusions: Results of the present study supports that developmental low-dose BPA exposure contributes to elevated triglyceride levels in 5-week-old animals.

  • 333.
    Elji, Rana
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö. Kristianstad University.
    Metodjämförelse mellan två olika enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (Medizym ICA screen och 2Screen islet cell autoantibody ELISA-kit) för mätning av islet cell antibodies, ICA2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is regarded as an autoimmune disease. Beta cells, which produces insulin in pancreas are attacked by islet cell antibodies (ICA). This leads to gradual destruction of the beta cell, which in turn cause high level of glucose in the blood because the regulator "insulin" has disappeared. In that case the patient needs to be treated lifelong with insulin. It has been shown that the ICA reactivity consisting of reactivities against different autoantigens such as: insulin autoantigen (IAA), glutamic acid autoantigen (GAD), insulinoma antigen-2 autoantigen (IA-2) and most likely also zinc transporter autoantigen (ZnT8). Determination of ICA in serum samples is important for the classification of diabetes, prediction of T1D and the development of autoimmune therapies.

    Nowadays screening of ICA is performed with ”Medipan ICA screen” which is a commercial enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Positives samples are further analysed by ELISA with the indirect immunofluorescence method (IF) to ensure a final positive answer.

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare a new commercial ELISA kit ”RSR 2screen” with the Medipan ICA screen for use it in routine analysis to evalute if it has the same / higher specificity and sensitivity, and lower price compared with Medipan ICA screen.

    Serum samples from a control group (n = 199) and a patient’s group diagnosed with T1D (n = 100 were analyzed with both ELISA methods. The results were statistically evaluated to set a threshold value for positivity and to evaluate the method's sensitivity and specificity. The result showed that both ELISA- methods gave the same sensitivity (93%) and specificity (97.5%) and a high concordance (98.7%) was achieved. Analytical price per sample for the RSR 2screen was 4.2% lower than for the Medipan ICA screen. RSR 2screen can be used instead of Medipan ICA screen. 

  • 334.
    Elkhalifa, Dina
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    Improvement of positive strand assay used in detecting positive and negative RNA of hepatitis E virus2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Hepatitis E (HEV) is a small, non-enveloped virus that belongs to the viral genus Hepevirus. HEV is a positive sense single-stranded RNA virus and there is insufficient information regarding its replication. This is mainly because the virus has low capacity to grow in normally used cell cultures. Many specific strand assay detection studies have been done in order to understand more about HEV replication. Unfortunately, these assays have the disadvantage of giving false positive results.

    Aim: The aim of this project was to improve the positive strand assay to increase specificity and eliminate false positivity which is due to high sensitivity of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). False positivity occurs as remains of transfected material in the cell are amplified.

    Method: The samples used in this project were swine samples from Sweden and a human sample (plasmid clone of genotype 1) from India. Negative samples, extracted positive samples and transcribed RNA positive sense samples were used. The methods applied were cDNA synthesis, exonuclease I and RNase treatments, DNA purification kits followed by first and nested PCR.

    Result: The results of this study indicated great improvement of the detection assay especially for the transcribed RNA samples. Best results were obtained at a final concentration of 1.5mM MgCl2 in the mastermix. 

    Conclusion: Changing the concentration of MgCl2 appeared to have a great effect on PCR specificity. Improving detection assays is very essential as they can be applied in the research field and in public health centers either for diagnosis or tracking disease outbreaks.  

  • 335.
    Emami Khoonsari, Payam
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Klinisk kemi.
    Musunri, Sravani
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - BMC, Analytisk kemi.
    Herman, Stephanie
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Klinisk kemi.
    Svensson, Camilla I
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Tanum, Lars
    Department of R&D in Mental Health, Akershus University Hospital, Lørenskog, Norway..
    Gordh, Torsten
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Kultima, Kim
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Klinisk kemi.
    Systematic Analysis of the Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteome of Fibromyalgia patients2019Ingår i: Journal of Proteomics, ISSN 1874-3919, E-ISSN 1876-7737, s. 35-43Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a syndrome characterized by widespread muscular pain, fatigue and functional symptoms, which is known to be difficult to diagnose as the various symptoms overlap with many other conditions. Currently, there are no biomarkers for FM, and the diagnosis is made subjectively by the clinicians. We have performed shotgun proteomics on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from FM patients and non-pain controls to find potential biomarker candidates for this syndrome. Based on our multivariate and univariate analyses, we found that the relative differences in the CSF proteome between FM patients and controls were moderate. Four proteins, important to discriminate FM patients from non-pain controls, were found: Apolipoprotein C-III, Galectin-3-binding protein, Malate dehydrogenase cytoplasmic and the neuropeptide precursor protein ProSAAS. These proteins are involved in lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity, inflammatory signaling, energy metabolism and neuropeptide signaling.

  • 336. Emelie, Hermansson
    The effects of the ECM-molecules Fibronectin, Tenascin C and Laminin-111 on the sphere forming capacity of glioblastoma cells in cell culture.2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Glioblastoma is both the most common and the deadliest of all gliomas. Despite aggressive treatment which consists of surgery, chemotherapy and radiation the median life expectancy is only 15 months. Studies show that lines that have a high capacity of forming spheres when cultured have a quicker progression with a worse prognosis for the patient. In this study the effects of three ECM-molecules on the glioblastomas ability to grow as spheres in cell culture was therefore examined. This was done by culture of three different lines of glioblastoma cells and examine the expression of the ECM-molecules on RNA level by use of q-PCR, on protein level by use of western blot (WB) and by section glioblastoma spheres and stain them with different antibodies using immunohistochemistry (IHC). A high level of Sox2 which is an important transcription factor in keeping the stem cells pluripotency was found in all cell lines supporting the theory that glioblastomas consists partly of glioblastoma stem cells. This could explain the high resistance towards both chemotherapy and radiation treatment. There seems to be a negative correlation between the RNA-expression of FN1 and the sphere forming capacity which should be further examined. Additional support for the theory that cell lines that form spheres are more invasive in vivo was also found. Furthermore, a high level of KI67 positive cells seems to correlate with a good ability to form spheres in vitro as the cell line with the highest KI67 expression also was the best at creating spheres.

  • 337.
    Engström, Alexander
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper (from 2013).
    Erlandsson, Ann
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper (from 2013).
    Delbro, Dick
    Örebro universitet.
    Wijkander, Jonny
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper (from 2013).
    Conditioned media from M1 but not M2 macrophage phenotype inhibits proliferation of thr colon cancer cell lines HT29 and CACO-22013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) are often present at a high level in colorectal cancer (CRC) but whether the presence of TAMs in CRC is good or bad is unclear. Macrophages can be categorized into two main subgroups, M1 or M2, that display pro – and anti-inflammatory properties respectively. An improved knowledge of the different macrophage phenotypes will broaden the understanding of their involvement in CRC. We have used an in vitro model to study the effects of human M1 and M2 macrophages on the growth and cell cycle of colon cancer cell lines.

     

    Method

    Human monocytes were differentiated into M1 or M2 macrophages and conditioned media was collected. Effects of the conditioned media were measured on the colon cancer cell lines HT-29 and CACO-2 in regards to proliferation, cell cycle distribution and apoptosis. A protein array was used to analyze the released amount of 42 different cytokines from M1 and M2 macrophages into the collected conditioned media.

     

    Results

    Growth arrest was induced in HT-29 and CACO-2 by M1 conditioned media, while M2 conditioned media had no major effect. Analysis of cell cycle distribution and apoptosis in HT-29 cells revealed that treatment with M1 conditioned media on these cells increased apoptosis and caused a disturbed cell cycle with accumulation in G0/G1 and G2/M and a corresponding reduction in S-phase. The protein array revealed several cytokines expressed in M1 with potential inhibitory growth effects. We treated HT-29 cells with two of the candidates, TNF-a and CXCL9, but neither induced growth arrest.

     

    Conclusion

    M1 – but not M2-macrophages had a major inhibitory effect on the growth of the colon cancer cell lines HT-29 and CACO-2 and suggest a role for M1 macrophages in anti-tumor activity and possible favorable outcome for CRC patients.

  • 338.
    Engström, Ida
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    Comparison of two HPLC columns: An attempt to improve analysis of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    1ABSTRACTCarbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) is a biomarker for excessive and long-running intake of alcohol. It is a form of transferrin called disialotransferrin that under normal circumstances is <2 % of total transferrin in human blood. An increase is seen when alcohol consumption exceeds450 g per week. CDT is analyzed in serum usinghigh performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and UV/VIS detection. The purpose of this study was to investigate if an “in routine” method could be improved by switching columns.With ion exchange chromatography transferrin glycoforms are separated and quantified. The carbohydrate-deficient transferrin glycoforms have an isoelectric point between 5,7-5,9 that depends on the number of sialic acids on the molecule. With the use of a salt gradient and pH above the isoelectric point the glycoforms can beseparated depending on their affinity to the stationary phase. Batches with patient and control serum was first analyzed on the routine column Source 15Q PE and then on the alternative column Reprospher 200 SAX 5μm.Student’s t-test showed that the two methods’results correlated but were significantly different. A Bland-Altman plot illustrated differences between the two columns. High and low control serum values from Reprospher were lower than the accepted interval. In this study Reprospher’s stationary phase seemed to be affected to such an extent that stabile retention time, better resolution, and stabile values could not be achieved and because the information about the column was lacking an attempt to regeneratethe columnwas not conducted.

  • 339.
    Enroth, Helena
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Clinical Microbiology, Unilabs AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Retz, Karolina
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Clinical Microbiology, Unilabs AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Andersson, Sofie
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Unilabs AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Andersson, Carl
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Clinical Microbiology, Unilabs AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Svensson, Kristina
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Unilabs AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Ljungström, Lars
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Tilevik, Diana
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Pernestig, Anna-Karin
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Evaluation of QuickFISH and maldi Sepsityper for identification of bacteria in bloodstream infection2019Ingår i: Infectious Diseases, ISSN 2374-4235, E-ISSN 2374-4243, Vol. 51, nr 4, s. 249-258Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Early detection of bacteria and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns are critical to guide therapeutic decision-making for optimal care of septic patients. The current gold standard, blood culturing followed by subculture on agar plates for subsequent identification, is too slow leading to excessive use of broad-spectrum antibiotic with harmful consequences for the patient and, in the long run, the public health. The aim of the present study was to assess the performance of two commercial assays, QuickFISH® (OpGen) and Maldi Sepsityper™ (Bruker Daltonics) for early and accurate identification of microorganisms directly from positive blood cultures.

    Materials and methods: During two substudies of positive blood cultures, the two commercial assays were assessed against the routine method used at the clinical microbiology laboratory, Unilabs AB, at Skaraborg Hospital, Sweden.

    Results: The Maldi Sepsityper™ assay enabled earlier microorganism identification. Using the cut-off for definite species identification according to the reference method (>2.0), sufficiently accurate species identification was achieved, but only among Gram-negative bacteria. The QuickFISH®assay was time-saving and showed high concordance with the reference method, 94.8% (95% CI 88.4–98.3), when the causative agent was covered by the QuickFISH® assay.

    Conclusions: The use of the commercial assays may shorten the time to identification of causative agents in bloodstream infections and can be a good complement to the current clinical routine diagnostics. Nevertheless, the performance of the commercial assays is considerably affected by the characteristics of the causative agents.

  • 340.
    Enström, Emma
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Kan ett tillskott av tryptofan ha en inverkan på  sjukdomstillstånd som depression och/eller smärta?2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Tryptofan är utgångsmaterial för syntesen av 5-hydroxytryptamin (5-HT) men metaboliseras även till andra metaboliter så som kynureninsyra och kinolinsyra. 5- HT anses ha betydelse vid depression och idag används selektiva serotoninåterupptagshämmare (SSRI) mot depression. 5-HT har eventuellt betydelse vid upplevelsen av smärta också. Syftet med studien var att undersöka om ett tillskott av tryptofan kan påverka sjukdomstillstånd som depression och/eller smärta. Granskade studier visar att tryptofanbrist leder till mindre tillgänglighet av tryptofan i hjärnan vilket minskar syntesen av serotonin. Förändrat stämningsläge visas och tycks vara kopplat till den minskade serotoninsyntesen. Tryptofantillskott har i vissa studier visats ha inverkan på socialt beteende med minskat stridslystet beteende samt ökat dominant beteende. Motsvarande studier för att studera effekten på smärta ger en komplex bild. Resultat visar på att vid akut smärta verkar 5-HT ha en viss smärtlindring och motsägelsefulla svar på 5-HT ses vid neuropatisk samt inflammatorisk smärta. Samsjuklighet med både depression och smärta förekommer och har kunnat kopplas till ökad tryptofanmetabolism via kynurenin -vägen. Enzymatiska förändringar har upptäckts och leder till förhöjt kynurenin /tryptofan förhållande. Detta förefaller av betydelse för denna samsjuklighet. Tryptofan som ett kosttillskott för inverkan på sjukdomstillstånd som depression och/eller smärta är väldigt osäkert då komplexiteten hur de fysiologiska svaren blir av ett tillskott är för stor och fler studier behövs göras. 

  • 341.
    Erdogan, Emira
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    Morphometric analysis of vessel density in breast carcinomain relation to their Nottingham’s score2013Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Globally, breast cancer is the most abundant cancer form in women, in Sweden about 20 women are diagnosed with breast cancer every day .Interactions between genetic and external factors are the contributing factors while metastasis formation is the leading cause of death. Cancer is in need of vessels,to get the nutrients and oxygen it needs in order to survive. Therefore,the aim of the study is to analyze and compare the groups of high and low differential cancer vessels of the respective form, and to see if any type contained more vessels than the other. The study is based on 20 invasive ductal breast cancer samples, ten of them were high differentiated and the other ten were low differentiated. To assess the number of vessels, immunhistochemical staining with CD31 antibody was performedCD31 is an adhesion molecule present on endothelial cells. The group of low differentiated gradebreast cancer tissue had significantly more vessels compared with the high differentiated breast cancer tissues. To prove these test results, more cancers must be analyzed.

  • 342. Ericsson, Anders B.
    et al.
    Kronander, Håkan
    Söderqvist, Emil
    Vaage, Jarle
    Brodin, Lars-Åke
    Correlation between a Mid-ventricular Volume Segment and Global Left Ventricular Volume Measured by the Conductance Catheter2001Ingår i: Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal, ISSN 1401-7431, E-ISSN 1651-2006, Vol. 35, nr 2, s. 129-135Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives-To investigate whether acute volume changes in single volume segments of the left ventricle can be correlated with global volume changes. If so, changes in global volume might be predicted from changes in segmental volumes.

    Design-Volume changes were recorded in six pigs in five intraventricular segments, from apex to heart base, using the conductance catheter (at baseline, after 60 min of apical ischaemia, during preload reduction and afterload increase). A computer algorithm was created to calculate the instantaneous absolute difference between the curve shape of global and normalized segmental volume as a percentage of global stroke volume.

    Results-For a mid-cardiac volume segment constituting 34 (14-39)% [median (range)] of global stroke volume, the mean difference over a cardiac cycle was 4 (1-8)% at baseline. Apical ischaemia resulted in apical dyskinesia, but did not influence the mid-cardiac segment.

    Conclusions-The volume curve from a segment at mid-cardiac level seems to be a good estimator of the global volume curve, thus giving a foundation for estimation of global volume changes from such a segment.

  • 343.
    Eriksson, Anna U.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    Svensson, Christoffer
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    Hörnblad, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    Cheddad, Abbas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    Kostromina, Elena
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    Eriksson, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    Norlin, Nils
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    Pileggi, Antonello
    Cell Transplants Center, Diabetes Research Institute, University of Miami.
    Sharpe, James
    EMBL-CRG Systems Biology Program, Centre for Genomic Regulation, Catalan Institute of Research and Advance Studies.
    Georgsson, Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Alanentalo, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    Ahlgren, Ulf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    Near infrared optical projection tomography for assessments of beta-cell mass distribution in diabetes research2013Ingår i: Journal of Visualized Experiments, ISSN 1940-087X, E-ISSN 1940-087X, Vol. 71, artikel-id e50238Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    By adapting OPT to include the capability of imaging in the near infrared (NIR) spectrum, we here illustrate the possibility to image larger bodies of pancreatic tissue, such as the rat pancreas, and to increase the number of channels (cell types) that may be studied in a single specimen. We further describe the implementation of a number of computational tools that provide: 1/ accurate positioning of a specimen's (in our case the pancreas) centre of mass (COM) at the axis of rotation (AR)2; 2/ improved algorithms for post-alignment tuning which prevents geometric distortions during the tomographic reconstruction2 and 3/ a protocol for intensity equalization to increase signal to noise ratios in OPT-based BCM determinations3. In addition, we describe a sample holder that minimizes the risk for unintentional movements of the specimen during image acquisition. Together, these protocols enable assessments of BCM distribution and other features, to be performed throughout the volume of intact pancreata or other organs (e.g. in studies of islet transplantation), with a resolution down to the level of individual islets of Langerhans.

  • 344.
    Eriksson, Benita
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Makrofager och deras påverkan på skivepitelcancer i lunga: Med fokus på expressionen av urokinase-type plasminogen activator, dess receptor, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 samt matrix metalloproteinas 2 och 92014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 345.
    Eriksson, Jonathan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Biomedicinsk laboratorievetenskap.
    WT1 påverkar proliferationen för cancercellinjer troligen via reglering av c-Myc2011Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 346.
    Eriksson, Josefine
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Uttryck av inducerad kväveoxidsyntas (iNOS) och CD163i prostatacancervävnad.2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 347. Eriksson, Louise
    Validation of a colorimetric method for determination of fructosamine in plasma usingMindray BS-3802017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    HbA1c and glucose are the most widely used indicators for glucose control, but they havesome disadvantages. Improving the diagnosis of diabetes is always ongoing, other markersare needed as a complement when standard measurements are not sufficient. One alternativeis analysis of fructosamine, which is commercially available and inexpensive.The main aim with this study was to validate a colorimetric method for analyzingfructosamine including investigation of precision, linearity and stability. Fructosamine valueswas compared with HbA1c values with and without genetic variations in the hemoglobingene. An investigation on if serum albumin concentration affects fructosamine values wasalso performed. The colorimetric method was also compared with an enzymatic method foranalysis of frutcotsamine.Blood samples were analyzed as HbA1c on Cobas 6000 c501 and for analysis of thegenetic variants Capillarys 3 TERA was used. Plasma was collected and analyzed onMindray BS-380 as fructosamine and albumin.The methods in this study were comparable and the colorimetric method had greatprecision and linearity. The correlation between HbA1c and fructosamine was R2= 0,402.Fructosamine was not affected by genetic variations in the hemoglobin molecule and may bea useful indicator of high glucose and could replace analysis of HbA1c. Fructosamine wasnot affected by albumin. The enzymatic method was shown to correlate better with HbA1cthan the colorimetric method.In conclusion, analyzing fructosamine could be an alternative to HbA1c when patientshave genetic variants and would improve the glycemic control.

  • 348.
    Eriksson, Magnus G.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.).
    A virtual and haptic milling surgery simulator2006Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 349.
    Eriksson, Magnus G.
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH).
    Haptic and visual simulation of material cutting process: a study focused on bone surgery and the use of simulators for education and training2006Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    A prototype of a haptic and virtual reality simulator has been developed for simulation of the bone milling and material removal process occurring in several operations, e.g. temporal bone surgery or dental milling. The milling phase of an operation is difficult, safety critical and very time consuming. Reduction of operation time by only a few percent would in the long run save society large expenses. In order to reduce operation time and to provide surgeons with an invaluable practicing environment, this licentiate thesis discusses the introduction of a simulator system to be used in both surgeon curriculum and in close connection to the actual operations.

    The virtual reality and haptic feedback topics still constitute a young and unexplored area. It has only been active for about 10-15 years for medical applications. High risk training on real patients and the change from open surgery to endoscopic procedures have enforced the introduction of haptic and virtual reality simulators for training of surgeons. Increased computer power and the similarity to the successful aviation simulators also motivate to start using simulators for training of surgical skills.

    The research focus has been twofold: 1) To develop a well working VR-system for realistic graphical representation of the skull itself including the changes resulting from milling, and 2) to find an efficient algorithm for haptic feedback to mimic the milling procedure using the volumetric Computer Tomography (CT) data of the skull. The developed haptic algorithm has been verified and tested in the simulator. The visualization of the milling process is rendered at a graphical frame rate of 30 Hz and the haptic rendering loop is updated at 1000 Hz. Test results show that the real-time demands are fulfilled. The visual and haptic implementations have been the two major steps to reach the over all goal with this research project.

    A survey study is also included where the use of VR and haptic simulators in the surgical curriculum is investigated. The study starts with a historical perspective of the VR and haptic topics and is built up by answering different questions related to this topic and the implementation of simulators at the medical centres. The questions are of general concern for those developing surgical VR and haptic simulators.

    Suggested future work includes modelling, development and validation of the haptic forces occurring in the milling process and, based on this, implementation in the simulator system. Also, further development of the simulator should be done in close cooperation with surgeons in order to get appropriate feedback for further improvements of the functionality and performance of the simulator.

  • 350.
    Eriksson, Magnus G.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Mekatronik.
    Dixon, Mark R.
    SenseGraphics.
    Wikander, Jan
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Mekatronik.
    A haptic VR milling surgery simulator - using high-resolution CT-data2006Ingår i: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, ISSN 0926-9630, E-ISSN 1879-8365, Vol. 119, s. 138-143Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A haptic virtual reality milling simulator using high resolution volumetric data is presented in this paper. We discuss the graphical rendering performed from an iso-surface generated using marching cubes with a hierarchical storage method to optimize for fast dynamic changes to the data during the milling process. We also present a stable proxy-based haptic algorithm used to maintain a tip position on the surface avoiding haptic fall-through.

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