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  • 301.
    Schillings, Audrey
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna.
    Nilsson, Hans
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna.
    Slapak, Rikard
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Yamauchi, Masatoshi
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Strömningslära och experimentell mekanik.
    Relative outflow enhancements during majorgeomagnetic storms: Cluster observations2017Inngår i: Annals of Geophysics, ISSN 1593-5213, E-ISSN 2037-416XArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 302.
    Schillings, Audrey
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Slapak, Rikard
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Nilsson, Hans
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Yamauchi, Masatoshi
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Strömningslära och experimentell mekanik.
    Atmospheric loss during major geomagnetic storms: Cluster observations2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 303.
    Schreier, Franz
    et al.
    DLR — German Aerospace Center, Remote Sensing Technology Institute, Oberpfaffenhofen.
    García, Sebastián Gimeno
    DLR — German Aerospace Center, Remote Sensing Technology Institute, Oberpfaffenhofen.
    Hedelt, Pascal
    DLR — German Aerospace Center, Remote Sensing Technology Institute, Oberpfaffenhofen.
    Hess, Michael
    DLR — German Aerospace Center, Remote Sensing Technology Institute, Oberpfaffenhofen.
    Mendrok, Jana
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Vasquez, Mayte
    DLR — German Aerospace Center, Remote Sensing Technology Institute, Oberpfaffenhofen.
    Xu, Jian
    DLR — German Aerospace Center, Remote Sensing Technology Institute, Oberpfaffenhofen.
    GARLIC - a general purpose atmospheric radiative transfer line-by-line infrared-microwave code: Implementation and evaluation2014Inngår i: Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, ISSN 0022-4073, E-ISSN 1879-1352, Vol. 137, 29-50 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A suite of programs for high resolution infrared-microwave atmospheric radiative transfer modeling has been developed with emphasis on efficient and reliable numerical algorithms and a modular approach appropriate for simulation and/or retrieval in a variety of applications. The Generic Atmospheric Radiation Line-by-line Infrared Code — GARLIC — is suitable for arbitrary observation geometry, instrumental field–of–view, and line shape. The core of GARLIC's subroutines constitutes the basis of forward models used to implement inversion codes to retrieve atmospheric state parameters from limb and nadir sounding instruments.This paper briefly introduces the physical and mathematical basics of GARLIC and its descendants and continues with an in-depth presentation of various implementation aspects: An optimized Voigt function algorithm combined with a two-grid approach is used to accelerate the line-by-line modeling of molecular cross sections; various quadrature methods are implemented to evaluate the Schwarzschild and Beer integrals; and Jacobians, i.e. derivatives with respect to the unknowns of the atmospheric inverse problem, are implemented by means of automatic differentiation. For an assessment of GARLIC's performance, a comparison of the quadrature methods for solution of the path integral is provided. Verification and validation are demonstrated using intercomparisons with other line-by-line codes and comparisons of synthetic spectra with spectra observed on Earth and from Venus.

  • 304.
    Schreier, Franz
    et al.
    DLR, Remote Sensing Technology Institute, 82234 Oberpfaffenhofen.
    Garcia, S. Gimeno
    DLR, Remote Sensing Technology Institute, 82234 Oberpfaffenhofen.
    Milz, Mathias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Kottayil, Ajil
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Höpfner, Michael
    Karlsruhe Institute of Technology.
    Clarmann, Thomas von
    Karlsruhe Institute of Technology.
    Stiller, Gabriele P.
    Karlsruhe Institute of Technology.
    Intercomparison of three microwave/infrared high resolution line-by-line radiative transfer codes2013Inngår i: International Radiation Symposium: Radiation Processes in the Atmosphere and Ocean, IRS 2012, Berlin, Germany; 6 August 2012-10 August 2012, 2013, 119-122 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An intercomparison of three line-by-line (lbl) codes developed independently for atmospheric sounding - ARTS, GARLIC, and KOPRA - has been performed for a thermal infrared nadir sounding application assuming a HIRS-like (High resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder) setup. Radiances for the HIRS infrared channels and a set of 42 atmospheric profiles from the "Garand dataset" have been computed. Results of this intercomparison and a discussion of reasons of the observed differences are presented

  • 305.
    Schwenzer, S.P.
    et al.
    Department of Physical Sciences, CEPSAR, Open University, Milton Keynes.
    Bridges, J.C.
    Space Research Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester.
    Leveille, R.
    Canadian Space Agency, St-Hubert.
    Wiens, R.C.
    Space Remote Sensing, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos.
    Mangold, N.
    Laboratoire Planétologie et Géodynamique de Nantes, LPGN/CNRS and Université de Nantes.
    McAdam, A.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Conrad, P.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Kelley, S.P.
    Department of Physical Sciences, CEPSAR, Open University, Milton Keynes.
    Westall, F.
    Centre de Biophysique Moléculaire, CNRS, Orléans.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Instituto Andaluz de Cienccias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR), Grenada.
    Zorzano, M.-P.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Fluids, evaporation and precipitates at Gale Crater, Mars2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 306.
    Schwenzer, Susanne P.
    et al.
    CEPSAR, Open University, Milton Keynes, Department of Physical Sciences, CEPSAR, Open University, Milton Keynes, Open University, Milton Keynes, Department of Physical Science, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes.
    Bridges, John C.
    Space Research Centre, University of Leicester, Space Research Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University of Leicester.
    Wiens, Roger C.
    Los Alamos National Laboratory, Space Remote Sensing, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, International Space and Response Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory.
    Conrad, Pamela G.
    Planetary Environments Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, Solar System Exploration Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, Maryland, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Kelley, S.P.
    Department of Physical Sciences, CEPSAR, Open University, Milton Keynes.
    Leveille, R.
    Canadian Space Agency, St-Hubert.
    Mangold, Nicolas
    Laboratoire Planétologie et Géodynamique de Nantes, LPGN/CNRS and Université de Nantes, Laboratorie de Planetologie et Geodynamique de Nantes, Laboratoire Planétologie et Géodynamique, LPGNantes, CNRS UMR 6112, Université de Nantes, LPGN, CNRS, UMR 6112, Université Nantes, CNRS- UMR 6112, Laboratoire de Planétologie et Géodynamique, Université de Nantes.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    McAdam, Amy C.
    Planetary Environments Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Solar System Exploration Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Newsom, Horton E.
    Institute of Meteoritics, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, Institute of Meteoritics, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Albuquerque, New Mexico.
    Mier, Maria-Paz Zorzano
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Rapin, W.
    Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, Toulouse.
    Spray, John G.
    Planetary and Space Science Centre, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton.
    Treiman, A.H.
    Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston.
    Westall, F.
    Centre de Biophysique Moléculaire, CNRS, Orléans.
    Fairen, Alberto G.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Meslin, Pierre-Yves
    Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, Toulouse, IRAP, CNRS/UPS, Toulouse, Université Toulouse III - Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP.
    Fluids during diagenesis and sulfate vein formation in sediments at Gale crater, Mars2016Inngår i: Meteoritics and Planetary Science, ISSN 1086-9379, E-ISSN 1945-5100, Vol. 51, nr 11, 2175-2202 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We model the fluids involved in the alteration processes recorded in the Sheepbed Member mudstones of Yellowknife Bay (YKB), Gale crater, Mars, as revealed by the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover investigations. We compare the Gale crater waters with fluids modeled for shergottites, nakhlites, and the ancient meteorite ALH 84001, as well as rocks analyzed by the Mars Exploration rovers, and with terrestrial ground and surface waters. The aqueous solution present during sediment alteration associated with phyllosilicate formation at Gale was high in Na, K, and Si; had low Mg, Fe, and Al concentrations—relative to terrestrial groundwaters such as the Deccan Traps and other modeled Mars fluids; and had near neutral to alkaline pH. Ca and S species were present in the 10−3 to 10−2 concentration range. A fluid local to Gale crater strata produced the alteration products observed by Curiosity and subsequent evaporation of this groundwater-type fluid formed impure sulfate- and silica-rich deposits—veins or horizons. In a second, separate stage of alteration, partial dissolution of this sulfate-rich layer in Yellowknife Bay, or beyond, led to the pure sulfate veins observed in YKB. This scenario is analogous to similar processes identified at a terrestrial site in Triassic sediments with gypsum veins of the Mercia Mudstone Group in Watchet Bay, UK.

  • 307.
    Shaik Fareedh, Junaidh
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Design, Fabrication and Modelling of Three Axis Floating Satellite Simulator2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The Floating Satellite (FloatSat) system project which has been developed at the ‘Department of Aerospace Information Technology - University of Würzburg’ is used to test, develop and implement various attitude control algorithms and strategies for small satellites [1]. The FloatSat project is designed to operate on a Frictionless air bearing surface that works with compressed air flowing distributed on a hemisphere. This hemisphere is used to replicate the space environment required for a satellite to perform its attitude control, solar panel deployment and payload mission, the FloatSat basically consist of 1 axis control and stabilization with reaction wheel. Taking FloatSat to the next level, the aim of the Thesis is to Design, Fabricate and Model a three-axis controllable FloatSat that can be contained in a Sphere for free rotation and movement. The best feature of FloatSat is that they are plug & play, easily accessible and compact size; retaining all these features in the design and extending the functionality of the product proves to be challenging. Furthermore, in the thesis it will be explained in detail about the various design consideration and selection of most feasible method on producing the final product. After the preliminary research for the design characteristics it was clear that the new FloatSat will be equipped with a controllable center of gravity mechanism that will provide balancing in any desired orientation. To obtain this feature three controllable moving masses are to be used in each axis of reaction wheel position. With Three reaction wheels and three moving masses to be equipped in the FloatSat the design challenges were high as considering the Sphere diameter is only 198mm.

    The various successful 3 axis satellite simulators are either huge or they are constrained in any one of the axis where it is positioned. On doing literature research it became clear that the sphere configuration with the given size has never been documented with promising results. It makes this thesis work to be first of its kind to perform 3 Axis FloatSat stabilization in a sphere of 198mm diameter. The FloatSat components include microcontroller STM32F4, Wi-Fi module for communication, three reaction wheel motors, three axial moving mass motor, Lithium Polymer batteries and motor controllers. 

  • 308.
    Shekhar, Mayank
    et al.
    Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeosciences, Lucknow, India.
    Bhardwaj, Anshuman
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Singh, Shaktiman
    Institut für Kartographie, Technische Universität Dresden.
    Ranhotra, Parminder S.
    Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeosciences, Lucknow, India.
    Bhattacharyya, Amalava
    Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeosciences, Lucknow, India.
    Pal, Ashish K.
    Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeosciences, Lucknow, India.
    Roy, Ipsita
    Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeosciences, Lucknow, India.
    Martín-Torres, F. Javier
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR), Armilla, Granada, Spain.
    Zorzano Mier, María-Paz
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), 28850, Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid, Spain.
    Himalayan glaciers experienced significant mass loss during later phases of little ice age2017Inngår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, 10305Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To date, there is a gap in the data about the state and mass balance of glaciers in the climate-sensitive subtropical regions during the Little Ice Age (LIA). Here, based on an unprecedented tree-ring sampling coverage, we present the longest reconstructed mass balance record for the Western Himalayan glaciers, dating to 1615. Our results confirm that the later phase of LIA was substantially briefer and weaker in the Himalaya than in the Arctic and subarctic regions. Furthermore, analysis of the time-series of the mass-balance against other time-series shows clear evidence of the existence of (i) a significant glacial decay and a significantly weaker magnitude of glaciation during the latter half of the LIA; (ii) a weak regional mass balance dependence on either the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) or the Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) taken in isolation, but a considerable combined influence of both of them during the LIA; and (iii) in addition to anthropogenic climate change, the strong effect from the increased yearly concurrence of extremely high TSI with El Niño over the past five decades, resulting in severe glacial mass loss. The generated mass balance time-series can serve as a source of reliable reconstructed data to the scientific community.

  • 309.
    Shematovich, V.I.
    et al.
    Institute of Astronomy, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow.
    Bisikalo, D.V.
    Institute of Astronomy, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow.
    Stenberg, G.
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics / Institutet för rymdfysik.
    Barabash, Stas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Dieval, Catherine
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik.
    Gérard, J-C
    LPAP, Université de Liège.
    He2+ transport in the Martian upper atmosphere with an induced magnetic field2013Inngår i: Journal of Geophysical Research, ISSN 0148-0227, E-ISSN 2156-2202, Vol. 118, nr 3, 1231-1242 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Solar wind helium may be a significant source of neutral helium in the Martian atmosphere. The precipitating particles also transfer mass, energy, and momentum. To investigate the transport of He2+ in the upper atmosphere of Mars, we have applied the direct simulation Monte Carlo method to solve the kinetic equation. We calculate the upward He, He+, and He2+ fluxes, resulting from energy spectra of the downgoing He2+ observed below 500 km altitude by the Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms 3 instrument onboard Mars Express. The particle flux of the downward moving He2+ ions was 1–2 × 106 cm–2 s–1, and the energy flux is equal to 9–10 × 10–3 erg cm–2 s–1. The calculations of the upward flux have been made for the Martian atmosphere during solar minimum. It was found, that if the induced magnetic field is not introduced in the simulations the precipitating He2+ ions are not backscattered at all by the Martian upper atmosphere. If we include a 20 nT horizontal magnetic field, a typical field measured by Mars Global Surveyor in the altitude range of 85–500 km, we find that up to 30%–40% of the energy flux of the precipitating He2+ ions is backscattered depending on the velocity distribution of the precipitating particles. We thus conclude that the induced magnetic field plays a crucial role in the transport of charged particles in the upper atmosphere of Mars and, therefore, that it determines the energy deposition of the solar wind.

  • 310.
    Siderud, Emelie
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Upgrading a groundbased 142 GHz microwave radiometer to higher sensitivity2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The accuracy of ozone measurements in the middle atmosphere is of great importance when determining its diurnal variation. A high time resolution of the measured data is desirable and depends on the sensitivity of the receiver used to detect the ozone. This thesis aims to improve the sensitivity of a groundbased 142 GHz microwave radiometer used for measuring atmospheric ozone data. This is done by replacing the previous receiver components with a series of new components and arranging them in different setups for comparison purposes. Mechanics and wiring were changed in order to install the setups along with changes in the optics. Each test setup could be implemented as a first step towards improving the sensitivity of the radiometer. The result show that the optics contribute with an unexpected addition of noise to the measurements and hence the overall performance and improvement of the radiometer could not be determined. Suggestions are made for further work which include improving the optics and performing cryo-measurements.

  • 311.
    Singh, Shaktiman
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Science, School of Basic Sciences and Research, Sharda University, Greater Noida.
    Kumar, Rajesh
    Department of Environmental Science, School of Basic Sciences and Research, Sharda University, Greater Noida.
    Bhardwaj, Anshuman
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Sam, Lydia
    Department of Environmental Science, Sharda University, Department of Environmental Science, School of Basic Sciences and Research, Sharda University, Greater Noida.
    Shekhar, Mayank
    Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, Lucknow.
    Singh, Atar
    Department of Environmental Science, School of Basic Sciences and Research, Sharda University, Greater Noida.
    Kumar, Ramesh
    Department of Environmental Science, School of Basic Sciences and Research, Sharda University, Greater Noida.
    Gupta, Akhilesh
    Department of Science and Technology, Technology Bhavan, New Delhi.
    Changing climate and glacio-hydrology in Indian Himalayan Region: a review2016Inngår i: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, ISSN 1757-7780, E-ISSN 1757-7799, Vol. 7, nr 3, 393-410 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents a comprehensive review of the published literature on the evidences of a changing climate in the Indian Himalayan Region (IHR) and its impacts on the glacio-hydrology of the region. The IHR serves as an important source of fresh water for the densely populated areas downstream. It is evident from the available studies that temperature is significantly increasing in all parts of the IHR, whereas precipitation is not indicative of any particular spatiotemporal trend. Glacio-hydrological proxies for changing climate, such as, terminus and areal changes of the glaciers, glacier mass balance, and streamflow in downstream areas, highlight changes more evidently in recent decades. On an average, studies have predicted an increase in temperature and precipitation in the region, along with increase in streamflow of major rivers. Such trends are already apparent in some sub-basins of the western IHR. The region is particularly vulnerable to changing climate as it is highly dependent on snow and glacier melt run-off to meet its freshwater demands. We present a systematic review of key papers dealing with changing temperature, precipitation, glaciers, and streamflow in the IHR. We discuss these interdisciplinary themes in relation to each other, in order to establish the present and future impacts of climatic, glaciological, and hydrological changes in the region.

  • 312.
    Slapak, Rikard
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    O⁺ heating in the high altitude cusp and mantle due to wave-particle interaction2011Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is composed of three articles, which have the common denominator that they are studies of heating of oxygen ions in the high altitude cusp and mantle in the terrestrial magnetosphere. All data analysis are based on observational data from the Cluster satellites. Oxygen ions originate in the ionosphere, from where they flow up along open cusp field lines. This upflowing ionospheric plasma is generally gravitationally bound and will return as ionospheric downflow. However, if the plasma is sufficiently energized it may overcome gravity and reach the magnetosphere. Further energization is able to put the plasma on trajectories leading downstream along the magnetotail, which may cause the plasma to escape into the magnetosheath. This thesis considers energization of oxygen ions through wave-particle interactions. We show that the average electric spectral densities in the altitude range of 8-15 Earth radii are able to explain the average perpendicular temperatures, using a simple gyroresonance model and 50% of the observed spectral density at the O+ gyrofrequency. We also show that the phase velocities derived from the observed low frequency electric and magnetic fields are consistent with Alfvén waves. Strong heating is sporadic and spatially limited. For three case studies of strong heating, we show that the regions of enhanced wave activity are at least one order of magnitude larger than the gyroradius of the ions, which is a condition for the gyroresonance model to be valid. An analysis indicates that enhanced perpendicular temperatures can be observed over several Earth radii after heating has ceased, suggesting that high perpendicular-to-parallel temperature ratio is not necessarily a sign of local heating. This also explains why we sometimes observe enhanced temperatures and low spectral densities. Three events of very high temperatures and simultaneously observed high spectral densities were studied, and we showed that the temperatures could be explained with the simple gyrofrequency model. We have also provided average diffusion coefficients at different altitudes, which can be used for ion heating and outflow modeling.

  • 313.
    Slapak, Rikard
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    O+ heating, outflow and escape in the high altitude cusp and mantle2013Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The Earth and its atmosphere are embedded in the magnetosphere, a region in space dominated by the geomagnetic field, shielding our planet as it acts to deflect the energetic solar wind. Even though the atmosphere is protected from direct interaction with the solar wind it is indirectly affected by significant magnetosphere-solar wind interaction processes, causing constituents of the upper atmosphere to flow up into the magnetosphere. The fate of the atmospheric originating ions is interesting from a planetary evolution point of view. If the upflowing ions in the magnetosphere are to escape into the solar wind they need to not only overcome gravity, but also the magnetic forces, and therefore need to be energized and accelerated significantly. The subject of this thesis is analysis of oxygen ions (O+) and wave field observations in the high altitude cusp/mantle and in the high latitude dayside magnetosheath of Earth, investigating magnetospheric processes behind ion heating, outflow and escape. Most data analysis is based on observational data from the Cluster satellites, orbiting the Earth and altitudes corresponding to different key regions of the magnetosphere and the immediate solar wind environment. The mechanism behind O+ heating mainly discussed in this thesis is energization through interactions between the ions and low-frequency waves. The average electric spectral densities in the altitude range of 8-15 Earth radii are able to explain the average perpendicular temperatures, using a gyroresonance model and 50% of the observed spectral density at the O+ gyrofrequency. Strong heating is sporadic and spatially limited. The regions of enhanced wave activity are at least one order of magnitude larger than the local gyroradius of the ions, which is a necessary condition for the gyroresonance model to be valid. An analysis indicates that enhanced perpendicular temperatures can be observed over several Earth radii after heating has ceased, suggesting that high perpendicular-to-parallel temperature ratio is not necessarily a sign of local heating. This also explains why we sometimes observe enhanced temperatures and low spectral densities. We also show that the phase velocities derived from the observed low frequency electric and magnetic fields are consistent with Alfvén waves. Outflowing ions flow along magnetic field lines leading downstream in the magnetotail, where the ions may convect into the plasma sheet and be brought back toward Earth. However, the effective heating in the cusp and mantle provides a majority of the O+ enough acceleration to escape into the solar wind and be lost, rather than entering the plasma sheet. The heating can actually be effective enough to allow outflowing cusp O+ to escape immediately from the high altitude cusp and mantle along recently opened magnetic field lines, facilitating a direct coupling between the magnetospheric plasma and interplanetary space. Observations in the shocked and turbulent solar wind (the magnetosheath) reveals hot O+ flowing downstream and approximately tangentially to the magnetopause and often close to it. An estimated total flux of O+ in the high-latitude magnetosheath of 0.7 ·1025 s-1 is significant in relation to the observed cusp outflows at lower altitudes, pointing to that escape of hot O+ from the cusp and mantle into the dayside magnetosheath being an important loss route.

  • 314.
    Slapak, Rikard
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Gunell, H.
    Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy, Avenue Circulaire, Brussels.
    Hamrin, Maria
    Department of Physics, Umeå University.
    Observations of multiharmonic ion-cyclotron waves due to inverse ion-cyclotron damping in the northern magnetospheric cusp2017Inngår i: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 44, nr 1, 22-29 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a case study of inverse ion-cyclotron damping taking place in the northern terrestrial magnetospheric cusp, exciting waves at the ion-cyclotron frequency and its harmonics. The ion-cyclotron waves are primarily seen as peaks in the magnetic-field spectral densities. The corresponding peaks in the electric-field spectral densities are not as profound, suggesting a background electric field noise or other processes of wave generation causing the electric spectral densities to smoothen out more compared to the magnetic counterpart. The required condition for inverse ion-cyclotron damping is a velocity shear in the magnetic field-aligned ion-bulk flow, and this condition is often naturally met for magnetosheath influx in the northern magnetospheric cusp, just as in the presented case. We note that some ion-cyclotron wave activity is present in a few similar shear events in the southern cusp, which indicates that other mechanisms generating ion-cyclotron waves may also be present during such conditions.

  • 315.
    Slapak, Rikard
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Hamrin, Maria
    Department of Physics, Umeä University.
    Pitkänen, Timo
    Department of Physics, Umeä University.
    Yamauchi, Masatoshi
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna.
    Nilsson, Hans
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Karlsson, Tomas
    Space and Plasma Physics, School of Electrical Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Schillings, Audrey
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Quantification of the total ion transport in the near-Earth plasma sheet2017Inngår i: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 35, nr 4, 869-877 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies strongly suggest that a majority of the observed O+ cusp outflows will eventually escape into the solar wind, rather than be transported to the plasma sheet. Therefore, an investigation of plasma sheet flows will add to these studies and give a more complete picture of magnetospheric ion dynamics. Specifically, it will provide a greater understanding of atmospheric loss. We have used Cluster spacecraft 4 to quantify the H+ and O+ total transports in the near-Earth plasma sheet, using data covering 2001-2005. The results show that both H+ and O+ have earthward net fluxes of the orders of 1026 and 1024 s -1, respectively. The O+ plasma sheet return flux is 1 order of magnitude smaller than the O+ outflows observed in the cusps, strengthening the view that most ionospheric O+ outflows do escape. The H+ return flux is approximately the same as the ionospheric outflow, suggesting a stable budget of H+ in the magnetosphere. However, low-energy H+, not detectable by the ion spectrometer, is not considered in our study, leaving the complete magnetospheric H+ circulation an open question. Studying tailward flows separately reveals a total tailward O+ flux of about 0. 5 × 1025 s -1, which can be considered as a lower limit of the nightside auroral region O+ outflow. Lower velocity flows ( < 100kms -1) contribute most to the total transports, whereas the high-velocity flows contribute very little, suggesting that bursty bulk flows are not dominant in plasma sheet mass transport.

  • 316.
    Slapak, Rikard
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Nilsson, Hans
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna.
    Schillings, Audrey
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna.
    Yamauchi, Masatoshi
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Strömningslära och experimentell mekanik.
    Dandouras, Iannis
    CNSR, Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, Toulouse.
    Atmospheric outflow from the terrestrial magnetosphere: implications forescape on evolutionary time scales2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 317.
    Slapak, Rikard
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik.
    Nilsson, Hans
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Strömningslära och experimentell mekanik.
    A statistical study on O+ flux in the dayside magnetosheath2013Inngår i: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 31, 1005-1010 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies on terrestrial oxygen ion (O+) escape into the interplanetary space have considered a number of different escape paths. Recent observations however suggest a yet insufficiently investigated additional escape route for hot O+: along open magnetic field lines in the high altitude cusp and mantle. Here we present a statistical study on O+ flux in the high-latitude dayside magnetosheath. The O+ is generally seen relatively close to the magnetopause, consistent with observations of O+ flowing primarily tangentially to the magnetopause. We estimate the total escape flux in this region to be ~ 7 × 1024 s−1, implying this escape route to significantly contribute to the overall total O+ loss into interplanetary space.

  • 318.
    Slapak, Rikard
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik.
    Nilsson, Hans
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Strömningslära och experimentell mekanik.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics / Institutet för rymdfysik.
    Observations of oxygen ions in the dayside magnetosheath associated with southward IMF2012Inngår i: Journal of Geophysical Research, ISSN 0148-0227, E-ISSN 2156-2202, Vol. 117Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a case study of high energy oxygen ions (O+) observed in the dayside terrestrial magnetosheath, in the southern hemisphere. It is shown that the presence of O+ is strongly correlated to the IMF direction: O+ is observed only for Bz<0. Three satellites observe O$^+ immediately at both sides of the magnetopause and about 2 RE outside the magnetopause. These conditions indicate escape along open magnetic field lines. We show that if outflowing O+ is heated and accelerated sufficiently in the cusp, it takes 15-20 minutes for it to reach the magnetopause, allowing the ions to escape along newly opened field lines on the dayside. Earlier studies show evidence of strong heating and high velocities in the cusp and mantle at high altitudes, strengthening our interpretation. The observed magnetosheath O+ fluxes are of the same order as measured in the ionospheric upflow, which indicates that this loss mechanism is significant when it takes place.

  • 319.
    Slapak, Rikard
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Nilsson, Hans
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Strömningslära och experimentell mekanik.
    Larsson, Richard
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    O+ transport in the dayside magnetosheath and its dependence on the IMF direction2015Inngår i: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 33, 301-307 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies have shown that the escape of oxygen ions (O+) into the magnetosheath along open magnetic field lines from the terrestrial cusp and mantle is significant. We present a study of how O+ transport in the dayside magnetosheath depends on the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) direction. There are clear asymmetries in the O+ flows for southward and northward IMF. The asymmetries can be understood in terms of the different magnetic topologies that arise due to differences in the location of the reconnection site, which depends on the IMF direction. During southward IMF, most of the observed magnetosheath O+ is transported downstream. In contrast, for northward IMF we observe O+ flowing both downstream and equatorward towards the opposite hemisphere. We observe evidence of dual-lobe reconnection occasionally taking place during strong northward IMF conditions, a mechanism that may trap O+ and bring it back into the magnetosphere. Its effect on the overall escape is however small: we estimate the upper limit of trapped O+ to be 5%, a small number considering that ion flux calculations are rough estimates. The total O+ escape flux is higher by about a factor of 2 during times of southward IMF, in agreement with earlier studies of O+ cusp outflow.

  • 320.
    Slapak, Rikard
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Schillings, Audrey
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Nilsson, Hans
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Yamauchi, Masatoshi
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Strömningslära och experimentell mekanik.
    Atmospheric loss from the dayside open polar region and its dependence on geomagnetic activity: Implications for atmospheric escape on evolutionary time scales2017Inngår i: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 35, nr 3, 721-731 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 321.
    Smirnova, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Long-term observations of polar mesosphere summer echoes using the ESRAD MST radar2011Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes (PMSE) are strong radar echoes observed from altitudes of 80-90 km in polar regions, during summer time. PMSE are closely related to the fascinating atmospheric phenomenon known as noctilucent clouds (NLC). Since it has been suspected that NLC could respond to climate change in the mesosphere, they have attracted considerable interest in the scientific community during recent years. However, continuous visual or photographic NLC observations suffer from weather restrictions and the human factor. In contrast, PMSE radar measurements can easily be made over a long interval and are very attractive for long-term studies of the atmospheric parameters at the polar mesopause. This thesis uses the world’s longest data set of PMSE observations made by the same radar at the same place. Since 1997 these measurements have been carried out with the 52 MHz ESRAD MST radar located near Kiruna in Northern Sweden. The data set for 1997-2008 has been used for studies of diurnal, day-to-day and year-to-year variations of PMSE. We showed that PMSE occurrence rate and volume reflectivity on a daily scale show predominantly semidiurnal variations with the shape of the diurnal curves remaining consistent from year to year. We found that day-to-day and inter-annual variations of PMSE correlate with geomagnetic activity while they do not correlate with mesopause temperature or solar activity. We did not find any statistically significant trends in PMSE occurrence rate and length of PMSE season over 1997-2008. The thesis also presents also a new, independent calibration method, which can be used to estimate changes in transmitter output and antenna feed losses from year to year (for example due to changes of antenna configuration) and allows making accurate calculations of PMSE strength. This method is based on radar-radiosonde comparisons in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere region simultaneously with PMSE observations. Using this calibration we calculated the distribution of PMSE strength over magnitudes; it varies from year to year with the peak of the distribution varying from 2×10−15 to 3×10−14 m−1. We found that inter-annual variations of PMSE volume reflectivity strongly correlate with the local geomagnetic k-index and anticorrelate with solar 10.7 cm flux. We did not identify any significant trend in PMSE volume reflectivity over 1997–2009. Finally, using 11 years of measurements, we calculated in-beam the PMSE aspect sensitivities using the FCA technique. We showed that half of PMSE detected each year cannot be explained by isotropic turbulence since they are highly aspect sensitive echoes. The distribution of these echoes remains consistent from year to year with median values of aspect sensitivity from 2.9 to 3.7°. The remaining half of the PMSE have aspect sensitivity parameters larger than 9-11°. We found that PMSE aspect sensitivity has altitude dependence: the scatter becomes more isotropic with increasing height. We did not identify any dependence of PMSE aspect sensitivity on backscattered power for any year. We analysed limitations of the in-beam and off-zenith beam methods and concluded that the former is suitable for highly aspect sensitive echoes while the latter is needed for more isotropic scatterers.

  • 322.
    Smith, M.D.
    et al.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt.
    Zorzano Mier, Maria-Paz
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Lemmon, Mark T.
    Department of Atmospheric Sciences , Texas A&M University.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Mendaza de Cal, Maria Teresa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Aerosol optical depth as observed by the Mars Science Laboratory REMS UV photodiodes2017Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 323.
    Smith, Michael D.
    et al.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Mier, Maria-Paz Zorzano
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Lemmon, Mark T.
    Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Texas A&M University, Texas A&M University, College Station.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Cal, Maria Teresa Mendaza de
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Aerosol optical depth as observed by the Mars Science Laboratory REMS UV photodiodes2016Inngår i: Icarus (New York, N.Y. 1962), ISSN 0019-1035, E-ISSN 1090-2643, Vol. 280, 234-248 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Systematic observations taken by the REMS UV photodiodes on a daily basis throughout the landed Mars Science Laboratory mission provide a highly useful tool for characterizing aerosols above Gale Crater. Radiative transfer modeling is used to model the approximately 1.75 Mars Years of observations taken to date taking into account multiple scattering from aerosols and the extended field of view of the REMS UV photodiodes. The retrievals show in detail the annual cycle of aerosol optical depth, which is punctuated with numerous short timescale events of increased optical depth. Dust deposition onto the photodiodes is accounted for by comparison with aerosol optical depth derived from direct imaging of the Sun by Mastcam. The effect of dust on the photodiodes is noticeable, but does not dominate the signal. Cleaning of dust from the photodiodes was observed in the season around Ls=270°, but not during other seasons. Systematic deviations in the residuals from the retrieval fit are indicative of changes in aerosol effective particle size, with larger particles present during periods of increased optical depth. This seasonal dependence of aerosol particle size is expected as dust activity injects larger particles into the air, while larger aerosols settle out of the atmosphere more quickly leading to a smaller average particle size over time.

  • 324.
    Soria-Salinas, Álvaro
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Wittman, Philipp
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Zorzano Mier, Maria-Paz
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Wind Retrieval Measurements for the Mars Surface Exploration2016Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a novel method to quantify the heat transfer coefficient h at the near environment of a spacecraft operating under Mars surface atmospheric conditions. As part of the scientific instruments of the ExoMars 2018 Surface Platform, the HABIT (HabitAbility: Brines, Irradiance and Temperature) instrument will be operating on Mars surface in order to establish the habitability of the landing site. By resolving the energy balance equation in temperatures over the three HABIT Air Temperature Sensor (ATS), we will retrieve the fluid temperature Tf and the known as m-parameter directly related with the heat transfer coefficient and sensitive to variations in wind density and velocity field

  • 325.
    Soria-Salinas, Álvaro
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Zorzano Mier, Maria-Paz
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Convective Heat Transfer at the Martian Boundary Layer, Measurement and Model2016Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 326.
    Soria-Salinas, Álvaro
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Zorzano Mier, Maria-Paz
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Thermal and Heat Transfer Studies Using the HABIT Instrument on the ExoMars 2018 Surface Platform2016Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 327.
    Soria-Salinas, Álvaro
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Zorzano Mier, Maria-Paz
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Feiccabrino, James
    Department of Water Resources Engineering., Lund University.
    Convective Heat Transfer Measurements at the Martian Surface2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 328.
    Soria-Salinas, Álvaro
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Zorzano Mier, Maria-Paz
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Sánchez-García-Casarrubios, J.
    Department of Signal and Telecommunication Theory, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid.
    Pérez-Díaz, J-L
    Department of Signal and Telecommunication Theory, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid.
    Vakkada Ramachandran, Abhilash
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    A Xenon Mass Gauging through Heat Transfer Modeling for Electric Propulsion Thrusters2017Inngår i: World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology: An International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology, ISSN 2010-376X, E-ISSN 2070-3740, Vol. 11, nr 1, 94-105 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The current state-of-the-art methods of mass gauging of Electric Propulsion (EP) propellants in microgravity conditions rely on external measurements that are taken at the surface of the tank. The tanks are operated under a constant thermal duty cycle to store the propellant within a pre-defined temperature and pressure range. We demonstrate using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations that the heat-transfer within the pressurized propellant generates temperature and density anisotropies. This challenges the standard mass gauging methods that rely on the use of time changing skin-temperatures and pressures. We observe that the domes of the tanks are prone to be overheated, and that a long time after the heaters of the thermal cycle are switched off, the system reaches a quasi-equilibrium state with a more uniform density. We propose a new gauging method, which we call the Improved PVT method, based on universal physics and thermodynamics principles, existing TRL-9 technology and telemetry data. This method only uses as inputs the temperature and pressure readings of sensors externally attached to the tank. These sensors can operate during the nominal thermal duty cycle. The improved PVT method shows little sensitivity to the pressure sensor drifts which are critical towards the end-of-life of the missions, as well as little sensitivity to systematic temperature errors. The retrieval method has been validated experimentally with CO2 in gas and fluid state in a chamber that operates up to 82 bar within a nominal thermal cycle of 38 °C to 42 °C. The mass gauging error is shown to be lower than 1% the mass at the beginning of life, assuming an initial tank load at 100 bar. In particular, for a pressure of about 70 bar, just below the critical pressure of CO2, the error of the mass gauging in gas phase goes down to 0.1% and for 77 bar, just above the critical point, the error of the mass gauging of the liquid phase is 0.6% of initial tank load. This gauging method improves by a factor of 8 the accuracy of the standard PVT retrievals using look-up tables with tabulated data from the National Institute of Standards and Technology.

  • 329.
    Sreerekha, T.R.
    et al.
    Universität Bremen.
    Buehler, Stefan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Development of an RT model for frequencies between 200 and 1000 GHz2007Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 330.
    Sreerekha, T.R.
    et al.
    UK Met Office, Exeter.
    Buehler, Stefan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    O'Keeffe, U
    UK Met Office, Exeter.
    Doherty, A
    UK Met Office, Exeter.
    Emde, C.
    German Aerospace Center, DLR, Oberpfaffenhofen.
    John, V.O.
    RSMAS, University of Miami.
    A strong ice cloud event as seen by a microwave satellite sensor: simulations and observations2008Inngår i: Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, ISSN 0022-4073, E-ISSN 1879-1352, Vol. 109, nr 9, 1705-1718 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, brightness temperatures observed by channels of the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-B (AMSU-B) instrument are compared to those simulated by a radiative transfer model, which can take into account the multiple scattering due to ice particles by using a discrete ordinate iterative solution method. The input fields, namely, the pressure, temperature, humidity, and cloud water content are taken from the short range forecast from the Met Office mesoscale model (UKMES). The comparison was made for a case study on the 25 January 2002 when a frontal system associated with significant cloud was present over the UK. It is demonstrated that liquid clouds have maximum impact on channel 16 of AMSU whereas ice clouds have maximum impact on channel 20. The main uncertainty for simulating microwave radiances is the assumptions about microphysical properties, such as size distribution, shape and orientation of the cloud particles, which are not known in the mesoscale model. The article examines the impact of these parameters on the cloud signal. The polarisation signal due to oriented ice particles at these frequencies is also discussed.

  • 331.
    Stern, J.C.
    et al.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Sutter, B.
    Jacobs Technology, NASA Johnson Space Center.
    McKay, C.P.
    NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field.
    Navarro-González, R.
    Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    Freissinet, C.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Conrad, P.G.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Mahaffy, P.R.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Archer, P.D.
    Jacobs Technology, NASA Johnson Space Center.
    Ming, D.W.
    NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston.
    Niles, P.B.
    NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston.
    Zorzano, M.-P.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Instituto Andaluz de Cienccias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR), Grenada.
    The nitrate/perchlorate ratio on Mars as an indicator for habitability2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 332.
    Stern, Jennifer C.
    et al.
    Solar System Exploration Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Sutter, Brad
    Jacobs Technology, Inc., Johnson Space Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Houston, Texas.
    Freissinet, Caroline
    NASA Postdoctoral Program, Goddard Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Navarro-González, Rafael
    Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico D.F..
    McKay, Christopher P.
    Exobiology Branch, Ames Research Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Moffett Field, Kalifornien.
    Jr., P. Douglas Archer
    Jacobs Technology, Inc., Johnson Space Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Houston, Texas.
    Buch, Arnaud
    Laboratoire de Genie de Procedes et Materiaux, Ecole Centrale Paris, Chatenay-Malabry.
    Brunner, Anna E.
    Solar System Exploration Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Coll, Patrice
    Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, Université Paris-Est Créteil, Université Paris Diderot and CNRS, Créteil.
    Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.
    Solar System Exploration Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Fairen, Alberto G.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Franz, Heather B.
    Solar System Exploration Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Glavin, Daniel P.
    Solar System Exploration Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Kashyap, Srishti
    Solar System Exploration Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    McAdam, Amy C.
    Solar System Exploration Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Ming, Douglas W.
    Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science Directorate, Johnson Space Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Houston, Texas.
    Steele, Andrew
    Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington D.C..
    Szopa, Cyril
    Laboratoire Atmosphères, Milieux et Observations Spatiales, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Université Versailles Saint-Quentin and CNRS, Paris.
    Wray, James J.
    School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Zorzano, Maria-Paz
    Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Conrad, Pamela G.
    Solar System Exploration Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Mahaffy, Paul R.
    Solar System Exploration Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Evidence for indigenous nitrogen in sedimentary and aeolian deposits from the Curiosity rover investigations at Gale crater, Mars2015Inngår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 112, nr 14, 4245-4250 s., 6Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) investigation on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover has detected oxidized nitrogen-bearing compounds during pyrolysis of scooped aeolian sediments and drilled sedimentary deposits within Gale crater. Total N concentrations ranged from 20 to 250 nmol N per sample. After subtraction of known N sources in SAM, our results support the equivalent of 110–300 ppm of nitrate in the Rocknest (RN) aeolian samples, and 70–260 and 330–1,100 ppm nitrate in John Klein (JK) and Cumberland (CB) mudstone deposits, respectively. Discovery of indigenous martian nitrogen in Mars surface materials has important implications for habitability and, specifically, for the potential evolution of a nitrogen cycle at some point in martian history. The detection of nitrate in both wind-drifted fines (RN) and in mudstone (JK, CB) is likely a result of N2 fixation to nitrate generated by thermal shock from impact or volcanic plume lightning on ancient Mars. Fixed nitrogen could have facilitated the development of a primitive nitrogen cycle on the surface of ancient Mars, potentially providing a biochemically accessible source of nitrogen.

  • 333.
    Stiller, G.P.
    et al.
    Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe.
    Clarmann, T. von
    Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe.
    Höpfner, M.
    Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe.
    Glatthor, N.
    Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe.
    Grabowski, U.
    Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe.
    Kellmann, S.
    Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe.
    Kleinert, A.
    Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe.
    Linden, A.
    Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe.
    Milz, Mathias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Reddmann, T.
    Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe.
    Steck, T.
    Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe.
    Fischer, H.
    Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe.
    Funke, B.
    Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía CSIC, Granada.
    López-Puertas, M.
    Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía CSIC, Granada.
    Engel, A.
    Institut für Atmosphäre und Umwelt, J. W. Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt.
    Global distribution of mean age of stratospheric air from MIPAS SF6 measurements2008Inngår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 8, nr 3, 677-695 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Global distributions of profiles of sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) have been retrieved from limb emission spectra recorded by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) on Envisat covering the period September 2002 to March 2004. Individual SF6 profiles have a precision of 0.5 pptv below 25 km altitude and a vertical resolution of 4–6 km up to 35 km altitude. These data have been validated versus in situ observations obtained during balloon flights of a cryogenic whole-air sampler. For the tropical troposphere a trend of 0.230±0.008 pptv/yr has been derived from the MIPAS data, which is in excellent agreement with the trend from ground-based flask and in situ measurements from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Earth System Research Laboratory, Global Monitoring Division. For the data set currently available, based on at least three days of data per month, monthly 5° latitude mean values have a 1σ standard error of 1%. From the global SF6 distributions, global daily and monthly distributions of the apparent mean age of air are inferred by application of the tropical tropospheric trend derived from MIPAS data. The inferred mean ages are provided for the full globe up to 90° N/S, and have a 1σ standard error of 0.25 yr. They range between 0 (near the tropical tropopause) and 7 years (except for situations of mesospheric intrusions) and agree well with earlier observations. The seasonal variation of the mean age of stratospheric air indicates episodes of severe intrusion of mesospheric air during each Northern and Southern polar winter observed, long-lasting remnants of old, subsided polar winter air over the spring and summer poles, and a rather short period of mixing with midlatitude air and/or upward transport during fall in October/November (NH) and April/May (SH), respectively, with small latitudinal gradients, immediately before the new polar vortex starts to form. The mean age distributions further confirm that SF6 is destroyed in the mesosphere to a considerable degree. Model calculations with the Karlsruhe simulation model of the middle atmosphere (KASIMA) chemical transport model agree well with observed global distributions of the mean age only if the SF6 sink reactions in the mesosphere are included in the model.

  • 334.
    Strizic, Luka
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Crowdsourcing GNSS Jamming Detection and Localization2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) have found wide adoption in various applications, be they military, civilian or commercial. The susceptibility of GNSS to radio-frequency interference can, thus, be very disruptive, even for emergency services, therefore threatening people's lives. An early prototype of a system providing relatively cheap widescale GNSS jamming detection, called J911, is explored in this thesis.

    J911 is smartphone-based crowdsourcing of GNSS observations, most interesting of which are carrier-to-noise-density ratio () and Automatic Gain Control (AGC) voltage. To implement the prototype, an Android application to provide the measurements, a backend to parse and store the measurements, and a frontend to visualize the measurements were developed. In real-world use, the thesis argues, the J911 system would best be implemented over existing Enhanced 9-1-1 (E911) infrastructure, becoming a standardized part of the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN).

    The Android application, running on a smartphone, would periodically construct messages to be sent to the backend over an Internet connection. The messages would include: current location from all location providers available in Android OS, observed satellites from all supported constellations, the satellites' , and a timestamp. Once a message is received on the backend, the data would be extracted and stored in a database. The frontend would query the database and produce a map with the collected datapoints overlaid on top of it, whose color indicates received signal strength at that point. When a jammer gets close enough to a few smartphones, they will all be jammed, which is easily observed on the map. On top of that, if enough samples are gathered, a Power Difference of Arrival localization algorithm can be used to localize the jammer.

    The smartphones that the system was planned to be tested with did not support AGC level readings, therefore in order to obtain AGC levels over time, a few SiGe GN3S Samplers, which are radio-frequency frontends, were used. In eastern Idaho, United States, over three nights in July 2017, an exercise, named 2017 DHS JamX, was performed with the help of the US Department of Homeland Security. Sadly, the approval for the publication of the test results did not come in time to be included in this thesis.

  • 335.
    Takada, A.
    et al.
    Department of Physics, Cosmic-Ray Group, Kyoto University.
    Tanimori, T.
    Department of Physics, Cosmic-Ray Group, Kyoto University.
    Kubo, H.
    Department of Physics, Cosmic-Ray Group, Kyoto University.
    Miuchi, K.
    Department of Physics, Cosmic-Ray Group, Kyoto University.
    Parker, J.D.
    Department of Physics, Cosmic-Ray Group, Kyoto University.
    Kishimoto, Y.
    Department of Physics, Cosmic-Ray Group, Kyoto University.
    Mizumoto, T.
    Department of Physics, Cosmic-Ray Group, Kyoto University.
    Ueno, K.
    Department of Physics, Cosmic-Ray Group, Kyoto University.
    Kurosawa, S.
    Department of Physics, Cosmic-Ray Group, Kyoto University.
    Iwaki, S.
    Department of Physics, Cosmic-Ray Group, Kyoto University.
    Sawano, T.
    Department of Physics, Cosmic-Ray Group, Kyoto University.
    Taniue, K.
    Department of Physics, Cosmic-Ray Group, Kyoto University.
    Nakamura, K.
    Department of Physics, Cosmic-Ray Group, Kyoto University.
    Higashi, N.
    Department of Physics, Cosmic-Ray Group, Kyoto University.
    Matsuoka, Y.
    Department of Physics, Cosmic-Ray Group, Kyoto University.
    Komura, S.
    Department of Physics, Cosmic-Ray Group, Kyoto University.
    Sato, Y.
    Department of Physics, Cosmic-Ray Group, Kyoto University.
    Arvelius, Sachiko
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Turunen, E.
    EISCAT Scientific Association, Kiruna.
    SMILE-II: Observation of celestial and atmosphereic MeV gamma rays using a balloon-borne wide fields of view Electron-Tracking Compton Camera2011Inngår i: Proceedings of the 20th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research: 22-26 May 2011, Hyère, France, Noordwijk: European Space Agency, ESA , 2011, 567-571 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We have developed an Electron Tracking Compton Camera (ETCC) as an MeV gamma-ray telescope in the next generation. The ETCC consists of a gaseous time projection chamber and a position sensitive scintillation camera. We had launched a small size ETCC loaded on a balloon in 2006, and it was successful to obtain the fluxes of diffuse cosmic and atmospheric gamma rays in the energy range between 125 keV and 1.25 MeV. As the next flight (SMILE-II), we planned a long duration flight using a circumpolar balloon launched from Kiruna, and it will observe the celestial bright sources and the atmospheric gamma-ray burst due to the relativistic electron from the radiation belt. In this paper, we report the concepts of our detector and the performance of the SMILE-Il prototype.

  • 336.
    Takagi, M.
    et al.
    University of Tokyo, Deptartment of Earth & Planetary Science.
    Suzuki, K.
    Tokyo Gakugei University, Department of Astronomy & Earth Science.
    Sagawa, H.
    Max-Planck-Institut für Solar System Research.
    Baron, P.
    National Institute for Information & Communication Technology, Applied Electromagnet Research.
    Mendrok, Jana
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Kasai, Y.
    National Institute for Information & Communication Technology, Applied Electromagnet Research.
    Matsuda, Y.
    Tokyo Gakugei University, Department of Astronomy & Earth Science.
    Influence of CO2 line profiles on radiative and radiative-convective equilibrium states of the Venus lower atmosphere2010Inngår i: Journal of Geophysical Research, ISSN 0148-0227, E-ISSN 2156-2202, Vol. 115, nr E06Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Influence of CO2 line profiles on vertical temperature distributions in the radiative and radiative-convective equilibria is examined in the Venus atmosphere. The CO2 opacity obtained by the Voigt (Lorentz) profile without the line cutoff is shown to be excessive since this opacity gives surface temperatures of about 860-1020 K in the radiative-convective equilibrium. On the other hand, the opacity obtained by the extremely sub-Lorentzian profiles of Pollack et al. (1993) and Tonkov et al. (1996) are underestimated; the surface temperature obtained with this opacity remains 600 K even in the radiative equilibrium. In this case, convection does not take place below the cloud layer because of the cloud opacity. It is also shown that Fukabori et al.' s (1986) and Meadows and Crisp's (1996) profiles, both of which have intermediate absorption coefficients, give temperature distributions close to the observed one in the radiative-convective equilibrium. In these cases, the convection layer extends from the surface to 30-50 km altitudes. Then, the temperature distribution below the cloud layer is determined by a dry adiabatic lapse rate and the temperature near the cloud bottom. The surface temperature in the radiative-convective equilibrium is strongly affected by the temperature near the cloud bottom in this situation. The detailed structure of the H2SO4 cloud must be taken into account to construct a realistic radiative transfer model.

  • 337.
    Tariq, Usama
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Robotic Grasping of Large Objects for Collaborative Manipulation2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In near future, robots are envisioned to work alongside humans in professional anddomestic environments without significant restructuring of workspace. Roboticsystems in such setups must be adept at observation, analysis and rational de-cision making. To coexist in an environment, humans and robots will need tointeract and cooperate for multiple tasks. A fundamental such task is the manip-ulation of large objects in work environments which requires cooperation betweenmultiple manipulating agents for load sharing. Collaborative manipulation hasbeen studied in the literature with the focus on multi-agent planning and controlstrategies. However, for a collaborative manipulation task, grasp planning alsoplays a pivotal role in cooperation and task completion.In this work, a novel approach is proposed for collaborative grasping and manipu-lation of large unknown objects. The manipulation task was defined as a sequenceof poses and expected external wrench acting on the target object. In a two-agentmanipulation task, the proposed approach selects a grasp for the second agentafter observing the grasp location of the first agent. The solution is computed ina way that it minimizes the grasp wrenches by load sharing between both agents.To verify the proposed methodology, an online system for human-robot manipu-lation of unknown objects was developed. The system utilized depth informationfrom a fixed Kinect sensor for perception and decision making for a human-robotcollaborative lift-up. Experiments with multiple objects substantiated that theproposed method results in an optimal load sharing despite limited informationand partial observability.

  • 338.
    Tate, C.G.
    et al.
    Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville.
    Moersch, J.
    Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Department of Earth & Planetary Sciences, University of Tennessee, Knoxville.
    Jun, L.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Hardgrove, C.
    Department of Earth & Planetary Sciences, University of Tennessee, Knoxville.
    Mischna, M.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Litvak, M.
    Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow.
    Varenikov, A.
    Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow.
    Mitrofanov, I.
    Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow.
    Boynton, W.V.
    University of Arizona.
    Deflores, L.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Drake, D.
    TechSource, Inc, Los Alamos.
    Fedosov, F.
    Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow.
    Golovin, D.
    Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow.
    Harschman, K.
    University of Arizona.
    Kozyrev, A.
    Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow.
    Lisov, D.
    Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow.
    Malakhov, A.
    Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow.
    Milliken, R.E.
    Brown university.
    Mokrousov, M.
    Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow.
    Nikiforov, S.
    Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow.
    Sanin, A.B.
    Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow.
    Starr, R.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Vostrukhin, A.
    Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Instituto Andaluz de Cienccias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR), Grenada.
    Zorzano, María-Paz
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Thermal conductivity of the near-surface Martian regolith derived from variations in MSL passive neutron counts and ground temperature measurements2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 339.
    Thapliyal, Pradeep K.
    et al.
    Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences Group, Space Applications Centre, Indian Space Research Organisation, Ahmedabad.
    Shukla, Munn V.
    Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences Group, Space Applications Centre, Indian Space Research Organisation, Ahmedabad.
    Shah, Shivani
    Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences Group, Space Applications Centre, Indian Space Research Organisation, Ahmedabad.
    Joshi, P.C.
    Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences Group, Space Applications Centre, Indian Space Research Organisation, Ahmedabad.
    Pal, P.K.
    Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences Group, Space Applications Centre, Indian Space Research Organisation, Ahmedabad.
    Kottayil, Ajil
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    An algorithm for the estimation of upper tropospheric humidity from Kalpana observations: Methodology and validation2011Inngår i: Journal of Geophysical Research, ISSN 0148-0227, E-ISSN 2156-2202, Vol. 116, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents a methodology for estimating the upper tropospheric humidity (UTH) for a layer between 500 and 200 hPa from observations in the water vapor channel (5.6–7.2 μm) of the Indian geostationary satellite, Kalpana. Radiative transfer simulations for different UTH conditions have been used to develop the relationship between water vapor channel radiances and UTH. A new technique has been described to include the normalized reference pressure in the algorithm, to account for latitudinal variation of temperature that is derived from a diverse radiosonde profiles data set and is a polynomial function of the latitude for different months. This has an advantage that the forecast or analysis profiles from the operational numerical weather prediction model are not required to compute the normalized reference pressure. The operationally retrieved UTH products have been extensively compared and validated for the period of 1 March to 1 May 2009, using Meteosat-7 UTH products over the Indian Ocean and the UTH computed from the radiosonde profiles. The results suggest that UTH estimates from Kalpana match very well with the Meteosat-7 UTH products having RMS difference of ∼6%. Validation with the UTH computed from the radiosonde observed relative humidity shows that the RMS error of Kalpana UTH is 9.6% and the mean bias is −3.0%. Similar validation of Meteosat-7 UTH with the same set of radiosonde derived UTH shows an RMS error of 13.3% and the bias of −6.5%, which is higher in comparison to the Kalpana UTH.

  • 340.
    Tiainen, Arttu
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Inter-Satellite Link Antennas: Review and The Near Future2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 poäng / 120 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The emerging trend in distributed spacecraft systems of using multiple spacecraft which share functions as opposed to independent spacecraft has given opportunities for missions previously infeasible. Inter-satellite link (ISL) communications provide a direct link within the space segment without need of an intermediate ground segment to relay the data. As the distributed spacecraft systems (DSS) have become less exotic and more complex, the need and demand for inter-satellite antenna systems has increased and the requirements for the antenna systems more diverse and become more demanding. This document is a research of the antennas currently used for ISL, already flown or will be launched in the near future. While the emphasis is strongly in the antennas, the other parts of the ISL communications sub-systems are observed. To limit the scope of the work, optical cross links are not observed in this document. ISL used only for very close proximity, such as several kilometres, are given only limited scope as the main challenges on those do not involve antennas. Furthermore, the major emphasis is given to systems which can be seen as commercially important. This document is divided in five main sections and the conclusions. In the first section the features and the challenges of ISLs are described. In the second section a parametrisation system for antennas is defined and this system is used in following sections to describe the ISL sub-systems and antenna used in them. The third part is a survey of recently flown space missions with ISLs. The fourth section is a survey on the missions which are scheduled to fly in near future and a brief survey of the solutions offered by satellite service providers and manufacturers. Due to the limited technical data available, the fourth section contains far more reverse engineering and assumptions than the survey on legacy missions. The fifth section describes the several families of ISL suitable antennas under development and discusses about several topics which relate to the ISL antenna development. In this part also are defined several example antenna specifications and the applications of those. The study concludes that antennas suitable for inter-satellite links are not inherently different from ground segment communication antennas of the S/C. The major difference is the need for greater coverage, which can be attained by multiple antenna elements, beam steering or antenna pointing. Specific considerations are needed to be taken into account and often the use of ISLs will increase the technical challenges, but it can provide solutions for problems which cannot be solved otherwise.

  • 341.
    Tinetti, Giovanna
    et al.
    Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College London.
    Drossart, Pierre
    Observatoire de Paris.
    Eccleston, Paul
    STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory.
    Hartogh, Paul
    Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung.
    Isaak, Kate
    European Space Agency-ESTEC.
    Linder, Martin
    European Space Agency-ESTEC.
    Lovis, Christophe
    Geneva Observatory.
    Micela, Giusi
    INAF: Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo G.S. Vaiana.
    Ollivier, Marc
    Observatoire de Paris, Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale.
    Puig, Ludovic
    European Space Agency-ESTEC.
    Ribas, Ignasi
    Institut d’Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (ICE-CSIC).
    Snellen, Ignas
    Leiden University.
    Swinyard, Bruce
    Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College London, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory.
    Allard, France
    Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon.
    Barstow, Joanna
    Oxford University.
    Cho, James
    Queen Mary University of London.
    Coustenis, Athena
    Observatoire de Paris.
    Cockell, Charles
    Royal Observatory.
    Correia, Alexandre
    Aveiro University.
    Decin, Leen
    University of Leuven.
    Kok, Remco de
    SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research.
    Deroo, Pieter
    California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
    Encrenaz, Therese
    Observatoire de Paris.
    Forget, Francois
    Campus Jussieu.
    Glasse, Alistair
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Yurchenko, S. N.
    Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College London.
    The EChO science case2015Inngår i: Experimental astronomy (Print), ISSN 0922-6435, E-ISSN 1572-9508, Vol. 40, nr 2-3, 329-391 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The discovery of almost two thousand exoplanets has revealed an unexpectedly diverse planet population. We see gas giants in few-day orbits, whole multi-planet systems within the orbit of Mercury, and new populations of planets with masses between that of the Earth and Neptune—all unknown in the Solar System. Observations to date have shown that our Solar System is certainly not representative of the general population of planets in our Milky Way. The key science questions that urgently need addressing are therefore: What are exoplanets made of? Why are planets as they are? How do planetary systems work and what causes the exceptional diversity observed as compared to the Solar System? The EChO (Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory) space mission was conceived to take up the challenge to explain this diversity in terms of formation, evolution, internal structure and planet and atmospheric composition. This requires in-depth spectroscopic knowledge of the atmospheres of a large and well-defined planet sample for which precise physical, chemical and dynamical information can be obtained. In order to fulfil this ambitious scientific program, EChO was designed as a dedicated survey mission for transit and eclipse spectroscopy capable of observing a large, diverse and well-defined planet sample within its 4-year mission lifetime. The transit and eclipse spectroscopy method, whereby the signal from the star and planet are differentiated using knowledge of the planetary ephemerides, allows us to measure atmospheric signals from the planet at levels of at least 10−4 relative to the star. This can only be achieved in conjunction with a carefully designed stable payload and satellite platform. It is also necessary to provide broad instantaneous wavelength coverage to detect as many molecular species as possible, to probe the thermal structure of the planetary atmospheres and to correct for the contaminating effects of the stellar photosphere. This requires wavelength coverage of at least 0.55 to 11 μm with a goal of covering from 0.4 to 16 μm. Only modest spectral resolving power is needed, with R ~ 300 for wavelengths less than 5 μm and R ~ 30 for wavelengths greater than this. The transit spectroscopy technique means that no spatial resolution is required. A telescope collecting area of about 1 m2 is sufficiently large to achieve the necessary spectro-photometric precision: for the Phase A study a 1.13 m2 telescope, diffraction limited at 3 μm has been adopted. Placing the satellite at L2 provides a cold and stable thermal environment as well as a large field of regard to allow efficient time-critical observation of targets randomly distributed over the sky. EChO has been conceived to achieve a single goal: exoplanet spectroscopy. The spectral coverage and signal-to-noise to be achieved by EChO, thanks to its high stability and dedicated design, would be a game changer by allowing atmospheric composition to be measured with unparalleled exactness: at least a factor 10 more precise and a factor 10 to 1000 more accurate than current observations. This would enable the detection of molecular abundances three orders of magnitude lower than currently possible and a fourfold increase from the handful of molecules detected to date. Combining these data with estimates of planetary bulk compositions from accurate measurements of their radii and masses would allow degeneracies associated with planetary interior modelling to be broken, giving unique insight into the interior structure and elemental abundances of these alien worlds. EChO would allow scientists to study exoplanets both as a population and as individuals. The mission can target super-Earths, Neptune-like, and Jupiter-like planets, in the very hot to temperate zones (planet temperatures of 300–3000 K) of F to M-type host stars. The EChO core science would be delivered by a three-tier survey. The EChO Chemical Census: This is a broad survey of a few-hundred exoplanets, which allows us to explore the spectroscopic and chemical diversity of the exoplanet population as a whole. The EChO Origin: This is a deep survey of a subsample of tens of exoplanets for which significantly higher signal to noise and spectral resolution spectra can be obtained to explain the origin of the exoplanet diversity (such as formation mechanisms, chemical processes, atmospheric escape). The EChO Rosetta Stones: This is an ultra-high accuracy survey targeting a subsample of select exoplanets. These will be the bright “benchmark” cases for which a large number of measurements would be taken to explore temporal variations, and to obtain two and three dimensional spatial information on the atmospheric conditions through eclipse-mapping techniques. If EChO were launched today, the exoplanets currently observed are sufficient to provide a large and diverse sample. The Chemical Census survey would consist of > 160 exoplanets with a range of planetary sizes, temperatures, orbital parameters and stellar host properties. Additionally, over the next 10 years, several new ground- and space-based transit photometric surveys and missions will come on-line (e.g. NGTS, CHEOPS, TESS, PLATO), which will specifically focus on finding bright, nearby systems. The current rapid rate of discovery would allow the target list to be further optimised in the years prior to EChO’s launch and enable the atmospheric characterisation of hundreds of planets.

  • 342.
    Ullán, Aurora
    et al.
    Departamento de Teoría de la Señal y Comunicaciones, Escuela Politécnica Superior , Universidad de Alcalá, Madrid.
    Zorzano Mier, Maria-Paz
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Valentin-Serrano, Patricia
    nstituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (CSIC - UGR), Granada.
    Kahanpää, Henrik
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Harri, Ari-Matti
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Gómez-Elvira, Javier
    Centro de Astrobiologí a (CSIC-INTA), Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Navarro, Sara
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC - INTA), Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Analysis of wind-induced dynamic pressure fluctuations during one and a half Martian years at Gale Crater2017Inngår i: Icarus (New York, N.Y. 1962), ISSN 0019-1035, E-ISSN 1090-2643, Vol. 288, 78-87 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) instrument on-board the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) has acquired unprecedented measurements of key environmental variables at the base of Gale Crater. The pressure measured by REMS shows modulations with a very structured pattern of short-time scale (of the order of seconds to several minutes) mild fluctuations (typically up to 0.2 Pa at daytime and 1 Pa at night-time). These dynamic pressure oscillations are consistent with wind, air and ground temperature modulations measured simultaneously by REMS. We detect the signals of a repetitive pattern of upslope/downslope winds, with maximal speeds of about 21 m/s, associated with thermal changes in the air and surface temperatures, that are initiated after sunset and finish with sunrise proving that Gale, a 4.5 km deep impact crater, is an active Aeolian environment. At nighttime topographic slope winds are intense with maximal activity from 17:00 through 23:00 Local Mean Solar Time, and simultaneous changes of surface temperature are detected. During the day, the wind modulations are related to convection of the planetary boundary layer, winds are softer with maximum wind speed of about 14 m/s. The ground temperature is modulated by the forced convection of winds, with amplitudes between 0.2 K and 0.5 K, and the air temperatures fluctuate with amplitudes of about 2 K. The analysis of more than one and a half Martian years indicates the year-to-year repeatability of these environmental phenomena. The wind pattern minimizes at the beginning of the south hemisphere winter (Ls 90) season and maximizes during late spring and early summer (Ls 270). The procedure that we present here is a useful tool to investigate in a semi-quantitative way the winds by: i) filling both seasonal and diurnal gaps where wind measurements do not exist, ii) providing an alternative way for comparisons through different measuring principia and, iii) filling the gap of observation of short time-wind variability, where the REMS wind-sensor is blind

  • 343.
    Vakkada Ramachandran, Abhilash
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Design and Testing of Thermal Chambers for Space Qualification and Planetary Protection2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 344.
    Villlalba Corbacho, Víctor Manuel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Cranfield University.
    Vibro-acoustic monitoring for in-flight spacecraft2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of using the vibration transmitted through the structure of space systems whilst they are in flight for monitoring purposes is proposed and analysed.The performed patent review seems to indicate that this technique is not currently used despite being, in principle, a good way to obtain valuable knowledge about the spacecraft’s condition. Potential sources of vibration were listed and some of them were down-selected via a trade-off analysis for implementation in a numerical model of a CubeSat structure. Models were proposed for the sources chosen and implemented in the Ansys Workbench software, along with a simplified structure designed to be representative of a generic picosatellite mission.The results confirmed very different amplitude and frequency ranges for the sources of interest, which would make it difficult to monitor them with one type of sensor.Basic system requirements for accelerometer operating under space conditions were derived and commercial sources were identified as already having the technologies needed.The conclusion was a positive evaluation of the overall concept, although revising negatively the initial expectations for its performance due to the diversity encountered in the sources.

  • 345.
    Walden, Aleksi
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    SMOS satellite hardware anomaly prediction methods based on Earth radiation environment data sets2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 poäng / 120 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) is ESA's Earth Explorer series satellite carrying the novel MIRAS (Microwave Imaging Radiometer with Aperture Synthesis) interferometric synthetic aperture radar. Its objective is monitoring and studying the planet's water cycle by following the changes in soil moisture levels and ocean surface salt concentrations on a global scale. The success of the mission calls for nearly uninterrupted operation of the science payload. However, the instrument experiences sporadically problems with its hardware, which cause losses of scientific data and may require intervention from ground to resolve. The geographical areas in which most of these anomalies occur, polar regions and the South-Atlantic anomaly, give cause to assume these problems are caused by charged particles in the planet's ionosphere. In this thesis, methods of predicting occurrence of hardware anomalies from indicators of Earth radiation environment are investigated.

  • 346.
    Webster, Christopher R.
    et al.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Mahaffy, Paul R.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Atreya, Sushil K.
    University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
    Flesch, Gregory J.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Mischna, Michael A.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Meslin, Pierre-Yves
    Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, Toulouse.
    Farley, Kenneth A.
    California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Conrad, Pamela G.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Christensen, Lance E.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Pavlov, Alexander A.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Zorzano, María-Paz
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    McConnochie, Timothy H.
    Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park.
    Owen, Tobias
    University of Hawaii, Honolulu.
    Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Glavin, Daniel P.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Steele, Andrew
    Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC..
    Malespin, Charles A.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Jr., P. Douglas Archer
    Jacobs Technology, NASA Johnson Space Center.
    Sutter, Brad
    Jacobs Technology, NASA Johnson Space Center.
    Coll, Patrice
    Laboratoire Inter-Universitaires des Systèmes Atmosphériques, Paris.
    Freissinet, Caroline
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    McKay, Christopher P.
    NASA Ames Research Center, Division of Space Sciences and Astrobiology, Mail Stop 245-3, Moffett Field, CA , NASA Ames Research Center.
    Moores, John E.
    York University, Toronto.
    Schwenzer, Susanne P.
    Open University, Milton Keynes.
    Lemmon, Mark T.
    Texas A&M University, College Station.
    Mars methane detection and variability at Gale crater2015Inngår i: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 347, nr 6220, 415-417 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Reports of plumes or patches of methane in the Martian atmosphere that vary over monthly timescales have defied explanation to date. From in situ measurements made over a 20-month period by the Tunable Laser Spectrometer (TLS) of the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite on Curiosity at Gale Crater, we report detection of background levels of atmospheric methane of mean value 0.69 ± 0.25 ppbv at the 95% confidence interval (CI). This abundance is lower than model estimates of ultraviolet (UV) degradation of accreted interplanetary dust particles (IDP’s) or carbonaceous chondrite material. Additionally, in four sequential measurements spanning a 60-sol period, we observed elevated levels of methane of 7.2 ± 2.1 (95% CI) ppbv implying that Mars is episodically producing methane from an additional unknown source.

  • 347.
    Wedlund, Cyril Simon
    et al.
    Aalto University, School of Electrical Engineering, Department of Radio Science and Engineering.
    Kallio, Esa
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Aalto University, School of Electrical Engineering, Department of Radio Science and Engineering.
    Alho, Markku
    Aalto University, School of Electrical Engineering, Department of Radio Science and Engineering.
    Nilsson, Hans
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Wieser, Gabriella Stenberg
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics.
    Gunell, Herbert
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics / Institutet för rymdfysik , Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy, Brussels.
    Behar, Etienne
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik.
    Pusa, J.
    Aalto University, School of Electrical Engineering, Department of Radio Science and Engineering.
    Gronoff, Guillaume
    Science Directorate, Chemistry and Dynamics Branch, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia.
    The atmosphere of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko diagnosed by charge-exchanged solar wind alpha particles2016Inngår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 587, A154Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. The ESA/Rosetta mission has been orbiting comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko since August 2014, measuring its dayside plasma environment. The ion spectrometer onboard Rosetta has detected two ion populations, one energetic with a solar wind origin (H+, He2+, He+), the other at lower energies with a cometary origin (water group ions such as H2O+). He+ ions arise mainly from charge-exchange between solar wind alpha particles and cometary neutrals such as H2O. Aims. The He+ and He2+ ion fluxes measured by the Rosetta Plasma Consortium Ion Composition Analyser (RPC-ICA) give insight into the composition of the dayside neutral coma, into the importance of charge-exchange processes between the solar wind and cometary neutrals, and into the way these evolve when the comet draws closer to the Sun. Methods. We combine observations by the ion spectrometer RPC-ICA onboard Rosetta with calculations from an analytical model based on a collisionless neutral Haser atmosphere and nearly undisturbed solar wind conditions. Results. Equivalent neutral outgassing rates Q can be derived using the observed RPC-ICA He+/He2+ particle flux ratios as input into the analytical model in inverse mode. A revised dependence of Q on heliocentric distance Rh in AU is found to be Rh -7.06Rh-7.06 between 1.8 and 3.3 AU, suggesting that the activity in 2015 differed from that of the 2008 perihelion passage. Conversely, using an outgassing rate determined from optical remote sensing measurements from Earth, the forward analytical model results are in relatively good agreement with the measured RPC-ICA flux ratios. Modelled ratios in a 2D spherically-symmetric plane are also presented, showing that charge exchange is most efficient with solar wind protons. Detailed cometocentric profiles of these ratios are also presented. Conclusions. In conclusion, we show that, with the help of a simple analytical model of charge-exchange processes, a mass-capable ion spectrometer such as RPC-ICA can be used as a "remote-sensing" instrument for the neutral cometary atmosphere.

  • 348.
    Weighton, David
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Pellinen-Wannberg, Asta
    Umeå universitet.
    Barabash, Victoria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Molin, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    The development of masters programs in space science and technology in northern Scandinavia2008Inngår i: Proceedings of the 59th International Astronautical Congress: Glascow, Scotland, 29 Sept - 3 Oct 2008, 2008Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 349.
    Wenzel, Andreas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Onboard Convex Optimization for Powered Descent Landing of EAGLE2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Future space exploration missions require new solutions in Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC) for autonomous landing. The German Aerospace Centre, DLR, is developing the environment for autonomous GNC Landing experiments, EAGLE, acting as a demonstrator for vertical take-off and landing. The goal of this thesis is to develop a prototype real-time applicable guidance function based on convex optimal control theory for powered descent landing, which can be implemented and tested on the on-board computer of EAGLE. Applying loss less convexification, the powered descent landing fuel-optimal control problem is converted into a second order cone problem. A discretization and transcription method is designed in order to solve the resulting non-linear program by means of the embedded conic solver ECOS and the developed algorithm is verified by a comparison of simulation results for an example pinpoint landing on Mars.  In addition, a heuristic kinematic estimation for the fuel-optimal flight time is added, which defines a fixed flight time for the convex trajectory optimization problem. This enables to automatically generate trajectories optimized for the estimated flight time and given initial and final conditions. A processor-in-the-loop test proofs the potential to apply the developed guidance function on the onboard computer of EAGLE, while simulations with different sets of initial and final conditions reveal that the trajectories computed by the guidance function require more fuel than the actual fuel-optimal trajectory due to an inaccurate flight time estimation for several simulation sets. Therefore, the guidance function developed in this thesis provides a first step towards an optimal trajectory generation framework on-board of EAGLE.

  • 350.
    Wetzel, G.
    et al.
    Karlsruhe Institute of Technology.
    Oelhaf, H.
    Karlsruhe Institute of Technology.
    Berthet, G.
    CNRS.
    Bracher, A.
    Universität Bremen.
    Cornacchia, C.
    CNR, IMAA.
    Feist, D.G.
    Max-Planck-Institut.
    Fischer, H.
    Karlsruhe Institute of Technology.
    Fix, A.
    Iarlori, M.
    Università Degli Studi dell'Aquila.
    Kleinert, A.
    Karlsruhe Institute of Technology.
    Lengel, A.
    Karlsruhe Institute of Technology.
    Milz, Mathias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Mona, L.
    CNR, IMAA.
    Muller, S.C.
    University of Bern.
    Ovarlez, J.
    CNRS.
    Pappalardo, G.
    CNR, IMAA.
    Piccolo, C.
    CNR.
    Paspollini, P.
    CNR.
    Renard, J-P
    CNRS.
    Rizi, V.
    Università Degli Studi dell'Aquila.
    Rohs, S.
    Schiller, C.
    Stiller, G.
    Karlsruhe Institute of Technology.
    Weber, M.
    Universität Bremen.
    Zhang, G.
    Karlsruhe Institute of Technology.
    Validation of MIPAS-ENVISAT H2O operational data collected between July 2002 and March 20042013Inngår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 13, nr 11, 5791-5811 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Water vapour (H2O) is one of the operationally retrieved key species of the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) instrument aboard the Environmental Satellite (ENVISAT) which was launched into its sun-synchronous orbit on 1 March 2002 and operated until April 2012. Within the MIPAS validation activities, independent observations from balloons, aircraft, satellites, and ground-based stations have been compared to European Space Agency (ESA) version 4.61 operational H2O data comprising the time period from July 2002 until March 2004 where MIPAS measured with full spectral resolution. No significant bias in the MIPAS H2O data is seen in the lower stratosphere (above the hygropause) between about 15 and 30 km. Differences of H2O quantities observed by MIPAS and the validation instruments are mostly well within the combined total errors in this altitude region. In the upper stratosphere (above about 30 km), a tendency towards a small positive bias (up to about 10 %) is present in the MIPAS data when compared to its balloon-borne counterpart MIPAS-B, to the satellite instruments HALOE (Halogen Occultation Experiment) and ACE-FTS (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment, Fourier Transform Spectrometer), and to the millimeter-wave airborne sensor AMSOS (Airborne Microwave Stratospheric Observing System). In the mesosphere the situation is unclear due to the occurrence of different biases when comparing HALOE and ACE-FTS data. Pronounced deviations between MIPAS and the correlative instruments occur in the lowermost stratosphere and upper troposphere, a region where retrievals of H2O are most challenging. Altogether it can be concluded that MIPAS H2O profiles yield valuable information on the vertical distribution of H2O in the stratosphere with an overall accuracy of about 10 to 30% and a precision of typically 5 to 15% - well within the predicted error budget, showing that these global and continuous data are very valuable for scientific studies. However, in the region around the tropopause retrieved MIPAS H2O profiles are less reliable, suffering from a number of obstacles such as retrieval boundary and cloud effects, sharp vertical discontinuities, and frequent horizontal gradients in both temperature and H2O volume mixing ratio (VMR). Some profiles are characterized by retrieval instabilities.

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