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  • 301.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, VITS - Laboratoriet för verksamhetsinriktad systemutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, VITS - Laboratoriet för verksamhetsinriktad systemutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Citizens’ Attitudes towards Electronic Identification in a Public E-service Context: An Essential Perspective in the eID Development Process2012Inngår i: Electronic Government: 11th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2012, Kristiansand, Norway, September 3-6, 2012. Proceedings / [ed] Hans J. Scholl, Marijn Janssen, Maria A. Wimmer, Carl Erik Moe, Leif Skiftenes Flak, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, s. 260-272Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 11th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2012, held in Delft, The Netherlands, in September 2012. The 23 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from more then 80 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on foundations; adoption and diffusion; open government and transformation; infrastructure and technology; evaluation; and citizen perspective, social inclusion, and social media. 

  • 302.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro universitet.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet.
    Seven key lessons learned from e-government development: a reflective analysis of an e-government project2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a longitudinal case study of an e-government development project is reported. The authors have followed a development project during three years, from its initiation to its end. The purpose of the paper is to identify and analyze important decisions made and external factors that occurred during the project and discuss their consequences. The findings are presented as seven key lessons that other e-government projects can learn from. The contributions are, thus, both a reflective analysis of an empirical e-government development example and normative statements about how to conduct successful e-government projects.

  • 303.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Granath, Malin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    In search of ICT in smart cities: Policy documents as idea carriers in urban development2016Inngår i: Electronic government: 15th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2016, Guimarães, Portugal, September 5-8, 2016, Proceedings, 2016, Vol. 9820, s. 215-227Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores how policy documents carry and institutionalize smart city ideas from high policy level to concrete policy level in an urban development context. We analyze the national urban development vision for Sweden and documents in a local urban development project in a Swedish city, in order to explore what kind of roles and expectations ICT is given in these documents. We contrast this with views of how social and environmental aspects are discussed in the studied documents. In order to understand and analyze the result we apply the concept of institutional carriers from institutional theory to our findings. Our analysis shows that as carriers of how ICT can contribute to increased sustainabilityin urban development, the policy documents do not function very well. ICT aspects are not put forth by any policy-making actor, neither on national nor on local level. The notion of institutional carriers helped us understand that without a responsible actor focusing on ICT’s role in smart cities, it is easy to forget or lose sight of technology

  • 304.
    Axelsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Nadjie Golkar, Ami
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    HUR KAN VÅRDUPPLEVELSEN PÅVERKAS GENOM ANVÄNDNING AV IKT VERKTYGET SMS?: En studie om sms-påminnelsers påverkan på vårdupplevelsen från vårdtagaren och vårdgivarens perspektiv.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    An ICT tool is not only used in healthcare as an aid for caregivers, but can also help enhance the care experience of care recipients as these tools can bring benefit to the recipient. The positive care experience can also have the opposite effect, depending on the quality of information conveyed to the recipient. This study deals with SMS reminders information related to the quality of the care experience. It examines whether SMS reminders within the health system contains sufficient quality information to influence recipients care experience to the positive. This study was conducted by a qualitative method of semi-structured interviews with both care recipients and caregivers. This is to get two different perspectives on the information and quality care experience – from a care recipients perspective as receiving the SMS reminder, and from a caregivers perspective that send out the SMS reminders. By conducting a literature review, we acquired material that formed the basis of our interview questions. The results of the study show that SMS reminders in the current situation does not contain sufficient high quality information in order to reach a positive care experience for patients. In addition to information quality, we have also identified communication as a major factor contributing to increasing health care experience. Besides these two factors, we could also deduce that health care consumers have different needs depending on the life situation they are in.

  • 305.
    Ayalew, Romel
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik och media.
    Consumer behaviour in Apple's App Store2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile applications stores such as Apple’s App Store and Google’s Android Market revolutionized the distribution of applications for mobile devices. However, with thousands of application submissions, limited testing resources and the lack of an effective filtering mechanism, application stores suffer from information overload and a risk of releasing poor quality applications that could create confusion to consumers and may seriously affect the App store markets. Thus concern has been raised whether applications have been developed according to the need and interest of consumers. Therefore, the purpose of this study was mainly to identify and get insight into the main factors that mobile application consumer takes into consideration when purchasing mobile applications from the desktop iTunes App Store and the mobile App Store on the iOS devices: iPhone, iPad and iPod Touch.

    In this study both qualitative and quantitative case study approach was used. Accordingly twelve participants were selected from Stockholm and Uppsala area and their behaviour in the Apple’s App Store from the desktop iTunes and the mobile App Store on iOS devices was observed and recorded. Additionally questionnaires were administered to all participants in order to gather the necessary information.

    Consumers on the App Store behave differently depending on the unit they are using. This is because applications on the App Store are presented differently in the desktop iTunes App Store and the mobile App Store on the iOS devices. The study shows that young consumers with lower income purchase apps more frequently than the consumers with higher income. It also shows that consumers often consider the description, the screenshots, and the ratings when they are interested in buying applications. Furthermore consumers take a look more on ratings in the list on the iPhone and iPad App Store because the ratings are not shown in the list on the iTunes App Store. Similarly consumers tend to read the customer reviews more on the iTunes and iPad App Store as the customer reviews on the iPhone App Store is displayed in another page. Consumers were found to be more attracted by visual elements that they are already familiarized with, apps with famous logos and known fonts and styles but also to coherent and descriptive app names and strong colors (i.e. red, green, yellow, black and blue, respectively). The majority of the participants found the iTunes App Store messy and cumbersome to use. They preferred using the iPad App Store because they found it to be a good mixture of both iTunes and iPhone App Store but also because it has more options to consider.

    Although consumers behave differently depending on the unit they are using, the visual element of the apps, prior knowledge of consumers about the name of the apps, ratings, easy accessibility of screenshots and customer reviews of the apps were found to be the main factors to be considered by consumers when they visit app stores for purchase. Thus application developers and digital magazine publishers should consider these consumer behaviours in order to influence more downloads and successfully sell apps on the app stores. 

  • 306.
    Babaheidari, Said Morad
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    A Heideggerian Approach to "Educationalness" Aspect of Educational Technologies2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Broadly speaking, educational technology is primarily viewed as learning tools. But whenever we emphasize on the adjective "educational", we must however be clear about what we mean by the educationalness aspect of these technologies. Therefore, we shall consider that there exist a lot of conceptual problems associated with the particularly such an ambiguous loaded term. As an example, researchers use various keywords/concepts such as 'learning' aimed at saying learners are either learn:'via'; 'through'; and, 'with' educational technologies but not definitely 'by' them. Why? Because in the latter case; using the English proposition 'by' it means we have in somehow accepted these tools are able to teach learners automatically. However, at the end; it's only the learner who learn depending on manyfactors, each determining the ratio of her/his leaning curve. So, knowing which appropriate English proposition to use is of paramount importance. Inspired by Heideggerian approach to the notion of technology, which should concern us today as well, the main purpose of this paper is to discuss the"what" aspect of the learners regarding how they maintain their relationships with whatever educational technologies in use. It seems that these Teaching-learning tools such as YouTube has not been used effectively due to mainly the various learners, more or less, unawareness about how to approach the "essence" of these learning tools. To operationalize the Heideggerian approach to learning, his notion of the "essence of technology" will be discussed by using Technology, Pedagogy, and Content (TPAC) framework. Using such a framework will help us to discuss what and how learners manage their knowledge cognitively.

  • 307.
    Babaheidari, Said Morad
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Determinants of Perceived IT Management in Primary School Settings: integrating self-management, shared management, and IT policy into technology acceptance model2015Inngår i: Proceedings of the 38th Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia (IRIS 38), Oulu, Finland, 9-12 August. / [ed] Anssi Öörni, Netta Iivari, Kari Kuutti, Harri Oinas-Kukkonen and Mikko Rajanen (eds.), 2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 308.
    Babaheidari, Said Morad
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Flensburg, Per
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Towards a Framework for Re-conceptualization of Work-integrated Learning: an ontological approach2015Inngår i: 19th World Conference Proceedings Refereed Papers, 2015, s. 1-17Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of Work-integrated learning (WIL) is very closely connected to the concept of purposefully designed curriculum. The main focus is on conducting a range of rigorous approaches to integrate theory with the practice. The existing view of the WIL emerged out of the theory of employability. WIL has been traditionally viewed as a strategic merely curriculum design rather than adopting a Whole-organization approach to effective leadership theory–practice symbiosis (LTPS), which we advocate. Such an approach is useful in enhancing an awareness to consider concerns and interests of all stakeholders that are involved in the multiple initiatives pursued in higher education institutions. But it requires fundamental rethinking and radical design of WIL-inspired educational processes such as course design. Rethinking implies approaching WIL ontologically. Depending on which extent the concept of WIL has been perceived by universities worldwide, it has been thus viewed and implemented from a diverse spectrum of perspectives. First, we discuss the implications for the existed conceptual differences. Thereafter, and inspired by the main philosophical assumptions underpinning a Whole-organization approach to WIL, we propose and thus thoroughly concretize a framework which we call Work-related Educational Activities (WREA). The model which is the theoretical foundation of WREA consists of a category of several components. After identification of the main components of the model, we adopt an ontological approach to the reconceptualization of WIL. The aim of this paper is twofold. Firstly, to demonstrate how University West in Sweden views WIL, which is its newly announced research profile. Secondly, an attempt to re-conceptualize WIL by conducting an ontological approach to WREA.

  • 309.
    Babaheidari, Said Morad
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Haj-Bolouri, Amir
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Högberg, Karin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    Ljungdahl Eriksson, Martin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Norström, Livia
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Pareto, Lena
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Willermark, Sara
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Work-integrated Learning in a Doctoral Course in Informatics2016Inngår i: Proceedings of IRIS39, Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia, Ljungskile, August 7-10, 2016 / [ed] Pareto, Lena, Svensson, Lars, Lundin, Johan, Lundh Snis, Ulrika Lundh Snis, 2016, s. 1-11Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Being the first university in the world to provide doctoral program in Work-integrated Learning (WIL), we face the challenge of how to integrate doctoral courses into the WIL philosophy, which is the profile of the University West, Sweden. To exemplify what we mean by such a notion of integration, we introduce and demonstrate our proposed ontological approach to integrate a PhDcourse into the fundamental concepts underpinning WIL. The WIL within the context of informatics research (which is a subfield of the IS discipline) playsfive different roles of (1) the main course content, (2) the target occupation ofthe students and occupational field of the teachers, (3) the analytical perspective of the research activities in the course, (4) the educational method where teachers and students conduct collaborative research activities as a cognitive apprenticeship learning model, and (5) a co-authored research paper as outcome.The outcomes of such a conducted approach and lessons learned from the course will be thoroughly described. In the course, a meta-analysis of WIL informatics research will be performed to examine four dimensions which are: theories relevant for WIL; methods used in WIL research; occupational fields in WIL informatics studies; and roles of technology in WIL research. The course is arranged in the these phases: Local investigation; locally rooted research within the informatics field is examined by the course participants in dialogue with the authors of a number of published articles in order to see the extent and the how aspects of these identified WIL-oriented research work; Local synthesis; both teachers and the PhD students (i.e., course participants) explore the results and synthesize a local WIL-model; Global overview; a number of related international literature is selected and studied; Global synthesis; The local WIL model is compared to the global investigation. Co-authoring; a research paper is co-authored by the course participants and presented at a conference. By doing so, we enhance our understandings and thus contribute to one additional practical application of WIL's pedagogical philosophy, which influences the course content, the course format, the activities, the teaching-learning model,and the outcome of the course.

  • 310.
    Babic, Ankica
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Univeristy of Bergen, Norway.
    The era of digital and electronic waste2014Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 311.
    Backlund, Fredrik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Chroneer, Diana
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Sundqvist, Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Project Management Maturity Models – A Critical Review: A Case Study within Swedish Engineering and Construction Organizations2014Inngår i: Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, ISSN 1877-0428, E-ISSN 1877-0428, Vol. 119, s. 837-846Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Different kinds of project management maturity models (PM3s) exist today, most of them inspired by the capability maturity model (CMM) developed in the beginning of the 90ies, originally intended to measure capability in software development projects. Research indicates that organizations with higher project management (PM) maturity levels are expected to be successful in terms of project effectiveness and efficiency, and thus have a competitive advantage in the marketplace. Though, despite several PM3s developed during a time period of over 20 years, knowledge about how PM3s are a*pplied in organizations is sparse within the PM literature. This paper explores how major engineering and construction companies view PM maturity and PM3s in order to develop and improve their PM practices. These kinds of organizations are mainly project-intensive, objective oriented,and have the capabilities to perform overall business development initiatives, i.e. suitable for applying PM3s.The contribution of PM3s to organizational improvement and development is somewhat unclear. Therefore, a literature review highlights different aspects regarding PM3s, specifically their purpose, strengths, and weaknesses. To what extent PM3s are used, interviews have been conducted with seven respondents within different project intensive organizations, in their roles as project managers or in charge of PM development. How a PM3 can beintroduced and applied is explored via an in-depth case study at the major mining company in Sweden, LKAB. However, tentative results show that the application of PM3s in Swedish engineering and construction organizations are limited, indicating that further research is needed

  • 312.
    Backlund, Fredrik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Chronéer, Diana
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Sundqvist, Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Maturity assessment: towards continuous improvements for project-based organisations?2015Inngår i: International Journal of Managing Projects in Business/Emerald, ISSN 1753-8378, E-ISSN 1753-8386, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 256-278Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    PurposeThe aim of this study is to contribute to the empirical research on project management maturity assessments, specifically based on a maturity model. Design/methodology/approachThe empirical data is based on a case study including in-depth interviews with a semi-structured approach, followed by a focus group interview. A survey was distributed within a project-based organisation and to client and stakeholder representatives, and then analysed. The organisation in the case study is a project department within a Swedish mining company. FindingsCareful considerations are needed when choosing a project management maturity model (PM3) as the model structure can influence the assessment’s focus. It is also important to include both internal and external project stakeholders in the assessment to achieve an efficiency and effectiveness perspective when analysing PM capabilities. Valid information from an assessment is crucial, therefore, clear communication from management is important in order to motivate the participants in the assessment. Research limitations/implicationsImproved understanding for implementing and applying a PM3 contributes to the increased knowledge of drivers, enablers and obstacles when assessing PM maturity, which also creates a basis for further research initiatives. Practical implicationsAn increased knowledge of drivers, enablers and obstacles should be valuable for practitioners introducing and applying a PM3.Originality/valueThis case study gives an in-depth insight into the implementation of a PM3 within a project-based organisation. Through conducting a literature review, it was found that this type of empirical research is rare

  • 313.
    Backlund, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    Vad innebär övergången till Scrum?: En studie som undersöker hur Scrum påverkar systemutvecklingsarbetet i globala organisationer2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Currently many organizations are transitioning from the traditional approach to the agile approach regarding systems development methods. It is evident that research has mainly focused on smaller organizations transitioning, whilst less focus has been given t0 larger organizations. We find this interesting and the purpose of this study is to gain a deeper and broader knowledge concerning the following research question: How is system development work affected by a change from traditional system development methods to Scrum in large global organizations. We also investigate how Scrum can be adapted to complex projects with an internal client. The study is based on a case study, which takes a qualitative approach with semi-structured interviews for information gathering and was conducted on a major Swedish telecom company. The company initiated the transition process approximately two years ago, with the transition still ongoing. The study indicates that the main reason for adopting the agile way of working was to optimize the development process by enhancing the effectiveness. Furthermore additional effects that were gained due to the change, for example a higher grade of team spirit and a more transparent development process. Furthermore we identified where the organization had made changes on the method, Scrum, this due to different reasons such as company size and the complex nature of the projects. Finally, the study showed that even though an organization choose to embrace agile methods, the practical context in which it is introduced can lead to it being adapted to the point where it deviates from its most central theoretical underpinnings.

  • 314.
    Backlund, Stefan
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Wingård, Robin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Den datorgenererade matbilden: En undersökning av graden av aptitlighet hos datorgenererade matbilder gjorda i reklamsyfte2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I flera år har återskapandet av fotorealistiska bilder spelat en viktig roll när det gäller användningen av 3D-CGI för visualisering och marknadsföring. Återskapandet av något som kan kallas fotorealistiskt utan att ha använt en kamera medför många fördelar och möjligheter som fotografering har svårt att uppnå. På grund av detta har flera företag börjat använda CGI som en alternativ metod för marknadsföring istället för fotografi. Det finns dock fortfarande områden där användningen av CGI är begränsad, antingen på grund av hög komplexitet vilket innebär höga kostnader. För denna studie fokuserar vi på användningen och upplevelsen av CGI-bilder av mat som används i reklam. Anledningen till detta är på grund av vår dagliga interaktion och konsumtion av mat, vilket kan medföra att vår perception av något som just mat, drastiskt kan skilja sig från vår perception av andra produkter som är skapade med hjälp av CGI.

    För att testa vår perception av CGI-bilder av mat formulerade vi en enkätundersökning vars syfte var att jämföra CGI-bilder med dess fotografiska motsvarighet för att döma den aptitlighet som deltagarna känner inför varje bild. Detta genomfördes genom att deltagarna betygsatte olika bilder med ett aptitlighetsvärde samt kommenterade om hur de kände inför specifika bilder och även deras generella åsikter om användningen av CGI för marknadsföring. Vår undersökning visade en ringa preferens mot CGI-bilderna jämfört med de fotografierna som vi använt. Det fanns dock flera deltagare som ogillade det "plastiga" och orealistiska utseendet av CGI-bilderna vilket ledde till mycket lägre aptitlighet. Vi hypotiserar att anledningen till en preferens för CGI-bilderna i denna studie är för att CGI-bilder kan ha en orealistisk perfektion som kan framhäva mer aptitlighet än vad produkten utseende skulle göra i verkligheten. Vilken typ av produkt som bilderna representerar kan också spela en stor del i vårt resultat. I denna studie använde vi bilder på chokladbitar, resultatet kan därför starkt vara kopplat till val av bilder och om studien skulle använt bilder av andra matkategorier, t.ex. kött, frukt eller grönsaker, skulle resultatet kunna se annorlunda ut.

  • 315.
    Badawy, Shaimaa Ali
    et al.
    University of Western Ontario.
    Elragal, Ahmed
    German University in Cairo (GUC).
    Gabr, Mahmoud Mohamed Hassan
    Faculty of Science, Alexandria University.
    Multivariate similarity-based conformity measure (MSCM: An outlier detection measure for data mining applications2008Inngår i: Proceedings of the IASTED International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Applications Machine Learning: as part of the 26th IASTED International Multi-Conference on Applied Informatics ; February 11 - 13, 2008, Innsbruck, Austria / [ed] Alexander Gammermann, Anaheim, Calif: ACTA Press, 2008, s. 314-320Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Outliers, the odd objects in the dataset, can be viewed from two different perspectives; the outliers as undesirable objects that should be treated or deleted in the data preparation step of the data mining process, and the outliers as interesting objects that are identified for their own interest in the data mining step of the mining process. In the latter case, outliers shouldn't be removed, that's why one of the main categories of tasks performed by data mining techniques is outlier detection. Applications that make use of such detection include credit card fraud detection and network intrusion detection. Most of the available outlier detection techniques rely in a distance measure to compare the objects in the dataset which imposed the restriction of dealing with numeric data. In this paper a new multivariate similarity-based conformity measure (MSCM) is suggested to be used to detect outliers in datasets that contain attributes of different data types. The MSCM satisfies two other desirable features; being a multivariate measure and giving ranking instead of a binary judgment of the object. The measure has been applied on three different datasets in order to be evaluated; the measure has shown good results in these experiments.

  • 316. Bagalkot, Naveen L.
    et al.
    Green, William
    Lutz, Peter A.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi.
    Memoryscape: Designing with Senior Citizens as Memory Meditation2013Inngår i: Human Factors in Computing and Informatics, Berlin Heidelberg: Springer, 2013, s. 601-608Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Supporting senior citizens with tools to recollect past experiences about everyday life is gaining ground within HCI research. In this paper, we focus on how seniors reminiscing can be a resource for designers to uncover the situated aspects. In particular, we argue that an analytical focus on seniors’ memories is a fruitful stance for tracing how design practice situates issues of senior wellbeing. We employ the case of designing with senior citizens to design ICT for supporting adherence to physical therapy at home and discuss two retrospective examples. These examples highlight how seniors’ physical wellbeing was situated in, memories of a musically rich and mobile life, and memories of youthful male body. Through retrospection, we offer the preliminary notion of memoryscape as a conceptual term for orienting how a design process can mediate seniors’ memories as a way of accounting for situated elderliness in design.

  • 317.
    Baguma, Rehema
    et al.
    Makerere University, Uganda.
    Pettersson, John SörenKarlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan (from 2013).
    Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on M4D Mobile Communication Technology for Development: M4D 2018, 15-16 November 2018, Kampala, Uganda2018Konferanseproceedings (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 318.
    Bahati, Bernard
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap. University of Rwanda, Rwanda.
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Hansen, Preben
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Benegusenga, Alphonse
    Using structured learning e-journals as a formative e-assessment strategy: Guiding student-teachers to reflect on their learning through the mirror, microscope, and binoculars2018Inngår i: Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference / [ed] Elizabeth Langran, Jered Borup, Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education, 2018, s. 1124-1133Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies on the use of electronic journals to promote reflective learning among student-teachers have mainly focused on the students’ reflection and their learning experience in the context of the teaching practicum. Using e-journal guiding questions and an analytical reflection rubric, this study examined the extent to which the student-teachers reflected on their learning and how their reflective skills evolved through e-journal keeping in the context of the teaching and learning process of a blended course. The results showed that most of the students’ responses to e-journal guiding questions were in non-reflection and reflection levels while few responses were in critical-reflection reflection level. The study also indicated that the longer the time for using e-journals, the more the student-teachers’ reflective skills improved. In the end, the study recommends continued efforts in designing, developing and implementing instructional events whereby student-teachers can have opportunities to exercise and sustain their reflective skills over an extended period of time.

  • 319.
    Bahlenberg, Robin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    Hur påverkar GDPRs krav den enskilda organisationen?: En empirisk undersökning av en kommunal organisation i förändring2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The technological development of digital devices and the rapid increase in global internet usage has forever changed our lives. Ever since Sweden joined the European Union in 1995 it has been under the person data protection directive (95/46/EG) from the same year. Today, more than two decades later a new international regulation will take its place. This will result in major changes in how companies and organizations must handle personal data. Every company and organization within every country within the European Union must adapt to these changes or risk paying rather fees. Not only does this affect the national laws across a continent and companies like Facebook and Sony on a grand scale - but it also affects the local organizations, small companies, and municipalities. It can be hard to understand what this regulation really means and what should be done to follow it. To do that, the entire work process must be redrawn to provide the best protection possible for the individual citizen. The study shows the work progress of a municipality that is in this position and is in need to adjust its work progress. The study shows how they are adapting to the new changes and are dealing with the problems to be ready when the regulation goes live on May 25th, 2018.

  • 320.
    Bahlenberg, Robin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    Yan, Xing
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    Anthropomorphic design and anticipated user experience: A two-step provocational design study of the user experience of smart anthropomorphic products2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    We often see anthropomorphic designs in movies as highly intelligent robots, created to make our lives easier, but anthropomorphic is far more common than that. From cameras that look like eyes to face and voice recognition technology and avatars used by companies to support their brands. Despite this, relatively little research has been made about anthropomorphism in smart everyday products, and how that affects the anticipated user experience. Two provocative studies were conducted, where the participants provided their first impressions to picture prototypes. This generated an understanding of the general opinion of anthropomorphic designs, and when added a smart daily product. These studies showed that people are open to the idea of anthropomorphic designs, but the practicality and functionality are crucial. Through identification of multiple themes and thorough analysis, this study can serve as a blueprint to aid future studies about the anticipated user experience of smart daily products with anthropomorphic elements.

  • 321.
    Bakar, Raka Prasetya
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    How does a public organization promote their work in social media?: A case study of viral communication in a government2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Viral communication method is shown to be useful for spreading messages in social media. However, only few studies have investigated how public organizations use this method successfully to promote their works in social media. To fill this gap, a qualitative analysis on data from observations and interviews has been conducted. The purpose of this study is to answer a research question: how can a government succeed in promoting their works in social media by using viral communication method? The results found several processes and factors that support the fruitfulness from three perspectives: the messenger, the message and the environment. Moreover, it is pointed out that the most important process is creating memorable messages. Therefore, this study proposes essential characteristics of memorable contents.

  • 322.
    Bakar, Raka Prasetya
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    Open Innovation strategy: Exploring challenges and opportunities2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation strategy has been playing an important role on innovation development in industrial firms. Extant studies have investigated in particular open innovation strategy.  By using a qualitative case study, I have conducted a research in an Indonesian R&D firm that has implemented an open innovation strategy. The purpose of this research is to add more information and confirm existing knowledge by exploring challenges and opportunities during the implementation of an open innovation strategy. I identify many challenges which are found in several aspects of innovation development such as collaboration management, assets protection and accessing external knowledge. Furthermore, the opportunities that I found are related with enhancement of license strategy, nurture of employee’s loyalty and establishment of various collaboration forms. These challenges and opportunities occurred due to the influence of the openness paradigm. The results of this study also confirm previous research result on the adoption of the partly open innovation scheme and the layered collaboration scheme.

    RQ: what are the firm-level challenges and opportunities with using an open innovation strategy?

  • 323.
    Bakkalian, Gastón
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik och media.
    Rådemar, Joakim
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik och media.
    Business Intelligence in Uppsala Univeristy - Do academic institutions practice what they preach?2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Business Intelligence (BI) is not a new concept. However, it is still complicated to work with it due to the different views and ways of implementation. This study has adopted an organisational oriented approach of BI: getting the right information, to the right people, at the right time. It was found in this study that poorly implemented BI features and inadequate information infrastructure may lead to workarounds in order to compensate for missing or lacking features and systems.

    This case study has been conducted at the faculty of Social Sciences of Uppsala University (UU) where a set of interviews were conducted to individuals on one of the key positions at the university; the Director of Studies (DoS). The aim was to map out the key processes and head activities of the DoS’s and evaluate them through the BI view of this thesis. Being the conclusion a concrete mapping of the DoS head activities as well as BI assessment of the current situation of the studied departments. Some improvements have been proposed in order to remedy the lacking of valuable and critical features and systems. However, it was found that the current system infrastructure and problem area is too immature in order to implement any form of integration. Several studies on key positions and influential systems need to be conducted in order to exhaustively map out and discover the problem area.

  • 324.
    Bakunzibake, Pierre
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Improving Implementation of e-Government Services in Rwanda: An Organisational Perspective2019Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    As part of realising development programmes faster, developing countries have been adopting, from developed ones, modern ICTs and implementing e-government towards better public services. However, efforts of implementation of e-government services have been often resulting in unsatisfactory outcomes and even total failures. This is a big challenge particularly for Least Developed Countries which have fewer resources. Such outcomes are partly due to the lack of addressing organisational issues associated with implementations.

    This thesis addresses the question: How can the implementation of e-government services be improved from an organisational perspective in the context of Rwanda?

    The thesis adopts a socio-technical perspective and uses both qualitative case study methodology and a literature review approach. Two cases of implementation of e-government services were studied. The first case, an Enterprise Content Management system concerns the sharing and working on digital documents within government agencies. The second case, the onestop e-government is for providing online services by the central and local government agencies to the general public via a single portal, ‘Irembo’. This thesis shows that implementation of e-government services has been focusing on digitalisation of services superimposing ICT over existing structures with less attention to organisational change issues related to processes, organisational structure and policies. The thesis also identifies a deficit in implementation processes in terms of lacking clear goals and formal monitoring in the local government. Those insights on the implementation of e-government services of an LDC pinpoint a need for optimisation between technical and social aspects. This thesis makes an empirical contribution by bringing forth those insights. In order to help tackle a number of challenging issues found, a comprehensive model for improving the process of implementing e-government services, called Plan-Do-Evaluate-Resolve (PDER) was developed as a theoretical contribution based on a literature analysis.

  • 325.
    Bakunzibake, Pierre
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet. University of Rwanda, College of Science and Technology, School of ICT, Rwanda.
    Klein, Gunnar O.
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Islam, M. Sirajul
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    A Model for Process Improvement in the Implementation of e-Government Services: Plan-Do-Evaluate-Resolve (PDER)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 326.
    Bakunzibake, Pierre
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet. College of Science and Technology, School of ICT, University of Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda.
    Klein, Gunnar O.
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Islam, M. Sirajul
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    E-government implementation and monitoring: The case of Rwanda ‘one-stop’ E-government2019Inngår i: Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, ISSN 1681-4835, E-ISSN 1681-4835Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Taking the case of the “one‐stop” e‐government initiative in Rwanda, the present study aims to find out how the “one‐stop” e‐government initiative is monitored at different government levels and stages and the extent to which the initiative is monitored. Furthermore, the study also aims to identify potential areas for improvement in the monitoring process. An exploratory qualitative study was undertaken in Rwandana gencies. The findings show that the monitoring of the process of implementing and improving one‐stop e‐government is partly formal at central government level and informal at local government level. Furthermore, the focus of the monitoring at the stage of use and maintenance leans more towards the benefits of end users as service consumers than those of the service providers. Incorporating formal methodological approaches at local government level and in all stages of the implementation and improvement process at central government level, as well as paying increased attention to back‐end process performance aspects, could introduce additional improvements into the monitoring practice and, in turn, increase project benefits.

  • 327.
    Balan, Khalil
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för informatik (IK).
    User perspective of privacy and surveillance on social networks2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Social networks have integrated into people’s daily lives and they became a powerful medium for effective marketing and communication worldwide. Problem raise when governments and special agencies violate users’ information privacy under the pretext of protecting national security or something as, furthermore, when information became the source of income for social networks it became necessary to investigate users concerns about informational privacy on social platforms, if there are. The main purpose of the thesis is to understand what level of privacy awareness users on social networks have and how much relevant knowledge about surveillance on social networks they recognize. Moreover, the thesis aims to present users’ opinion about surveillance on Facebook and if they accept to be surveyed in certain scenarios. As results, the study has identified ambiguity in Facebook terms and data policy, while there has been clarity that Facebook applies massive surveillance in terms of data collection on all users on the network. 71% of the participants had concerns about their privacy on social networks, two-thirds of the participants didn’t read Facebook terms and 76% did believe that social networks sell users information for own benefits. The majority of the interview participants showed lack of knowledge about data collection on social networks, and didn’t know if governments do surveillance on social platforms or not. However, 37% of the survey participants claimed that they have nothing to hide and governments can look into their activities online, and almost similar percentage supported such an action. Further, most of the interview participants protect their informational privacy on social networks by having good privacy settings, controlling who have access to certain posts or managing friends list. However, 1/3 of the participants who had good privacy settings didn’t know all their friends on FB. Through personal observations on data analysis and literature review, I concluded the thesis with some suggestions of possible approaches to enhance information privacy, these recommendations present my own thoughts and weren’t derived in academic way rather personal notes during the thesis study.

  • 328.
    Balaskas, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    Keep on Tracking: Understanding the long term use of personal informatics systems2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Personal Informatics (PI) systems common trending theme is fitness, which in turn is a trending theme in human-computer interaction. These systems have been the focus of a handful of studies. So far, the research that has been conducted merely focuses on the technical details of such services and few investigate the longitudinal use of PI systems. Even though fitness is a popular area, still personal informatics systems designed for this purpose suffer from short-term use. Therefore, there is a need to design systems that encourages users for prolong use. The prolonged use of digital artifacts is an issue of sustainable interaction design. The purpose of this thesis is to explore the design space of personal informatics fitness systems through the lens of sustainable interaction design. This thesis aims at investigating motives and intentions behind the longitudinal use of personal informatics fitness systems. This thesis argues that by adopting the lens of sustainable interaction design we can find ways of designing PI systems with prolonged use for the users. Based on the findings the thesis ends by suggesting a guideline for designing personal informatics fitness systems which will hopefully help interaction designers and researchers alike.

  • 329. Ballesteros, S.
    et al.
    Peter, C.
    Waterworth, Eva L.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    Waterworth, John A.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    The role of ICT and networking in healthy ageing2012Inngår i: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on PErvasive Technologies Related to Assistive Environments, ACM Digital Library, 2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we report the results from the psychologicalassessment conducted using a test battery composed of cognitiveand social wellbeing tests and questionnaires performed by usersand controls that participated in the AGNES project in Spain,Sweden and Greece at the beginning of the study and after thedeployment of the first prototype. The project carries out noveltechnological interventions in an emerging area in ageingresearch. The main innovation is the integration of differenttechnological components and social networking to provide anovel solution to the ageing population living at home. Themotivation was based on relevant findings on the psychology ofageing and the need for technologies to support the ageingpopulation. End-users have been heavily involved, providingdesign input, continuum evaluation and feedback. Theprojectfocuses on improving the mental and physical wellbeing ofelderly people living at home, who often suffer the effects ofsocial and physical isolation including cognitive decline, lowactivity levels and poor mood states. The main results were thatthe users but not the control participants improved cognitiveperformance andthe feeling of being treated with respect, beingindependent, self-realization and greater achievement.

  • 330. Ballesteros, S
    et al.
    Toril, P
    Mayas, J
    Reales, J.M
    Waterworth, John
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    The Role of a New ICT Home Environment in Healthy Ageing2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this longitudinal study was to prevent and/or delay cognitive decline, and help maintain the independence and wellbeing of elders by using a web-based social network platform, enhanced with devices to detect users´ states and collect activity data. The idea is that an active lifestyle rich in social interactions, active engagement and mental training with videogames may mitigate age-related decline and reduce healthcare costs. The innovative applications and the videogame training approach developed in the study could have wide application for a large number of European older adults living alone. The effectiveness of the ICT solution is being assessed throughout the project with user and control groups in Spain, Sweden and Greece. User interviews, extensive psychological testing and on-going cognitive and fMRI experiments are being conducted.. The results have shown so far that the users improved in cognitive performance compared to controls on the MMSE. Well-being assessed with the SPF-IL Scale also showed an improvement in the Status dimension of the users. This dimension assesses the feeling of being independent, self-realization and achievement. Exploring new ways to maintain the cognitive and functional state of older users is today a critical issue, for individuals, for families, and for whole societies. The study has shown the positive potential of new interactive technologies to maintain mental health and independent living in the elderly. Computer technology and cognitive training can increase social integration and provide mental stimulation for older adults living alone.

  • 331. Ballesteros, Soledad
    et al.
    Mayas, Julia
    Prieto, Antonio
    Toril, Pilar
    Pita, Carmen
    Ponce de Leon, Laura
    Reales, Jose
    Waterworth, John
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    A randomized controlled trial of brain training with non-action video games in older adults: results of the 3-month follow-up2015Inngår i: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, ISSN 1663-4365, E-ISSN 1663-4365, Vol. 7, artikkel-id UNSP 45Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This randomized controlled study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02007616)investigated the maintenance of training effects of 20 1-hr non-action video gametraining sessions with selected games from a commercial package on several agedecliningcognitive functions and subjective wellbeing after a 3-month no-contactperiod. Two groups of cognitively normal older adults participated in both the posttraining(posttest) and the present follow-up study, the experimental group who receivedtraining and the control group who attended several meetings with the research teamduring the study but did not receive training. Groups were similar at baseline ondemographics, vocabulary, global cognition, and depression status. Significant improvements in the trained group, and no variation in the control group had been previously found at posttest, in processing speed, attention and visual recognition memory, as well as in two dimensions of subjective wellbeing. In the current study, improvement from baseline to 3 months follow-up was found only in wellbeing (Affection and Assertivity dimensions) in the trained group whereas there was no change in the control group. Previous significant improvements in processing speed, attentionand spatial memory become nonsignificant after the 3-month interval. Training olderadults with non-action video games enhanced aspects of cognition just after training butthis effect disappeared after a 3-month no-contact follow-up period. Cognitive plasticitycan be induced in older adults by training, but to maintain the benefits periodic boosting sessions would be necessary.

  • 332. Ballesteros, Soledad
    et al.
    Sebastian, M.
    Toril, P.
    Mayas, J.
    Reales, J.
    Waterworth, John
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    Cognitive enrichment effects in aging: Can new information technology and networking preserve and enhance cognitive functions and wellbeing of older adults?2011Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 333. Ballesteros, Soledad
    et al.
    Toril, Pilar
    Mayas, Julia
    Reales, José M.
    Waterworth, John
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    An ICT-mediated social network in support of successful ageing2014Inngår i: Gerontechnology, ISSN 1569-1101, E-ISSN 1569-111X, Vol. 13, nr 1, s. 37-46Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The idea is that an active lifestyle rich in social interactions and active engagement may mitigate age-related decline and reduce healthcare costs. The main aim of the AGNES project was to investigate the potential of new Information and Communication Technology (ICT) environments to help maintain the independence and wellbeing of elders. The innovative applications developed in this research project could have wide application for a large number of older adults living alone.  Method We used a web-based social network platform, enhanced with devices to detect users´ states and collect activity data. The effectiveness of the ICT-based solution was assessed throughout the project with user and control groups in Spain, Sweden and Greece. User interviews and psychological testing were conducted at the beginning of the project and after a year of deployment of the equipment. Both groups completed the same assessment protocol. Results & discussion We found that only the user group showed an improvement from pretest to posttest in the affective dimension of the wellbeing SPF-IL scale. This dimension relates to the degree of confidence, social acceptance, and level of satisfaction with the people around them. Exploring new ways to maintain the cognitive and functional state of older users is today a critical issue, for individuals, their families, and for whole societies. The study suggests the potential of AGNES to improve older adults’ perceived wellbeing. However, more research may be needed to determine if AGNES is a tool to maintain mental health and independent living in older adults, especially those with MCI.

  • 334.
    Bang, Gihoon
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    UX Gap: Analysis of User Experience Awareness in practitioners’ perspective2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Many within the industry, including designers, recognize the need to consider UX as the key to designing new products and services. As a consequence of this, the territory of UX has extended into many different industries and different disciplines. However, some practitioners still claim a UX project does not pay off even if they have improved UX. This way of thinking is induced from an old issue of UX. The term itself does not have a clear theoretical definition and it even makes a contradiction of itself. This phenomenon further aggravates the issue. The rapid expansion of UX territory made a gap between academia and practitioners. This research attempts to measure and examine the gap between academia and practitioners. A survey was conducted to observe how aware practitioners are of UX and their ability to recognize it as compared to the recent academia’s research. 

  • 335.
    Barbabella, Francesco
    et al.
    National Institute of Health and Science on Ageing (INRCA), Italy.
    Chiatti, Carlos
    National Institute of Health and Science on Ageing (INRCA), Italy.
    Masera, Filippo
    National Institute of Health and Science on Ageing (INRCA), Italy.
    Bonfranceschi, Franco
    National Institute of Health and Science on Ageing (INRCA), Italy.
    Rimland, Joseph M.
    National Institute of Health and Science on Ageing (INRCA), Italy.
    Bartulewicz, Kristian
    National Institute of Health and Science on Ageing (INRCA), Italy.
    Rossi, Lorena
    National Institute of Health and Science on Ageing (INRCA), Italy.
    Lattanzio, Fabrizia
    National Institute of Health and Science on Ageing (INRCA), Italy.
    Experimentation of an integrated system of services and AAL solutions for Alzheimer’s Disease patients and their caregivers in Marche: The UP-TECH project2014Inngår i: Ambient Assisted Living: Italian Forum 2013 / [ed] Sauro Longhi, Pietro Siciliano, Michele Germani, Andrea Monteriù, New York: Springer, 2014, s. 157-165Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 336.
    Barbabella, Francesco
    et al.
    National Institute of Health and Science on Ageing (INRCA), Italy.
    Efthymiou, Areti
    Eurocarers, Belgium.
    Poli, Arianna
    National Institute of Health and Science on Ageing (INRCA), Italy.
    Lancioni, Cristina
    National Institute of Health and Science on Ageing (INRCA), Italy.
    Andréasson, Frida
    Swedish Family Care Competence Centre (NKA).
    Salzmann, Benjamin
    National Institute of Health and Science on Ageing (INRCA), Italy.
    Hanson, Elizabeth
    Swedish Family Care Competence Centre (NKA).
    Döhner, Hanneli
    Eurocarers, Belgium.
    Goodwin, Frank
    Eurocarers, Belgium.
    Lamura, Giovanni
    National Institute of Health and Science on Ageing (INRCA), Italy.
    A multilingual web platform supporting informal carers in 27 EU member states2015Inngår i: Broader, bigger, better: AAL solutions for Europe. Proceedings of the 6th AAL Forum 2014 / [ed] Adrian Curaj & Ioana Trif, Bucharest: UEFISCDI , 2015, s. 169-172Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Informal care is a hot topic in research and policy agendas at European and national level, since it greatly contributes to the sustainability and efficiency of national health care systems. A specific intervention – part of the wider INNOVAGE project funded by FP7 – was planned for developing and testing a new multilingual web platform for informal carers of dependent older people in the EU-27. Preliminary results of the pilot study, conducted in Italy, Germany and Sweden will be discussed. The final platform will be accessible in all official languages of the EU-27 and publicly available in spring 2015.

  • 337.
    Barbabella, Francesco
    et al.
    National Institute of Health and Science on Ageing (INRCA), Italy.
    Lancioni, Cristina
    National Institute of Health and Science on Ageing (INRCA), Italy.
    Andréasson, Frida
    Swedish Family Care Competence Centre (NKA).
    Papa, Roberta
    National Institute of Health and Science on Ageing (INRCA), Italy.
    Poli, Arianna
    National Institute of Health and Science on Ageing (INRCA), Italy.
    Salzmann, Benjamin
    National Institute of Health and Science on Ageing (INRCA), Italy.
    Efthymiou, Areti
    Eurocarers, Belgium.
    Lamura, Giovanni
    National Institute of Health and Science on Ageing (INRCA), Italy.
    How web-based services can support family carers of older people: New ways to promote social inclusion and quality of life2015Inngår i: Irish Ageing Studies Review, ISSN 1649-9972, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 87-87Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Family carers can be negatively influenced by their situation, in terms of stress, social isolation, economic constraints and other difficulties. Web-based services addressing carers’ needs represent an efficient support. The goal of the INNOVAGE work package 3(WP3) study was to develop and test a new multilingual web platform for supporting family carers of older people, to be implemented in 27 European countries.

    Methods: A review of good practices and a consultation with stakeholders were conducted for identifying most appropriate types of services to be developed and tested. The prototype of web platform included information resources and interactive services for both peer and professional support. A convenient, overall sample of around 130 family carers was enrolled in three countries (Italy, Germany and Sweden) and could access services for 12-17 weeks. Data were collected through questionnaires and focus groups concerning impact onquality of life, social support, self-perception of carer’s role, as well as usability, usefulness and appropriateness of services.

    Results: Active users were generally satisfied with support (information, advice, counselling) provided by moderators (social workers or psychologists) and peers. Usability and appropriateness were confirmed, although some refinements were suggested and users with low digital skills often needed technical support. A portion of the sample remained inactive even if stimulation strategies were adopted.

    Conclusions: The pilot study confirmed the INNOVAGE Eurocarers web platform is a useful tool for family carers. Some challenges still exist for implementation in relation to digital skills required and users’ preferences on services at country level.

  • 338.
    Barbabella, Francesco
    et al.
    National Institute of Health and Science on Ageing (INRCA), Italy.
    Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella
    National Institute of Health and Science on Ageing (INRCA), Italy.
    Quattrini, Sabrina
    National Institute of Health and Science on Ageing (INRCA), Italy.
    Papa, Roberta
    National Institute of Health and Science on Ageing (INRCA), Italy.
    Lamura, Giovanni
    National Institute of Health and Science on Ageing (INRCA), Italy.
    Using eHealth to improve integrated care for older people with multimorbidity: Francesco Barbabella2015Inngår i: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 25, nr Supplement 3, s. 48-48Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Issue

    The exploitation of eHealth tools in integrated care practices addressing multimorbidity might be a strong driver for facilitating access to the services provided to people with multiple chronic diseases. This is particularly true in the case of older people living in the community, since eHealth could enhance and reinforce care services at home, improving independent living and security of patients.

    Description of the problem

    One of the ICARE4EU project aims, was to explore whether and which kind of eHealth tools are implemented in integrated care practices for older people with multimorbidity across Europe. In fact, eHealth tools could differ widely across practices, requiring specific know-how by users and health professionals for using and maintaining technology-based solutions, adequate financial resources, compatible organisational and cultural environment with innovations.

    Results

    The ICARE4EU project selected 101 integrated care practices in 24 European countries, of which 85 included the provision of at least one eHealth tool. Out of 50 practices addressing needs of older people, 42 included some eHealth solution aimed at: enhancing digital communication (64%); monitoring care processes (58%); providing decision support systems (60%); supporting patients' self-management (32%). Two promising approaches exploiting eHealth are presented in detail: the ‘TeleRehabilitation project: Post ICU patient telerehabilitation services' at the Nicosia General Hospital and the ‘Strategy for chronic care' by the Regional Department of Health in Valencia.

    Lessons

    The use of eHealth seems to have many benefits in terms of improvement of integration and management of care, as well as quality of care. However, to realize this benefits, it is important to arrange adequate technical support, legislative frameworks and training of users and health professionals.

  • 339.
    Barbabella, Francesco
    et al.
    National Institute of Health and Science on Ageing (INRCA), Italy.
    Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella
    National Institute of Health and Science on Ageing (INRCA), Italy.
    Quattrini, Sabrina
    National Institute of Health and Science on Ageing (INRCA), Italy.
    Papa, Roberta
    National Institute of Health and Science on Ageing (INRCA), Italy.
    Lattanzio, Fabrizia
    National Institute of Health and Science on Ageing (INRCA), Italy.
    Lamura, Giovanni
    National Institute of Health and Science on Ageing (INRCA), Italy.
    Caring For People With Multiple Chronic Conditions In Italy: Policy And Practices2015Inngår i: Irish Ageing Studies Review, ISSN 1649-9972, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 71-71Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: An estimated 50 million people in the European Union live with multiple chronic diseases. In Italy, around 26.6% of the population aged 16 to 64 years, reported to have at least one long-standing illness or health problem in 2011. Moreover, around 46% of the population over 50 is suffering from multimorbidity. Some programmes addressing adult or older people with multimorbidity have been introduced.

    Methods: Data for the ICARE4EU study were collected in the first half of 2014. Eligible programmes focussed on providing care for adult people with two or more medically diagnosed chronic or long lasting diseases (at least onesomatic), involved formalised cooperation between two or more services (at least one medical) and evaluation was available. For each programme an on-line questionnaire was completed and included four main subjects: Patientcentredness, Management, Use of E-health technologies, and Financing systems.

    Results: In Italy, four programmes met the inclusion criteria. They address both daily patient care and policy/managerial levels. Integration of care services, improved collaboration between care providers, changes in resource utilisation and involvement of informal carers have been observed. In two programmes, older patients are addressed as specific subgroup and in two cases animprovement in the use of E-health tools has emerged.

    Conclusions: In Italy, new policies and integrated care programmes addressing multimorbidity have been recently introduced in some areas, with good preliminary results.

  • 340.
    Barbabella, Francesco
    et al.
    National Institute of Health and Science on Ageing (INRCA), Italy.
    Schmidt, Andrea
    National Institute of Health and Science on Ageing (INRCA), Italy.
    Chiatti, Carlos
    National Institute of Health and Science on Ageing (INRCA), Italy.
    Lamura, Giovanni
    National Institute of Health and Science on Ageing (INRCA), Italy.
    A theoretical framework for assessing the impact of ICT-based interventions for carers2012Inngår i: Gerontechnology, ISSN 1569-1101, E-ISSN 1569-111X, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 393-393Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Initiatives using information and communication technologies (ICTs) as support for carers of dependent older people are reported since the early 1990s, mainly in form of phone services, computer networks, and video respite. Although the role of ICTs in home care gained increasing relevance in the last decades – for instance in the areas of social integration, care coordination and ambient assisted living (AAL) – few attempts have been made to systematically understand the potentialities of such technologies, overcoming single technology or intervention domains. In this respect, the issues of terminology ambiguity and lack of comparability represented major barriers, so that most of evaluation studies in this area led to mixed and/or inconclusive results. Drawing on the findings of the CARICT-project, this paper discusses the development of a theoretical and conceptual framework to assess the impact ofI CT-based interventions for carers. Method Literature review and a mapping exercise of 52 ICT-based initiatives for carers in 8 countries. Results & Discussion We will provide the results of a mapping exercise of 52 case studies, showing the diversity of existing good practices across Europe and carrying out a review of available impact assessment of these initiatives from a social ecological perspective (at micro-, meso- and macro-level). Subsewquently, we will discuss a theoretical and conceptual framework that is built on the basis of available evidence, leading toa proper classification of ICT-based interventions in relation to types of interactions between actors they support: an attempt is made to group the solutions in coherent and comprehensive classes, with related implications for impact assessments and comparative analysis. Main classes include: alarms, home automation, auto-communication, meta-services, information and training, cognitive stimulations and mental exercises, support group sessions, individual care and support services, and social participation tools. Finally, recommendations for future research in the field are formulated with regard to the assessment and comparability of these services, as well as to the testing and development of new solutions.

  • 341.
    Barbabella, Francesco
    et al.
    National Institute of Health and Science on Ageing (INRCA), Italy.
    Schmidt, Andrea
    European Centre for Social Welfare Policy and Research, Austria.
    Chiatti, Carlos
    National Institute of Health and Science on Ageing (INRCA), Italy.
    Lamura, Giovanni
    National Institute of Health and Science on Ageing (INRCA), Italy.
    Impact of ICT-based interventions on family caregivers: A cross-analysis of 54 good practices in Europe2013Inngår i: The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, ISSN 1279-7707, E-ISSN 1760-4788, Vol. 17, nr Supplement, June/July, s. S447-S447Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have gained an increasing relevance for delivering innovative care and support services for dependent older people and their family caregivers. Although ICT-based interventions can vary remarkably in terms of functions, target users, operational aspects and technologies used, little knowledge is available concerning their implementationand impact in Europe, a gap that the CARICT project (http://is.jrc.es/pages/EAP/eInclusion/carers.html) has tried to fill.

    Method: 54 ICT-based interventions addressing needs of older peopleor their family caregivers have been identified in 12 European countries through internet search, literature review and expert interviews. Reports have been delivered for each case studied, and cross-analysed to better understand their potential impact at micro, meso and macro level.

    Results: Little evidence was found for positive outcomes at micro-level, including improvements in users’ health relatedquality of life and social inclusion. At meso-level, implementation of 1st/2nd generation telecare contributes to reduce hospitalization and institutionalization rates of older users, as well asto cost savings for local care providers. At macro-level, only one intervention shows concrete effects on a larger scale through a targeted program evaluation, while most ICT-based interventions do not useany tool to assess their impact, and can thus demonstrate only technology acceptance or users’ satisfaction.

    Conclusion: The lack of relevant evidence at all levels, as well as difficulties in comparing and generalising results, strongly urge practitioners to improve impact assessment methodologies and researchers to develop a better general framework of ICT potentials at a conceptual, theoretical and methodological level in this area.

  • 342.
    Barbabella, Francesco
    et al.
    European Centre for Social Welfare Policy and Research, Austria ; National Institute of Health and Science on Ageing (INRCA), Italy.
    Schmidt, Andrea
    European Centre for Social Welfare Policy and Research, Austria.
    Lamontagne-Godwin, Frédérique
    European Centre for Social Welfare Policy and Research, Austria.
    Rodrigues, Ricardo
    European Centre for Social Welfare Policy and Research, Austria.
    Ruppe, George
    European Centre for Social Welfare Policy and Research, Austria.
    Lamura, Giovanni
    European Centre for Social Welfare Policy and Research, Austria ; National Institute of Health and Science on Ageing (INRCA), Italy.
    Assessing the Impact of ICT-based Solutions for Carers in Europe: Preliminary Findings from the CARICT Project2012Inngår i: Conference “Challenge Social Innovation: Innovating innovation by research – 100 years after Schumpeter”, ZSI , 2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Some evidence suggests that information and communication technologies (ICT) can be an efficient mean to improve not only the quality of care provided to dependent older people but also the support for informal carers and privately employed care workers. However, there is a lack of research on ICT-based initiatives and their impact on carers in the European context. Moving from the preliminary findings of the CARICTproject, the paper discusses the first attempt that has been made in Europe to assess the impact of ICTbased initiatives for carers. First, an overview of the developed methodological framework is presented: it includes both a conceptual framework and an impact assessment methodology (IAM) for evaluating multidimensional outcome. Furthermore, an overview of ICT-based solutions in Europe is provided through the analysis of 52 operational initiatives and selected as good practices. Finally, some recommendations and guidelines for further research in the field are discussed.

  • 343.
    Barsaum, Peter
    et al.
    School of Business, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden .
    Berg, Paul
    School of Business, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden .
    Hagman, Andreas
    School of Business, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden .
    Scandurra, Isabella
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Internet of Things Technology for Remote Healthcare: A Pilot Study2016Inngår i: Proceedings from The 14th Scandinavian Conference on Health Informatics 2016, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press , 2016, Vol. 122, nr 122, s. 43-48Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the latest trends in health informatics is Internet of Things (IoT). IoT consists of various types of technical objects connected to Internet and/or connected to each other, cooperating to reach a common goal. This pilot study explores how chronic patients, potential patients and healthcare personnel (n=100) perceive sensors and implanted sensors as two examples of IoT in remote healthcare. Data was collected through an acceptability questionnaire based on the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) framework using criteria as: performance expectancy; effort expectancy; attitude towards technology; and social influence. The pilot result indicated e.g. a strong acceptance of implants and that external sensors in a treatment requires further work. Differences between men and women were found: acceptance of sensors was preferred by women, and implants by men. In conclusion, IoT could be used to enhance person-centered healthcare, aiming to better engage patients in their treatment, rather than being a passive recipient of a medical intervention.

  • 344.
    Basden, Andrew
    et al.
    Salford University.
    Mirijamdotter, AnitaLuleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.Sytse, StrijbosVrije Universiteit.
    Integrating visions of technology: proceedings of the 12th annual working conference of CPTS2006Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 345.
    Basher, Mohamed
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    DevOps: An explorative case study on the challenges and opportunities in implementing Infrastructure as code2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last few years, DevOps has gained much attention in the IT development field. It is a new way of thinking of how developers and operators work, which aim to integrate the development, testing, and operation work efficiently. DevOps breaks down communication silos, improve collaboration and productivity by automating infrastructure deployment, workflows, continuously improving the integration and delivery process, and measuring the application performance indicators. Automation is crucial in DevOps, and a key aspect of automation is “Infrastructure as code (IaC)”.

    IaC allows companies to manage and maintain their infrastructure resources such as virtual machines, load balancers, firewalls, and network devices programmatically in codes instead of manual processes and procedures. As a result, companies will be able to provision and deploy these infrastructure resources consistently, increase the rate of software delivery and improve the time to market, which in turns lead to a substantial competitive advantage. Previous research call for an examination of the gained opportunities and the challenges that can be faced in implementing IaC. Understanding these challenges and opportunities and their implications allow the companies to know why IaC can be interesting for them? And what and how changes should be done to adopt IaC. This paper presents a qualitative study that aims to illustrate the opportunities and challenges in implementing Infrastructure as a code. This paper will also present how infrastructure used to be managed in physical datacenter and cloud systems, and how agile, DevOps and IaC affect the infrastructure management. Our findings show considerable benefits in adopting IaC, and some challenges might be encountered when implementing IaC. Furthermore, the study acknowledges the role of agile, cloud systems, and DevOps in facilitating the implementation of Infrastructure as a code.

    Keywords: DevOps, Infrastructure as a code, Automation, Infrastructure resources, agile, cloud systems

  • 346.
    Bass, Julian
    et al.
    Robert Gordon University, School of Computing Science and Digital Media.
    Thapa, Devinder
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Multi-casting in mountainous regions of developing countries: analysis through ICT, institutions, and capabilities perspectives2014Inngår i: Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, ISSN 1530-1605, s. 3327-3336, artikkel-id 6759014Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Overcoming shortages of teachers or teachers with required skills and experience is a major challenge in rural schools in the global south. We investigate a classroom video conference multi-casting project under development by the Nepal Wireless Networking Project. Our case study draws on one-to-one interviews and focus group discussions from three areas and 10 village research sites in Nepal. An analytical framework which combines the capability approach, institutions theory and ICTs is used. We found that multi-casting projects in the health domain (eHealth projects) focus on capacity building for rural health workers. Despite concerns about the quality of health outreach workers, they were central to eHealth project design. In contrast, teachers were not afforded such a central role in the classroom multi-casting project. Teachers were being sidelined or replaced, rather than being seen as an essential asset to the project. The main contribution of this paper is to enhance understanding of how multi-casting projects can enable or inhibit educational capabilities with regard to health and education in mountainous regions of developing countries.

  • 347.
    Basu, Henry
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik och media.
    En studie om kunskapsöverföring vid öppen innovation genom crowdsourcing2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Organizations that want to maintain a good innovation capability can seek knowledge both within and outside its boundaries. Opening up innovation processes, through so-called open innovation, allows organizations to combine internal and external knowledge sources in order to include previously excluded perspectives to the innovation process. This study examines how knowledge is created and transferred when conducting open innovation through crowdsourcing. It is done based on Nonaka’s (1991; 1994) theory of how knowledge is created through conversion processes, where implicit knowledge can be converted into explicit knowledge and vice versa. How the crowdsourcing process can generate knowledge transfer is analyzed with the support of Nonaka’s theory and a number of empirically based illustrations. The gathered empirics primarily consist of interviews conducted at companies working with different crowdsourcing platforms. The paper clarifies how the crowdsourcing process gives support for knowledge transfer according to Nonaka’s conversion processes, and that additional knowledge transfer is made possible through the collaborative nature of crowdsourcing. The analysis also shows that extensive planning for how crowdsourcing initiatives should be handled is required in order for them to strengthen the organization’s innovation capability. 

  • 348.
    Bea, Sara
    Science Technology and Innovation Studies, The University of Edinburgh, UK.
    No Heroics, Please: Mapping Deceased Donation Practices in a Catalan Hospital2017Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents an in-depth ethnographic mapping of deceased donation in a Catalan hospital. A unique site in terms of leading edge technoscientific practices, high rates of donation and its consolidated specialised team of transplant coordinators (TCs). The thesis situates donation as an embedded medical practice and traces the practicalities and specificities of making donation a possibility at the hospital. The empirical accounts offer a distinctive contribution that complements and challenges existing social sciences literature about donation. The latter have predominantly focused on donation as a controversial practice through highlighting the emotional experiences of donors’ families and individual medical practitioners involved. This empirical investigation mobilises, and further develops, STS material semiotics tools to provide an account of donation enacted as both procurement and healthcare. Ethnographic insights illustrate the shifting processes of mutual inclusion and exclusion that underpin the trajectory of integrating donation as a routinized hospital practice, along the recurring set of enduring tensions. This is achieved by following the work of TCs along the stages of donor detection, evaluation, maintenance, consent request and organ extraction. Crucially, the analytical focus decenters the individual actors’ perspectives, broadening the scope of the inquiry and making visible the complex sociomaterial arrangements that take place, inside and outside the hospital, which are rendered as a gradual process of assembling donations. Families’ consent to donation is essential but it is decentered, it is neither that which starts a donation process nor the only factor that contributes to the assembling of a donation process. Unlike available anthropological and sociological studies of donation this work is not about documenting the reductionist transition from patient to donor, whole to parts, person to thing and denouncing the fall from subject to object reified in donation practices. The emphasis here is on tracing the overlap between donors as patients, thus the analysis shows the shifting enactments of the embedded donor/patient configuration, which includes the donor/body, donor/person and donor/corpse figures simultaneously along the donation process. The intervention of bodies as active entities is examined through a speculative and pragmatic elucidation on the situated and relational enactments of responsive bodies and organs. This thesis contributes to contemporary re/articulations of materiality and agency through the lens of distributed joint action and entangled actors from a nonanthropomorphic stance. The research also contributes to current policy debates in the UK, and in Scotland in particular, that propose to tackle the national problem of low donation rates with a legislative move to an opt-out system for donation. It offers robust empirical evidence to contest the dominant organ shortage problematisation that is reduced to the legal polarity of either opting in or out of donation. I suggest that questions about increasing donation rates cannot be restricted to the domain of individual choice as this excludes the situated medical practices that enable the choice of donation in the first place.

  • 349.
    Becker, Ulrika
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik och media.
    Renqvist, Saga
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik och media.
    Effektivitet inom akutvården: Är en digital kölista lösningen?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 350.
    Beckhusen, Benedict
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Informatik.
    Mobile Apps and the ultimate addiction to the Smartphone: A comprehensive study on the consequences of society’s mobile needs2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The smartphone is omnipresent and is cherished and held close by people. It allows for constant connection within a digitally connected society, as well as for many other purposes such as leisure activity or informational purpose. Within the Information Systems studies deeper investigation is required as to what impact this “taken – for – granted” mobile access to information and mobile apps has for individuals and society and if a “technological addiction”can be developed when using the smartphone for everything during the day on such a constant basis.

    The aim of this study was to understand the role of the smartphone in society and to shed light on this unclear relationship between the constant use of a smartphone and its development towards an addictive quality. To reach a conclusion, in depth – interviews were conducted with participants about their relationship to the smartphone and their smartphone use based on questions derived from literature on mobile communication technologies and the types of digital addictions existing.

    The results are that the smartphone is a device that seamlessly integrates into our daily lives in that we unconsciously use it as a tool to make our daily tasks more manageable, and enjoyable. It also supports us in getting better organized, to be in constant touch with family and friends remotely, and to be more mobile which is a useful ability in today’s mobility driven society.

    Smartphones have been found to inhabit a relatively low potential to addiction. Traits of voluntary behaviour, habitual behaviour, and mandatory behaviour of smartphone use have been found. All of these behaviours are not considered a true addiction. In the end, it seems that the increase of smartphone use is mainly due to the way we communicate nowadays digitally,and the shift in how we relate to our social peers using digital means.

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