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  • 301.
    Löf Ryk, Charlotta
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för ämnesdidaktik och matematik.
    Potentiella problem, motsättningar och möjligheter inom biologiämnet för elever från religiösa hemmiljöer.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här uppsatsen undersöker jag hur förhållandet är mellan den svenska läroplanen i biologi och en religiös grundsyn hos elever. Jag tittar på om det har skett några förändringar under de senaste ca 20 åren och vilka situationer och problem som kan förekomma i undervisningssituationer. Jag undersöker också om lärarna anser sig ha tillräcklig kunskap och stöttning för att kunna hantera situationerna. Generellt sätt var svarsfrekvensen större bland lärare som arbetade på skolor med en hög andel invandrade elever. Flera lärare vittnade om situationer där elevernas religiösa livsåskådning inverkat på undervisningen inom naturvetenskap, men många hade vänt detta till något positivt och såg det som möjligheter till diskussion snarare än som problematiskt. Stöttning bland kollegor ansågs mycket viktigt för att kunna hantera de situationer som kunde uppstå, och det fanns även vissa önskemål om fortbildning, framförallt inom den del av den naturvetenskapliga undervisningen som är kopplad till etik och värdegrundsfrågor. De lärare som deltog i den här studien var dessutom mycket noga med att understryka skillnaden mellan religion och vetenskap.

  • 302. Lönnstedt, Oona M.
    et al.
    McCormick, Mark I.
    Ultimate predators: lionfish have evolved to circumvent prey risk assessment abilities2013Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 10, s. e75781-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 303.
    Løtvedt, Pia Katrine
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Domestication and early experiences in chickens: Behavior, stress and gene expression2017Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of animal species have undergone domestication, the process of becoming adapted to living in captivity and in proximity to humans. Common for these species is that they have all developed certain traits, including changes to coat color, body size and level of fearfulness. This has been termed the domestic phenotype. Among these traits is also an attenuation of the response to stress, both behaviorally and physiologically. Thus, release of glucocorticoids such as cortisol or corticosterone is lower in domesticated species. However, the underlying mechanism for this is not yet well understood. In this thesis, we have investigated genetic mechanisms for the attenuation of the physiological stress response in ancestral chickens, the Red Junglefowl, and domesticated chickens, the White Leghorn.

    We found a number of genes that differed in expression between the two breeds in several tissues involved in the stress response. Among the most interesting findings were lower expression of genes involved in production and secretion of ACTH in the pituitary, and in the production of glucocorticoids in the adrenal glands, in the domesticated White Leghorns. We also found higher expression of the glucocorticoid receptor in White Leghorns, indicating that they may have a more efficient negative feedback of the physiological stress response.

    We then investigated the transcriptome of the chicken pituitary more closely, and we discovered that a number of genes highly involved in several important physiological axes showed differential expression between the ancestral and the domesticated breed. Among these were genes involved in the stress response, the reproductive system, and in metabolism and growth. As these traits are modified in domesticated species, our results suggest that changes to gene expression in the pituitary may be an important underlying factor of the domestic phenotype.

    A separate aim of this thesis was to investigate effects of hatching time in chickens on their subsequent phenotype. Time of hatching constitutes an early experience that may differ between individuals, and we therefore hypothesized that differences in hatching time would affect chickens later in life. While a number of studies have been performed on hatching time and post-hatch growth, very little work has been done on effects on behavior. We found that the time of hatching had sex-specific effects. Hatching times in females were negatively correlated with body weight, whereas in males, behaviors such as reaction to novelty and spatial learning were affected.

    As time of hatching is governed by various hormones, including thyroid hormone and corticosterone, we suggest that changes to the levels of these hormones could affect both hatching time and post-hatch phenotypes. Understanding these mechanisms better would be beneficial in terms of production, where batch homogeneity is important, in research on early experiences and the potential for maternal programming, and in evolutionary questions on trade-off between different life strategies.

  • 304.
    Macdonald, Barry
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Zoologi.
    The effects of early stress on life-time strategies of behaviour and coping in chickens ( Gallus gallus )2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 60 poäng / 90 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Stress is often an important consideration for animal welfare. A number of factors can contribute to stress in domestic animals, most notably thoseused in food production. We investigated the effects and heritability of stress in domestic chickens (Gallus gallus). Using a spatial learning paradigm, we tested an early social isolation-stressed group and their offspring against unstressed controls, to determine if this cognitive function was negatively affected by stress. In the parental generation, we found that across sessions control birds improved in performance, indicating a learning trend. Stressed birds showed no difference across sessions, indicating a lack of learning. No effects of the parental treatment were found in the offspring of stress and control birds. Social isolation stress was found to affect spatial memory learning, however, we did not find evidence that the parental stress influenced the spatial abilities of the next generation despite changes in other behaviours.

  • 305.
    Mandenius, Carl-Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teknisk biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Monteringsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Mechatronic design methodology for biotechnology products2009Inngår i: New Biotechnology, ISSN 1871-6784, E-ISSN 1876-4347, Vol. 25, nr Suppl. 1, s. S190-S190Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Biotechnology products can be divided into (1) biologics, which comprise those metabolites, biopolymers, and cell structures that are produced through biological processes, and (2) biotechnical machines, which are apparatuses and devices that transform, change, or analyze ‘biological specimens’ for specific purposes, often by using the biological systems per se. The first category has been thoroughly treated in bioengineering theory and practice while the second has been very scarcely investigated.

    In this presentation is described how the general design science theory can be applied when designing a technical system where biological species or components have the key role in the engineering design solutions. We have named these systems bio-mechatronic systems, since they are combined design achievements between traditional electronic and mechanical sub-systems and the biological systems, and where biological molecules and/or active microbial or cellular components influence the design solutions in a complex way.

    The purpose is to demonstrate that biotechnology and bioengineering related design can utilize and benefit from other commonly used design tools in, for example, mechanical and electric engineering. These tools should result in shorter development times and a reduction of the need for prototype testing and verification.

    Four examples will be presented, all well-known biotechnology products in the pharmaceutical and clinical areas: (1) a protein purification system, (2) a bioreactor system, (3) a biosensor instrument, and (4) an embryonic stem cell manufacturing systems.

  • 306. Mattsson, Anna
    et al.
    Ullerås, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Molekylära verktyg.
    Patring, Johan
    Oskarsson, Agneta
    Albendazole causes stage-dependent developmental toxicity and is deactivated by a mammalian metabolization system in a modified zebrafish embryotoxicity test2012Inngår i: Reproductive Toxicology, ISSN 0890-6238, E-ISSN 1873-1708, Vol. 34, nr 1, s. 31-42Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The zebrafish embryotoxicity test has previously been combined with an external metabolic activation system (MAS) to assess developmental toxicity of metabolites produced by maternal metabolism. Due to toxicity of MAS the exposure was limited to one early and short period. We have modified the method and included additional testing time points with extended exposure durations. Using the anthelmintic drug albendazole as a model substance, we demonstrated stage-dependent toxic effects at three windows of zebrafish embryo development, i.e. 2-3, 12-14 and 24-28h post fertilization, and showed that MAS, by metabolic deactivation, reduced the toxicity of albendazole at all time points. Chemical analysis confirmed that albendazole was efficiently metabolized by MAS to the corresponding sulfoxide and sulfone, which are non-toxic to zebrafish embryos. To conclude, the modified zebrafish embryotoxicity test with MAS can be expanded for assessment of metabolites at different developmental stages.

  • 307.
    Mattsson, Moa Antonia
    Karlstads universitet.
    Hur arbetet med biologi kan se ut i förskolan2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to investigate what preschool teachers associate with the subject of biology. The purpose is also to investigate how preschool teachers work with the subject of biology. The method semi structured interviews were done with six teachers in two different preschools in Sweden. The method was inspired by grounded theory. The interviews were recorded on a smartphone using a recording-app and then it was written down on a document. The results of this study are that teachers do work with biology in the preschool but they think they might do it unconsciously. The results show how the teachers are working with animals, plants, the human body and natural cycle. They read, sing and paint animals. The teachers really listen to the children’s questions and plan the work by their questions and thoughts. This study is relevant for preschool-teachers because the examples are from preschoolteachers on how you can work with biology. The results also show that the teachers associate biology with animals, plants, the human body and natural cycle but also that they think about the difficulty with the subject.

  • 308.
    Mejlon, Hans A
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Jaenson, Thomas G.T.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Mather, Thomas N.
    Center for Vector-borne Disease, University of Rhode Island, Kingston.
    Evaluation of host-targeted applications of permethrin for control of Borrelia-infected Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae)1995Inngår i: Medical and Veterinary Entomology, ISSN 0269-283X, E-ISSN 1365-2915, Vol. 9, nr 2, s. 207-210Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 309.
    Mogren, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper.
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper.
    ESD implementation at the school organisation level, part 1 – investigating the quality criteria guiding school leaders’ work at recognized ESD schools2017Inngår i: Environmental Education Research, ISSN 1350-4622, E-ISSN 1469-5871, Vol. 23, nr 7, s. 972-992Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) implementation tends to focus primarily on student and teacher outcomes, and there have been few studies on leadership practices at the school organisation level that provide information on how quality in education contributes to ESD implementation. To address this issue, we conducted an empirical mixed methods study of existing practices in 10 highly ESD-active upper secondary schools in Sweden. The schools’ principals, who were responsible for implementing ESD, were interviewed to obtain information on the quality criteria they used to guide their work. Twenty-six criteria were identified and grouped into four main principal quality criteria on the basis of statistical analysis: Collaborative interaction and school development; Student centred education; Cooperation with local society; and Proactive leadership and continuity. This categorization both supports existing research on ESD quality criteria and highlights new criteria that are important but were previously unrecognized. Trends in the identified quality criteria are discussed and related to prior research in order to identify potentially fruitful school leadership and management for implementing ESD at the school organisational level. Research on Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) implementation tends to focus primarily on student and teacher outcomes, and there have been few studies on leadership practices at the school organisation level that provide information on how quality in education contributes to ESD implementation. To address this issue, we conducted an empirical mixed methods study of existing practices in 10 highly ESD-active upper secondary schools in Sweden. The schools’ principals, who were responsible for implementing ESD, were interviewed to obtain information on the quality criteria they used to guide their work. Twenty-six criteria were identified and grouped into four main principal quality criteria on the basis of statistical analysis: Collaborative interaction and school development; Student centred education; Cooperation with local society; and Proactive leadership and continuity. This categorization both supports existing research on ESD quality criteria and highlights new criteria that are important but were previously unrecognized. Trends in the identified quality criteria are discussed and related to prior research in order to identify potentially fruitful school leadership and management for implementing ESD at the school organisational level.

  • 310.
    Mogren, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper.
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper.
    ESD implementation at the school organisation level, part 2 – investigating the transformative perspective in school leaders’ quality strategies at ESD schools2017Inngår i: Environmental Education Research, ISSN 1350-4622, E-ISSN 1469-5871, Vol. 23, nr 7, s. 993-1014Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has suggested that adopting a transformative school organisation perspective when implementing ESD may be more productive than the previously recommended transmissive perspectives, but it is not clear how transformative perspectives could be introduced. To address this issue, we conducted an empirical mixed methods study of existing practices in 10 highly ESD-active upper secondary schools in Sweden. The schools’ leaders, who were responsible for implementing ESD, were interviewed to obtain information on the quality criteria they used to guide their work. The arguments used by the leaders to justify their criteria were analysed and categorised based on their relationships with the transmissive and transformative quality strategies. Both school organisation perspectives were found to co-exist within the schools. A detailed analysis of schools where the transformative perspective was dominant revealed three distinct quality strategies, one of which was found to embody a strong focus on a transformative approach. This specific quality strategy is discussed and suggested as a way for interested schools to implement ESD in a more transformative way at the school organisation level.

  • 311.
    Mujkic, Dzevada
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013).
    Barns reflekterande kring en naturvetenskaplig aktivitet - en kvalitativ studie: Experiment med apelsiner2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    My studies are based on finding out what impact science has on the children. I presented a simple experiment with oranges. What is it the kids reflect on during a science activity? With the help of video recordings (I -pad) and phenomenography as a starting point, I get the verbal and non-verbal expression, which is important in my research. Collected data were transcribed and divided into different categories. Children are certainly aware, committed and focused. The children became familiar with the scientific words float and sink. Children should have the opportunity to explore, compile, test, experiment, and this is also included in the curriculum (Lpfö 98, rev 2010). Based on my understanding, the children have great fun when they are doing experiments and testing, and that is what is most important. They are learning at the same time lots of new words, new concepts and gain an understanding of why things happen.

  • 312.
    Nair, Anu G.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Beräkningsbiologi, CB. Manipal Univ, India.
    Gutierrez-Arenas, Omar
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Beräkningsbiologi, CB.
    Eriksson, Olivia
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Beräkningsbiologi, CB.
    Vincent, Pierre
    Hellgren Kotaleski, Jeanette
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Beräkningsbiologi, CB. Stockholm Univ, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Sensing Positive versus Negative Reward Signals through Adenylyl Cyclase-Coupled GPCRs in Direct and Indirect Pathway Striatal Medium Spiny Neurons2015Inngår i: Journal of Neuroscience, ISSN 0270-6474, E-ISSN 1529-2401, Vol. 35, nr 41, s. 14017-14030Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Transient changes in striatal dopamine (DA) concentration are considered to encode a reward prediction error (RPE) in reinforcement learning tasks. Often, a phasic DA change occurs concomitantly with a dip in striatal acetylcholine (ACh), whereas other neuromodulators, such as adenosine (Adn), change slowly. There are abundant adenylyl cyclase (AC) coupled GPCRs for these neuromodulators in striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs), which play important roles in plasticity. However, little is known about the interaction between these neuromodulators via GPCRs. The interaction between these transient neuromodulator changes and the effect on cAMP/PKA signaling via Golf- and Gi/o-coupled GPCR are studied here using quantitative kinetic modeling. The simulations suggest that, under basal conditions, cAMP/PKA signaling could be significantly inhibited in D1R+ MSNs via ACh/M4R/Gi/o and an ACh dip is required to gate a subset of D1R/Golf-dependent PKA activation. Furthermore, the interaction between ACh dip and DA peak, via D1R and M4R, is synergistic. In a similar fashion, PKA signaling in D2+ MSNs is under basal inhibition via D2R/Gi/o and a DA dip leads to a PKA increase by disinhibiting A2aR/Golf, but D2+ MSNs could also respond to the DA peak via other intracellular pathways. This study highlights the similarity between the two types of MSNs in terms of high basal AC inhibition by Gi/o and the importance of interactions between Gi/o and Golf signaling, but at the same time predicts differences between them with regard to the sign of RPE responsible for PKA activation.

  • 313.
    Nair, Anu G.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Beräkningsvetenskap och beräkningsteknik (CST).
    Hällgren Kotaleski, Jeanette
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Beräkningsvetenskap och beräkningsteknik (CST).
    Detection of phasic dopamine by D1 and D2 striatal medium spiny neuronsInngår i: Journal of Physiology, ISSN 0022-3751, E-ISSN 1469-7793Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 314.
    Nauman, Laila
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Operant conditioning in a self controlling test with a reinforcement delay in Pygmy Hippos (Hexaprotodon liberiensis)2010Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The curiosity whether or not animals have the characteristics of long term planning skills is fairly new. Some researchers agree that certain species have a form of episodic-like memory, in the terms of where, when and what. But the most difficult thing is to find out if these species have an aim for the future which involves what some call mental time travel. This study is a part of the discussion if the tests in long term planning and foresight can be explained by associative learning and the ability of self control in highly trained animals. Many self control and delay tasks have been conducted with laboratory animals such as rats, pigeons, monkeys and apes. Here we made a self control test with a reinforcement delay in pygmy hippos (Hexaprotodon liberiensis), an endangered species (listed as vulnerable at Cites, 2000), to extend the test among species. Also for trying to find out more about their cognitive skills, so we can better fulfil their needs in captivity. In this study, the female succeeded in 71,1 % (27 out of 38 trials) of the opportunities and the male in 84,2 % (32 out of 38 trials). To our knowledge this is the first study of learning and cognition in Pygmy hippos.

     

  • 315.
    Neubauer, P.
    et al.
    Tech Univ Berlin, Dept Biotechnol, Berlin, Germany..
    Golson, R.
    BioSilta Oy, Oulu, Finland..
    Neubauer, A.
    BioSilta Oy, Oulu, Finland..
    Ukkonen, K.
    BioSilta Oy, Oulu, Finland..
    Krause, M.
    BioSilta Oy, Oulu, Finland..
    Tegel, Hanna
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO).
    Ottosson, J.
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO).
    Larsen, M. Wittrup
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO).
    Hult, Karl
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Industriell bioteknologi.
    Vasala, A.
    BioSilta Oy, Oulu, Finland..
    Using EnBase (TM) to enhance recombinant protein production2009Inngår i: New Biotechnology, ISSN 1871-6784, E-ISSN 1876-4347, Vol. 25, s. S190-S190Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 316.
    Neubauer, P.
    et al.
    Tech Univ Berlin, Dept Biotechnol, Berlin, Germany.;BioSilta Oy, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland..
    Siurkus, J.
    Tech Univ Berlin, Dept Biotechnol, Berlin, Germany.;Fermentas UAB, Vilnius, Lithuania..
    Panula-Perala, J.
    Univ Oulu, Dept Proc & Environm Engn, Oulu, Finland..
    Neubauer, A.
    BioSilta Oy, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland..
    Ukkonen, K.
    BioSilta Oy, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland..
    Krause, M.
    BioSilta Oy, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland..
    Meyer, D.
    Brain AG, Zwingenberg, Germany..
    Pelzer, S.
    Brain AG, Zwingenberg, Germany..
    Eck, J.
    Brain AG, Zwingenberg, Germany..
    Tegel, Hanna
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO).
    Ottosson, J.
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO).
    Vasala, A.
    BioSilta Oy, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland..
    EnBase (TM) - MTP based high-cell-density fermentation for high-throughput and high-content screening2009Inngår i: New Biotechnology, ISSN 1871-6784, E-ISSN 1876-4347, Vol. 25, s. S161-S161Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 317.
    Nguyen, Thi Thanh Van
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    The actinorhizal symbiosis of the earliest divergent Frankia cluster2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the need to reduce reliance on synthetic nitrogen fertilizer has led to extensive research on biological nitrogen fixation, especially on root nodule symbioses. My study focuses on actinorhizal symbioses, the symbiotic interactions between members of nitrogen-fixing soil actinobacteria from the genus Frankia and a diverse group of plants from eight families, collectively called actinorhizal plants. Frankia cluster II has been shown to be sister to all other clusters. Thus, one of my aims was to gain insight into this cluster to get more information about the evolution of actinorhizal symbioses. The first sequenced genome of a member from this cluster Candidatus Frankia datiscae Dg1 originated from Pakistan. This strain contains the canonical nod genes nodABC responsible for the synthesis of lipochitooligosaccharide Nod factors. In this thesis, we obtained three Frankia inocula from North America (USA), one from Europe (France), one from Asia (Japan) and one from Oceania (Papua New Guinea). Thirteen metagenomes were sequenced based on gDNA isolated from root nodules of Datisca glomerata (Datiscaceae), Ceanothus thyrsiflorus (Rhamnaceae), Coriaria myrtifolia and Coriaria arborea (Coriariaceae). This study shows that members of Frankia cluster II come in teams, helping to explain the ability of cluster II to nodulate a wide host range, four families from two orders. The inoculum from Papua New Guinea, the only sequenced strain from the Southern Hemisphere so far, contains a new Frankia species, which was proposed as Candidatus Frankia meridionalis. All cluster II strains in this study contain the canonical nod genes nodABC, with the exception of the strain from Papua New Guinea which contains only nodB’C. All North American metagenomes also contain the sulfotransferase gene nodH. This gene shows host plant-specific expression in that it was expressed in nodules of C. thyrsiflorus but not in D. glomerata. Phylogenetic analysis and transposase frequencies of the new genomes strongly support the hypothesis that the extension of the cluster II host range from Coriaria to Datisca occurred in Eurasia and that cluster II strains came to North America via the Bering Strait. To acquire more information of the influence of the host plant on the behavior of the microsymbionts, the bacterial metabolism in nodules of D. glomerata (Cucurbitales) and C. thyrsiflorus (Rosales) were compared at the level of transcription. The system to protect nitrogenase from oxygen in Ceanothus nodules seems to be more efficient than in Datisca nodules, whereas the bacterial nitrogen metabolism is likely to be similar in both host plants. The amino acid profile of D. glomerata nodules shows that the nitrogenous solutes are dominated by glutamate and arginine, supporting the suggestion that Frankia in D. glomerata nodules exports an assimilated form of nitrogen, most likely arginine. Thus, our data show that cluster II Frankia strains differ from all other Frankia clusters with regard to the presence of the canonical nod genes and their nitrogen metabolism in symbiosis. 

  • 318.
    Nguyen, Thi Thanh Van
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Hilker, Rolf
    Wibberg, Daniel
    Battenberg, Kai
    Berry, Alison
    Kalinowski, Jörn
    Pawlowski, Katharina
    Cucurbitales vs. Rosales: Analysis of bacterial metabolism based on candidate gene expression profiling in root nodules of Datisca glomerata and Ceanothus thyrsiflorusManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 319.
    Nguyen, Thi Thanh Van
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Wibberg, Daniel
    Vigil-Stenman, Theoden
    Battenberg, Kai
    Demchenko, Kirill
    Blom, Jochen
    Fernandez, Maria
    Yamanaka, Takashi
    Berry, Alison
    Kalinowski, Jörn
    Brachmann, Andreas
    Pawlowski, Katharina
    Metagenomes from the earliest divergent Frankia cluster: They come in teamsManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 320. Nicolis, Stamatios C.
    et al.
    Detrain, Claire
    Demolin, Didier
    Deneubourg, Jean-Louis
    Optimality of collective choices: A stochastic approach2003Inngår i: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology, Vol. 65, nr 5, s. 795-808Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Amplifying communication is a characteristic of group-living animals. This study is concerned with food recruitment by chemical means, known to be associated with foraging in most ant colonies but also with defence or nest moving. A stochastic approach of collective choices made by ants faced with different sources is developed to account for the fluctuations inherent to the recruitment process. It has been established that ants are able to optimize their foraging by selecting the most rewarding source. Our results not only confirm that selection is the result of a trail modulation according to food quality but also show the existence of an optimal quantity of laid pheromone for which the selection of a source is at the maximum, whatever the difference between the two sources might be. In terms of colony size, large colonies more easily focus their activity on one source. Moreover, the selection of the rich source is more efficient if many individuals lay small quantities of pheromone, instead of a small group of individuals laying a higher trail amount. These properties due to the stochasticity of the recruitment process can be extended to other social phenomena in which competition between different sources of information occurs. (C) 2003 Society for Mathematical Biology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 321.
    Nilsson, Caroline
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Myskoxe - bevarande i Sverige2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Myskoxen dog ut i Sverige för 40 000 år sedan men har levt i Kanada fram tills idag. 1947introducerades myskoxar till Dovrefjell i Norge och år 1971 vandrade 5 individer över tillHärjedalen i Sverige. Populationen har som mest varit uppe i 30 individer på 1980-talet menhjorden består nu av endast 8 stycken individer. Med hjälp av bidrag från privatpersoner ochEU har man kunnat arbeta med att bevara myskoxarna men populationen står inför vissaproblem. Den svenska myskoxpopulationen anses vara i riskzonen för inavel, dock vet maninte detta med säkerhet då det är otydligt hur nära besläktade individerna i ursprungshjordenfrån 1971 var. Överlag har myskoxarna i hela världen en låg genetisk variation men man harsett att det i små populationer, som den i Sverige, går att återfå en viss variation genomavelsprogram med individer från andra populationer, som Grönland. Ett annat problem för enlite population som den svenska är demografisk stokasticitet, hur ålder- och könsfördelningenser ut. Då den svenska hjorden till exempel bara innefattar en könsmogen hane skulle detpåverka populationen mycket negativt om han dog eller blev infertil. Myskoxar i Kanada,Grönland och Norge har utsatts för diverse parasiter och virus som ofta har en dödlig utgång,men den svenska populationen har lyckats undgå de flesta av dem. Det kan dock finnas ensmittorisk vid inplantering av nya myskoxar från andra populationer eller om den norska ochden svenska populationen kommer i kontakt med varandra. Ett annat problem som densvenska myskoxen står inför är acceptans av befolkningen som bor i området där den rör sig.Det har dokumenterats endast tre olyckor där människor blivit skadade i samband medmyskoxar på 40 år men vissa komplikationer har uppkommit i samband med rennäring iområdet. För att ha en frisk och stark myskoxepopulation i Sverige behöver man först ochfrämst introducera nytt genetisk material genom avel med myskoxar från exempelvisGrönland eller Kanada. Man bör samtidigt se vad man kan göra för till exempel rennäringensom skulle påverkas mer om hjorden blev större. Den låga genetiska variationen ochminskningen av denna är det största hotet mot den svenska populationen och bör hanteras såsnart som möjligt för att säkra de svenska myskoxarnas överlevnad.

  • 322.
    Nilsson, Frida
    Karlstads universitet.
    Vad händer med maten vi äter?: Barns tankar om matsmältningen och kroppens inre organ2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Barn har olika uppfattningar och tankar om kroppens inre vilket jag anser är intressant. Syftet med denna undersökning var att ta reda på vad elever i årskurs ett har för uppfattning kring matsmältningsprocessen. Vad som händer med maten och vilka organ i kroppen som bearbetar maten. Jag ville också ta reda på om de hade någon uppfattning om matsmältningsorganens placering och funktion i vår kropp.

    Elevernas uppfattning varierade då vissa elever hade stora kunskaper om vad som hände med maten medan vissa hade mindre uppfattningar men som utvecklades under intervjun. Alla elever visste att maten hamnade i magsäcken men därefter hade en del av eleverna svårigheter med vad som senare skulle hända med maten mer än att den kommer ut som avföring.

    Elevernas tidigare erfarenheter om kroppen gjorde att deras uppfattningar om vad som händer med maten i vår kropp varierade. 

  • 323.
    Nilsson, Jessica
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Dynglevande skalbaggar i Västra Götalands län: En jämförelse av dyngbaggefaunan på två olika habitat2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    De dynglevande skalbaggarna är en stor tillgång för naturen och för människan. Dyngbaggarna lever både i skogen och på öppna marker och bryter ner spillning från såväl vilda som tama djur. En stor del av de dynglevande skalbaggarna tillhör gruppen bladhorningar (Scarabaeidae) och hela 29 arter av totalt 61 är med på den svenska rödlistan. För att ta reda på hur dyngbaggefaunan ser ut på en ekologisk gård i Tämta, Västra Götalands län, gjordes inventeringar vid tre tidpunkter under sommaren 2009. Varje inventeringstidpunkt bestod av två delinventeringar, en på öppen betesmark och en på betesmark i skog, detta för att se om det fanns några skillnader i artantal och om det var samma arter på de olika habitaten. De båda habitaten betades under perioden av nötkreatur. Samtliga skalbaggar samlades in för att sedan artbestämmas på labb och sammanlagt påträffades 13 olika arter varav en av dem, streckdyngbaggen (Aphodius merdarius), finns med på rödlistan som starkt hotad.

    Av de 13 arter som hittades återfanns 11 av dem på den öppna betesmarken jämfört med skogsmarkens 9 arter. Antalet individer varierade vid de olika tidpunkterna och även om skogsbetesmarken hade fler arter under augustiinventering var det fler individer vid motsvarande inventering på den öppna betesmarken, vilket tyder på en större täthet på de öppna markerna. Flest individer var det på den öppna betesmarken under juli månad. Slutsatsen jag drar av resultaten, med stöd från tidigare studier, är att lokalernas utformning och läge har stor betydelse för dyngbaggarna, men kanske än viktigare för deras levnad och överlevnad är tillgången på bra substrat för boplats och föda och hur platsen i fråga är solexponerad.

  • 324.
    Nissling, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Limnologi.
    Thorsen, Anders
    da Silva, Filipa F.G
    Fecundity regulation in relation to habitat utilisation of two sympatric flounder (Platichtys flesus) populations in the brackish water Baltic Sea2015Inngår i: Journal of Sea Research, ISSN 1385-1101, E-ISSN 1873-1414, Vol. 95, s. 188-195Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Two populations of flounder (Platichtys flesus) with different life history traits inhabit the brackish water Baltic Sea. Both types share feeding areas in coastal waters during summer-autumn but utilise different habitats for spawning in spring, namely offshore spawning with pelagic eggs and coastal spawning with demersal eggs respectively. Fecundity regulation by atresia was assessed as prevalence (portion of fish with atresia) and intensity (calculated as the average intensity of atresia in these fish) during the reproductive cycle following start of gonad development in the autumn up to spawning in spring, and evaluated in relation to fish condition (Fulton's condition factor reflecting energy reserves of the fish) and feeding incidence of the respective population. Peaking in winter (December–February), fecundity regulation was significantly higher for coastal spawning flounder than for flounder spawning offshore. For coastal spawners, the prevalence was 45–90% with an intensity of 6.4–9.3% vs. 0–25% and an intensity of 2.1–3.4% for offshore spawners during winter. Further, fecundity regulation ceased prior to spawning for offshore spawners but continued for coastal spawners. For coastal spawners, the prevalence was 12–29% and an intensity of 2.5–6.1% during spawning. The change in fish condition was strongly related to feeding incidence and differed between populations. As feeding ceased, condition of offshore spawners decreased during winter up to spawning, whereas condition of coastal spawners decreased during autumn but was maintained as feeding started again prior to spawning. Thus, habitat utilisation according to spawning strategy affects the timing of fecundity down-regulation reflecting availability of resources, namely limited food resources in deep areas and higher availability in coastal areas. Offshore spawning flounder display characteristics typical for a capital spawner with ceasing of feeding and oocyte down-regulation well before spawning, whereas coastal spawning flounder can be characterised as intermediate between a capital and income spawner with feeding prior to and during spawning along with continuous fecundity-regulation.

  • 325.
    Nordling, Johanna
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Modigare mörtar: En beteendestudie av oxazepams påverkan på vild mört2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 hpOppgave
  • 326.
    Nordén, Britta
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Beskrivning av förökningstekniker för nio perenner och en klätterväxt i zon 52014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 327.
    Näsström, Åsa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    The relationship between personality and basal metabolic rate in Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus)2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    ‘Animal personality’ refers to individual behavioural differences that are consistent over time and context. Physiological constraints are suggested to underlie this constraint in behavioural plasticity. As energy is required for physiological processes that generate behaviour, energy metabolism could be a proximate explanation for personality. Currently, the most coherent framework linking behaviour, metabolism and life history-traits is still poorly tested empirically, and studies are showing contradicting results. Therefore, I here aim to explore this relationship further by investigating the relationship between basal metabolic rate (BMR) and personality in Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus). Birds used had known responses in personality assays, and their metabolic rates were measured by determining oxygen consumption in standardized conditions throughout the night using an open respirometry system. BMR was negatively correlated with time spent foraging, and positively correlated with time spent being vigilant. Considering foraging an ‘activity’ (due to its energy-demand), my results support the allocation model, a model that assumes that an animal has a fixed amount of energy, thus that an energetic trade-off occur between competing energy requiring processes such as BMR and activity. Hence, an animal with low BMR has more energy to spend on activity. However, I do not consider vigilance as an energy-demanding activity; hence this relationship cannot be interpreted in this framework. Taken together, my results show a relationship between personality and BMR, although their relationship still needs further investigation to understand the causality and consequences of it.  

  • 328. Olenina, I
    et al.
    Hajdu, S
    Edler, L
    Andersson, A
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Wasmund, N
    Busch, S
    Göbel, J
    Gromisz, S
    Huseby, Siv
    Huttunen, M
    Jaanus, A
    Kokkonen, P
    Ledaine, I
    Niemkiewicz, E
    Biovolumes and size-classes of phytoplankton in the Baltic Sea2006Inngår i: HELCOM, Balt. Sea Environ. Proc, Vol. 106, s. 1-144Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 329.
    Olsson, Daniel
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013).
    Student Sustainability Consciousness: Investigating Effects of Education for Sustainable Development in Sweden and Beyond2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental and sustainability education has been an important part of education worldwide for many years, aiming to foster pro-environmental behavior among young people. Education for sustainable development (ESD) and its teaching components holism (the approach to the content) and pluralism (the approach to teaching) has been launched as the educational approach to support this aim by empowering young people with action competence for a sustainable future. Environmental and sustainability certifications are commonly used by schools as support in their ESD-implementation efforts. To date, scholarly attention to, and critical reflection on the effects of such certification on students’ perceptions of sustainability have been limited.

    This doctoral thesis focuses on this gap in ESD research through five large-scale studies, four of which were conducted in Sweden and one in Taiwan. Questionnaire instruments measuring students’ sustainability consciousness (SC) and their experiences of ESD were developed for the project.  In total, 2 413 students in Sweden and 1 741 students in Taiwan (grades six, nine and twelve) participated by filling in the SC questionnaire. The Swedish students also filled in questionnaires about their experiences of ESD at their schools in terms of holistic approach to content and pluralistic approach to teaching.

    The results question the impact of schools’ environmental and sustainability certification on students’ SC. The results also show the importance of holism and pluralism in ESD for students’ SC, regardless of whether schools were certified or not. Moreover, the findings reveal an adolescent dip in students’ SC as well as a gender gap, both of which were reinforced among students in the certified schools.

    Given the findings, this thesis can give more generalizable guidance for schools and certifying organizations to further reorient ESD towards teaching and learning approaches that have an effect on student SC.

  • 330.
    Olsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för biologi. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013).
    Boeve-de Pauw, Jelle
    Research Unit Edubron, Department of Training and Education Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Antwerp, Belgium.
    Berglund, Teresa
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013).
    Chang, Tzuchau
    Graduate Institute of Environmental Education, National Taiwan Normal University, Taiwan.
    Manuscript Green schools in Taiwan: Effects on student sustainability consciousnessManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 331.
    Olsson, Emma
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper.
    Hur pedagoger i förskolan tillämpar tiden i skogsmiljö: utifrån gynnande och bevarande av hållbar utveckling inom biologisk mångfald2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 332.
    Onuţ-Brännström, Ioana
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för organismbiologi, Systematisk biologi.
    Tibell, Leif
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för organismbiologi, Systematisk biologi.
    Johannesson, Hanna
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för organismbiologi, Systematisk biologi.
    A worldwide phylogeography of the whiteworm lichens Thamnolia reveals three lineages with distinct habitats and evolutionary histories2017Inngår i: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 7, nr 10, s. 3602-3615Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Thamnolia is a lichenized fungus with an extremely wide distribution, being encountered in arctic and alpine environments in most continents. In this study, we used molecular markers to investigate the population structure of the fungal symbiont and the associated photosynthetic partner of Thamnolia. By analyzing molecular, morphological, and chemical variation among 253 specimens covering the species distribution range, we revealed the existence of three mycobiont lineages. One lineage (Lineage A) is confined to the tundra region of Siberia and the Aleutian Islands, a second (Lineage B) is found in the high alpine region of the Alps and the Carpathians Mountains, and a third (Lineage C) has a worldwide distribution and covers both the aforementioned ecosystems. Molecular dating analysis indicated that the split of the three lineages is older than the last glacial maximum, but the distribution ranges and the population genetic analyses suggest an influence of last glacial period on the present-day population structure of each lineage. We found a very low diversity of Lineage B, but a higher and similar one in Lineages A and C. Demographic analyses suggested that Lineage C has its origin in the Northern Hemisphere, possibly Scandinavia, and that it has passed through a bottleneck followed by a recent population expansion. While all three lineages reproduce clonally, recombination tests suggest rare or past recombination in both Lineages A and C. Moreover, our data showed that Lineage C has a comparatively low photobiont specificity, being found associated with four widespread Trebouxia lineages (three of them also shared with other lichens), while Lineages A and B exclusively harbor T. simplex s. lat. Finally, we did not find support for the recognition of taxa in Thamnolia based on either morphological or chemical characters.

  • 333. Orchard, S.
    et al.
    Heck, A.
    Uhlén, Mathias
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Proteomik (stängd 20130101).
    Ping, P.
    Publication Committee Meeting HUPO 5th Annual World Congress Long Beach, CA, USA 30 October 20062007Inngår i: Proteomics, ISSN 1615-9853, E-ISSN 1615-9861, Vol. 7, nr 7, s. 1009-1011Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This meeting brought together delegates from industry, academia and the publishing houses to facilitate discussions on the level of support from the journals for the use of standardised data formats and their interest in the creation of a network of proteomics repositories collaborating on a coordinated data curation effort. Discussions centred on how best to structure interactions between journals, databases and researchers to improve accessibility to data, and facilitate comparisons between datasets.

  • 334.
    Orro Graña, Adolfo
    SciLifeLab Stockholm.
    Examination of the role of binding site water molecules in molecular recognition2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    A set of algorithms were designed, implemented and evaluated in order to, first, identifyclusters of conserved waters in binding pockets, i.e. hydration sites. Then, their contributionto the free energy of binding in a ligand-protein association was quantified by calculatingtheir enthalpy and entropy. The information obtained by using these algorithms couldcontribute to the development of new drugs by generating new ligands that target specifichigh-energy, unfavorable waters. Evaluation tests show that our algorithms can indeedprovide relevant data about how hydration sites influence ligand-protein binding.

  • 335.
    Palmqvist, K
    et al.
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Campbell, D
    Mount Allison University, Sackville, Canada.
    Ekblad, Alf
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Johansson, H
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Photosynthetic capacity in relation to nitrogen content and its partitioning in lichens with different photobionts1998Inngår i: Plant, Cell and Environment, ISSN 0140-7791, E-ISSN 1365-3040, Vol. 21, nr 4, s. 361-372Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We tested the hypothesis that lichen species with a photosynthetic CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM) use nitrogen more efficiently in photosynthesis than species without this mechanism. Total ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco; EC 4.1.1.39) and chitin (the nitrogenous component of fungal cell walls), were quantified and related to photosynthetic capacity in eight lichens. The species represented three modes of CO2 acquisition and two modes of nitrogen acquisition, and included one cyanobacterial (Nostoc) lichen with a CCM and N2 fixation, four green algal (Trebouxia) lichens with a CCM but without N2 fixation and three lichens with green algal primary photobionts (Coccomyxa or Dictyochloropsis) lacking a CCM. The latter have N2-fixing Nostoc in cephalodia. When related to thallus dry weight, total thallus nitrogen varied 20-fold, chitin 40-fold, Chl a 5-fold and Rubisco 4-fold among the species. Total nitrogen was lowest in three of the four Trebouxia lichens and highest in the bipartite cyanobacterial lichen. Lichens with the lowest nitrogen invested a larger proportion of this into photosynthetic components, while the species with high nitrogen made relatively more chitin. As a result, the potential photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency was negatively correlated to total thallus nitrogen for this range of species. The cyanobacterial lichen had a higher photosynthetic capacity in relation to both Chl a and Rubisco compared with the green algal lichens. For the range of green algal lichens both Chl a and Rubisco contents were linearly related to photosynthetic capacity, so the data did not support the hypothesis of an enhanced photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency in green-algal lichens with a CCM.

  • 336.
    Palmé, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för populationsgenetik.
    Wennerström, Lovisa
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för populationsgenetik.
    Guban, Peter
    Laikre, Linda
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för populationsgenetik.
    Stopping compensatory releases of salmon in the Baltic Sea. Good or bad for Baltic salmon gene pools?: Report from the Baltic Salmon 2012 symposium and workshop, Stockholm university February 9-102012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 337.
    Palmé, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för populationsgenetik.
    Wennerström, Lovisa
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för populationsgenetik.
    Guban, Peter
    Ryman, Nils
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för populationsgenetik.
    Laikre, Linda
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för populationsgenetik.
    Compromising Baltic salmon genetic diversity: Conservation genetic risks associated with compensatory releases of salmon in the Baltic Sea2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 338.
    Palmé, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för populationsgenetik.
    Wennerström, Lovisa
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för populationsgenetik.
    Guban, Peter
    Ryman, Nils
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för populationsgenetik.
    Laikre, Linda
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för populationsgenetik.
    Conclusions on conservation genetic risks associated with compensatory releases of salmon in the Baltic Sea.: A brief summary of a synthesis report to the Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management.2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 339.
    Pedro J, Aphalo
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Albert, Andreas
    Helmholtz Zentrum, München, Germany.
    McLeod, Andy
    University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
    Heikkilä, Anu
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
    Gómez, Iván
    López Figueroa, Felix
    University Of Málaga, Málaga, Spain.
    Robson, T Matthew
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Strid, Åke
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Beyond the visible: a handbook of best practice in plant UV photobiology2012Inngår i: Handbook for research on the effects of ultraviolet radiation on plants / [ed] Pedro J Aphalo, Helsingfors universitet, 2012, 1, s. 35-70Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The writing of this handbook started 14 months ago and is the results of the work of six editors and sixteen authors. This version is a preprint prepared for the participants in the 2012 training school of the COST action 5 FA0906 ‘UV4growth’ at University of Málaga. We hope that you find the handbook useful, and that you will alert us of errors, and of difficult to understand sections or paragraphs. Please, send all such comments to mailto:pedro.aphalo@helsinki.fi?subject=TG1HandbookPre01feedback indicating page and line numbers. Many thanks for your help.

  • 340.
    Perrigo, Allison L.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för organismbiologi, Systematisk biologi.
    Romeralo, Maria
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för organismbiologi, Systematisk biologi.
    Baldauf, Sandra L.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för organismbiologi, Systematisk biologi.
    What's on your boots: an investigation into the role we play in protist dispersal2012Inngår i: Journal of Biogeography, ISSN 0305-0270, E-ISSN 1365-2699, Vol. 39, nr 5, s. 998-1003Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    D. M. Wilkinson (2010, Journal of Biogeography, 37, 393–397) suggested that anthropogenic dispersal is an understudied and potentially important factor in terrestrial protist biogeography. We investigated human footwear as a potential vector of dictyostelids, a diverse group of amoebae that includes both geographically restricted and cosmopolitan species. Eighteen pairs of boots were examined and dictyostelids were isolated from nearly all samples larger than 5.0 g. In total, six dictyostelid isolates were recovered, corresponding to four species –Dictyostelium minutum, D. sphaerocephalum, D. leptosomopsis and a new species, Polysphondylium sp. 1. Myxogastrid amoebae and acrasid-like aggregations were also observed. Thus anthropogenic dispersal of naked amoebae appears to occur. The possible role of variations in dictyostelid fruiting body morphologies in dispersal potential is also discussed. These results support Wilkinson’s proposal and suggest that dictyostelids may be a useful group with which to study anthropogenic dispersal of terrestrial protists.

  • 341.
    Perry, Diana
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Spatial risk assessment of global change impacts on Swedish seagrass ecosystemsManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 342.
    Persson, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    När bina tystnar: Colony Collapse Disorder bakom honungsbiets (Apis mellifera) försvinnande2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Under vintrarna 2006/2007 och 2007/2008 vittnade man i USA om storskaliga förluster avhonungsbin (Apis mellifera). Gemensamma symptom för dessa förluster var att arbetarbinförsvann från kolonierna fastän det fanns rikligt med mat och inga tecken på infektion av någonparasit. Fenomenet fick namnet Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) eftersom det slutgiltigastadiet var att kolonierna kollapsade. Denna översiktstudie ämnar till att reda ut begreppetCCD och se över vilka potentiella orsaker den rådande forskningen föreslår och vad man harkommit fram till sedan utbrottet 2006. Resultaten indikerar att det antagligen inte är en ensamfaktor bakom CCD utan att flera faktorer samverkar. Det finns ett antal hot mot bina medsymptom som liknar CCD och som antas bidra till försvinnandet. Ett hot är det parasitiskakvalstret Varroa destructor som förutom att det suger binas hemolymfa även agerar vektor åtflera CCD-förknippade patogener som Nosema ceranae och Israeli acute paralysis virus(IAPV). Dessutom sänker V. destructor binas immunförsvar vilket gör att virus som överförsvia kvalstret replikeras snabbare och blir dödligare. Man har även visat att vanligt förekommandebekämpningsmedel kan göra bina mer mottagliga för sjukdomar. Där hittade man ettsignifikant samband med just N. ceranae vilket är i enlighet med teorin om att flera faktorersamverkar. I nuläget bidrar CCD fortfarande till bidöd men är inte lika akut som 2006/2007.Istället är det andra hot såsom biodlares svårighet att behandla invasion av varroakvalster,kalla vintrar och att bisamhällen svälter ihjäl för att de invintras i för små populationer, som ärett större hot än CCD.

  • 343.
    Persson, Max
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Hur tillagning påverkar halterna av toxiska substanser i mat.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 poäng / 45 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study has examined how cooking affects the levels of the toxicantsaflatoxin, arsenic, lead, dioxins, cadmium, mercury, perfluorinatedcompounds and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in rice, potatoes and fish.Not every toxicant was examined for all three types of food, they were onlyexamined for those types of food where current levels of the toxicant in thattype of food are relevant from a risk assessment perspective. To determineif there is a danger of negative effects due to the exposure of thesetoxicants from food, articles from the Swedish National Food Agency andother scientific articles have been compiled. A minor experimentalsubstudy was also performed where rice bought in Uppsala was rinsed andboiled in different ways to see if that affected the residue levels of arsenic.The results of this study indicate that the levels of some toxic substancescan be lowered on a dry weight basis by cooking, and that this reduction isdependent on the cooking method used, the properties of the food andtoxin. The levels of cadmium and mercury were generally unchanged bycooking whereas the results for lead and perfluorinated compounds wereconflicting. Cooking can lover the levels of aflatoxin, arsenic, dioxins andpolybrominated diphenyl ethers on a dry weight basis. The effects ofcooking on toxicant levels should be considered when performing riskassessments, but further studies are needed to achieve a better basis for decision-making.

  • 344.
    Persson, Mia
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Trottier, Agaia J.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bélteky, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Roth, Lina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Intranasal oxytocin and a polymorphism in the oxytocin receptor gene are associated with human-directed social behavior in golden retriever dogs2017Inngår i: Hormones and Behavior, ISSN 0018-506X, E-ISSN 1095-6867, Vol. 95, s. 85-93Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The oxytocin system may play an important role in dog domestication from the wolf. Dogs have evolved unique human analogue social skills enabling them to communicate and cooperate efficiently with people. Genomic differences in the region surrounding the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene have previously been associated with variation in doge communicative skills. Here we have utilized the unsolvable problem paradigm to investigate the effects of oxytocin and OXTR polymorphisms on human-directed contact seeking behavior in 60 golden retriever dogs. Human-oriented behavior was quantified employing a previously defined unsolvable problem paradigm. Behaviors were tested twice in a repeated, counterbalanced design, where dogs received a nasal dose of either oxytocin or saline 45 min before each test occasion. Buccal DNA was analysed for genotype on three previously identified SNP-markers associated with OXTR. The same polymorphisms were also geno-typed in 21 wolf blood samples to explore potential genomic differences between the species. Results showed that oxytocin treatment decreased physical contact seeking with the experimenter and one of the three polymorphisms was associated with degree of physical contact seeking with the owner. Dogs with the AA-genotype at this locus increased owner physical contact seeking in response to oxytocin while the opposite effect was found in GG-genotype individuals. Hence, intranasal oxytocin treatment, an OXTR polymorphism and their interaction are associated with doge human-directed social skills, which can explain previously described breed differences in oxytocin response. Genotypic variation at the studied locus was also found in wolves indicating that it was present even at the start of dog domestication.

  • 345. Pierce, D. M.
    et al.
    Lilledahl, M. B.
    Ricken, T.
    De Lange Davies, C.
    Holzapfel, Gerhard A.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Biomekanik. Graz University of Technology, Graz, Austria .
    Morphological analysis of articular cartilage using multiphoton microscopy as input for constitutive modeling: Experiment and mathematical implementation2010Inngår i: 6th World Congress Of Biomechanics (WCB 2010), Pts 1-3, Springer-Verlag New York, 2010, s. 895-898Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The 3D structure of collagen fibers in chicken cartilage was quantified using multiphoton microscopy. Samples of fresh chicken cartilage were sectioned in three orthogonal planes using a vibratome. The sections were imaged using multiphoton microscopy, specifically imaging the collagen fibers using the second harmonic signal. Employing image analysis techniques based on Fourier analysis, the primary direction and anisotropy of the collagen fibers were extracted for the superficial layer resulting in a 3D map of the collagen fiber fabric. In the middle layer, image analysis using objective thresholding techniques was employed to extract the volume fraction occupied by extracellular matrix, the rest being occupied by the lacunae and residing chondrocytes. To implement these imaging data in a computational setting, we propose a new, 3D large strain constitutive model for articular cartilage, focused on the essential load-bearing morphology: an inhomogeneous, visco-poroelastic solid matrix reinforced by an anisotropic, viscoelastic dispersed fiber fabric which is saturated by an incompressible fluid residing in strain-dependent pores of the collagen-proteoglycan solid matrix. High-fidelity models, combining advanced imaging and computational biomechanics, will allow us to consider complex problems in structure-function relationships and provide insight to microphysical (mechanobiological) cellular stimuli.

  • 346.
    Pini Prato, Enrico
    et al.
    Aquaterra Associates, Florence, Italy.
    Comoglio, Claudio
    DITAG—Land, Environment and Geo-Engineering Department, Politecnico di Torino.
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för biologi.
    A simple management tool for planning the restoration of river longitudinalconnectivity at watershed level: priority indices for fish passes2011Inngår i: Journal of Applied Ichthyology, ISSN 0175-8659, E-ISSN 1439-0426, Vol. 27, nr suppl. s3, s. 73-79Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aimed at defining and testing a simple and widely applicable management tool, based on already available or easily collectable data, which could allow Watershed Authorities to prioritize the interventions for river longitudinal connectivity restoration, reopening fish migration routes. The proposed priority indices for fish passes are based on obstacle characteristics, length of the potential reopened reach and fish species distribution and migratory behaviour. The indices were applied to two Italian watersheds (Arno and Magra Rivers) covering a total river length of more than 400 km. The priority lists produced by the application can function as a first step in defining a watershed restoration plan and could help the Watershed Authorities to address the available resources towards more detailed studies to be carried out at sites classified with the higher priority levels. This is the case of the Regional Natural Park Monte Marcello-Magra, where, within a recently funded LIFE+ project (P.A.R.C. –‘Petromyzon And River Continuity’), the first results of the priority indices application will be analyzed in greater detail and will consequently lead to the design and construction of fish passes to restore fish migration routes with a particular focus on sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus).

  • 347. Pohl, J.
    et al.
    Björlenius, Berndt
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Industriell bioteknologi.
    Brodin, T.
    Carlsson, G.
    Fick, J.
    Larsson, D. G. J.
    Norrgren, L.
    Örn, S.
    Effects of ozonated sewage effluent on reproduction and behavioral endpoints in zebrafish (Danio rerio)2018Inngår i: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 200, s. 93-101Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Pharmaceutical residues and other micro-contaminants may enter aquatic environments through effluent from sewage treatment plants (STPs) and could cause adverse effects in wild fish. One strategy to alleviate this situation is to improve wastewater treatment by ozonation. To test the effectiveness of full-scale wastewater effluent ozonation at a Swedish municipal STP, the added removal efficiency was measured for 105 pharmaceuticals. In addition, gene expression, reproductive and behavioral endpoints were analyzed in zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed on-site over 21 days to ozonated or non-ozonated effluents as well as to tap water. Ozone treatment (7 g O3/m3) removed pharmaceuticals by an average efficiency of 77% in addition to the conventional treatment, leaving 11 screened pharmaceuticals above detection limits. Differences in biological responses of the exposure treatments were recorded in gene expression, reproduction and behavior. Hepatic vitellogenin gene expression was higher in male zebrafish exposed to the ozonated effluent compared to the non-ozonated effluent and tap water treatments. The reproductive success was higher in fish exposed to ozonated effluent compared to non-ozonated effluent and to tap water. The behavioral measurements showed that fish exposed to the ozonated STP effluent were less active in swimming the first minute after placed in a novel vessel. Ozonation is a capable method for removing pharmaceuticals in effluents. However, its implementation should be thoroughly evaluated for any potential biological impact. Future research is needed for uncovering the factors which produced the in vivo responses in fish.

  • 348.
    Pohl, Johannes
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning. Institutionen för biomedicin och veterinär folkhälsovetenskap, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Veterinary Public Health, Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Thyroid Endocrine Disruption of Propylparaben Assessed Using an Optimized Individual Xenopus tropicalis Metamorphosing Tadpole Exposure System2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 poäng / 45 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The anuran Xenopus tropicalis tadpole is an attractive model animal in toxicological evaluation of suspected thyroid disrupting xenobiotics. Due to its reliance of a functioning hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis for normal metamorphosis, effects on the HPT axis produces apical endpoints, which are easy to measure. More sensitive endpoints of mRNA expression and histological evaluation of the thyroid gland itself provide strong indications of in vivo thyroid endocrine disruption. X. tropicalis is traditionally exposed in groups of 20 animals in four replicates for each treatment group. However, exposing tadpoles individually can provide stronger statistics and a reduction of total animal sacrifice. In this study we have developed and optimized an individual exposure system by a method development study. This method was then applied in an exposure experiment of a suspected thyroid endocrine disruptor, propylparaben (PrP). Prometamorphotic (NF stage 51) X. tropicalis tadpoles were distributed in three treatment groups (0.05, 0.5 and 5.0 mg PrP/L water) and maintained semi-statically for 14 days. Afterwards, apical measurements (body weight (BW), total body length (BL), snout to vent length (SVL) and hind limb length (HLL)) and reached developmental stage were assessed. In addition, mRNA expression of HPT axis relevant genes encoding deiodinase 2 (D2, hepatic tissue), deiodinase 3 (D3, hepatic and tail tissue) and transthyretin (Ttr, hepatic tissue) were measured by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). The PrP exposure did not affect general growth and development, but it did cause a downregulation of dio3 and ttr. The downregulation of dio3 could possibly be associated with a reduced serum content of thyroid hormone, while ttr might be connected to a previously described xenoestrogenic effect of PrP in vitro and in fish.

  • 349. Pohl, Johannes
    et al.
    Björlenius, Berndt
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Carlsson, Gunnar
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Larsson, D. G. Joakim
    Norrgren, Leif
    Örn, Stefan
    Effects of ozonated sewage effluent on reproduction and behavioral endpoints in zebrafish (Danio rerio)2018Inngår i: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 200, s. 93-101Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Pharmaceutical residues and other micro-contaminants may enter aquatic environments through effluent from sewage treatment plants (STPs) and could cause adverse effects in wild fish. One strategy to alleviate this situation is to improve wastewater treatment by ozonation. To test the effectiveness of full-scale wastewater effluent ozonation at a Swedish municipal STP, the added removal efficiency was measured for 105 pharmaceuticals. In addition, gene expression, reproductive and behavioral endpoints were analyzed in zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed on-site over 21 days to ozonated or non-ozonated effluents as well as to tap water. Ozone treatment (7 g O-3/m(3)) removed pharmaceuticals by an average efficiency of 77% in addition to the conventional treatment, leaving 11 screened pharmaceuticals above detection limits. Differences in biological responses of the exposure treatments were recorded in gene expression, reproduction and behavior. Hepatic vitellogenin gene expression was higher in male zebrafish exposed to the ozonated effluent compared to the non-ozonated effluent and tap water treatments. The reproductive success was higher in fish exposed to ozonated effluent compared to non-ozonated effluent and to tap water. The behavioral measurements showed that fish exposed to the ozonated STP effluent were less active in swimming the first minute after placed in a novel vessel. Ozonation is a capable method for removing pharmaceuticals in effluents. However, its implementation should be thoroughly evaluated for any potential biological impact. Future research is needed for uncovering the factors which produced the in vivo responses in fish.

  • 350.
    Porseryd, Tove
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Reyhanian Caspillo, Nasim
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Biologi. Örebro universitet.
    Volkova, Kristina
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Biologi. Örebro universitet.
    Elabbas, Lubna
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Biologi.
    Källman, Thomas
    Uppsala university.
    Dinnétz, Patrik
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Olsson, Per-Erik
    Örebro universitet.
    Porsch Hällström, Inger
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Biologi.
    Testis transcriptome alterations in zebrafish (Danio rerio) with reduced fertility due to developmental exposure to 17α-ethinyl estradiol2018Inngår i: General and Comparative Endocrinology, ISSN 0016-6480, E-ISSN 1095-6840, Vol. 262, s. 44-58Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    17α-Ethinylestradiol (EE2) is a ubiquitous aquatic contaminant shown to decrease fish fertility at low concentrations, especially in fish exposed during development. The mechanisms of the decreased fertility are not fully understood. In this study, we perform transcriptome analysis by RNA sequencing of testes from zebrafish with previously reported lowered fertility due to exposure to low concentrations of EE2during development. Fish were exposed to 1.2 and 1.6 ng/L (measured concentration; nominal concentrations 3 and 10 ng/L) of EE2 from fertilization to 80 days of age, followed by 82 days of remediation in clean water. RNA sequencing analysis revealed 249 and 16 genes to be differentially expressed after exposure to 1.2 and 1.6 ng/L, respectively; a larger inter-sample variation was noted in the latter. Expression of 11 genes were altered by both exposures and in the same direction. The coding sequences most affected could be categorized to the putative functions cell signalling, proteolysis, protein metabolic transport and lipid metabolic process. Several homeobox transcription factors involved in development and differentiation showed increased expression in response to EE2 and differential expression of genes related to cell death, differentiation and proliferation was observed. In addition, several genes related to steroid synthesis, testis development and function were differentially expressed. A number of genes associated with spermatogenesis in zebrafish and/or mouse were also found to be differentially expressed. Further, differences in non-coding sequences were observed, among them several differentially expressed miRNA that might contribute to testis gene regulation at post-transcriptional level. This study has generated insights of changes in gene expression that accompany fertility alterations in zebrafish males that persist after developmental exposure to environmental relevant concentrations of EE2 that persist followed by clean water to adulthood. Hopefully, this will generate hypotheses to test in search for mechanistic explanations.

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