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  • 301.
    Farm, Ante
    et al.
    The Swedish Institute for Social Research.
    Weibull, Jörgen W.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Noncooperative Flexible Pricing in a Homogenous Market1986Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    A market is studied in which prices are set by the sellers, and where equilibrium is established through pure price adjustment. It is assumed that the sellers can observe each others' prices, and that each of them is free to instantly and costlessly change his price. In this setting it is shown that, when the number of competitors is large, a "cartel price", above the (Walrasian) competitive price, is an equilibrium - in fact the unique equilibrium price on the Pareto frontier.

  • 302.
    Faust, Jon
    et al.
    Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.
    Svensson, Lars E.O.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    The Equilibrium Degree of Transparency and Control in Monetary Policy1999Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine a central bank's endogenous choice of degree of control and degree of transparency, under both commitment and discretion. Under commitment, we find that the deliberate choice of sloppy control is far less likely under a standard central-bank loss function than reported for a less standard loss function by Cukierman and Meltzer. Under discretoin, maximum degree of control is the only equilibrium. With regard to the degree of transparency, under commitment, a sufficiently patient bank with sufficiently low average and maximum transparency are equilibria. We argue that discretion is the more realistic transparency. A maximum feasible degree of control with a minimum degree of transparency is then a likely outcome. The Bundesbank and the Federal Reserve System are, arguably, examples of this outcome.

  • 303.
    Faust, Jon
    et al.
    Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.
    Svensson, Lars E.O.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Transparency and Credibility: Monetary Policy with Unobservable Goals1997Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    We define and study transparency, credibility, and reputation in a model where the central bank's characteristics are unobservable to the private sector and are inferred from the policy outcome. A low-credibility bank optimally conducts a more inflationary policy than a high-credibillity bank, in the sense that it induces higher inflation, but a less expansionary policy in the sense that it induces lower inflation and employment than expected. Increased transparency makes the bank's reputation and credibility more sensitive to its actions. This has a moderating influence on the bank's policy. Full transparency of the central bank's intentions is generally socially beneficial, but frequently not in the interest of the bank. Somewhat paradoxically, direct observability of idiosyncratic central bank goals removes the moderating incentive on the bank and leads to the worst equilibrium.

  • 304.
    Favara, Giovanni
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Credit and Finance in the Macroeconomy2006Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Agency Costs, Net Worth and Endogenous Business Fluctuations. This essay proposes a theory of endogenous business fluctuations. A central tenet of the theory is that investment decisions depend upon entrepreneurs' incentive to exert effort and investors' incentive to control entrepreneurs. This double-sided incentive is used to show how recessions prevent entrepreneurs from engaging in unproductive activity and booms facilitate the adoption of unproductive arrangements, so that recessions may sow the seeds for a subsequent boom while economic expansions may create the conditions for their own demise.

    Imperfect Information and Housing Price Dynamics. This essay develops a theory of house price dynamics in a model where agents are imperfectly informed about the nature of disturbances to their income. Relative to the benchmark case of perfect information, information heterogeneity increases the sensitivity of house prices to individual income shocks. If household decisions are based on the expectation of other households' expectations, higher order expectations tend to reduce the discrepancy of house prices from their perfect information value.

    Reconsidering the Role of Money for Output, Prices and Interest Rates. New Keynesian models of monetary policy predict no role for monetary aggregates. This essay evaluates the empirical validity of this prediction by studying the effects of shocks to monetary aggregates using a VAR. Shocks to monetary aggregates are identified by the restrictions suggested by New Keynesian monetary models. Contrary to the theoretical predictions, shocks to broad monetary aggregates have substantial and persistent effects on output and prices.

    An Empirical Reassessment of the Relationship between Finance and Growth. This essay re-examines the empirical relationship between financial development and economic growth. It presents evidence based on a variety of econometric methods and standard measures of financial development. There are two main findings. First, in contrast with the recent evidence, cross section and panel data instrumental variables regressions reveal that financial development does not cause economic growth. Second, using a procedure designed to estimate long-run relationships in a panel with heterogeneous slope coefficients, there is no clear indication that finance spurs economic growth.

  • 305.
    Fender, John
    et al.
    Department of Economics, University of Lancaster.
    Nandakumar, Parameswar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    An Intertemporal Macroeconomic Model with Oil and Fiscal Policy1985Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a two-period two-good open economy macroeconomic model is constructed. Consumption and money holding decision are based on intertemporal optimization. In the first period (in the 'short-un') some prices are inflexible and Keynesian unemployment occurs. In the second period (in the 'long-run') all prices are flexible and markets clear. The model is used to analyze fiscal policy (paying careful attention to the implications of the government's budget constraint), increased domestic output of a resource (oil) and the consequences of a rise in the world price of the resource.

  • 306.
    Finocchiaro, Daria
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Essays on Macroeconomics2007Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of three essays on macroeconomics.

    “Inattentive Consumers in General Equilibrium” explores the effects of heterogeneity in planning propensity on wealth inequality and asset prices. I consider a model where attentive agents plan their consumption, savings, or stock holdings period by period, while inattentive ones plan every other period. Inattentiveness affects wealth inequality through two different channels: it increases wealth accumulation of the inattentive group via a precautionary savings motive and decreases it via negative price effects. When income is stochastic, the inattentive consumers accumulate more wealth. In contrast, in a two-period portfolio choice model with uncertain asset returns, infrequent revisions of portfolios can produce the opposite result: inattentive investors accumulate less wealth.

    “Monetary Regime Change and Business Cycles” analyzes how changes in monetary policy regimes influence the business cycle in a small open economy. We estimate a DSGE model on Swedish data, explicitly taking into account the monetary regime change in 1993, from exchange rate targeting to inflation targeting. The results confirm that monetary policy reacted primarily to exchange rate movements in the target zone, and to inflation in the inflation targeting regime. Devaluation expectations were the principal source of volatility in the target zone period. In the inflation targeting period, labor supply and preference shocks are more important.

    “Do Central Banks React to House Prices?” asks whether the U.S. Fed, the Bank of Japan and the Bank of England have reacted to house price inflation. We study the responses of these central banks by estimating a DSGE model for each country where credit constrained agents borrow using housing as collateral. The main result is that house price movements did play a separate role in the U.K. and Japanese central bank reaction functions in the last years, while they did not in the U.S.

  • 307.
    Flam, Harry
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    A Heckscher-Ohlin Analysis of the Law of Declining International Trade1982Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 308.
    Flam, Harry
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    EC Members Fighting About Surplus: VERs, FDI and Japanese Cars1991Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The distribution of consumer and producer surplus among EC members of three different trade regimes - free trade, a voluntary export restraint (VER) and a VER in conjunction with foreign direct investment (FDI) - are derived and compared within the framework of a Nash-Cournot duopoly model. Free trade and a VER are likely to be first and third best for countries without import competing production, while the opposite holds for countries with import competing production. A VER-cum-FDI regime is second best for both. If the producing countries are in majority and set the common VER, while the power to allow FDI remains under national control, the policy equilibrium is one of a VER with or without FDI. A VER-cum-FDI outcome is third best for the EC as a whole.

  • 309.
    Flam, Harry
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Economics of the Single Market2015Ingår i: Routledge Handbook of the Economics of European Integration / [ed] Harald Badinger and Volker Nitsch, London: Routledge, 2015Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 310.
    Flam, Harry
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Equal Pay for Unequal Work1984Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish labor unions have squeezed wage differentials between heterogeneous labor. This paper explores effects on factor prices, production and employment in the short run, when skilled and unskilled labor is mobile and capital is sector specific, in the medium run, when all factors are mobile, and in the long run, when the ratio of skilled to unskilled labor is determined endogeneously. Contrary to common belief, suich egalitarian wage policies may depress wages of unskilled as well as skilled labor and must raise capital returns in the medium and long run. Demand for unskilled labor will fall over time.

  • 311.
    Flam, Harry
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Euron och utrikeshandeln: Hur mycket handel förlorar Sverige årligen?2007Ingår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 35, nr 5, s. 16-30Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 312.
    Flam, Harry
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Regionalism vs. Multilateralism2006Ingår i: Global Free Trade versus Trade Agreements: Case of Sri Lanka, Sri Lanka Economic Association, Colombo , 2006Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 313.
    Flam, Harry
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Reverse Dumping1985Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 314.
    Flam, Harry
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Svar till Hagerud2007Ingår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 35, nr 6, s. 78-80Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 315.
    Flam, Harry
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    The Economics of the Single Market2016Ingår i: Routledge Handbook of the Economics of European Integration / [ed] Harald Badinger, Volker Nitsch, Abingdon: Routledge, 2016, s. 55-69Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 316.
    Flam, Harry
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Turkey and the EU: Politics and Economics of Accession2003Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper identifies and discusses important political and economic aspects of Turkish accession to the EU. Under the present rules, Turkey’s size would give it the greatest number of votes within twenty years and its low income and dependence on agriculture the largest net transfer from other members. Free labor mobility would lead to substantial migration to the present EU; the Turkish immigrant population in Germany may increase from 2 to 3.6 million in thirty years. Most of the economic effects will be felt by Turkey, particularly in agriculture. The main obstacles to accession are not economic, but political, however. Historical experience makes it difficult for Turkey to eliminate the decisive political role of the military, to give Kurds and other minorities cultural rights and uphold basic human rights; these issues are perceived to threaten national unity and territorial integrity. Turkish membership is resisted by many in the EU because Turkey is not considered to be part of Europe geographically and culturally.

  • 317.
    Flam, Harry
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Börjesson, Maria
    Mörth, Ulrika
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Vart är vi på väg? Systemfel i transportpolitiken2016Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 318.
    Flam, Harry
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Flanders, M. June
    The Eitan Berglas School of Economics, Tel Aviv University (Israel).
    The Young Ohlin on the Theory of "Interregional and International Trade"2000Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Bertil Ohlin's internationel fame as an economist rests to a large extent on his 1933 monograph Interregional and International Trade (Ohlin, 1933). The monograph marked the definitive break with the Ricardian and early neoclassical theory of international trade. Eli Heckschler's contribution of 1919 did not become known to a wider audience until his article was published in English in 1949 (Heckschler, 1949, 1991).

    But Interregional and International Trade was not Ohlin's first formulation of the neoclassical theory of international trade; it was his third. His first attempt is his licentiate dissertation of 1922 and the second his doctoral dissertation published in 1924. The latter was published in English in 19941 under the title The Theory of Trade (Heckschler and Ohlin, 1991). The licentiate dissertation, entitled The Theory of Interregional Exchange has remained unstranslated until very recently (Ohlin, 1999).

    We will trace the development of Ohlin's thinking on international trade by comparing the three works. Special emphasis will be placed in The Theory of Interregional Exchange since it is the first and practically unknown. We have discussed and compared The Theory of Trade and Interregional and International Trade elsewhere (Flam and Flanders, 1991).

  • 319.
    Flam, Harry
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Helpman, Elhanan
    Department of Economics, Tel-Aviv University.
    Industrial Policy under Monopolistic Competition1985Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 320.
    Flam, Harry
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Helpman, Elhanan
    Tel-Aviv University.
    Trade Dynamics1986Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 321.
    Flam, Harry
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Jansson, Per
    Economics Department, Sveriges Riksbank.
    EMU Effects on International Trade and Investment2000Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The partial effect of nominal exchange rate volatility on exports from each EMU member to the rest of the EMU is estimated on annual data for 1967-1997, using modern time series methods. The long run revelations between exhange rate volatility and exports are mostly negative and in several cases insignificantly different from zero. Thus, these estimates do not provide much support for the hypothesis that the elimination of nominal exchange rate volatility will significantly increase trade within the EMU. However, the EMU will presumably lead to geographical concentration of production and therefore indirectly to increased trade within the EMU and - during a transitional stage - to increased foreign direct investment, both within the EMU and between the EMU and the rest of the world.

  • 322.
    Flam, Harry
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Nordström, Håkan
    Swedish Board of Trade.
    Euro Effects on the Intensive and Extensive Margins of Trade2006Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate that the euro has increased trade within the eurozone by about 26 per cent and trade between the eurozone and outsiders by about 12 per cent on average for the years 2002-2005 compared to 1995-1998. The percentage increases were smaller for products that were exported every year during the sample period than for products that were not, indicating significant and substantial effects on the extensive margin of trade. The euro effects were concentrated to semi-finished and finished products, in particular to industries with highly processed products such as pharmaceuticals and machinery.

  • 323.
    Flam, Harry
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Nordström, Håkan
    Euro effects on the intensive and extensive margins of trade2006Ingår i: CESifo Working Paper, nr 1881Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate that the euro has increased trade within the eurozone by about 26 per cent and trade between the eurozone and outsiders by about 12 per cent on average for the years 2002-2005 compared to 1995-1998. The percentage increases were smaller for products that were exported every year during the sample period than for products that were not, indicating significant and substantial effects on the extensive margin of trade.

    The euro effects were concentrated to semi-finished and finished products, in particular to industries with highly processed products such as pharmaceuticals and machinery.

  • 324.
    Flam, Harry
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Nordström, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Reformera AP-fondsystemet2007Ingår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 35, nr 4, s. 6-22Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 325.
    Flam, Harry
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Nordström, Håkan
    Trade Volume Effects of the Euro: Aggregate and Sector Estimates2006Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The gravity model is used to estimate the trade volume effects of the creation of the European currency union. The euro is estimated to have raised the level of aggregate trade between euro countries in 1998-2002 compared to 1989-1997 by 15 per cent and the level of trade with outside countries by 8 per cent. The effect is clearly increasing over time.

    Estimates for one-digit SITC sectors yield a concentration of effects to highly processed manufactures, indicating that the spillover is caused by increasing vertical specialization across countries.

  • 326.
    Flam, Harry
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Nordström, Håkan
    World Trade Organisation, Geneva.
    Why do Pre-Tax Car Prices Differ so much Across European Countries?1995Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The European car market is segmented by regulatory measures that support price discrimination by manufacturers and make consumer arbitrage difficult and costly. In a sample covering 43 models making up 80% of car sales in 11 countries in 1989-1992, we find that the average standard deviation of pre-tax prices across markets is 14%. The difference between the maximum price is typically about 50% of the average price. The price discrimination seems to be driven largely by taxes, tariffs and import quotas. For example, a quota raises the pre-tax price of the average Japanese car by 12% and of the average competing European car by 7%.

  • 327.
    Flam, Harry
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Nordtström, Håkan
    Kammerskollegium.
    Gravity Estimation of the Intensive and Extensive Margins of Trade: An Alternative procedure with Alternative Data2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 328.
    Flam, Harry
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Persson, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    When Bad Quality is Good Policy1987Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate product quality under different market forms (monopoly vs. perfect competition) and under different risk-sharing regimes (replacement warranty vs. no warranty). Because of our particular representation of quality we can determine optimal quality and optimal risk-sharing within one single model. Quality differes between risk-sharing regimes and not between market forms, but the market form determines optimal risk-sharing and therefore optimal quality. it can be optimal to place all risk with the risk-averse consumer instead of with the risk-neutral prducer(s). Given the market form, the risk-sharing regime that is optimal for the producer(s) is also optimal for the consumers.

  • 329.
    Flam, Harry
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Persson, Torsten
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Svensson, Lars E.O.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Optimal Subsidies to Declining Industries: Efficiency and Equity Considerations1982Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper consider equity vs. efficiency in a small economy that subsidizes an industry facing falling world market prices. Subsidies keep up output in the short run when wages and factors are rigid. But once introduced subsidies become permanent, because of pressures from vested interests. This creates misallocation of resources in the long run. An optimal efficiency subsidy balances the short-run gains and long-run losses. It should be raised when prices fall if there is full employment initially and lowered if there is unemployment. An optimal distribution subsidy, which aims at maintaining the sxisting income distribution, should always be raised.

  • 330.
    Flam, Harry
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Staiger, Robert W.
    Stanford University.
    Adverse Selection in Credit Markets and Infant Industry Protectionism1989Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper considers the role for infant industry protection when credit markets suffer from adverse risk selection. We show that asymmetric information about form-specific risk leads to under-funding of the infant industry in a competitive credit market. A small amount of infant industry protection is shown to be welfare improving, and the optimal infant industry tariff is derived. Finally, an alternative government policy of production subsidies is considered under the assumption that the government shares private knowledge with infant industry firms. We argue that a tariff may dominate production subsidies as an entry promoting devise in this context.

  • 331.
    Flam, Harry
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Vestman, Roine
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Sverigefonder ger lägre avkastning än börsen2014Ingår i: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 332.
    Flam, Harry
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Vestman, Roine
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Swedish Equity Mutual Funds: performance, Persistence, and Presence of Skill2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 333.
    Flodén, Martin
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Andersen, Torben
    Calmfors, Lars
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Hartman, Laura
    Kolm, Ann-Sofie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Tobisson, Lars
    Åsbrink, Erik
    Svensk Finanspolitik: Finanspolitiska rådets rapport 20092009Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 334.
    Flodén, Martin
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Lindé, Jesper
    Department of Economics, Stockholm School of Economics.
    Idiosyncratic Risk in the U.S. and Sweden: Is there a Role for Government Insurance?1998Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the effects of government redistribution schemes in an economy where agents are subject to uninsurable, individual specific productivity risk. In particular, we consider the trade-off between positive insurance effects and negative distortions on labor supply. We parametize the models by estimating productivity processes on Swedish and U.S. data. The estimation results show that agents in the U.S. are subject to more idiosyncratic risk than agents in Sweden. Distortions are significant but agents, particularly in the U.S., still like some government insruance. As a result of this exercise, we can construct Laffer curves for both countries. These peak when labor income tax rates are around 60 percent.

  • 335.
    Folke, Olle
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Parties, Power and Patronage: Papers in Political Economy2010Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of three empirical essays in political economics.

    "Shades of Brown and Green: Party Effects in Proportional Election Systems" is the first paper to develop a method for estimating the causal effect of party representation in proportional election systems. This method is applied to Swedish municipalities. The results show that party representation has a large effect on immigration policy and environmental policy. Parties profiling themselves in a policy area also have the largest effects on it. There is no evidence for party representation having an effect on tax policy.

    "Midterm Slumps in US State Elections: Coattails, Power Balancing, or Referenda?" examines midterm slumps in US state legislatures and the mechanisms that cause them. The results show that the party of the governor systematically loses legislative seats in the midterm elections. Through the use of a regression discontinuity design it can be ruled out that this is caused by a surge-and-decline type mechanism. Instead, the results suggest that the midterm slump can be attributed, in about equal shares, to the midterm elections being a referendum on gubernatorial performance and the voters using the midterms for balancing of power.

    "Patronage and Elections in U.S. States" examines if control over patronage jobs increased a political party's probability of winning elections in US States. A patronage system is a practice where a political party, after winning an election, reward their supporters by giving them government jobs. The essay provides evidence that patronage does -- or, rather, did -- help U.S. parties in power to retain it. There is also evidence for an "entrenched" party in power for a longer time period can use patronage more effectively than a "weak" party that usually is out of power.

  • 336. Folke, Olle
    et al.
    Persson, Torsten
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi. London School of Economics, UK.
    Rickne, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI). Yale University, USA.
    Arbetslinjen och finanskris förklarar SD:s framgångar2018Ingår i: Dagens nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, nr 5 septemberArtikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 337. Folke, Olle
    et al.
    Persson, Torsten
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi. CIFAR, Canada.
    Rickne, Johanna
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Dynastic Political Rents? Economic Rents to Relatives of Top Politicians2017Ingår i: Economic Journal, ISSN 0013-0133, E-ISSN 1468-0297, Vol. 127, s. F495-F517Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We exploit close elections in Swedish municipalities to test whether relatives of politicians who become mayors obtain economic benefits. We find no benefits for the siblings of new mayors, but the average earnings of children of newly appointed mayors rise by about 15%. Administrative information on occupational and residence status show that the higher earnings are unlikely reflect an illegitimate allocation of jobs. But the evidence suggests that children of election-winning mayors are more likely to postpone tertiary education and remain in their parents' municipality to work.

  • 338. Folke, Olle
    et al.
    Persson, Torsten
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Rickne, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI). Institutet för Näringslivsforskning, Sverige.
    Könskvotering, kompetens och karriär2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 339. Folke, Olle
    et al.
    Persson, Torsten
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi. London School of Economics, UK.
    Rickne, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI). Yale University, USA.
    Ojämlikhet kan förstärka synen att invandring belastar statsfinanserna. Slutreplik2018Ingår i: Dagens nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, nr 10 septemberArtikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 340. Folke, Olle
    et al.
    Persson, Torsten
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi. Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Canada.
    Rickne, Johanna
    The Primary Effect: Preference Votes and Political Promotions2016Ingår i: American Political Science Review, ISSN 0003-0554, E-ISSN 1537-5943, Vol. 110, nr 3, s. 559-578Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this analysis of how electoral rules and outcomes shape the internal organization of political parties, we make an analogy to primary elections to argue that parties use preference-vote tallies to identify popular politicians and promote them to positions of power. We document this behavior among parties in Sweden's semi-open-list system and in Brazil's open-list system. To identify a causal impact of preference votes, we exploit a regression discontinuity design around the threshold of winning the most preference votes on a party list. In our main case, Sweden, these narrow primary winners are at least 50% more likely to become local party leaders than their runners-up. Across individual politicians, the primary effect is present only for politicians who hold the first few positions on the list and when the preference-vote winner and runner-up have similar competence levels. Across party groups, the primary effect is the strongest in unthreatened governing parties.

  • 341.
    Forslund, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Wage Setting in Sweden: An Empirical Test of a Barebones Union Model1990Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 342.
    Fredriksson, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Bureaucracy, Informality and Taxation: Essays in Development Economics and Public Finance2009Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of three self-contained essays.

    Essay 1, "Dispatchers", is a study of a specialized service sector that has arisen in many developing countries.

    It is a well-established fact that the government bureaucracy in many developing countries is large, difficult to understand, non-transparent and time-consuming. However, "de jure" procedures sometimes have little to do with how firms or individuals actually go about when dealing with the government bureaucracy. One institution that has emerged is a specialized intermediary, henceforth called dispatcher, that assists individuals and firms in their contacts with the public sector. A model is developed to study the effects of dispatchers on time and resources spent in obtaining licenses, on informality and on the incentives of bureaucrats and dispatchers to make regulation more/less complicated.

    Essay 2, "Informal firms, investment incentives and formalization", studies informal firms in developing countries.

    In a typical developing country, the majority of small firms are informal and entry costs into formality are high. What can we expect in terms of firm investment, growth and formalization in such a setting? I show that investment and growth trajectories differ substantially between firms that choose to formalize and those that do not. The formalization decision depends non-trivially on the informal firm's productivity. This, in turn, has an effect on how policies should be designed. The long-run firm size distribution exhibits a "missing middle" and depends on the initial firm-level stock of capital, a result that can be interpreted as a poverty trap.

    Essay 3, "Compositional and dynamic Laffer effects in a model with constant returns to scale", studies dynamic effects of tax cuts.

    The possibility of tax cuts paying for themselves over time seems like an attractive option for policy makers. In a constant returns to scale model, I study conditions under which reductions in capital taxes are self-financing

     

  • 343.
    Fredriksson, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi. University of Namur, Belgium; University of Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Bureaucracy intermediaries, corruption and red tape2014Ingår i: Journal of Development Economics, ISSN 0304-3878, E-ISSN 1872-6089, Vol. 108, s. 256-273Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Intermediaries that assist individuals and firms with the government bureaucracy are common in developing countries. Although such bureaucracy intermediaries are, anecdotally, linked with corruption and welfare losses, few formal analyses exist. We introduce a model in which a government license can benefit individuals. We study the net license gain when individuals get the license through the regular licensing procedure, through bribing or through intermediaries. For a given procedure, individuals using intermediaries are better off than if intermediaries and corruption had not existed. Then, we study the incentives of corrupt bureaucrats to create red tape. Bureaucrats implement more red tape and individuals are unambiguously worse off in a setting with intermediaries than with direct corruption only. Intermediaries can thus improve access to the bureaucracy, but also strengthen the incentives to create red tape a potential explanation why licensing procedures tend to be long in developing countries.

  • 344.
    Fredriksson, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Dispatchers2009Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    It is a well-established fact that the government bureaucracy in many developing countries is large, difficult to understand, non-transparent and time-consuming. However, “de jure” bureaucratic procedures sometimes have little to do with how firms or individuals actually go about when dealing with the government bureaucracy. One institution that has emerged in many countries is a specialized intermediary, henceforth called dispatcher, that assists individuals and firms in their contracts with the public sector. It is often the workings of this “de facto” institution, rather than the de jure procedure, that determines outcomes. A model where firms demand a license from the government bureaucracy is developed in order to address two sets of questions related to the use of dispatchers. First, what is the impact of dispatchers on time and resources that firms spend in obtaining licenses and what is the impact on the degree of informality, i.e. on the fraction of firms that choose to not get the license? How do these results depend on the organization of bureaucrats and dispatchers, the regulatory framework and the extent of corruption in the bureaucracy? Second, what are the incentives of corrupt bureaucrats and dispatchers to try to make regulation more/less complicated? When are the incentives of bureaucrats and dispatchers to create “red tape” aligned? Ultimately and ideally, the answers to these questions can help explain why reforms of the public sector have been so difficult.

  • 345.
    Fredriksson, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Informal Firms, Investment Incentives and Formalization2009Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In a typical developing country, the majority of small firms are informal and entry costs into formality are high. This paper is motivated by these two observations. It asks the question of what can be expected in terms of firm investment, growth and formalization in such a setting. It also studies the effects of policies towards the informal sector on formalization decisions. I show that the investment paths and growth trajectories differ substantially between firms that choose to formalize and those (ex-ante almost identical firms) that do not. Second, the formalization decision depends non-trivially on the productivity of the informal firm, due to the balancing of an accumulation effect and a threshold effect. This, in turn, has an effect on how policies towards the informal sector should be designed. Third, when aggregating over firms and a range of larger firms, but also a “missing middle”, much in line with actual firm size distributions observed in developing countries. Fourth, the long-run form-size distribution turns out to depend on the initial firm-level stock of capital, a result that can be interpreted as a poverty/informality trap.

  • 346.
    Frey, Bruno S.
    et al.
    University of Zurich .
    Schneider, Friedrich
    University of Zurich.
    Horn, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Persson, Torsten
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    A Formulation and Test of a Simple Model of World Bank Behavior1983Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    There exists a large literature describing the behavior of international institutions. This literature is however, with few exceptions, purely descriptive, i.e. it lacks an analysis based on clearly stated behavioral assumptions leading to falsifiable and hence empirically testable hypotheses. A positive theory of the behavior of international organizations is thus lacking.

    This paper endeavours to provide a simple theoretical model of the behavior of such an international organization - The World Bank - using the traditional approach of maximizing a utility function subject to constraints (Sections 2 and 3). The theoretically derived hypotheses are empirically applied to the World Bank's granting of loans to developing countries during recent years (Section 4). A final part summarizes the main findings (Section 5).

  • 347.
    Fridén, Lennart
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Fluctuations in the International Steel Market 1953-68: A Study of Import and Export Functions1972Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 348.
    Färnstrand Damsgaard, Erika
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Essays on Technology Choice and Spillovers2008Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of three essays on technology choice and spillovers.

    “Patent Scope and Technology Choice” analyzes the effect of an increase in patent scope on investments in R&D and innovation. It presents a model where a broad scope of the patent on the state-of-the-art technology can induce the entrant firm to do research on an alternative technology. The model predicts that an increase in patent scope can increase the probability of innovation if the incumbent's profit increase from innovating is large and the patented technology has a small advantage over the alternative technology. However, when the model is extended to Stackelberg competition or licensing, the benefit of a broad patent scope to a large extent disappears.

    “The World Distribution of Productivity: Country TFP Choice in a Nelson-Phelps Economy” builds a theory of the shape of the distribution of total-factor productivity (TFP) across countries. The distribution of productivity across countries is arguably twin-peaked in the data and the proposed theory presents conditions under which twin-peakedness is an equilibrium outcome. The theory combines technology spillovers, modeled as in the Nelson-Phelps specification, and dynamic benefits of TFP accumulation under rational government decision making.

    “Exhaustible Resources, Technology Choice and Industrialization of Developing Countries” studies technology choice in a dynamic model with two technologies for production; one which uses an exhaustible resource and an alternative technology which does not. The main finding is that if the capital stock is large relative to the resource stock, the alternative technology is immediately adopted and the time path of resource extraction is decreasing. If, instead, the capital stock is small, the alternative technology is adopted with a delay and the time path of extraction is inverse-U shaped.

  • 349.
    Garber, Peter M.
    et al.
    Brown University.
    Svensson, Lars E.O.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    The Operation and Collapse of Fixed Exchange Rate Regimes1994Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 350.
    Gars, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Essays on the Macroeconomics of Climate Change2012Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of three essays on macroeconomic aspects of climate change.

    Technological Trends and the Intertemporal Incentives For Fossil-Fuel Use analyzes how (the expectations about) the future developments of different kinds of technology affect the intertemporal incentives for fossil-fuel use. I find that improvements in the future state of technologies for alternative-energy generation, energy efficiency and total factor productivity all increase fossil-fuel use before the change takes place. The effect of changes in the efficiency of non-energy inputs is the reverse, while the effect of changes in fossil-fuel based energy technology is ambiguous. These conclusions are robust to a number of variations of the assumptions made.

    The Role of the Nature of Damages considers to what extent the choice of modeling climate impacts as affecting productivity, utility or the depreciation of capital affects the behavior of integrated assessment models. I carry out my analysis in two different ways. Firstly, under some simplifying assumptions, I derive a simple formula for the optimal tax on fossil-fuel use that adds up the three different types of climate effects. Secondly, I use a two-period model with exogenous climate to analyze how the allocation of fossil-fuel use over time is affected by the effects of climate change. I find that this is sensitive to the assumptions made.

    Indirect Effects of Climate Change investigates how direct effects of climate change in some countries have indirect effects on other countries going through changing world market prices of goods and financial instruments. When calculating the total effects of climate change, these indirect effects must also be taken into account. I first derive these indirect effects in a many-country model. Reaching agreements about reductions in the emissions of greenhouse gases is made difficult by the negative correlation there seems to be between emissions of greenhouse gases and the vulnerability to climate change. I argue, based on a stylized two country example, that trade in goods will tend to make the countries' interests more aligned while trade in financial instruments will tend to make the countries' interests less aligned.

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