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  • 301.
    Hosseinpourpia, Reza
    et al.
    Georg August University Göttingen, Germany.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    Technological Educational Institute of Thessaly, Greece.
    Mai, Carsten
    Georg August University Göttingen, Germany.
    Tensile strength of handsheets from recovered fibers treated with N-methylol melamine and 1,3-dimethylol-4,5-dihydroxyethyleneurea2015Inngår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 132, nr 3, artikkel-id 41290Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this study was to assess the effect of two amino resins, N-methylol melamine (NMM) and 1,3-dimethylol-4,5-dihydroxyethyleneurea (DMDHEU), on the intrafiber and interfiber strengths and water absorption of two types of waste paper categories, office paper (OP), and old corrugated containers (OCCs). The tensile strength of individual fibers measured at zero span was reduced by increases in the resin concentrations. The dry tensile strengths of the recovered handsheets measured at a finite span were enhanced with increases in the weight percentage gain of the resins. The increasing of the resin concentration also significantly improved the intrabonding of the OP and OCCs in moist measuring conditions. The water absorption of the handsheets considerably decreased at the higher concentration of the thermosetting resins, especially with NMM. The results are promising for the use of NMM- and DMDHEU-treated recovered fibers as an alternative fiber resource for the production of laminated paper and also for the use of DMDHEU as a new N-methylol compound for laminated paper.

  • 302.
    Hosseinpourpia, Reza
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT). Georg-August-University, Germany.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Mai, Carsten
    Georg-August-University, Gemany.
    Hemmilä, Venla
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Effect of Bio-Based Additives on Physico-Mechanical Properties of Medium Density Fibreboards2017Inngår i: 28th International Conference on Wood Science and Technology (ICWST), Zagreb, Croatia, 7-8 December, 2017 / [ed] Ivica Zupcic; Vjekoslav Zivkovic; Josip Miklecic, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Forestry , 2017, s. 153-158Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Dimensional stability of wood-based panels is generally improved with application of suitable additives. Most of these additives, such as paraffin wax, are petroleum-based and with relatively high cost, and therefore, it is desirable to develop low-cost and effective substitutes from renewable resources. This work studied the potential of using a renewable water-repellent additive, such as tall oil fatty acid, for lab-scale manufacturing of medium density fibreboards (MDF). Tall oil fatty acid (TOFA) was used at 1 and 3% w/w of urea formaldehyde (UF) resin. MDF panels with similar concentrations of paraffin wax (wax) and panels without adding a water-repellent agent were served as controls. It was assessed the dimensional stability of the panels in terms of thickness swelling and water uptake after 4 and 24h immersion in water, and their mechanical performance in terms of modulus of elasticity, modulus of rupture and internal bonding. Results showed no obvious differences in the strength behaviour of the panels by addition of water-repellent agents. Dimensional stability, however, considerably improved by addition of TOFA, but it was still inferior when compared to that provided by wax.   

  • 303.
    Hosseinpourpia, Reza
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT). Linnaeus University.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Parsland, Charlotte
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Utilization of different tall oils for improving the water resistance ofcellulosicfibers2018Inngår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 136, s. 47303-47310Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was conducted to assess the effect of the pulping by-products crude tall oil (CTO), distilled tall oil (DTO), andtall oil fatty acid (TOFA) on dynamic water vapor sorption behavior, interfiber strength, and thermal stability of cellulosic paper-sheets.The results were compared against those obtained in cellulose papers treated with the conventional petroleum-derived hydrophobicagent hydrowax and in untreated ones. The tall oil treatments caused strong reduction in equilibrium moisture content of the paper-sheets during adsorption and desorption runs. The same trend was noticed for the hydrowax-treated papers, however, it was lesspronounced than the CTO-treated and DTO-treated samples in the relative humidity range of 75–95%. The sorption hysteresis was con-siderably decreased after the treatments. The ultimate dry-tensile strengths of the paper-sheets were significantly reduced by TOFA andhydrowax treatments, while CTO and DTO showed comparable strength as that of untreated control. The ultimate wet-strengths of thepaper-sheets were improved after the treatments. The thermal stability of the specimens was improved by the tall oil treatments, and thehydrowax-treated samples illustrated lower degradation temperature than the untreated control. The results are promising for the use oftall oils as alternative hydrophobic agents of cellulosicfiber-based products, such as wood panels and paper packaging.

  • 304.
    Hosseinpourpia, Reza
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Echart, Arantzazu Santamaria
    University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Spain.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Gabilondo, Nagore
    University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Spain.
    Eceiza, Arantxa
    University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Spain.
    Modification of Pea Starch and Dextrin Polymers with Isocyanate Functional Groups2018Inngår i: Polymers, ISSN 2073-4360, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 10, nr 9, artikkel-id 939Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Pea starch and dextrin polymers were modified through the unequal reactivity of isocyanate groups in isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) monomer. The presence of both urethane and isocyanate functionalities in starch and dextrin after modification were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR). The degree of substitution (DS) was calculated using elemental analysis data and showed higher DS values in modified dextrin than modified starch. The onsets of thermal degradation and temperatures at maximum mass losses were improved after modification of both starch and dextrin polymers compared to unmodified ones. Glass transition temperatures (Tg) of modified starch and dextrin were lower than unmodified control ones, and this was more pronounced in modified dextrin at a high molar ratio. Dynamic water vapor sorption of starch and dextrin polymers indicated a slight reduction in moisture sorption of modified starch, but considerably lower moisture sorption in modified dextrin as compared to that of unmodified ones.

  • 305.
    Hosseinpourpia, Reza
    et al.
    Islamic Azad University, Iran ; Georg-August University, Germany.
    Hosseini, Payam
    Sharif University of Technology, Iran.
    Mofidian, Seyedehrashin
    Mazandaran University of Science and Technology, Iran.
    Hosseinpourpia, Rezvan
    Islamic Azad University, Iran.
    Varshoee, Ali
    Islamic Azad University, Iran.
    Influence of Nanosilica on Properties of Green Cementitious Composites Filled with Waste Sulfite Pulp Fiber and Aminosilane2014Inngår i: The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, ISSN 1319-8025, Vol. 39, nr 4, s. 2631-2640Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Developments in the field of green cement-based products are characterized as an important approach to sustainable development and are being devoted much attention by the construction industry. Numerous types of materials are utilized; however, based on other published studies, the use of waste material as a filler normally deteriorates the performance of cementitious products. Appropriate additives thus need to be employed to improve the performances and properties of green products. As a consequence, the aim of this study has been to investigate the properties of a novel green cement-based composite—a hybrid system composed of cement, waste natural fiber, silica nano-particles, and aminosilane. Experiments were performed to assess the physical properties (density and flowability), mechanical properties (compressive strength and bending performance), and microstructural properties (as determined by scanning electron microscopy) of the cement sheets. The results demonstrated an improvement in the mechanical and microstructural properties of green cement-based composites by using this hybrid system.

  • 306.
    Hosseinpourpia, Reza
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT). Göttingen university, Germany.
    Mai, Carsten
    Dynamic water vapour sorption properties of wood cell wall polymer constituents2015Inngår i: COST FP1303 (Performance of bio-based building materials) / [ed] Dennis Jones, Christian Brischke, Jaan Kers, Triinu Poltimäe and Joachim Schmid, SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden , 2015, s. 42-44Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses have main roles on swelling and shrinkage of wood products. Interaction of these components with moisture has an important effect on market-friendly when the wood is subjected to the outside utilizations. In the heterogeneous structure of wood, sorption and desorption are occurred in different stages and it calls hysteresis. Hysteresis is a characteristic result from a moisture/temperature/time-dependent, slow, non-equilibrium, swelling-related conformational change, which is facilitated by increasing free volume and mobility in a polymer that is being plasticized during sorption that usually progresses through the stage of water clustering (Reina et al. 2001). Cell wall polymers of wood have a different behavior in the face of moisture in terms of sorption, desorption and hysteresis (Engelund et al. 2013).

    In order to better comprehension of the effect of cell wall material such as lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses, Scots pine micro-veneers were subjected to hydrolysis with sulphuric acid or delignification with acidic sodium chlorite, as previously described (Klüppel and Mai 2012). Then the hemicelluloses were isolated from the delignified veneers according to the chloride method. The commercial lignin was also used after dialysis tubing. The water adsorption and desorption mechanism of delignified and hydrolysed veneers as well as cell wall polymers such as cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin were determined using a dynamic vapour sorption (DVS) apparatus.

    The hydrolysed veneers were resulted in obviously lower moisture content in adsorption and desorption processes with increasing the relative humidity (RH) (Fig. 1a). While, delignified veneers showed slightly higher moisture content compared to control with increasing the ambient moisture until 70% RH and then considerably higher until 95% RH. Control specimens shown higher hysteresis than hydrolysed veneers and also higher hysteresis than delignified veneers after hygroscopic range (Fig. 1b). Moisture content of cell wall constituents in various relative humidity exhibited the higher moisture sorption and desorption of cellulose than lignin, however, hemicelluloses illustrated the significantly higher moisture content than other two cell wall polymers which might be attributed to the softening of hemicelluloses in higher relative humidity (Fig. 2a,b,c). Lignin showed higher hysteresis than cellulose in different relative humidity. Hemicellulose demonstrated the relatively low hysteresis until 50% RH, and with increasing the ambient pressure from 60% RH the hemicelluloses exhibited the extremely higher hysteresis than other cell wall polymers.

  • 307.
    Hosseinpourpia, Reza
    et al.
    Georg-August-University Göttingen.
    Mai, Carsten
    Georg-August-University Göttingen.
    Mode of action of brown rot decay resistance in phenol-formaldehyde-modified wood: resistance to Fenton’s reagent2016Inngår i: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 70, nr 3, s. 253-259Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The mode of action of phenol-formaldehyde (PF)-modified wood has been investigated with respect to its resistance to brown rot decay. The Fenton reaction is assumed to play a key role in the initial brown rot decay. Pine microveneers were modified to various weight percent gains (WPG) with low molecular weight PF and exposed to a solution containing Fenton’s reagent. The mass loss (ML) and tensile strength loss (TSL) as well as the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide within the incubation time decreased with the increasing WPG of the veneers. Incubation of untreated and PF-modified veneers in acetate buffer containing ferric ions without H2O2 revealed that the modification strongly reduces the uptake of iron by the wood cell wall. Further studies indicated that lignin promotes the decay of wood by Fenton’s reagent. The reason for the enhanced resistance of modified wood to the Fenton reaction is attributable to the impeded diffusion of iron ions into the cell wall rather than to the blocking of free phenolic sites of lignin, which accelerate redox cycling of iron.

  • 308.
    Hosseinpourpia, Reza
    et al.
    Georg-August-University Göttingen.
    Mai, Carsten
    Georg-August-University Göttingen.
    Mode of action of brown rot decay resistance of acetylated wood: resistance to Fenton’s reagent2016Inngår i: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225, Vol. 50, nr 2, s. 413-426Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Acetylation is known to enhance the resistance of wood to brown rot fungi. As initial decay by some brown rot fungi is assumed to be caused by the Fenton reaction, pine micro-veneers acetylated to various weight percent gains (WPG) were exposed in a solution containing iron ions and hydrogen peroxide, i.e., Fenton’s reagent. Mass loss and tensile strength loss as well as the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide within the incubation time decreased with increasing WPG of the veneers. Incubation of untreated and acetylated veneers in acetate buffer containing ferric ions without H2O2 revealed that the modification strongly reduced the uptake of Fe ions by the wood cell wall. FT-IR analysis indicated oxidation of the unmodified control veneers but did not show predominant decay of specific cell wall components. Spectra of acetylated veneers did not reveal any significant changes induced by Fenton’s reagent. It was concluded that one possible reason for the enhanced resistance of acetylated wood to the Fenton reaction could be the reduced or almost completely prevented uptake of Fe ions by the wood cell wall.

  • 309.
    Hosseinpourpia, Reza
    et al.
    Georg-August-University Göttingen, Germany.
    Mai, Carsten
    Georg-August-University Göttingen, Germany.
    Mode of action of brown rot decay resistance of thermally modified wood: resistance to Fenton’s reagent2016Inngår i: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 70, nr 7, s. 691-697Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The resistance of heat treated (HT) wood to brown rot fungi has been investigated, while the role of the Fenton reaction (FR) in the initial phase of degradation was in focus. Micro-veneers made of Scots pine, were HT with various intensities and their mass losses (MLHT) were determined before soaking with a solution of Fenton’s reagent containing Fe ions and hydrogen peroxide. The mass loss of the veneers treated that way (MLFT), their tensile strength loss (TSLFT) and the H2O2 decomposition were observed. The MLFT, TSLFT, and H2O2 loss decreased with increasing MLHT of the veneers. Soaking of the veneers in acetate buffer containing only Fe without H2O2 revealed that the heat treatment (HT) strongly reduces the Fe uptake by the cell walls. FTIR spectroscopy indicated oxidation of the unmodified control veneers but did not reveal predominant decay of cell wall components; the HT veneers were not changed at all due to FR. It was concluded that the reason for the enhanced resistance of HT wood to FR is attributable to hindered diffusion of Fe ions into the wood cell wall.

  • 310.
    Hosseinpourpia, Reza
    et al.
    Islamic Azad University, Iran ; Georg-August University, Germany.
    Varshoee, Ali
    Islamic Azad University, Iran.
    Soltani, Mojtaba
    Islamic Azad University, Iran.
    Hosseini, Payam
    Sharif University of Technology, Iran.
    Ziaei Tabari, Hassan
    Islamic Azad University, Iran.
    Production of waste bio-fiber cement-based composites reinforced with nano-SiO2 particles as a substitute for asbestos cement composites2012Inngår i: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 31, s. 105-111Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental impact of asbestos fibers on human health and their consequent safety-related problems indicate that there is a significant need to replace this material in all asbestos-containing products. Many different types of fibers have been introduced to replace asbestos fibers.

    In this study, the performance of silica nano-particles combined with waste paper pulp fibers (sulfite fibers) has been investigated. Different mechanical (compressive and flexural strengths and bending performance), durability (water absorption), physical (bulk density and flowability), and microstructural (scanning electron microscopy) tests were conducted to examine the properties of manufactured green composites.

    The results reveal that the mechanical properties of cement-based composites containing a ternary system of “natural waste fiber–silica nano-particle cement” have been enhanced. Adding silica nano-particles allows the development of green cement-based composites and movement toward sustainable development in the concrete industry.

  • 311.
    Hu, Min
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Local variation in bending stiffness in structural timber of Norway spruce: for the purpose of strength grading2014Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Most strength grading machines on the European market use an averagemodulus of elasticity (MOE), estimated on a relatively large distance along awood member, as the indicating property (IP) to bending strength. Theaccuracy of such grading machines in terms of coefficient of determination israther low at R2 ≈ 0.5. This research is motivated by a desire to increase theaccuracy of the strength grading in the industry today. The aim of the presentstudy is to contribute knowledge of local variation in bending stiffness/MOEwith high resolution and thus locate weak sections due to stiffness reducingfeatures (the most important is knots) for structural timber.The present study introduces three methods that involve structural dynamics,classical beam theory and optical measurement to assess local wood stiffness.Specifically:

    • The dynamic method, in which a wood member is treated as an ordinaryphysical structure and the local stiffness is studied by exploring itsdynamic properties.
    • In Method II, a bending MOE profile is established based on local fibre angle information. The local fibre orientation is detected through highresolution laser scanning based on the tracheid effect.
    •  For Method III, a bending MOE profile is established using surfacestrain information under four-point bending. A high resolution strainfield is obtained using the digital image correlation (DIC) technique.

    From the present study, the two latter methods are more favourable inevaluating the local stiffness within a piece of structural timber. Moreover, thestudy reveals that the established bending MOE profiles using the two lattermethods, i.e. based on information of the local fibre angle and surface strain,agree reasonably well. However, for some patterns of knot clusters, the localbending MOE, calculated on the basis of fibre angles, is significantly higherthan the local bending MOE estimated on the basis of surface strain.

  • 312.
    Hu, Min
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Studies of the fibre direction and local bending stiffness of Norway spruce timber: for application on machine strength grading2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Machine strength grading is a production process in the sawmill industry used to grade sawn timber boards into different strength classes with specific characteristic values of the bending strength, modulus of elasticity (MOE) and density. These properties are called grade determining properties. Each of these is predicted on the basis of a statistical relationship between the property and a so-called indicating property (IP), which is based on non-destructively assessed board properties. In most cases, the prediction of strength is crucial for the grading. The majority of commercial grading machines rely on a statistical relationship of strength to an IP, which is either a global dynamic MOE or an averaged flatwise bending MOE measured over a board length of about one meter. The problem of today’s machine strength grading is that the accuracy of the strength prediction is rather poor with a coefficient of determination of about R2 ≈ 0.5 − 0.6. One consequence of this is that much of the strength potential of timber is unused.

    The intention of this research is to contribute to a long-term goal, which is development of a method for prediction of bending strength that is more accurate than the methods available today. The research relies on three hypotheses. First, accurate prediction of bending strength can be achieved using an IP that is a localized MOE value (determined over a short length) that represents the lowest local bending stiffness of a board. Second, knowledge of the local bending stiffness with high resolution along a board’s longitudinal direction can be established on the basis of fibre direction within the board in combination with dynamic MOE. Third, fibre directions in the interior of a board can be determined by application of fibre angle models utilizing data of fibre directions on the board’s surfaces obtained from tracheid effect scanning. Following these hypotheses, this work has included laboratory investigations of local material directions, and development of models for fibre directions of the interior of boards. The work also included application of one-dimensional (1D) analytical models and three-dimensional (3D) finite element models of individual boards for the mechanical behaviour, analysis of mechanical response of boards based on experiments and based on the suggested models. Lastly, the suggested models were evaluated by comparisons of calculated and experimentally determined local bending stiffness along boards, and of predicted and experimentally determined bending strength.

    The research contributes with in-depth knowledge on local fibre directions close to knots, and detailed information on variation of the local bending stiffness in boards. Moreover, fibre angle models for fibre directions in the interior of boards are presented. By application of the fibre angle models in the 3D model of the whole board, the local bending stiffness along timber boards can be determined over a very short length (l < 50 mm). A comparison with results determined on an experimental basis show a very close similarity implying that the applied models are sufficient to capture the variation of local bending stiffness, caused by knots and fibre distortions, with very high accuracy. Furthermore, it is found that by means of IPs derived using the suggested models, bending strength can be predicted with high accuracy. For a timber sample comprising 402 boards, such IPs results in coefficient of determination as high as R2 = 0.73. However, using IPs based on the 3D finite element model did not improve the R2 value achieved when using the IPs based on the 1D model.

  • 313.
    Hu, Min
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Briggert, Andreas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Olsson, Anders
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Johansson, Marie
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Oscarsson, Jan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Säll, Harald
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Growth layer and fibre orientation around knots in Norway spruce: a laboratory investigation2018Inngår i: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225, Vol. 52, nr 1, s. 7-27Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The strength of structural timber largely depends on the occurrence of knots and on the local material directions in the surroundings of such knots. There is, however, a lack of methods for establishing a full dataset of the local material directions. The present research aims at the development and application of a laboratory method to assess the geometry of growth layers and the orientation of fibres in a high-resolution 3D grid within wood specimens containing knots. The laboratory method was based on optical flatbed scanning and laser scanning, the former resulting in surface images and the latter, utilizing the tracheid effect, resulting in in-plane fibre angles determined in high-resolution grids on scanned surfaces. A rectangular solid wood specimen containing a single knot was cut from a tree in such a way that it could be assumed that a plane of symmetry existed in the specimen. By splitting the specimen through this plane through the centre line of the knot, two new specimens with assumed identical but mirrored properties were achieved. On one of the new specimens, the longitudinal-radial plane was subsequently scanned, and the longitudinal–tangential plane was scanned on the other. Then, by repeatedly planing off material on both specimens followed by scanning of the new surfaces that gradually appeared, 3D coordinate positions along different growth layers and 3D orientation of fibres in a 3D grid were obtained. Comparisons between detected fibre orientation and growth layer geometry were used for the assessment of the accuracy obtained regarding 3D fibre orientation. It was shown that the suggested method is well suited to capture growth layer surfaces and that it provides reliable information on 3D fibre orientation close to knots. Such knowledge is of great importance for understanding the properties of timber including knots. The quantitative data obtained are also useful for calibration of model parameters of general models on fibre orientation close to knots.

  • 314.
    Hu, Min
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Briggert, Andreas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Olsson, Anders
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY). Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Johansson, Marie
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Oscarsson, Jan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Säll, Harald
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Three dimensional growth layer geometry and fibre orientation around knots: a laboratory investigation2016Inngår i: Proceedings of WCTE 2016 World Conference on Timber Engineering / [ed] Eberhardsteiner, W. Winter, A. Fadai, M. Pöll, 2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 315.
    Hu, Min
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för bygg- och energiteknik (BE).
    Johansson, Marie
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för bygg- och energiteknik (BE).
    Olsson, Anders
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för bygg- och energiteknik (BE).
    Enquist, Bertil
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för bygg- och energiteknik (BE).
    Comparison of local variation of modulus of elasticity determined on basis of scanned fiber angles and full strain field measurements2013Inngår i: The 18th International Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation of Wood Symposium, Madison, WI, USA, 2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Strength grading methods are normally based on relationships between one measured value of modulus of elasticity (MOE), regarded as being valid for the whole board, and bending strength. Studies have shown, however, that with a detailed knowledge of local variation of MOE within boards, a highter coefficient of determination (R2) with respect to bending strength can be obtained. Measurements of fiber angles from laser scanning has shown to be a powerful tool to establish MOE profile along boards in a speed that cooresponds to the production speed at a sawmill. The present study aims at investigating the accuracy of the local MOE profile determined on basis of fiber angles from laser scanning. The study was carried out on a board of Norway spruce of dimension 50 by 150 by 3,900 mm. First the fiber angles on all four surfaces were identified using a WoodEye scanner and on the basis of these measurements, a MOE profile was calculated. Thereafter, the board was subjected to a constant bending moment and suring loading an image correlation system, Aramis, was employed for detection of the strain field with high resolution along the whole board. This strain field was then used to estanlish a 'true' MOE profile along the board. The MOE profiles determined in two different ways were compared and they show a close compliance. However, some difference were found and these were used for calibration of the method for MOE determination on the basis of scanning results. The present research thus contributes further improvement of a newly suggested grading method.

  • 316.
    Hu, Min
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Olsson, Anders
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY). Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Local bending stiffness for prediction of bending strength: Evaluation of models and conceptManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 317.
    Hu, Min
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Olsson, Anders
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY). Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Johansson, Marie
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Oscarsson, Jan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Modelling local bending stiffness based on fibre orientation in sawn timber2018Inngår i: European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, ISSN 0018-3768, E-ISSN 1436-736X, Vol. 76, nr 6, s. 1605-1621Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Strength of structural timber depends to a high degree on the occurrence of knots and on the local fibre deviation around such defects. Knowledge of local fibre orientation, obtained by laser scanning, has been utilized in a previously developed machine strength grading method, but rather crude assumptions regarding the fibre orientation in the interior of boards and a mechanical model that does not capture the full compliance of knotty sections were adopted. The purpose of the present study was to suggest and verify a model with which local bending stiffness can be predicted with high accuracy. This study included development of a model of fibre orientation in the interior of boards, and application of a three-dimensional finite element model that is able to capture the compliance of the board. Verification included bending of boards in the laboratory and application of digital image correlation to obtain strain fields comparable to those obtained by finite element simulation. Results presented comprise strain fields of boards subjected to bending and calculated bending stiffness profiles along boards. Comparisons of results indicated that the model suggested here was sufficient to capture the variation of local bending stiffness along boards with very high accuracy.

  • 318.
    Hu, Min
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Olsson, Anders
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Johansson, Marie
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Oscarsson, Jan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Serrano, Erik
    Lund University.
    Assessment of a Three-Dimensional Fiber Orientation Model for Timber2016Inngår i: Wood and Fiber Science, ISSN 0735-6161, Vol. 48, nr 4, s. 271-290Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood is an orthotropic material with very different properties along and across fibers, and every board has its own pattern of knots and fiber deviations. Therefore, detailed knowledge of the three-dimensional (3D) fiber orientation of individual boards would enable more accurate assessment of properties such as stiffness, strength, and shape stability. This paper presents a method for modeling 3D fiber orientation of side boards of Norway spruce. The method is based on dot laser scanning and utilization of the tracheid effect, and it is verified by a comparison between strain fields calculated on the basis of the fiber orientation model and corresponding strains determined using digital image correlation (DIC) technique. By means of the method, it is possible to identify knots and to reproduce the fiber orientation in clear wood in the vicinity of knots. Fiber orientation models of side boards including traversing edge knots were established and integrated in finite element models of boards used for simulation of four-point bending tests. The same boards were also tested in laboratory and displacement fields of the wide faces were recorded at different load levels using DIC technique. Comparisons of strain fields from measurements and simulations showed close agreement, regarding both strain patterns and strain levels. Local strain concentrations caused by very small defects were detected using the models and also found from the laboratory test results. The modeling approach may be used both to achieve improved accuracy of existing machine strength grading methods and, after further development, also for more advanced analysis of eg crack propagation and strength of timber.

  • 319.
    Huber, Johannes Albert Josef
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Ekevad, Mats
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Girhammar, Ulf Arne
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Review of Robustness in Timber Buildings2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Timber buildings today aim for taller and larger dimensions to accommodate increased numbers of occupants.  In tall buildings, more human lives are at risk if large portions of the structure collapse progressively during catastrophic failure events. To safeguard timber structures from disproportionate collapse due to localised failures, the aspect of robustness in particular needs to be considered. In the literature about building structures the term robustness seems to be contemplated in diverse ways. Several possible approaches to define and analyse this property can be found. However, certain consensus as to what characterises a robust structure seems to exist. A review of the concept of robustness for building structures in general and timber structures in specific is presented in this paper. Certain commonly applied terminology and definitions in the context of robustness are analysed. In the literature, risk-based, reliability-based and performance-based concepts for robustness appear to be established. The first two concepts are briefly summarised. The performance-based concept is treated in greater detail to highlight different procedures of deterministic robustness analyses. Common general characteristics of robust buildings which seem to be agreed upon are summarised. Robustness provisions for timber buildings in specific are described and compared to provisions in other building materials such as steel and concrete. The development of alternate load paths during local failure seems to play an essential role in preventing progressive collapse in buildings. The literature about robustness seems to be comprehensive concerning general considerations and concerning structures built in concrete or steel but appears to be rather limited in regards to timber structures. Evaluations of robustness in timber structures seem to be focused on risk-based and reliability-based concepts in literature.

  • 320.
    Huc, Sabina
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Tillämpad mekanik. Univ Boras, Fac Text Engn & Business, SE-50190 Boras, Sweden.
    Svensson, Staffan
    Univ Boras, Fac Text Engn & Business, SE-50190 Boras, Sweden.
    Hozjan, Tomaz
    Univ Ljubljana, Fac Civil & Geodet Engn, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Hygro-mechanical analysis of wood subjected to constant mechanical load and varying relative humidity2018Inngår i: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 72, nr 10, s. 863-870Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A hygro-mechanical (H-M) analysis of a wooden specimen sustaining a mechanical load while subjected to varying relative humidity was performed to predict the long-term rheological behavior of wood. The numerical analysis was based on the experimental results of total strains, monitored in two orthotropic material directions on oak wood specimens under constant uniaxial compression and with moisture content (MC) variation. For the moisture analysis, a multi-Fickian moisture transport model (MFMTM) was used to obtain temporal and spatial MC fields, which were the input data in the mechanical analysis. The presented mechanical model assumed a decomposition of the total strains into the elastic, viscoelastic and mechanosorptive strains and the strains due to shrinkage and swelling. The moisture and mechanical analyses required material parameters, which were taken from the literature or were empirically obtained by a fitting procedure. The performed H-M analysis gave accurate numerical predictions of the experimentally obtained total strains in two orthotropic directions simultaneously. Thus, the analysis developed has a high potential for predicting the long-term rheological behavior of timber structures, assuming that the material parameters are determined previously, based on specific, extensive, multidimensional experimental analyses.

  • 321. Janga, K.K.
    et al.
    Öyaas, K.
    RISE., Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Hertzberg, T.
    Moe, S.T.
    Application of a pseudo-kinetic generalized severity model to the concentrated sulfuric acid hydrolysis of pinewood and aspenwood2012Inngår i: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 7, s. 2728-2741Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 322.
    Jansson, M.B.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Aldaeus, F.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Reimann, A.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Ljungquist, P.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Schweinebarth, H.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Boklund, M.
    Extraction of bioactive chemicals in spruce wood residues2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 323.
    Jiang, Wen
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Kumar, Anuj
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT). Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Finland.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Liquefaction of lignocellulosic materials and its applications in wood adhesives — A review2018Inngår i: Industrial crops and products (Print), ISSN 0926-6690, E-ISSN 1872-633X, Vol. 124, s. 325-342Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Liquefaction, a useful method of turning whole biomass into liquids, provides advantages for energy andpolymers and finds applications in many sectors. This paper reviews the different liquefaction technologies andrecent advances in the development of sustainable wood adhesives. Current liquefaction technologies includehydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) and moderate acid-catalyzed liquefaction (MACL). HTL produces bio-oils asprimary products, and solid residues and gases as by-products. MACL depends on the solvent types used, whichare grouped to polyhydric alcohols and phenols. Bio-polyols from alcohol liquefaction, phenolated biomass fromphenol liquefaction and phenolic compounds rich-HTL bio-oils have been used in the production of liquefiedbiomass-based adhesives, which have shown competitive properties but face challenges for industrial uses. Yet, abetter understanding of reaction pathways and optimization of the liquefaction processes is needed.

  • 324.
    Johansson, Amanda
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Granvirkes permeabilitet beroende av dess fysikaliska utformning och applicerat färgsystem2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Densitetsmätningar och permeabilitetstest enligt EN 927-5 har utförts för att studera huruvida granvirkes fysikaliska egenskaper i kombination med applicerat färgsystem påverkar permeabiliteten. De egenskaper som studerats är frod- och senvuxenhet, splint- och kärnved samt densitet. Aktuella färgsystem som studerats är alkyd, akrylat och linolja, vilka jämförts med omålad referens. Studien påvisar inget samband mellan virkets densitet och permeabilitet, bestruket eller ej. Det som istället tycks påverka vattenabsorptionen är närvaro av splint-/kärnved samt frod-/senvuxenhet. Senvuxen kärnved var den bestrukna vedtyp som absorberade mest vatten gällande samtliga färgsystem. Vedtyp som hade lägst vattenabsorption varierade dock. Linolja var generellt det färgsystem som gav lägst permeabilitet, främst på frodvuxen kärnved. Denna kombination hade lägst absorption genom hela försöket.

  • 325.
    Johansson, Ingvar
    et al.
    KTH Träteknologi.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan (KTH), Träteknologi.
    Plastisk deformation hos trä utsatt för varierande fuktbelastning: Förstudie1994Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 326.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för matematik/naturvetenskap/teknik, Institutionen för teknik och design.
    Mechanical processing for improved products made from Swedish hardwood2008Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish hardwood is today used in the energy, pulp and mechanical hardwood industries. Only very small volumes of Swedish hardwood are, however, consumed by the mechanical industry that normally pays the highest timber price. The smallness of the volumes used for mechanical refinement is a result both of forestry not focusing on the production of hardwood for these uses, and of the fact that the mechanical hardwood industry, particularly the sawing industry, is not designed to process the existing raw material in an optimal manner. This thesis discusses the possibilities of improving the conditions for the mechanical refinement of hardwood. The aim of the work has been to investigate the possibilities of developing products and methods for processing of Swedish hardwood.

    The thesis proposes a new manufacturing system for Swedish hardwood to better utilize the inherent properties of the wood material. The system is based on the so-called PrimWood Method and the star-sawing concept. Compared to normally sawn wood, the sawing concept utilizes the raw material more efficiently with regard to volume yield, and increases the distance between knots in the sawn wood. The material produced has vertical annual rings which give the wood smaller movements as a result of moisture variations and a different textural appearance. Using the PrimWood Method for hardwood would make it possible to more closely match customer requirements regarding hardwood products.

    Since Swedish hardwood is nowadays mainly used indoors, a possible way of expanding the market would be to increase the outdoor use of the material. Here the durability is of great importance, and one important factor is then the capillary characteristics of the material. The thesis therefore focuses on the characterisation of the capillarity in wood for the future improvement of its durability. It is shown that with the material produced by the proposed manufacturing system, i.e. wood with vertical annual rings, the possibility of using hardwood outdoors increases, because the susceptibility to cracking decreases.

  • 327.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Institutionen för teknik.
    The Swedish hardwood sawmill industry: Structure present status and development potential2008Inngår i: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 3, nr 3/4, s. 94-101Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes the Swedish hardwood sawmill industry with respect to its structure, raw material, production and market conditions in order to seek ways of increasing the competitiveness of the industry. Fifteen sawmills were studied through observations and interviews. The Swedish hardwood sawmill industry creates job opportunities in sparsely populated areas and uses a biological raw material which is important for environmental biological diversity. Any decrease in the use of this material will mean a drop in the incentive for forest owners to cultivate deciduous forests. Today, the hardwood sawmill industry is experiencing problems in securing the supply of raw material of the desired quality, i.e. without knots and discoloured heartwood (red-heart or brown-heart). To increase the competitiveness of the Swedish hardwood sawmill industry, the raw material supply must be secured. Production should be geared towards products demanded by the market, and new markets need to be entered.

  • 328.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Blomqvist, Lars
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Nilson, Henrietta
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för organisation och entreprenörskap (OE).
    Landscheidt, Steffen
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Influencing factors to enable automation of wood furniture production2016Inngår i: Proceedings of the 12th meeting of the Northern European Networkfor Wood Science and Engineering (WSE): Wood science andengineering – a key factor on the transition to Bioeconomy / [ed] Bruno Andersons and Arnis Kokorevics, Riga, Latvia: Latvian State Institute of Wood Chemistry , 2016, s. 208-213Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The wood furniture industry in Sweden has an identified need of technological development in order to stay competitive. Especially the necessity to focus on automation has been identified. In the industry there are often needs to handle large levels of customization at the same time as keeping the production effective. This requires flexible automation solutions, often described as automated equipment that can rapidly be reconfigured for new products.Before automated applications are implemented in an industry there are issues to solve related to organisational, human and technological aspects. Based on this, the project - Flexible automation in manufacturing of laminated veneer products was initiated. The project is running since January 1, 2016 and is a two year national Swedish project. The aim of the project is to investigate challenges concerning automation in the wood furniture industry and especially focusing on bended laminated veneer products.In the project a case-study with the aim of identifying factors important for successful automation implementation in an involved wood manufacturing industry was performed. Key persons and staff of the company were asked to tell their life stories and a process mapping of the production was conducted.The results indicate a problematic relation between the management and the production staff, which partly can be referred to the shift from a family business to a private owned firm. Based on the process mapping, internal transport and handling are identified improvement areas. Productivity is disturbed by stops caused by processing residues and poorly defined materials. There is potential for improvement by adapting a process-oriented approach and defining the materials used.The case–study confirms the need to consider organizational and human aspects in production before initiating production. The study concludes the need to consider the special aspects of the wood material in production development.

  • 329.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Blomqvist, Lars
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Sandberg, Dick
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Challenges using dielectric heating for THM processing of solid wood2013Inngår i: Evaluation, processing and predicting of THM treated wood behaviour by experimental and numerical methods / [ed] Carmen-Mihaela Popescu and Maria-Cristina Popescu, Iasi, Romania, 2013, s. 55-56Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 330.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Salin, Jarl-Gunnar
    Application of percolation modelling on end-grain water absorption in aspen (Populus tremula L.)2011Inngår i: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 6, nr 3, s. 112-118Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 331.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Automatic sorting of sawn birch: Defect detection possibilities on sawn and planed wood surfaces2010Inngår i: Hardwood research and utilisation in Europe: New Challanges / [ed] Robert Nemeth and Alfred Teischinger, Sopron: University of West Hungary Press , 2010, s. 206-213Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the production of sawn hardwood a critical processing step is the quality grading. The grading has normally been handled manually in the hardwood sawmills. The process has been labour intensive and a problematic working environment. With the help from existing scanning technology it is possible to automate the process with several benefits as a result. These are e.g. a decreased need of labour, a better working environment and the possibility to use more complicated grading rules. Thereby the wood could be used in a more optimal way with both cost and environmental benefits.

    One problem when grading hardwood is that camera and laser based scanning technology has mainly been used on planed surfaces. Normally the quality grading in hardwood sawmills is performed before planing. The wood may then be cross-cutted to components before planing in order to minimise the volume losses because of deformations of the wood pieces.

    In order to investigate the possibilities to scan the sawn wood before planing rip-sawn birch boards (Betula pubescens Ehrh., Betula pendula Roth.) was scanned before and after planing the wood. The used scanner was a commercial system for automatic sorting of wood. Before the scanning it was estimated that the sawn surfaces exposed to the surrounding environment during drying would not generate any usable results from the scanning. Therefore only the two rip-sawn surfaces were used for evaluation before and after planing. The evaluation was made by comparing the results from the quality grading before and after the planing based on grading rules used by Swedish hardwood sawmill. The results show that there are possibilities to grade the birch wood before planing. The study, however, shows that the scanner has difficulties in detecting small colour variations as brown streaks and fresh knots. It is also difficult to detect fibre angle deviations because of loose fibres on the sawn surface. The possibilities to scan the birch wood are thereby related to the grading rules, i.e. if the mentioned quality parameters are allowed or not.

  • 332.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Sandberg, Dick
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT). Luleå University of Technology.
    Integrated use of product data for improved wood material utilization in the furniture and joinery production2013Inngår i: Pro Ligno, ISSN 1841-4737, E-ISSN 2069-7430, Vol. 9, nr 4, s. 321-327Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Quality communication from customer to supplier is crucial for the effectiveness of a value chain. In the forest products industry, a mutual understanding of quality requirements between customer and supplier in relation to material characteristics and production conditions is important if the material is to be utilized effectively.

     

    In the mechanical wood industry, hardwood has normally been quality graded manually. This has been a work-intensive operation and a problematic working environment. Automatic grading equipment based mainly on camera and laser technology is therefore gradually replacing the manual grading operation which relies on the human eye. The cross-cutting of sawn wood into shorter components with well-defined quality parameters is a process which needs to be automated. This makes it possible for the sawmill to redefine the quality grading process with e.g. more complex grading rules. To gain full benefits from the new technology, however, the grading process must be redefined in cooperation with the customers. There is also an expressed need for tools to communicate the quality of products produced by sawmills.

     

    In this study, three case studies were therefore performed where the communication of requirements between sawmills and customers was studied with regard to three different components delivered from two sawmills. In one sawmill, two products were studied; one intended for a furniture producer and one for a joinery producer. In the other sawmill, the studied product was intended for a producer of solid wood panels. The idea has been to study the need for product information expressed by both the customer and supplier through the automatic grading process and to utilise this equipment for data collection and visualisation.

     

    The requirements for a communication and data exchange tool have been derived. There is often an expressed need to measure how different raw materials affect the volume yield in a process and how different quality requirements affect the volume yield. Sharing this information between customer and supplier has been shown to yield a mutual understanding of how and why deviations occur. Visualisation possibilities are a prerequisite for a mutual understanding of quality conceptions.

  • 333.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    et al.
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för matematik/naturvetenskap/teknik, Institutionen för teknik och design.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Ny träteknik höjer värdet på lövskogen2008Inngår i: Ekbladet, ISSN 0283-4839, nr 23, s. 24-27Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Lövträ är ett uppskattat material i möbler, snickerier och inredningar samtidigt som en stor del av det svenska lövträet av olika anledningar inte utnyttjas för dessa användningsområden. Endast ca. 5 % av den totala volymen lövträ som årligen avverkas blir sågat virke. Motsvarande siffra för furu och gran är 50 %. Istället importeras den största delen av råvaran, men bakom knuten väntar nya spännande nyheter, vilka är ett  resultat av forskningen vid Växjö universitets avdelning för Skog & Trä.

  • 334.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    et al.
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för matematik/naturvetenskap/teknik, Institutionen för teknik och design.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för matematik/naturvetenskap/teknik, Institutionen för teknik och design.
    Preparation of wood with pulsed UV-laser ablation for characterisation of the wood structure2007Inngår i: Proceedings of Third International Symposium on Wood Machining, Presses polytechniques et universitaires romandes , 2007, s. 191-194Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In contrast to mechanical techniques involving cutting with a knife, cutting with a microtome or grinding, pulsed UV-laser ablation is an irradiation technique where a so-called Excimer laser is used, and the process is adiabatic, which means that no or a very little chemical change occurs in the material being processed. Cross sections of samples of Scots pine and Norway spruce which had been exposed outdoors have been prepared with the help of an Excimer laser (wavelength 248 nm) for study in a microscope. UV-laser ablation has been found to be a suitable method of preparation for wood when it is desired to obtain thin sections with little influence on the material, and particularly when dealing with brittle materials, e.g. archaeological wood, biologically-attacked wood or, as in this case, wood which has been exposed outdoors.

  • 335.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    et al.
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för matematik/naturvetenskap/teknik, Institutionen för teknik och design.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för matematik/naturvetenskap/teknik, Institutionen för teknik och design.
    The Concept of Value Activation II.: The PrimWood Method for improved properties of hardwood products.2005Inngår i: Hardwood research and utilisation in Europe: new challanges / [ed] Bejo, L., Sopron: University of West Hungary , 2005, s. 53-59Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The name Value activation refers to the basic understanding of wood, where at present there are properties that are not fully exploited, but with help of a new sawing pattern could be fully utilized. The basic idea lies at an industrial level producing radial sawn timber with good profitability and with lesser and mostly a controllable moisture movement. In short it implies an activation of values of timber that has not been exploited in ordinary industrial production to date.

    This paper gives one example how the basic ideas in the concept of Value activation can be implemented in the industry. A new manufacturing system, the PrimWood Method, producing radial sawn timber, well adjusted to the conditions of the Swedish hardwood sawmill industry is presented. The manufacturing system generates knot and defect-free hardwood products with vertical annual rings.

    Utilizing the proposed manufacturing system in the Swedish hardwood sawmill industry imply an increased focus on hardwood in consumer products, which gain both forestry, sawmill industry and the wood manufacturing industry.

  • 336.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Volymutbyte vid tillverkning av kvistfria snickeriämnen och skivor med stående årsringar2005Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport beskriver ett nytt produktionskoncept för tillverkning av högkvalitativa träkomponenter och skivor av massivt trä från barr- och lövträ. Konceptet, som benämns PrimWood-metoden, resulterar i ett kvistfritt virke med stående årsringar. Det sågade virket har antingen ett rektangulärt eller ett triangulärt tvärsnitt och benämns Rektangel respektive Trekant. Dessa två virkesformer vidareförädlas till ämnen, komponenter och skivor.

    PrimWood-metoden medför både en betydande kvalitetshöjning jämfört med virke framtaget med konventionella metoder (hårdare yta, formstabilare material, sprickfri yta, enklare och snabbare bearbetning, mindre spill samt en jämnare ytbehandling) och nyvunna estetiska egenskaper (t.ex. jämn textur, kvistfria ytor, dekorativa fingerskarvar). PrimWood-metoden förbättrar också råvaruutbytet, vilket är positivt ur miljöhänseende på grund av att ett högre utnyttjande erhålls av en förnyelsebar råvara.

    Volymutbytet vid framtagning av de olika produkter som PrimWood-metoden resulterar i har studerats ingående, både teoretiskt och experimentellt under industriella förhållanden. För furu kan volymutbyten i olika förädlingssteg sammanfattas som:

    Sågning, från stock till torkat och justerat virke 56 %

    Kvistfria ämnen från Rektangel 75 %

    Kvistfria skivor från Rektangel (Panel) 52 %

    Kvistfria ämnen från Trekant (Romb) 73 %

    Kvistfria skivor från Trekant (Prisma) 53 %

    Volymutbytet för ämnen och skivor är här beräknat med avseende på ingående volym sågad och torkad Rektangel respektive Trekant. Råvarans kvalitet och geometriska form är naturligtvis avgörande för vilka volymutbyten som kan erhållas för processen. De ovan angivna volymutbytena får alltså endast ses som riktvärden vid förädling av svensk furu.

  • 337.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    et al.
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för matematik/naturvetenskap/teknik, Institutionen för teknik och design.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för matematik/naturvetenskap/teknik, Institutionen för teknik och design.
    Gustafsson, Åsa
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för matematik/naturvetenskap/teknik, Institutionen för teknik och design.
    Design of form stable and visually crack free edge-glued oak panels.2005Inngår i: Hardwood research and utilisation in Europe: new challanges / [ed] Bejo, L., Sopron: University of West Hungary , 2005, s. 167-171Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Edge-glued panels are a very appreciated material, for instance used in cabinet doors or worktops in the kitchen. The surrounding climate for these products is often severe, due to large seasonal variation of the relative humidity in the indoor air. Therefore problems regarding crack formation and form stability often occurs. This paper studies how annual ring orientation of lamellas, lamella width, initial different moisture content in the panels and single lamellas with deviating moisture content are affecting form stability and crack formation of edge-glued oak panels (Quercus robur).

    In the study 47 test samples with different characteristics were tested in varying climate during 182 days. The relative humidity was changed approximately every 14 days in the interval 18 to 88 % and temperature 20˚C. The panels were measured each 7 days regarding form stability factors. The crack formation was measured at the beginning and the end of the test.

    The evaluation of the results show that the annual ring orientation of the lamellas will be a significant factor regarding the form stability factors width changes and cupping of the panels and also regarding the crack formation. The lamella width is important as a significant factor regarding the surface evenness. Moisture content (initial level) will affect both the form stability and the crack formation. The effect of this factor is dependent on the relation to the climate of the surroundings.

  • 338.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    et al.
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för matematik/naturvetenskap/teknik, Institutionen för teknik och design.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för matematik/naturvetenskap/teknik, Institutionen för teknik och design.
    Gustafsson, Åsa
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för matematik/naturvetenskap/teknik, Institutionen för teknik och design.
    Secondary interior wood products for manufacturing in Swedish hardwood sawmills2005Inngår i: Hardwood research and utilisation in Europe: new challanges / [ed] Bejo, L., Sopron: University of West Hungary , 2005, s. 162-166Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish hardwood sawmill industry is today in a situation where the sawn hardwood exhibit a wide variation in quality characteristics, while the customers places strict demands. To create a profitable return for all their products the hardwood sawmill industry therefore must find new markets where other quality characteristics are valuable.

    In this study the requirements regarding logistic service and product quality characteristics for secondary wood products used as for instance indoor panelling and mouldings are identified and described. The industrial setting for the study is the Swedish retail and house building industry. The purpose of the study was to study the possibilities to increase the use of hardwoods in these products.

    The study follows a case study methodology. The studied companies consisted of in total nine companies in the southern part of Sweden. Six house-building companies were studied and three retail companies.

    A total of 15 different requirements regarding logistic service and product quality characteristics were identified. The product quality characteristics were related mainly to the aesthetic appearance of the products and to the stability of the product in service. The important logistical service requirements were related to the location and time of delivery and customer-specified orders.

    The results show that adjustment to customer requirements means that a supplier of hardwood products must adjust its organization towards a stronger customer focus. In order to do this a fundamental problem for Swedish hardwood sawmills is the current lack of an accepted quality sorting system for hardwood. It is also important for sawmills to control and adjust their production processes in order to gain increased flexibility and delivery precision.

    With the results from this study a test collection of mouldings and indoor panelling has been developed by a Swedish hardwood sawmill and is now tested by one of the retail companies within the study.

  • 339.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    et al.
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för matematik/naturvetenskap/teknik, Institutionen för teknik och design.
    Söderström, Ove
    Sandberg, Dick
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för matematik/naturvetenskap/teknik, Institutionen för teknik och design.
    Capillarity in hardwood: An important factor for hardwood market expansion2007Inngår i: The Beauty of Hardwood: Proceedings of third Conference on Hardwood Research and utilisation in Europe, University of West Hungary, Sopron , 2007Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish hardwood sawmills are today experiencing problems of finding profitable markets for products containing for instance knots and red or brown heartwood. By using hardwood outdoors, it would be possible to expand the market of hardwood with new products that may set other requirements on the wood than the present use. In Sweden today, hardwood is normally used in furniture, joinery, floors and kitchens where esthetical requirements are dominant. When considering outdoor use, technical requirements such as durability become more important and especially the capillary characteristics of the wood are of interest. The capillarity determines the ability of the material to absorb and desorb moisture, characteristics that affect the resistance of degrading. 

    In this paper, the capillary characteristics were modelled and studied by exposing the cross section of wood to a free water surface. The study compares two Swedish hardwood species, aspen and oak with pine, a softwood species that is common in Sweden and often used outdoors.

    The results show that the capillary transport mechanism is affected by the microstructure of the wood and the natural ability of the material to close the transport paths in the structure with for instance extractives, tyloses and closed pits. Based on these factors, a characteristic capillary mean radius is introduced to describe the longitudinal capillary water absorption in the studied wood species.

  • 340.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Woxblom, Lotta
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Prerequisites for the Realization of the Transnational Communication Platform WoodApps.2013Inngår i: Proceeding of ISCHP2013 - International Scientific Conference on Hardwood Processing, October 7-9, Florence, Italy., 2013Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 341.
    Johansson, Marie
    et al.
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för matematik/naturvetenskap/teknik, Institutionen för teknik och design.
    Olsson, Anders
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för matematik/naturvetenskap/teknik, Institutionen för teknik och design.
    Grading of sawn timber with dynamic methods – influence of defects2009Inngår i: Proceedings of the COST E53 Workshop, Lisbon 22-23 October 2009 / [ed] José António Santos, 2009Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 342.
    Johansson, Marie
    et al.
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för matematik/naturvetenskap/teknik, Institutionen för teknik och design.
    Ormarsson, Sigurdur
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Influence of growth stresses and material properties on distortion of sawn timber – Numerical investigation.2009Inngår i: Annals of Forest Science, ISSN 1286-4560, E-ISSN 1297-966X, Vol. 66, nr 6, artikkel-id 604Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 343.
    Johansson, Martin
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för matematik/naturvetenskap/teknik, Institutionen för teknik och design.
    Hårdgörning av Asp2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Hårdgörning av trä syftar till att göra materialet hårdare. Detta går att åstadkomma genom komprimering, det komprimerade materialet tenderar dock att återgå mot sin ursprungsform då materialet utsätts för fukt om ingen låsning sker. Låsningen kan ske mekaniskt i en treskiktskonstruktion som motverkar träets fuktrörelser. Dessa skivor har dock visat sig vara instabila och tidigare försök har uppvisat deformationer i form av kupning. Denna undersökning syftar till att utreda förutsättningarna för att använda komprimerad asp samt att ta fram underlag för framtagning av en kommersiell produkt.

    Praktiska tester har genomförts för att studera hårdhet, återfjädring och densitet hos det komprimerade virket. Vidare har treskiktsskivor tagits fram för att testa om det går att få en stabil konstruktion genom att variera tjockleken på spärrskiktet. Även skillnader i acklimatiseringstid och fuktkvotens inverkan för virkets återfjädring har studerats.

    Resultaten visar på att aspens hårdhet efter komprimering blir i samma nivå som bok och ask, en låg fuktkkvot vid komprimering av materialet ger en låg återfjädring, komprimerat material har en längre acklimatiseringstid till jämviktsfuktkvot och materialet går att låsa tvärs fiberriktningen i en treskiktskonstruktion.

  • 344. Johnson, O.
    et al.
    Lindberg, Siv M
    RISE., STFI-Packforsk.
    Roos, A.
    Hugosson, M.
    Lindström, Mikael
    RISE., STFI-Packforsk.
    Consumer perceptions and preferences on solid wood, wood-based panels, and composites: A repertory grid study2008Inngår i: Wood and Fiber Science, ISSN 0735-6161, Vol. 40, nr 4, s. 663-678Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge about consumer perception and preferences on solid wood, wood-based panels, and wood-based composites is important for product development and marketing. The aim of this study was to identify attributes and associations that people use to describe different types of wood materials and to explore how they relate to preferences. The study involved nine samples that were evaluated with the Kelly’s repertory grid technique and content analysis. Based on respondents’ answers, 19 core categories reflecting sample attributes were extracted. General preferences for each sample were also recorded. Principal component analysis generated two factors describing 1) naturalness, wood-likeness, softness, unprocessed origin, living, pleasant, and high value; and 2) solid and homogeneous impression. A third, preliminary factor included categories describing irregular pattern, sleekness, and smoothness. The wood samples were most liked, whereas composites and panels were not appreciated. Preferred core categories were naturalness, wood-likeness, smoothness, living impression, and value. The least liked core categories were processed, hard, and high weight. The implications of the results for product development and marketing are discussed. © 2008 by the Society of Wood Science and Technology.

  • 345.
    Jones, Dennis
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Wood modification in Sweden2018Inngår i: Procedings of COST Action FP1407 WG1 and WG4 meeting.: Wood modification in Europe : processes, products, applications / [ed] Goli G and Todaro L., Florence, 2018Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 346.
    Josef, Füssl
    et al.
    Technische Univerität, Austria.
    Bader, Thomas K.Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).Josef, EberhardsteinerTechnische Univerität, Austria.
    CompWood 2017 - Computational Methods in Wood Mechanics - From Material Properties to Timber Structures: Programme & Book of Abstracts2017Konferanseproceedings (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 347. Jäger, Andreas
    et al.
    Bader, Thomas K.
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Hofstetter, Karin
    Eberhardsteiner, Josef
    Identification of Elastic Properties of Wood Cell Walls by Means of Nanoindentation2009Inngår i: 26th Danubia-Adria Symposium on Advances in Experimental Mechanics, Leoben, Austria, 2009, s. 83-84Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 348.
    Jäger, Andreas
    et al.
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Bader, Thomas K.
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Hofstetter, Karin
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Eberhardsteiner, Josef
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    The relation between indentation modulus, microfibril angle, and elastic properties of wood cell walls2011Inngår i: Composites. Part A, Applied science and manufacturing, ISSN 1359-835X, E-ISSN 1878-5840, Vol. 42, nr 6, s. 677-685Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanoindentation is a well known tool for identification of mechanical properties at the micrometer scale of materials. When applied to study wood cell walls the commonly used isotropic indentation theory is not applicable. In this study, anisotropic nanoindentation theory was employed for analyzing nanoindentation test results on wood cell walls. The influence of elastic stiffness components, microfibril angle, and cell wall composition on the indentation modulus was studied. The indentation modulus was found to depend on longitudinal, transverse, and shear modulus to a similar extent. A significant influence of the microfibril angle on the indentation modulus was observed and discussed with respect to experimental scatter and sample preparation. It is concluded, that application of anisotropic nanoindentation theory provides a tool for quantitative instead of qualitative investigation of wood cell walls, with the goal of identifying all elastic properties of the transversely isotropic cell wall from nanoindentation tests.

  • 349.
    Kallas, Åsa
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Träbioteknik.
    Heterologous expression, characterization and applications of carbohydrate active enzymes and binding modules2006Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood and wood products are of great economical and environmental importance, both in Sweden and globally. Biotechnology can be used both for achieving raw material of improved quality and for industrial processes such as biobleaching. Despite the enormous amount of carbon that is fixed as wood, the knowledge about the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis, re-organization and degradation of plant cell walls is relatively limited. In order to exploit enzymes more efficiently or to develop new biotechnological processes, it is crucial to gain a better understanding of the function and mechanism of the enzymes. This work has aimed to increase the knowledge about some of the enzymes putatively involved in the wood forming processes in Populus. Xyloglucan endotransglycosylases and a putative xylanase represent transglycosylating and hydrolytic enzymes, respectively. Carbohydrate binding modules represent non-catalytic modules, which bind to the substrate.

    Among 24 genes encoding for putative xyloglucan endotransglycosylases or xyloglucan endohydrolases that were identified in the Populus EST database, two were chosen for further studies (PttXTH16-34 and PttXTH16-35). The corresponding proteins, PttXET16-34 and PttXET16-35, were expressed in P. pastoris, purified and biochemically characterized. The importance of the N-glycans was investigated by comparing the recombinant wild-type proteins with their deglycosylated counterparts. In order to obtain the large amounts of PttXET16-34 that were needed for crystallization and development of biotechnological applications, the conditions for the large-scale production of PttXET16-34 in a fermenter were optimized.

    In microorganisms, endo-(1,4)-β-xylanases are important members of the xylan degrading machinery. These enzymes are also present in plants where they might fulfill a similar, but probably more restrictive function. One putative endo-(1,4)-β-xylanase, denoted PttXYN10A, was identified in the hybrid aspen EST library. Sequence analysis shows that this protein contains three putative carbohydrate-binding modules (CBM) from family 22 in addition to the catalytic module from GH10. Heterologous expression and reverse genetics were applied in order to elucidate the function of the catalytic module as well as the binding modules of PttXYN10A.

    Just as in microorganisms, some of the carbohydrate active enzymes from plants have one or more CBM attached to the catalytic module. So far, a very limited number of plant CBMs has been biochemically characterized. A detailed bio-informatic analysis of the CBM family 43 revealed interesting modularity patterns. In addition, one CBM43 (CBM43PttGH17_84) from a putative Populus b-(1,3)-glucanase was expressed in E. coli and shown to bind to laminarin (β-(1,3)-glucan), mixed-linked β-(1,3)(1,4)-glucans and crystalline cellulose. Due to their high specificity for different carbohydrates, CBMs can be used as probes for the analysis of plant materials. Generally, they are more specific than both staining techniques and carbohydrate-binding antibodies. We have used cellulose- and mannan binding modules from microorganisms as tools for the analysis of intact fibers as well as processed pulps.

  • 350.
    Karastergiou, Sotirios
    et al.
    Technological Educational Institute of Thessaly, Greece.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    Technological Educational Institute of Thessaly, Greece.
    Kakaras, Ioannis
    Technological Educational Institute of Thessaly, Greece.
    Voulgaridis, Elias
    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Passialis, Costas
    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Foti, Dafni
    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Koutsianitis, Dimitrios
    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Voulgaridou, Eleni
    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Blaskova, Genka
    University of Forestry, Bulgaria.
    Impregnation of fir (Abies borisii regis) and spruce (Picea excelsa) wood with rape oil and CCB preservative2014Inngår i: Wood Structure, Properties and Quality – 2014: 5th RCCWS International Symposium, Moscow State University Press, 2014, s. 77-82Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to examine the retention (kg/m³) and the penetration depth (mm) as well as the impregnated area of cross sections (%) along the hole length, in fir (Abies borisii regis) and spruce (Picea excelsa) wood, after preservative treatment with rape oil and CCB preservative (3,2 %). The wood specimens (5×5 cm or 10×10cm in cross section and 40 cm long) with true radial and tangential surfaces, were treated with the full cell pro-cess. In order to determine the effect of direction (axial, lateral/radial or tangential) on pene-tration of rape oil and CCB preservative, the surfaces of the specimens were coated (laterally in all surfaces and in cross sections, respectively). Retention of rape oil ranged between 21,06 and 78,51 kg/m3 in fir specimens and between 11,20 and 90,32 kg/m3 in spruce specimens, while retention of CCB preservatives fluctuated between 1,68 and 10,05 kg/m3 in fir and be-tween 1,86 and 6,80 kg/m3 in spruce specimens. Penetration depth in all directions as well as impregnated area of cross sections of wood specimens were found to be lower in spruce than in fir for rape oil and, in most cases, for CCB preservative tested. The general conclusion is that both species are difficult to impregnation, but fir is more permeable than spruce.

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