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  • 301.
    Creutzfeldt, Johan
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden and Center for Advanced Medical Simulation, Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Hedman, Leif
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Center for Advanced Medical Simulation, Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Medin, Christopher
    Center for Advanced Medical Simulation, Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Heinrichs, LeRoy
    Stanford University Medical Media and Information Technology, Stanford University, Palo Alto, United States.
    Felländer-Tsai, Li
    Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden and Center for Advanced Medical Simulation, Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Exploring Virtual Worlds for Scenario-Based Repeated Team Training of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Medical Students2010Inngår i: Journal of Medical Internet Research, ISSN 1438-8871, E-ISSN 1438-8871, Vol. 12, nr 3, s. e38-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Contemporary learning technologies, such as massively multiplayer virtual worlds (MMVW), create new means for teaching and training. However, knowledge about the effectiveness of such training is incomplete, and there are no data regarding how students experience it. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a field within medicine in high demand for new and effective training modalities.

    Objective

    In addition to finding a feasible way to implement CPR training, our aim was to investigate how a serious game setting in a virtual world using avatars would influence medical students’ subjective experiences as well as their retention of knowledge.

    Methods

    An MMVW was refined and used in a study to train 12 medical students in CPR in 3-person teams in a repeated fashion 6 months apart. An exit questionnaire solicited reflections over their experiences. As the subjects trained in 4 CPR scenarios, measurements of self-efficacy, concentration, and mental strain were made in addition to measuring knowledge. Engagement modes and coping strategies were also studied. Parametric and nonparametric statistical analyses were carried out according to distribution of the data.

    Results

    The majority of the subjects reported that they had enjoyed the training, had found it to be suitable, and had learned something new, although several asked for more difficult and complex scenarios as well as a richer virtual environment. The mean values for knowledge dropped during the 6 months from 8.0/10 to 6.25/10 (P = .002). Self-efficacy increased from before to after each of the two training sessions, from 5.9/7 to 6.5/7 (P = .01) after the first and from 6.0/7 to 6.7/7 (P = .03) after the second. The mean perceived concentration value increased from 54.2/100 to 66.6/100 (P = .006), and in general the mental strain was found to be low to moderate (mean = 2.6/10).

    Conclusions

    Using scenario-based virtual world team training with avatars to train medical students in multi-person CPR was feasible and showed promising results. Although we found no evidence of stimulated recall of CPR procedures in our test-retest study, the subjects were enthusiastic and reported increased concentration during the training. We also found that subjects’ self-efficacy had increased after the training. Despite the need for further studies, these findings imply several possible uses of MMVW technology for future emergency medical training.

  • 302.
    Croy, Ilona
    et al.
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Gothenburg University, Göteborg, Sweden and Smell & Taste Clinic, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Dresden Medical School, Dresden, Germany.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Smell & Taste Clinic, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Dresden Medical School, Dresden, Germany.
    Hummel, Thomas
    Smell & Taste Clinic, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Dresden Medical School, Germany.
    Olfactory Disorders and Quality of Life-An Updated Review2014Inngår i: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 39, nr 3, s. 185-194Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Olfactory disorders are common and affect about one-fifth of the general population. The main causes of olfactory loss are post viral upper respiratory infection, nasal/sinus disease, and head trauma and are therefore very frequent among patients in ear, nose, and throat clinics. We have systematically reviewed the impact of quantitative, qualitative, and congenital olfactory disorders on daily life domains as well as on general quality of life and depression. From the extensive body of literature, it can be concluded that loss of the sense of smell leads to disturbances in important areas, mainly in food enjoyment, detecting harmful food and smoke, and to some extent in social situations and working life. Most patients seem to deal well and manage those restrictions. However, a smaller proportion has considerable problems and expresses a noticeable reduction in general quality of life and enhanced depression. The impact of coping strategies is discussed.

  • 303.
    Curtis S., Dunkel
    et al.
    Western Illinois University, United States.
    Cabeza De Baca, Tomás
    Family Studies and Human Development, University of Arizona, United States.
    Woodley, Michael A.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Center Leo Apostel for Interdisciplinary Studies, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium.
    Fernandes, Heitor B.F.
    Institute of Psychology, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    The General Factor of Personality and general intelligence: Testing hypotheses from Differential-K, Life History Theory, and strategic differentiation-integration effort2014Inngår i: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 61-62, s. 13-17Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Life history as applied to human psychology has progressed on different levels of analysis including between racial groups (Differential-K) and between individuals (Life History Theory). While the approaches at each level have garnered significant research support, some findings at the level of individual differences are inconsistent with findings from the level of group differences. The association between the General Factor of Personality and general intelligence was examined across and within racial groups to investigate the inconsistency. The results were in line with predictions derived from strategic differentiation–integration effort (SD–IE), the proposition that aggregation amongst variables decreases as life history strategy slows. The results suggest SD–IE may be a useful tool in reconciling the apparent contradictions across the levels of analysis.

  • 304.
    Cusinato, Mario
    et al.
    Department of psychology University of Padua, Italy.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Stages of Middle childhood2003Inngår i: International Encyclopedia of Marriage and Family Relationships, Vol. 1, s. 258-264-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 305.
    Cusinato, Mario
    et al.
    Department of psychology University of Padua, italy.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Stages of toddlerood2003Inngår i: International Encyclopedia of marriage and family relationships, Vol. 1, s. 269- 274-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 306. Dagoo, Jesper
    et al.
    Asplund, Robert Persson
    Andersson Bsenko, Helene
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Hjerling, Sofia
    Holmberg, Anna
    Westh, Susanne
    Oberg, Louise
    Ljotsson, Brjann
    Carlbring, Per
    Furmark, Tomas
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Cognitive behavior therapy versus interpersonal psychotherapy for social anxiety disorder delivered via smartphone and computer: A randomized controlled trial2014Inngår i: Journal of Anxiety Disorders, ISSN 0887-6185, E-ISSN 1873-7897, Vol. 28, nr 4, s. 410-417Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a previously evaluated guided Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for social anxiety disorder (SAD) was adapted for mobile phone administration (mCBT). The treatment was compared with a guided self-help treatment based on interpersonal psychotherapy (mIPT). The treatment platform could be accessed through smartphones, tablet computers, and standard computers. A total of 52 participants were diagnosed with SAD and randomized to either mCBT (n = 27) or mIPT (n = 25). Measures were collected at pre-treatment, during the treatment, post-treatment and 3-month follow-up. On the primary outcome measure, the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale - self-rated, both groups showed statistically significant improvements. However, mCBT performed significantly better than mIPT (between group Cohen's d = 0.64 in favor of mCBT). A larger proportion of the mCBT group was classified as responders at post-treatment (55.6% versus 8.0% in the mIPT group). We conclude that CBT for SAD can be delivered using modern information technology. IPT delivered as a guided self-help treatment may be less effective in this format.

  • 307.
    Dahl, Frida
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Upplevd organisationsrättvisa, stress och utbrändhet hos anställda inom Svenska kyrkan2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Sjukskrivningstalet har ökat och ökningen har framförallt skett inom kontaktyrken. Syftet med den aktuella studien var att undersöka om det finns ett samband mellan upplevd organisationsrättvisa, stress och utbrändhet hos anställda inom Svenska kyrkan. Deltagarna utgjorde präster, diakoner, pedagoger, musiker och teknisk/administrativ personal (N = 143) från Karlstad, Luleå, Strängnäs och Västerås stift. En elektronisk enkät utformades och distribuerades till deltagarna via e-post. Korrelationsanalyser visade att det finns ett negativt samband mellan organisationsrättvisa och stress samt mellan organisationsrättvisa och utbrändhet. Variansanalyser visade även att det finns skillnader med avseende på kön i organisationsrättvisa och med avseende på yrke i organisationsrättvisa och utbrändhet. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 308. Dahl, Sofia
    et al.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Keeping the tempo and perceiving the beat2006Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 309. Dahl, Sofia
    et al.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Psykologi.
    Keeping the tempo and perceiving the beat2006Inngår i: 9th International Conference on Music Perception and Cognition: Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, August 22-26 2006, 2006Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 310.
    Dahlin, Erika
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Bäckman, Lars
    Aging Research Center, Karolinska institutet,Stockholm.
    Stigsdotter Neely, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi.
    Training of the executive component of working memory: subcortial areas mediate transfer effects2009Inngår i: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience, ISSN 0922-6028, E-ISSN 1878-3627, Vol. 27, nr 5, s. 405-419Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Several recent studies show that training can improve working memory (WM) performance. In this review, many issues related to WM training, such as neural basis, transfer effects, and age-related changes are addressed.

    Method: We focus on our own studies investigating training on tasks taxing the executive updating function and discuss our findings in relation to results from other studies investigating training of the executive component of WM.

    Results: The review confirms positive behavioral effects of training on working memory. The most common neural pattern following training is fronto-parietal activity decreases. Increases in sub-cortical areas are also frequently reported after training, and we suggest that such increases indicate changes in the underlying skill following training. Transfer effects are in general difficult to demonstrate. Some studies show that older adults increase their performance after WM training. However, transfer effects are small or nonexistent in old age.

    Conclusions: The main finding in this review is that sub-cortical areas seem to have a critical role in mediating transfer effects to untrained tasks after at least some forms of working memory training (such as updating).

  • 311.
    Dahlin, Erika
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi.
    Bäckman, Lars
    Stigsdotter Neely, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Plasticity of executive functioning in young and older adults: immediative training gains, transfer, and long-term maintenance2008Inngår i: Psychology and Aging, ISSN 0882-7974, E-ISSN 1939-1498, Vol. 23, nr 4, s. 720-730Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors investigated immediate training gains, transfer effects, and 18-month maintenance after 5 weeks of computer-based training in updating of information in working memory in young and older subjects. Trained young and older adults improved significantly more than controls on the criterion task (letter memory), and these gains were maintained 18 months later. Transfer effects were in general limited and restricted to the young participants, who showed transfer to an untrained task that required updating (3-back). The findings demonstrate substantial and durable plasticity of executive functioning across adulthood and old age, although there appear to be age-related constraints in the ability to generalize the acquired updating skill.

  • 312.
    Dahlin, Erika
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi.
    Stigsdotter-Neely, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Larsson, Anne
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Radiofysik.
    Bäckman, Lars
    Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institute, 11330 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Transfer of learning after updating training mediated by the striatum2008Inngår i: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 320, nr 5882, s. 1510-1512Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Process-specific training can improve performance on untrained tasks, but the magnitude of gain is variable and often there is no transfer at all. We demonstrate transfer to a 3-back test of working memory after 5 weeks of training in updating. The transfer effect was based on a joint training-related activity increase for the criterion (letter memory) and transfer tasks in a striatal region that also was recruited pretraining. No transfer was observed to a task that did not engage updating and striatal regions, and age-related striatal changes imposed constraints on transfer. These findings indicate that transfer can occur if the criterion and transfer tasks engage specific overlapping processing components and brain regions.

  • 313. Dahlin, Mats
    et al.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Magnusson, Kristoffer
    Johansson, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Sjögren, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Håkansson, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Pettersson, Magnus
    Kadowaki, Asa
    Cuijpers, Pim
    Carlbring, Per
    Internet-delivered acceptance-based behaviour therapy for generalized anxiety disorder: A randomized controlled trial2016Inngår i: Behaviour Research and Therapy, ISSN 0005-7967, E-ISSN 1873-622X, Vol. 77, s. 86-95Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a disabling condition which can be treated with cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT). The present study tested the effects of therapist-guided internet-delivered acceptance-based behaviour therapy on symptoms of GAD and quality of life. An audio CD with acceptance and mindfulness exercises and a separate workbook were also included in the treatment. Participants diagnosed with GAD (N = 103) were randomly allocated to immediate therapist-guided internet-delivered acceptance-based behaviour therapy or to a waiting-list control condition. A six month follow-up was also included. Results using hierarchical linear modelling showed moderate to large effects on symptoms of GAD (Cohen's d = 0.70 to 0.98), moderate effects on depressive symptoms (Cohen's d = 0.51 to 0.56), and no effect on quality of life. Follow-up data showed maintained effects. While there was a 20% dropout rate, sensitivity analyses showed that dropouts did not differ in their degree of change during treatment. To conclude, our study suggests that internet-delivered acceptance based behaviour therapy can be effective in reducing the symptoms of GAD.

  • 314.
    Dahlqvist, Alexandra
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Johnsson, Amelie
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Socioemotionell hälsa hos treåringar i Västerbotten2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Tidig socioemotionell hälsa har visat sig ha betydelse för barnets senare utveckling (Leuzinger-Bohleber, 2014). Om problem i denna uppstår kan det leda till psykisk ohälsa vilket gör det viktigt att tidigt undersöka barns socioemotionella hälsa. Syftet med studien var att undersöka socioemotionell hälsa hos treåringar i Västerbotten. Vidare, att undersöka om det finns könsskillnader samt om det finns ett samband med kostvanor. För att undersöka detta användes självskattningsinstrumentet Ages & Stages Questionnaire: Social Emotional (ASQ:SE) där föräldrar till treåringar (N = 878) skattade barnets  socioemotionella hälsa. Resultatet visade att 6 % av de treåringar som ingick i studien skattades över riskvärdet samt att pojkar skattades ha sämre socioemotionell hälsa än flickor. Vidare visade resultatet att nyttig kost har ett signifikant men svagt samband med bättre socioemotionell hälsa. Antal månader med enbart bröstmjölk visade inga samband. Sammanfattningsvis tyder resultaten på att treåringar i Västerbotten har en god socioemotionell hälsa och flickor mår lite bättre än pojkar. Vidare visar studien att kost kan ha betydelse för den socioemotionella hälsan hos treåringar men det behöver undersökas mer i framtida studier.

       

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 315.
    Dahlqvist, Hannah
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Heiskanen, Katarina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    EFFECTS OF SPORTS-RELATED CONCUSSION AND SYMPTOM RATING ON NEUROCOGNITIVE PERFORMANCE: NORMATIVE DATA OF THE IMMEDIATE POST-CONCUSSION ASSESSMENT AND COGNITIVE TESTING (IMPACT) IN ELITE ICE HOCKEY PLAYERS IN SWEDEN2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research has found little or no negative effects of concussion history on neurocognitive performance among athletes. Higher symptom ratings have however been observed among athletes who have experienced several concussions compared to those with zero or one. Previous research has focused on the effect of concussions on symptom ratings and neurocognitive performance, but not the combined effect of concussion history and symptom ratings on neurocognitive performance. Thus, the present cross-sectional study sought to present normative data for the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) test battery, and to examine the combined effect of concussion history and symptom ratings on neurocognitive performance among elite ice hockey players in Sweden. The study analyzed data derived from a register database. Participants consisted of male and female elite ice hockey players (n= 761, M age= 21.12, SD= 5.12), ranging from 16-45 years, who had underwent ImPACT testing. For the normative data, the participants were divided into groups based on sex and age. In the multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) the athletes were divided into nine different groups depending on the combination of concussion history (0, 1, or ≥2) and symptom ratings (low, moderate, or high). Female athletes were excluded from the MANCOVA analysis since the sample were too small and did not meet the criteria for analysis. The results for the normative data, separated by gender, showed statistically significant differences in neurocognitive performance between the age groups. The MANCOVA showed neither an effect on neurocognitive performance for the combination of concussion history and symptom ratings, nor number of concussions alone. A main effect of symptom ratings was found for Impulse control, where athletes with high symptoms ratings displayed worse performance than those with low symptom ratings. The present study confirms previous research regarding concussion history not being a predictor for neurocognitive performance. This study also found that high symptom ratings were present even in athletes without concussion history which means that high symptom ratings may be explained by other factors other than concussions itself.

  • 316.
    Dahlstedt, Carl
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Bergstedt, Annie
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    ”Kanske lägger man det litegrann hos patienten…”: En studie av systemisk makt inom psykologisk praktik2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Följande studie undersöker hur auktoritet upprätthålls i psykologisk praktik, genom sex intervjuer med kliniska psykologer under utbildning till specialister inom psykoterapi. Data analyserades med Foucauldian Discourse Analysis. I materialet konstruerades patientens förmåga att tillgodogöra sig bedömning och behandling utifrån dennes klassificerade förutsättningar, vilket gav två möjliga positioner för patienten: följsamhet eller motstånd. Psykologen konstruerade sig själv som professionell respektive kompetent auktoritet samt som människa med självtvivel. Både patientens och psykologens position definierades utifrån respektive relation till psykologisk kunskap; patienten utifrån förmåga eller vilja att acceptera och agera efter psykologisk teori och psykologen som given auktoritet genom kunskap och utbildning. Patienters motstånd och psykologens självtvivel hanterades genom att konstrueras som problem inom dem själva och auktoritet upprätthålls genom följsamhet till denna positionering. Resultaten diskuteras utifrån en svensk vårdkontext styrd av New Public Management och Evidensbaserad praktik.

  • 317.
    Dahlström, Carolin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nygård, Malin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Effects of a preterm birth:: Kinematics, lateralization and cognitive function in school-aged children2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Premature birth is a well-known risk factor for deviations in neurodevelopment. The aim of this study was to investigate possible long-term effects of preterm birth. Associations was to be investigated between preterm birth and kinematics, lateralization and cognitive function among 40 children born preterm (PT) compared to 48 age-matched children born full-term (FT). Kinematics was registered by a goal-directed task (pressing buttons in sequences, uni- or bimanually). Cognitive function was measured with Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children – 4th Edition and side-preference with Dichotic Listening and hand, foot and eye observations. Results showed significant differences between groups regarding kinematics and general cognitive function. Gestational age (GA) is associated with kinematics, cognitive function and side-preference. Findings suggest immature spatio-temporal movement organization as a long-term effect of risk factors associated to preterm birth, specifically children born very PT. This may also be related to lower cognitive function due to deviations in related cerebral structures.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Effects of a preterm birth:
  • 318.
    Dahlström, Carolin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nygård, Malin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Domellöf, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Johansson, Anna-Maria
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Rönnqvist, Louise
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Uni- and bimanual goal-directed arm movement organization in children at 6-9 years: Effects of a preterm birth2014Inngår i: Congress Programme. 1st Clinical Movement Analysis Word Conference, 2014, s. 110-110Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION and AIM

    Psychomotor deficits are more commonly reported among children born preterm (PT) than those born full-term (FT). Further, evidence exists for more covert motor problems in children born preterm at school age [1]. Such findings may be associated with a more immature spatiotemporal model of movements and lower cognitive functioning in children born PT than FT [2]. The main aim of this study was to investigate the effects of gestational age (GA) on uni- and bimanual goal-directed arm movement organization and on cognitive functioning in children at school age.

    PATIENTS/MATERIALS and METHODS

    Participants consisted of 88 children between 6-9 years of age (M = 7.7 years; 40 PT, 19 girls; 48 FT, 22 girls) without known developmental delays or deviations. Children born PT were divided into two subgroups: moderately PT (M-PT), 34-36 weeks’ gestation (GW), and very PT (V-PT), < 34 GW. Movement kinematics were examined during performance of a goal-directed task, where the participants pushed three buttons in a sequential order in two different directions (vertical or horizontal) with either the right or left hand (unimanual) and with both hands simultaneously (bimanual). Movements were recorded by a 6-camera movement registration system (240Hz, ProReflex) and the number of movement units (MUs) was derived from head, shoulders, elbow, and wrist movement velocity profiles. Cognitive function in terms of verbal IQ (VIQ) and full scale IQ (FSIQ) was measured by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition (WISC-IV).

    RESULTS

    Overall, a significant difference between the groups regarding number of MUs and FSIQ was found. In general, children born V-PT showed more MUs compared with the FT and M-PT group. Regardless of group, a significant higher amount of MUs was found in the bimanual condition than in the unimanual, and during horizontal movement performance in comparison with vertical. Furthermore, GA was significant negatively correlated with number of MUs for right and left wrist and right elbow, and also with FSIQ.

    DISCUSSION and CONCLUSIONS

    These findings suggest that lower GAs are associated with both more segmented goal-directed arm movements as well as with lower general cognitive ability. During the more demanding tasks, i.e. bimanual and horizontal movements, this association became particularly evident, where the children born V-PT exhibited the greatest difficulties. Thus, this indicate immature spatio-temporal movement organization as a long-lasting effect of risk factors associated with a preterm birth, specifically for children born V-PT, that may be related to lower cognitive function. Further, limitations in kinematic degrees of freedom, leading to restricted amounts of solutions when solving a motor task, may also partly explain these findings.

    REFERENCES

    [1] Bracewell, M. & Marlow, N. (2002). Patterns of motor disability in very preterm children. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 8(4), 241-248.

    [2] Domellöf, E., Johansson, A-M., Farooqi, A., Domellöf M. & Rönnqvist, L. (2013). Relations among upper-limb movement organization and cognitive function at school age in children born preterm. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 34(5), 344-352.

  • 319.
    Dahlström, Ellen
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Strömbäck, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Hälsofrämjande faktorer i chefers arbetsmiljö2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna kvalitativa studie är att undersöka chefers upplevelser av hälsofrämjande faktorer i sin egen arbetsmiljö och hur de inkluderar detta i sitt ledarskap. De frågeställningar som är aktuella är: Vilka hälsofrämjande faktorer upplever en chef i sin arbetsmiljö och hur överför chefen de hälsofrämjande faktorerna till medarbetarnas arbetsmiljö? Datamaterialet har samlats in genom två fokusgruppsintervjuer. Totalt deltog nio chefer i två svenska kommuner och materialet har analyserats med hjälp av en tematisk analys. Tre teman framgick av analysen: Struktur, välmående och medvetna val. Struktur menar cheferna är en förutsättning för att utföra uppdraget. Välmående hos både dem själva och deras medarbetare bidrar till upplevd hälsa och medvetna val görs för att främja sin egen och medarbetarnas hälsa. Detta görs genom ett positivt förhållningssätt hos cheferna. Studiens slutsats är att chefer upplever flera hälsofrämjande faktorer i sitt arbete. Stöd av kollegor, medarbetarnas trivsel och chefens egen hälsa är några. Avgörande för chefens upplevda hälsa är att dessa faktorer måste balansera gentemot de krav cheferna har i sitt uppdrag. De hälsofrämjande faktorer som cheferna själva upplever i sin arbetsmiljö försöker de på ett medvetet sätt överföra till medarbetarnas arbetsmiljö.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 320.
    Dalton, Pamela
    et al.
    Monell Chemical Senses Center, Philadelphia, USA.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Horenziak, Steve
    The Procter & Gamble Company, Cincinnati, USA.
    The Impact of Indoor Malodor: Historical Perspective, Modern Challenges, Negative Effects, and Approaches for Mitigation2020Inngår i: Atmosphere, ISSN 2073-4433, E-ISSN 2073-4433, Vol. 11, nr 2, artikkel-id 126Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Malodors, odors perceived to be unpleasant or offensive, may elicit negative symptoms via the olfactory system’s connections to cognitive and behavioral systems at levels below the known thresholds for direct adverse events. Publications on harm caused by indoor malodor are fragmented across disciplines and have not been comprehensively summarized to date. This review examines the potential negative effects of indoor malodor on human behavior, performance and health, including individual factors that may govern such responses and identifies gaps in existing research. Reported findings show that indoor malodor may have negative psychological, physical, social, and economic effects. However, further research is needed to understand whether the adverse effects are elicited via an individual’s experience or expectations or through a direct effect on human physiology and well-being. Conversely, mitigating indoor malodor has been reported to have benefits on performance and subjective responses in workers. Eliminating the source of malodor is often not achievable, particularly in low-income communities. Therefore, affordable approaches to mitigate indoor malodor such as air fresheners may hold promise. However, further investigations are needed into the effectiveness of such measures on improving health outcomes such as cognition, mood, and stress levels and their overall impact on indoor air quality.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 321. Dantoft, Thomas M.
    et al.
    Skovbjerg, Sine
    Andersson, Linus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Engkilde, Kaare
    Lind, Nina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Hellgren, Lars I.
    Gene expression profiling in persons with multiple chemical sensitivity before and after a controlled n-butanol exposure session2017Inngår i: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 7, nr 2, artikkel-id e013879Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To investigate the pathophysiological pathways leading to symptoms elicitation in multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) by comparing gene expression in MCS participants and healthy controls before and after a chemical exposure optimised to cause symptoms among MCS participants. The first hypothesis was that unexposed and symptom=-free MCS participants have similar gene expression patterns to controls and a second hypothesis that MCS participants can be separated from controls based on differential gene expression upon a controlled n=-butanol exposure.

    Design: Participants were exposed to 3.7 ppm n-butanol while seated in a windowed exposure chamber for 60 min. A total of 26 genes involved in biochemical pathways found in the literature have been proposed to play a role in the pathogenesis of MCS and other functional somatic syndromes were selected. Expression levels were compared between MCS and controls before, within 15 min after being exposed to and 4 hours after the exposure.

    Settings: Participants suffering from MCS and healthy controls were recruited through advertisement at public places and in a local newspaper.

    Participants: 36 participants who considered themselves sensitive were prescreened for eligibility. 18 sensitive persons fulfilling the criteria for MCS were enrolled together with 18 healthy controls.

    Outcome measures: 17 genes showed sufficient transcriptional level for analysis. Group comparisons were conducted for each gene at the 3 times points and for the computed area under the curve (AUC) expression levels.

    Results: MCS participants and controls displayed similar gene expression levels both at baseline and after the exposure and the computed AUC values were likewise comparable between the 2 groups. The intragroup variation in expression levels among MCS participants was noticeably greater than the controls.

    Conclusions: MCS participants and controls have similar gene expression levels at baseline and it was not possible to separate MCS participants from controls based on gene expression measured after the exposure.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 322.
    Dantoft, Thomas Meinertz
    et al.
    Danish Research Centre for Chemical Sensitivities, Copenhagen University Hospital, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Andersson, Linus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Skovbjerg, Sine
    Danish Research Centre for Chemical Sensitivities, Copenhagen University Hospital, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Chemical Intolerance2015Inngår i: Current Rheumatology Reviews, ISSN 1573-3971, E-ISSN 1875-6360, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 167-184Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical intolerance (CI) is a term used to describe a condition in which the sufferer experiences a complex array of recurrent unspecific symptoms attributed to low-level chemical exposure that most people regard as unproblematic. Severe CI constitutes the distinguishing feature of multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS). The symptoms reported by CI subjects are manifold, involving symptoms from multiple organs systems. In severe cases of CI, the condition can cause considerable life-style limitations with severe social, occupational and economic consequences. As no diagnostic tools for CI are available, the presence of the condition can only be established in accordance to criteria definitions. Numerous modes of action have been suggested to explain CI, with the most commonly discussed theories involving the immune system, central nervous system, olfactory and respiratory systems as well as altered metabolic capacity, behavioral conditioning and emotional regulation. However, in spite of more than 50 years of research, there is still a great deal of uncertainties regarding the event(s) and underlying mechanism( s) behind symptom elicitation. As a result, patients are often misdiagnosed or offered health care solutions with limited or no effect, and they experience being met with mistrust and doubt by health care professionals, the social care system and by friends and relatives. Evidence-based treatment options are currently unavailable, however, a person-centered care model based on a multidisciplinary treatment approach and individualized care plans have shown promising results. With this in mind, further research studies and health care solutions should be based on a multifactorial and interdisciplinary approach.

  • 323. Dantoft, Thomas Meinertz
    et al.
    Skovbjerg, Sine
    Andersson, Linus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lind, Nina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Brix, Susanne
    Inflammatory Mediator Profiling of n-butanol Exposed Upper Airways in Individuals with Multiple Chemical Sensitivity2015Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, nr 11, artikkel-id e0143534Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS) is a chronic condition characterized by reports of recurrent symptoms in response to low level exposure to various chemical substances. Recent findings suggests that dysregulation of the immune system may play a role in MCS pathophysiology. Objectives The aim of this study was to examine baseline and low dose n-butanol-induced upper airway inflammatory response profiles in MCS subjects versus healthy controls. Method Eighteen participants with MCS and 18 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Epithelial lining fluid was collected from the nasal cavity at three time points: baseline, within 15 minutes after being exposed to 3.7 ppm n-butanol in an exposure chamber and four hours after exposure termination. A total of 19 cytokines and chemokines were quantified. Furthermore, at baseline and during the exposure session, participants rated the perceived intensity, valence and levels of symptoms and autonomic recordings were obtained. Results The physiological and psychophysical measurements during the n-butanol exposure session verified a specific response in MCS individuals only. However, MCS subjects and healthy controls displayed similar upper airway inflammatory mediator profiles (P>0.05) at baseline. Likewise, direct comparison of mediator levels in the MCS group and controls after n-butanol exposure revealed no significant group differences. Conclusion We demonstrate no abnormal upper airway inflammatory mediator levels in MCS subjects before or after a symptom-eliciting exposure to low dose n-butanol, implying that upper airways of MCS subjects are functionally intact at the level of cytokine and chemokine production and secretory capacity. This suggests that previous findings of increased cytokine plasma levels in MCS are unlikely to be caused by systemic priming via excessive upper airway inflammatory processes.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 324.
    David, Franzén
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Personlighetstest i rekrytering: Testtagarens perspektiv2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Personlighetstest och arbetspsykologisk testning är en växande trend inom rekryteringen av personal i Sverige och internationellt. Många studier har undersökt dessa urvalsmetoders psykometriska egenskaper, validitet och reliabilitet. Få har dock undersökt testtagarnas upplevelser av denna typ av tester. Syftet med denna studie var att bidra till en ökad förståelse för testtagares upplevelser av personlighetstest och arbetspsykologisk testning i rekrytering. Detta med utgångspunkt i validitetsteori med fokus på faking och forskning om rättvisa i urval och testning. Tematisk analys av fem semistrukturerade intervjuer resulterade i två teman Tolkning kontra sanning och Att presentera sig själv i en rekryteringskontext. Det första temat innehöll undertemana Testresultat som diskussionsunderlag och Sanningen serverad. Det andra innehöll undertemana Mjuka upp i kanterna, Man måste hålla linjen och Ingen människa är en ö. Tre av studiens mest centrala resultat var: (1) vikten av kompetens i tolkning och återkoppling; (2) betydelsen av rättvisedimensioner för testtagarnas upplevelser; (3) relationen mellan faking och den unika kontext som en rekryteringssituation utgör.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Personlighetstest i rekrytering - testtagarens perspektiv
  • 325.
    Davidsson, Pontus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Utveckling av psykologiska färdigheter i en framggångsrik talangutvecklingsmiljö. En fallstudie utifrån ett ledarperspektiv.2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Talangutvecklingsmodeller inom idrotten beskriver översiktligt hur talangutvecklingsmiljöer bör utformas medan forskning kring psykologiska färdigheter främst har inriktats på elitidrottare. Det behövs mer kunskap kring hur talangutvecklingsmiljöer bör organisera sig för att främja ungdomars utveckling av psykologiska färdigheter. Studiens första syfte var att identifiera psykologiska färdigheter som ledare ansåg viktiga inom talangutveckling. Det andra syftet var att undersöka hur ledarna arbetade för att främja denna utveckling. Utifrån en kvalitativ metod genomfördes semistrukturerade intervjuer med sju ledare i en framgångsrik talangutvecklingsmiljö. Ledarna identifierade passion för idrotten, insikt om vad som krävs, eget ansvarstagande samt förmågan att hantera motgångar som viktiga psykologiska färdigheter. För att främja ungdomarnas psykologiska utveckling är ledarna positiva och engagerade. De använder sig av individuella utvecklingsplaner och uppmuntrar eget ansvarstagande. De förespråkar erfarenhetsinlärning och försöker utveckla spelarnas  tålamod.

  • 326. Davies, Matthew
    et al.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Silva, Pedro
    Gouyon, Pabien
    The Effect of Microtiming Deviations on the Perception of Groove in Short Rhythms2013Inngår i: Music perception, ISSN 0730-7829, E-ISSN 1533-8312, Vol. 30, nr 5, s. 497-510Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    GROOVE IS A SENSATION OF MOVEMENT OR WANTing to move when we listen to certain types of music; it is central to the appreciation of many styles such as Jazz, Funk, Latin, and many more. To better understand the mechanisms that lead to the sensation of groove, we explore the relationship between groove and systematic microtiming deviations. Manifested as small, intentional deviations in timing, systematic microtiming is widely considered within the music community to be a critical component of music performances that groove. To investigate the effect of microtiming on the perception of groove we synthesized typical rhythm patterns for Jazz, Funk, and Samba with idiomatic microtiming deviation patterns for each style. The magnitude of the deviations was parametrically varied from nil to about double the natural level. In two experiments, untrained listeners and experts listened to all combinations of same and different music and microtiming style and magnitude combinations, and rated liking, groove, naturalness, and speed. Contrary to a common and frequently expressed belief in the literature, systematic microtiming led to decreased groove ratings, as well as liking and naturalness, with the exception of the simple short-long shuffle Jazz pattern. A comparison of the ratings between the two listener groups revealed this effect to be stronger for the expert listener group than for the untrained listeners, suggesting that musical expertise plays an important role in the perception and appreciation of micro timing in rhythmic patterns.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 327.
    Davis, Louise
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Appleby, Ralph
    Davis, Paul
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Wetherell, Mark
    Gustafsson, Henrick
    The role of coach-athlete relationship quality in team sport athletes’ psychophysiological exhaustion: implications for physical and cognitive performance2018Inngår i: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, Vol. 36, nr 17, s. 1985-1992Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aimed to examine associations between the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and athlete exhaustion by assessing physiological and cognitive consequences. Male and female athletes (N = 82) representing seven teams across four different sports, participated in a quasi-experi- mental study measuring physical performance on a 5-meter multiple shuttle test, followed by a Stroop test to assess cognitive performance. Participants provided saliva samples measuring cortisol as a biomarker of acute stress response and completed questionnaires measuring exhaustion, and coach- athlete relationship quality. Structural equation modelling revealed a positive relationship between the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and Stroop performance, and negative relationships between the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and cortisol responses to high-intensity exercise, cognitive testing, and exhaustion. The study supports previous research on socio-cognitive correlates of athlete exhaustion by highlighting associations with the quality of the coach-athlete relationship. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 328.
    Davis, Louise
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Jowett, Sophia
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Communication Strategies: The Fuel for Quality Coach-Athlete Relationships and Athlete Satisfaction2019Inngår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, artikkel-id 2156Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present two-study paper examined the role of communication strategies that athletes use to develop their coach-athlete relationship. Study 1 examined the mediating role of motivation, support, and conflict management strategies between the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and athletes' perceptions of sport satisfaction. Study 2 examined the longitudinal and mediational associations of communication strategies and relationship quality across two time points, over a 6-week period. Within both studies, data were collected through multi-section questionnaires assessing the studies' variables. For study 1, structural equation modeling highlighted significant indirect effects for motivation and support strategies between the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and athletes' experiences of sport satisfaction. For study 2, significant indirect effects were found for the athletes' perceptions of the quality of the coach-athlete relationship at time 2 between athletes' use of communication strategies at time point 1 and time point 2. Together these findings provide support for the practical utility of communications strategies in enhancing the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and athlete's experiences of sport satisfaction. In addition, the findings provide evidence to highlight the potential cyclical relationship between communication and relationship quality across time.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 329.
    Davis, Louise
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Psychology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Appleby, Ralph
    Davis, Paul
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Reducing the risk of athlete burnout: Psychosocial, sociocultural, and individual considerations for coaches2019Inngår i: International journal of sports science & coaching, ISSN 1747-9541, E-ISSN 2048-397X, Vol. 14, nr 4, s. 444-452Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Past research suggests that athletes' relationships with their coach can act as a risk factor in the development of burnout. Coaching practice may be enhanced through understanding the multidimensional factors that can augment the associations between coach-athlete relationship quality and athlete burnout. The present study explored both individual difference characteristics (gender, age, and sport level) and sociocultural factors (sport type) as moderators of this relationship. Our findings show statistically significant interaction effects for gender and age. Coaches and practitioners working with younger athletes and male performers in particular, are advised to work with strategies aiming to build relationships and reduce the risk of burnout.

  • 330.
    Davis, Paul A.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Davis, Louise
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Wills, Samuel
    Appleby, Ralph
    Nieuwenhuys, Arnie
    Exploring "Sledging" and Interpersonal Emotion-Regulation Strategies in Professional Cricket2018Inngår i: The Sport psychologist, ISSN 0888-4781, E-ISSN 1543-2793, Vol. 32, nr 2, s. 136-145Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examines cricketers’ perceptions of emotional interactions between competitors. Semistructured interviews with 12 male professional cricketers explored experiences (i.e., emotions, cognitions, behaviors) relating to incidents during competition where they or an opponent attempted to evoke an emotional reaction (e.g., sledging). Cricketers described their use of sledging as aggressive actions and verbal interactions with the aim of disrupting concentration and altering the emotional states of opponents. They described experiencing a variety of emotions (e.g., anxiety, anger) in response to opponents’ attempts at interpersonal emotion regulation; linguistic analyses indicated that both positive than negative emotions were experienced. A range of strategies in response to competitors’ deliberate attempts at interpersonal emotion regulation were outlined. The present study extends previous research investigating interpersonal emotion regulation within teams by indicating that professional cricketers are aware of the impact of cognitions and emotions on performance and attempt to negatively influence these factors in competitors

  • 331.
    Davis, Paul A.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Halvarsson, Anton
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lundstrom, Wictor
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lundqvist, Carolina
    Alpine Ski Coaches' and Athletes' Perceptions of Factors Influencing Adaptation to Stress in the Classroom and on the Slopes2019Inngår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, artikkel-id 1641Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Research examining the student-athlete experience proposes a number of factors that can be both sources of stress and/or support. The dual career pathway offers a number of potential positive outcomes including psychological, social, and financial benefits; however, challenges including time management, fatigue, and restricted social activities are well documented. In consideration of the multidimensional student-athlete experience and the numerous factors that influence the complexity of potential stress, a mixed methods research study design was used in the study. First, data collected from surveys completed by 173 elite junior alpine skiers were analyzed to identify the degree to which athletes report experiencing stress associated with specific aspects pertaining to training, life, and organizational factors. These factors were then explored through semi-structured interviews with six coaches at the associated national elite sport schools. Taken collectively, athletes' reports of psychophysiological training stress on the Multidimensional Training Distress Scale were low. Scores on the college studentathletes' life stress scale revealed very low levels of general life stress; although the subscales associated with "performance demand" and "academic requirements" scored marginally higher. Scores on the Organizational Stressor Indicator for Sport Performers indicated low levels of organizational stress. The interviews with coaches elucidated the underlying factors potentially influencing athletes' positive adaptations to stress as they reported programming a number of strategies to reduce negative outcomes. Coaches aimed to teach athletes self-awareness and regulation strategies through the use of the training diaries and ongoing communication to promote positive adaptation to stress. A number of coaches also worked with sport psychology consultants to optimize athletes' training and study situations. Traditionally, research has noted high levels of stress in student-athletes due to co-occurring demands (school & sport); however, the data in the present study suggests that optimizing support mechanisms across domains can promote positive adaptations to potential sources of stress.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 332.
    Davis, Paul Anthony
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Examining associations between affective states and physiological responses before, during, and after competitive cycling time trials2018Inngår i: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology (JSEP), ISSN 0895-2779, E-ISSN 1543-2904, Vol. 40, s. S86-S86Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 333. de Chateau, Peter
    et al.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Three-year follow-up of early postpartum contact1984Inngår i: Frontiers of Infant Psychiatry, Vol. II / [ed] J.D. Call, E. Galenson, & R.L. Tyson, New York: Basic Books, Inc., Publishers , 1984, s. 313-322Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 334. De Manzano, Ö
    et al.
    Madison, G
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ullén, F
    Associationsbetween creative achievement in scientific and artistic domains, intelligence,personality, and sex.2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 335.
    Del Missier, F
    et al.
    Psicologia general nellÚniversità di Trieste.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Memoria, attenzione e decisione2009Inngår i: Psicologia del giudizio e della decisione, Bologna: Socièta editrice il Mulino , 2009, s. 118-138Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 336. Del Missier, Fabio
    et al.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Parker, Andrew M
    Bruine de Bruin, Wändi
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Unraveling the Aging Skein : Disentangling Sensory and Cognitive Predictors of Age-related Differences in Decision Making2017Inngår i: Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, ISSN 0894-3257, E-ISSN 1099-0771, Vol. 30, nr 1, s. 123-139Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Age-related differences in sensory functioning, processing speed, and working memory have been identified as three significant predictors of the age-related performance decline observed in complex cognitive tasks. Yet, the assessment of their relative predictive capacity and interrelations is still an open issue in decision making and cognitive aging research. Indeed, no previous investigation has examined the relationships of all these three predictors with decision making. In an individual-differences study, we therefore disentangled the relative contribution of sensory functioning, processing speed, and working memory to the prediction of the age-related decline in cognitively demanding judgment and decision-making tasks. Structural equation modeling showed that the age-related decline in working memory plays an important predictive role, even when controlling for sensory functioning, processing speed, and education. Implications for research on decision making and cognitive aging are discussed.

  • 337. Del Missier, Fabio
    et al.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    De Bruin, Waendi Bruine
    Decision-making competence, executive functioning, and general cognitive abilities2012Inngår i: Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, ISSN 0894-3257, E-ISSN 1099-0771, Vol. 25, nr 4, s. 331-351Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Although previous studies investigated the relationship between general cognitive abilities and decision making, few have characterized specific cognitive abilities underlying decision-making competence. In this paper, we focus on executive functionscontrol processes involved in the regulation of cognition. Specifically, we report on an individual-differences study that investigated the relationship of executive functioning (EF) and general cognitive abilities (fluid intelligence and numeracy) with different aspects of decision-making competence. Individual differences in EF components explained aspects of decision-making competence even after controlling for fluid intelligence and numeracy. However, different aspects of decision-making competence varied in the extent to which they relied on different executive functions. In particular, resistance to framing effects, the ability to apply decision rules, and successful engagement in cognitive reflection partially depend on individual differences on the monitoring/inhibition dimension of EF. The ability to provide consistent judgments in risk perception is related to the shifting aspect of EF. The ability to recognize social norms and resistance to sunk costs were not significantly related to EF, thus supporting the idea that executive control is not a major determinant of these aspects of decision-making competence. Finally, substantial variance in some of the decision-making tasks remained unexplained, suggesting that other cognitive or non-cognitive abilities need to be considered in future studies. Copyright (c) 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 338.
    Del Missier, Fabio
    et al.
    University of Trieste, Italy.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    de Bruin, Wändi Bruine
    Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
    Executive functions in decision making: An individual differences approach2010Inngår i: Thinking and Reasoning, ISSN 1354-6783, E-ISSN 1464-0708, Vol. 16, nr 2, s. 69-97Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This individual differences study examined the relationships between three executive functions (updating, shifting, and inhibition), measured as latent variables, and performance on two cognitively demanding subtests of the Adult Decision Making Competence battery: Applying Decision Rules and Consistency in Risk Perception. Structural equation m delling showed that executive functions contribute differentially to performance in these two tasks, with Applying Decision Rules being mainly related to inhibition and Consistency in Risk Perception mainly associated to shifting. The results suggest that the successful application of decision rules requires the capacity to selectively focus attention and inhibit irrelevant (or no more relevant) stimuli. They also suggest that consistency in risk perception depends on the ability to shift between judgement contexts.

  • 339.
    Del Missier, Fabio
    et al.
    University of Trieste.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Department of Psychology, University of Stockholm ; Stockholm Brain Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Bruine de Bruin, Wändi
    Leeds University Business School and Carnegie Mellon University.
    Parker, Andrew M.
    RAND Corporation, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    University of Stockholm ; Stockholm Brain Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The Multifold Relationship Between Memory and Decision Making: An Individual-Differences Study2013Inngår i: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory and Cognition, ISSN 0278-7393, E-ISSN 1939-1285, Vol. 39, nr 5, s. 1344-1364Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Several judgment and decision-making tasks are assumed to involve memory functions, but significant knowledge gaps on the memory processes underlying these tasks remain. In a study on 568 adults between 25 and 80 years of age, hypotheses were tested on the specific relationships between individual differences in working memory, episodic memory, and semantic memory, respectively, and 6 main components of decision-making competence. In line with the hypotheses, working memory was positively related with the more cognitively demanding tasks (Resistance to Framing, Applying Decision Rules, and Under/Overconfidence), whereas episodic memory was positively associated with a more experience-based judgment task (Recognizing Social Norms). Furthermore, semantic memory was positively related with 2 more knowledge-based decision-making tasks (Consistency in Risk Perception and Resistance to Sunk Costs). Finally, the age-related decline observed in some of the decision-making tasks was (partially or totally) mediated by the age-related decline in working memory or episodic memory. These findings are discussed in relation to the functional roles fulfilled by different memory processes in judgment and decision-making tasks.

  • 340.
    Dennhag, Inga
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Learning psychotherapy: An effectiveness study of clients and therapists2012Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Many psychotherapy studies with trainees have been conducted, but few have investigated how effective baseline trainee-led psychotherapies are. Baseline trainee-led psychotherapies are often provided by a professional education, and the therapists are often young, untrained and inexperienced. The present study was conducted at the Clinical Psychology Program at Umeå University, in Sweden. The psychology students were in their fourth or fifth year of, in total, five years, and few had practiced therapy before. Clients, students and education providers are interested in the outcome of trainee-led psychotherapies because clients want an effective treatment, and students and the educators want the best education. In research, there is an interest in knowing more about training, how training influences clients’ benefits of therapy, and how training works in regular activity. In the present thesis, we investigate questions related to outcome and how different training factors affect outcome. The overall purpose of the present thesis was to examine 1) the effectiveness of trainee-led therapies in a psychology education setting and 2) if clients’ self-image patterns would predict the outcome 3) if different training conditions covary with treatment outcome 4) how novices develop in their professional characteristics and work involvement styles.

    Methods and Result The current thesis utilized data from the Swedish naturalistic study Effects of Student Therapies (EUT) at Umeå University. The EUT is a naturalistic psychotherapist research project, which comprises client data from 2003 to 2012. The present study included 235 clients. The mean age of the clients was 31 years (SD = 9.66), and 69% of the clients were women. The clients had mixed psychological symptoms and were well functioning. Psychological symptoms were measured by Symptom Check List 90 (SCL-90; Derogatis, Lipman, & Covi, 1973). The patients’ self-image was measured using the Structural Analysis of Social Behavior (SASB), the introject questionnaire (Benjamin, 1974). All therapists were students at the psychology program. In Paper III, 76 therapists participated. The therapists’ mean age was 28 years (SD = 5.55), and 71% of the therapists were women. Therapists’ professional characteristics and work involvement styles were measured by Development of Psychotherapists’ Common Core Questionnaire (DPCCQ; Orlinsky et al., 1999).

    Four specific objectives have been addressed. The first objective was to investigate the overall effectiveness of treatment. In Papers I and II, the effect sizes implicated that the therapy outcome was moderate. Paper I showed that 67% of the clients were in the dysfunctional domain before therapy compared to 34% after completed therapy. Further in Paper I, it was found that 42% of the clients had recovered or improved at the end of the therapy, but most of the clients remained unchanged (55%) and a few percent had deteriorated (3%). This result is in line with a Norwegian training study (Ryum, Stiles & Vogel, 2007) but less effective than effectiveness studies have shown with professional therapists (e.g. Hunsley & Lee, 2007). Paper II, where we used a subsample of Paper I’s clients, showed a similar result.

    The second objective was to investigate if clients’ self-image pattern (attachment group, disrupted attachment group, self-control and self-autonomy) predicted change in psychological symptoms (GSI: global severity index) and personality symptoms (PSI: personality symptom index). The disrupted attachment group or the clients’ negative self-image had the strongest relationship to outcome and explained 8% vs. 10% in outcome (PSI vs. GSI). Self-control explained a further 3% (GSI) and 4% (PSI) of the result, and self-autonomy added 1% in both GSI and PSI. The result indicates that clients with an increased negative self-image, higher self-control, and lower level of self-autonomy before therapy improve more in both psychological symptoms and personality symptoms than clients with a less negative self-image, lower self-control, and higher level of self-autonomy.

    The third objective was to explore if treatment duration (one or two semesters) and training condition (cognitive therapy and psychodynamic therapy) could affect basic psychotherapy outcome. Paper II demonstrated that clients in all training conditions, cognitive therapy two semesters (CT2), psychodynamic therapy one semester (PDT1) and psychodynamic therapy two semesters (PDT2), had significant changes in self-image patterns and symptoms, except for cognitive therapy one semester (CT1). Analyses using clinically significant change demonstrated that fewer clients in CT1 had recovered and reliably improved compared to the other training conditions (in CT1: 20- 23%, in PDT1: 27- 43%, in CT2: 49- 54% and in PDT2: 35- 41%). Two hierarchical multiple regression analyses demonstrated that clients’ pre-tests characteristics self-image pattern (affiliation: AFF) and psychological symptoms (global severity index: GSI) explained 34% of the results. Treatment duration and training condition demonstrated an interaction effect between duration and theoretical approach, explaining about 2%. The regression lines for self-image pattern AFF and psychological symptoms GSI showed that clients in CT2 and PDT1 improved more than clients receiving CT1 and PDT2.

    The fourth objective was to examine how novice therapists in psychotherapy training develop in professional characteristics and work involvement styles (healing and stressful work involvement styles). The study was longitudinal and therapists were measured at session 2, 8, 16, 22 and endpoint. Mixed model analyses of the Development of Psychotherapists’ Common Core Questionnaire (DPCCQ) (when controlled for therapists’ age and gender) showed that the therapists’ professional characteristics and work involvement styles changed positively over time in training, except for in-session feelings of anxiety and boredom. The therapists increased most in technical expertise and less in basic relational skill. The result also indicated that the students changed linearly over time.

    Conclusion The present studies draw attention to the moderate outcome for clients in trainee-led psychotherapy. The novices appear to need time to increase in effectiveness possibly due to the high load of technical training in the beginning of the therapy. However, when exploring different training durations and training conditions, the contexts are shown to influence the outcome. In addition, clients with a more negative self-image pattern, with higher levels of self-control and lower levels of self-autonomy had better outcome, a finding with prognostic value. Finally, the training of students improves both a healing and a stressful involvement style, but in-session feelings of anxiety and boredom are more resistant to change.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    kappan
  • 341.
    Dennhag, Inga
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Armelius, Bengt-Åke
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Baseline training in cognitive and psychodynamic psychotherapy during a psychologist training program: Exploring client outcomes in therapies of one or two semesters2012Inngår i: Psychotherapy Research, ISSN 1050-3307, E-ISSN 1468-4381, Vol. 22, nr 5, s. 515-526Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This effectiveness study explored the outcomes of 187 clients seen by 187 students undergoing baseline training in psychotherapy. Clients reduced their symptoms (SCL-90) and increased their positive self-image (SASB introject) during the therapy. Multiple regression analyses showed no differences between the cognitive and the psychodynamic training approaches and no differences between one and two semesters duration of the therapies. However, 2 - 3% of variance in end states was accounted for by the interaction between the variables, indicating a moderating effect of duration in the two approaches. Outcomes for clients in the cognitive training approach were significantly better with two semesters than with one semester, while there was no such difference in the psychodynamic approach. Consequences for baseline training are discussed.

  • 342.
    Dennhag, Inga
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Connolly Gibbons, Mary Beth
    Center for Psychotherapy Research, Department of Psyhiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphuia, USA.
    Barber, Jacques P.
    Center for Psychotherapy Research, Department of Psyhiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphuia, USA.
    Gallop, Robert
    Statistics and Applied Mrthematics, West Chester University, West Chester, USA.
    Crits-Christoph, Paul
    Center for Psychotherapy Research, Department of Psyhiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphuia, USA.
    How many treatment sessions and patients are needed to create a stable score of adherence and competence in the treatment of cocaine dependence?2012Inngår i: Psychotherapy Research, ISSN 1050-3307, E-ISSN 1468-4381, Vol. 22, nr 4, s. 475-488Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The study utilized a generalizability theory analysis of adherence and competence ratings to evaluate the number of sessions and patients needed to yield dependable scores at the patient and therapist levels. Independent judges' ratings of supportive expressive therapy (n = 94), cognitive therapy (n = 103), and individual drug counseling (n = 98) were obtained on tapes of sessions from the NIDA Collaborative Cocaine Treatment Study. Generalizability coefficients revealed that, for all three treatments, ratings made on approximately five to 10 sessions per patient are needed to achieve sufficient dependability at the patient level. At the therapist level, four to 14 patients need to be evaluated (depending on the modality), to yield dependable scores. Many studies today use fewer numbers.

  • 343.
    Dennhag, Inga
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Connolly Gibson, Mary Beth
    Center for Psychotherapy research, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA.
    Barber, Jacques P.
    Center for Psychotherapy research, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA.
    Gallop, Robert
    Statistics and Applied Mathematics, West Chester University, West Chester, USA.
    Crits-Christoph, Paul
    Center for Psychotherapy research, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA.
    Do supervisors and independent judges agree on evaluations of therapist adherence and competence in the treatment of cocaine dependence?2012Inngår i: Psychotherapy Research, ISSN 1050-3307, E-ISSN 1468-4381, Vol. 22, nr 6, s. 720-730Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 344.
    Dennhag, Inga
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatri.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för språkstudier.
    Hakelind, Camilla
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Exploring gender stereotypes about interpersonal behavior and personality factors using digital matched-guise techniques2019Inngår i: Social behavior and personality, ISSN 0301-2212, E-ISSN 1179-6391, Vol. 47, nr 8, artikkel-id e8150Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study explores gender stereotypes among Swedish university students (n=101) studying a course in psychology, using a matched-guise experimental design. The gender identity of a speaker in a dialogue, manifested by voice, was digitally manipulated to sound male or female. Responses to the recordings indicated that an actor with a male voice was rated significantly less conscientious, agreeable, extraverted, and open to experience than the same actor with a female voice. On social behavior, there was a tendency for the actor with a male voice to be rated as more hostile than the same actor with a female voice. The study suggests that stereotype effects rather than real behavioral differences may have an impact on perceived gender differences.

  • 345.
    Dennhag, Inga
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ybrandt, Helene
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Novice psychotherapists’ development in professional characteristics and work involvement styles in trainingManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Information about how psychotherapists develop their professional characteristics and work involvement styles during training is scant; in addition, awareness of the need to find answers to how psychotherapy training can best be organized is increasing. This study investigated novice therapists’ development of healing and stressful work involvement in baseline psychotherapy education in Sweden. Undergraduate students (n = 76) provided information longitudinally by responding to the Development of Psychotherapists Common Core Questionnaire (DPCCQ). The results demonstrated that therapists’ healing and stressful work involvement, current therapeutic skills, perceived difficulties, and constructive coping strategies changed positively and linearly. Technical expertise changed the most, having a large effect, and relational skills developed moderately. Surprisingly, in-session feelings of anxiety and boredom did not change. The process of positive and linear development of in-session feelings is important in psychotherapy education. The question becomes how the training should address trainees’ personal issues or countertransference that might affect in-session feelings.

  • 346.
    Dennhag, Inga
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ybrandt, Helene
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Trainee Psychotherapists' Development in Self-Rated Professional Qualities in Training2013Inngår i: Psychotherapy, ISSN 0033-3204, E-ISSN 1939-1536, Vol. 50, nr 2, s. 158-166Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated changes in trainees’ self-rated experience as a therapist over the course of one practicum treatment case in basic psychotherapy education in Sweden. Undergraduate students (n = 76) provided longitudinal information on their healing involvement and stressful work involvement. The results of the Development of Psychotherapists Common Core Questionnaire (DPCCQ) demonstrated that trainees’ basic relational skills, technical skills, perceived difficulties, and constructive coping strategies changed linearly, with an increasing slope. Technical expertise changed the most, and relational skills developed moderately. In-session feelings of anxiety and boredom did not change. The individualized reliable change scores show that the process during training is different for different students. Most students did not change at all, and some students even changed negatively. Investigation of how pedagogic variables affect therapists’ development is necessary to support the professional growth of trainees in their involvement with different types of psychotherapy.

  • 347.
    Dennhag, Inga
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ybrandt, Helene
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Utbildningsterapeuters utveckling av allians och terapeutförmågor: en longitudinell studie2015Inngår i: Tidskriften psykoterapi, ISSN 2001-5836, nr 3, s. 38-41Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 348.
    Dennhag, Inga
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ybrandt, Helene
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Armelius, Kerstin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Self-image pattern as predictors of change and outcome of trainee-led psychotherapy2011Inngår i: Psychotherapy Research, ISSN 1050-3307, E-ISSN 1468-4381, Vol. 21, nr 2, s. 201-209Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the outcome of undergraduate trainee-led psychotherapy and how different self-image patterns explain symptom change. Pre- and post-treatment data from 235 Swedish outpatients were used. Clients were assessed with Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) and the Structural Analysis of Social Behavior (SASB). Outcome effect size was moderate and in line with earlier studies on trainees. Clinical significant change showed that 42% of all clients were recovered or improved after 18 sessions in either training condition PDT or CBT. Regression analysis showed that a more negative self-image and higher levels of self-control before treatment predicted improvement in both psychiatric symptoms and personality factors. A negative self-image, when observed before treatment, can be understood as an increased motivation for change.

  • 349.
    Dennhag, Inga
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ybrandt, Helene
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The relationship between clients' personality traits, working alliance and therapy2017Inngår i: Current Issues in Personality Psychology, ISSN 2353-4192, Vol. 5Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: This study investigated the relationships between client personality traits, and changes in those traits after cognitive behavioral or psychodynamic short-term therapy, and clients' perceived working alliances with their therapists and their clinical outcomes at a university training clinic in Sweden.

    Design: This was a longitudinal study, with the measures collected at pre- and post-therapy.

    Methods: The sample consisted of 138 clients with moderate psychological symptoms. Personality traits were measured using the Health-Relevant Personality Inventory, a health-relevant instrument that measures five factors.

    Results: The results showed that Antagonism, Impulsivity, Hedonic Capacity, and Negative Affectivity improved significantly during therapy, while Alexithymia did not. Pre-therapy personality traits were not related to perceived working alliances (as measured by the Working Alliance Inventory) or therapeutic outcomes (as measured by the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation Outcome Measure). Post-therapy personality traits negative affectivity, hedonic capacity and alexithymia were related to working alliance, and changes in personality traits were predictive of therapy outcome. The change in Hedonic Capacity and Negative Affectivity explained about 20% of the variance in post-therapy symptoms after controlling for pre-therapy symptoms.

    Conclusions: The results suggest that therapeutic foci on hedonism (extraversion) and negative affectivity (neuroticism) could be important for working alliance formation and symptom reduction in therapy. Future research should examine whether changes in clients' negative affectivity or hedonic capacity mediates the relation between perceived working alliance quality and clinical outcome in training and other psychotherapeutic contexts.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 350. Derwinger, A
    et al.
    Stigsdotter-Neely, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Psykologi.
    MacDonald, S
    Backman, L
    Forgetting numbers in old age: Strategy and learning speed matter2005Inngår i: GERONTOLOGY, ISSN 0304-324X, Vol. 51, nr 4, s. 277-288Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
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