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  • 301.
    Cai, Simin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Nyström, Dag
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Specification and Formal Verification of Atomic Concurrent Real-Time Transactions2018Inngår i: 23rd IEEE Pacific Rim International Symposium on Dependable Computing PRDC 2018, 2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Although atomicity, isolation and temporal correctness are crucial to the dependability of many real-time database-centric systems, the selected assurance mechanism for one property may breach another. Trading off these properties requires to specify and analyze their dependencies, together with the selected supporting mechanisms (abort recovery, concurrency control, and scheduling), which is still insufficiently supported. In this paper, we propose a UML profile, called UTRAN, for specifying atomic concurrent real-time transactions, with explicit support for all three properties and their supporting mechanisms. We also propose a pattern-based modeling framework, called UPPCART, to formalize the transactions and the mechanisms specified in UTRAN, as UPPAAL timed automata. Various mechanisms can be modeled flexibly using our reusable patterns, after which the desired properties can be verified by the UPPAAL model checker. Our techniques facilitate systematic analysis of atomicity, isolation and temporal correctness trade-offs with guarantee, thus contributing to a dependable real-time database system.

  • 302.
    Cai, Simin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Nyström, Dag
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Statistical Model Checking for Real-Time Database Management Systems: A Case Study2019Inngår i: The 24th IEEE Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation ETFA2019, 2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many industrial control systems manage critical data using Database Management Systems (DBMS). The correctness of transactions, especially their atomicity, isolation and temporal correctness, is essential for the dependability of the entire system. Existing methods and techniques, however, either lack the ability to analyze the interplay of these properties, or do not scale well for systems with large amounts of transactions and data, and complex transaction management mechanisms. In this paper, we propose to analyze large scale real-time database systems using statistical model checking. We propose a pattern-based framework, by extending our previous work, to model the real-time DBMS as a network of stochastic timed automata, which can be analyzed by UPPAAL Statistical Model Checker. We present an industrial case study, in which we design a collision avoidance system for multiple autonomous construction vehicles, via concurrency control of a real-time DBMS. The desired properties of the designed system are analyzed using our proposed framework.

  • 303.
    Cai, Simin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Nyström, Dag
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Towards the verification of temporal data consistency in Real-Time Data Management2016Inngår i: 2016 2nd International Workshop on Modelling, Analysis, and Control of Complex CPS, CPS Data 2016, 2016, artikkel-id Article number 7496422Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) require both timeliness of computation and temporal consistency of their data. Therefore, when using real-time databases in a real-time CPS application, the Real-Time Database Management Systems (RTDBMSs) must ensure both transaction timeliness and temporal data consistency. RTDBMSs prevent unwanted interferences of concurrent transactions via concurrency control, which in turn has a significant impact on the timeliness and temporal consistency of data. Therefore it is important to verify, already at early design stages that these properties are not breached by the concurrency control. However, most often such early on guarantees of properties under concurrency control are missing. In this paper we show how to verify transaction timeliness and temporal data consistency using model checking. We model the transaction work units, the data and the concurrency control mechanism as a network of timed automata, and specify the properties in TCTL. The properties are then checked exhaustively and automatically using the UPPAAL model checker. 

  • 304.
    Cai, Simin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Nyström, Dag
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Trading-off Data Consistency for Timeliness in Real-Time Database Systems2015Inngår i: 27th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems ECRTS'15, 2015, s. 13-16Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to guarantee transaction timeliness, Realtime Database Management Systems (RTDBMSs) often relax data consistency by relaxing the ACID transaction properties. Such relaxation varies depending on the application and thus different transaction management mechanisms have to be decided for developing a tailored RTDBMS. However, current RTDBMSs development does not include systematic verification of timeliness and desired ACID properties. Consequently, the implemented transaction management mechanisms may breach timeliness of transactions. In this paper, we propose a process called DAGGERS for developing a tailored RTDBMS that guarantees timeliness and desired data consistency for real-time systems by employing model-checking techniques during the process. Based on the characteristics of the desired data manipulations, transaction models are designed and then formally verified iteratively together with selected run-time mechanisms, in order to achieve the desired/necessary trade-offs between timeliness and data consistency. The outcome of DAGGERS is thus a tailored transaction management with guaranteed appropriate trade-offs, as well as the model-checking based worst-case execution times and blocking times of transactions under these mechanisms and assumptions of the hardware architecture.

  • 305.
    Cai, Simin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Nyström, Dag
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Larsson, A.
    Ericsson AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tool-supported design of data aggregation processes in cloud monitoring systems2019Inngår i: Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Humanized Computing, ISSN 1868-5137, E-ISSN 1868-5145, Vol. 10, nr 7, s. 2519-2535Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficient monitoring of a cloud system involves multiple aggregation processes and large amounts of data with various and interdependent requirements. A thorough understanding and analysis of the characteristics of data aggregation processes can help to improve the software quality and reduce development cost. In this paper, we propose a systematic approach for designing data aggregation processes in cloud monitoring systems. Our approach applies a feature-oriented taxonomy called DAGGTAX (Data AGGregation TAXonomy) to systematically specify the features of the designed system, and SAT-based analysis to check the consistency of the specifications. Following our approach, designers first specify the data aggregation processes by selecting and composing the features from DAGGTAX. These specified features, as well as design constraints, are then formalized as propositional formulas, whose consistency is checked by the Z3 SAT solver. To support our approach, we propose a design tool called SAFARE (SAt-based Feature-oriented dAta aggREgation design), which implements DAGGTAX-based specification of data aggregation processes and design constraints, and integrates the state-of-the-art solver Z3 for automated analysis. We also propose a set of general design constraints, which are integrated by default in SAFARE. The effectiveness of our approach is demonstrated via a case study provided by industry, which aims to design a cloud monitoring system for video streaming. The case study shows that DAGGTAX and SAFARE can help designers to identify reusable features, eliminate infeasible design decisions, and derive crucial system parameters.

  • 306.
    Cai, Simin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Nyström, Dag
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Larsson, Alf
    Ericsson AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Design of Cloud Monitoring Systems via DAGGTAX: A Case Study2017Inngår i: Procedia Computer Science, ISSN 1877-0509, E-ISSN 1877-0509, Vol. 109, s. 424-431Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficient auto-scaling of cloud resources relies on the monitoring of the cloud, which involves multiple aggregation processes and large amounts of data with various and interdependent requirements. A systematic way of describing the data together with the possible aggregations is beneficial for designers to reason about the properties of these aspects as well as their implications on the design, thus improving quality and lowering development costs. In this paper, we propose to apply DAGGTAX, a feature-oriented taxonomy for organizing common and variable data and aggregation process properties, to the design of cloud monitoring systems. We demonstrate the effectiveness of DAGGTAX via a case study provided by industry, which aims to design a cloud monitoring system that serves auto-scaling for a video streaming system. We design the cloud monitoring system by selecting and composing DAGGTAX features, and reason about the feasibility of the selected features. The case study shows that the application of DAGGTAX can help designers to identify reusable features, analyze trade-offs between selected features, and derive crucial system parameters.

  • 307.
    Campaña, Erik Martín
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Müllner, Nils
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Interfacing a brake-by-wire simulink model with SUMO2019Inngår i: 2018 International Conference on Intelligent and Innovative Computing Applications, ICONIC 2018, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, artikkel-id 8601239Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an adapter to link the Matlab/Simulink model of a custom braking system into an open-source road traffic simulator, namely SUMO. The traditional braking models in SUMO work on a coarser level, generally modeling the deceleration of the vehicle based on a single equation. Substituting this model with a detailed system allows adjustments on a very low level, including delays between components, the traction of individual tires, and controllers for the anti-locking system by simulating those in Simulink. Besides introducing the novel adapter linked into SUMO and discussing parameter fitting to mimic the behavior of the traditional braking system, this paper discusses the amount of performance deterioration as the price for simulating a more sophisticated braking system.

  • 308.
    Campeanu, Gabriel
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. IS (Embedded Systems).
    A Mapping Study on Microservice Architectures of Internet of Things and Cloud Computing Solutions2018Inngår i: The 7th Mediterranean Conference on Embedded Computing MECO'2018, 2018, s. 1-4Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet of Things is a fairly new paradigm adopted by the industry, and offers the connectivity of all the devices that surround us, via wireless systems. One of the challenges of IoT relates to the required resources to store and compute the huge amount of data resulted from devices’ connections. Cloud computing is a solution to the IoT challenges; it provides on-demand resources in an easy-to-access manner. Another trend in the enterprise world is the usage of microservice architectures. Being a newly developed paradigm, and although its principles are defined, it is difficult to have a vision of the existing microservice-based research solutions. This paper, through the mapping study methodology, provides an overview of the current state-of-the-art regarding the usage of microservice architectures by IoT and cloud computing solutions. More specifically, we synthesize the data from 364 selected studies and describe the research types, number of publications and their main venues.

  • 309.
    Campeanu, Gabriel
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Facilitating Component Reusability in Embedded Systems with GPUs2018Inngår i: The 16th International Conference on Software Engineering and Formal Methods SEFM 2018, 2018, s. 287-301Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    One way to fulfill the increased requirements (e.g., performance) of modern embedded systems is through the usage of GPUs. The existing embedded platforms that contain GPUs bring several challenges when developing applications using the component-based development methodology. With no specific GPU support, the component developer needs to encapsulate inside the component, all the information related to the GPU, including the settings regarding the GPU resources (e.g., number of used GPU threads). This way of developing components with GPU capability makes them specific to particular contexts, which negatively impacts the reusability aspect. For example, a component that is constructed to filter 640x480 pixel frames may produce erroneous results when reused in a context that deals with higher resolution frames. We propose a solution that facilitates the reusability of components with GPU capabilities. The solution, based on the application design, automatically constructs several (functional-) equivalent component instances that are all-together used to process the same data. The solution is implemented as an extension of an existing component model (i.e., Rubus) and the evaluation of the realized extension is done through the vision system of an existing underwater robot.

  • 310.
    Campeanu, Gabriel
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    GPU Support for Component-based Development of Embedded Systems2018Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    One pressing challenge of many modern embedded systems is to successfully deal with the considerable amount of data that originates from the interaction with the environment. A recent solution comes from the use of GPUs. Equipped with a parallel execution model, the GPU excels in parallel processing applications, providing an improved performance compared to the CPU.

    Another trend in the embedded systems domain is the use of component-based development. This software engineering paradigm that promotes construction of applications through the composition of software components, has been successfully used in the development of embedded systems. However, the existing approaches provide no specific support to develop embedded systems with GPUs. As a result, components with GPU capability need to encapsulate all the required GPU information in order to be successfully executed by the GPU. This leads to component specialization to specific platforms, hence drastically impeding component reusability.

    Our main goal is to facilitate component-based development of embedded systems with GPUs. We introduce the concept of flexible component which increases the flexibility to design embedded systems with GPUs, by allowing the system developer to decided where to place the component, i.e., either on the CPU or GPU. Furthermore, we provide means to automatically generate the required information for flexible components corresponding to their hardware placement, and to improve component communication. Through the introduced support, components with GPU capability are platform-independent, being capable to be executed on a large variety of hardware (i.e., platforms with different GPU characteristics). Furthermore, an optimization step is introduced, which groups connected flexible components into single entities that behave as regular components. Dealing with components that can be executed either by the CPU or GPU, we also introduce an allocation optimization method. The proposed solution, implemented using a mathematical solver, offers alternative options in optimizing particular system goals (e.g., memory and energy usage).

  • 311.
    Campeanu, Gabriel
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    GPU-aware Component-based Development for Embedded Systems2016Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, more and more embedded systems are equipped with e.g., various sensors that produce large amount of data. One of the challenges of traditional (CPU-based) embedded systems is to process this considerable amount of data such that it produces the appropriate performance level demanded by embedded applications. A solution comes from the usage of a specialized processing unit such as Graphics Processing Unit (GPU). A GPU can process large amount of data thanks to its parallel processing architecture, delivering an im- proved performance outcome compared to CPU. A characteristic of the GPU is that it cannot work alone; the CPU must trigger all its activities. Today, taking advantage of the latest technology breakthrough, we can benefit of the GPU technology in the context of embedded systems by using heterogeneous CPU-GPU embedded systems.

    Component-based development has demonstrated to be a promising methology in handling software complexity. Through component models, which describe the component specification and their interaction, the methodology has been successfully used in embedded system domain. The existing component models, designed to handle CPU-based embedded systems, face challenges in developing embedded systems with GPU capabilities. For example, current so- lutions realize the communication between components with GPU capabilities via the RAM system. This introduces an undesired overhead that negatively affects the system performance.

    This Licentiate presents methods and techniques that address the component- based development of embedded systems with GPU capabilities. More concretely, we provide means for component models to explicitly address the GPU-aware component-based development by using specific artifacts. For example, the overhead introduced by the traditional way of communicating via RAM is reduced by inserting automatically generated adapters that facilitate a direct component communication over the GPU memory.

    Another contribution of the thesis is a component allocation method over the system hardware. The proposed solution offers alternative options in opti- mizing the total system performance and balancing various system properties (e.g., memory usage, GPU load). For the validation part of our proposed solutions, we use an underwater robot demonstrator equipped with GPU hardware. 

  • 312.
    Campeanu, Gabriel
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Parallel Execution Optimization of GPU-aware Components in Embedded Systems2017Inngår i: Proceedings of the International Conference on Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering, SEKE2017, 2017, s. 135-141Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many embedded systems process huge amount of data that comes from the interaction with the environment. The Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) is a modern embedded solution that tackles the efficiency challenge when processing a lot of data. GPU may improve even more the system performance by allowing multiple activities to be executed in a parallel manner. In a complex component-based application, the challenge is to decide the components to be parallel executed (onto GPU) when considering different system factors (e.g., GPU memory, GPU computation power). In the context of component-based CPU-GPU embedded systems, we propose an automatic method that provides parallel execution schemes of components with GPU capabilities. The introduced method considers hardware (e.g., available GPU memory) and software properties (e.g., required GPU memory) and communication pattern. Moreover, the method optimizes the overall system performance based on component execution times and system architecture (i.e., communication pattern). The validation uses an underwater robot example to describe the feasibility of our proposed method.

  • 313.
    Campeanu, Gabriel
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Support for high performance using heterogeneous embedded systems - A Ph.D. research proposal2013Inngår i: WCOP 2013 - Proceedings of the International Doctoral Symposium on Components and Architecture, 2013, 2013, s. 19-24Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays it is more common to build embedded systems on a heterogeneous platform, i.e. a platform containing different computational units such as mCPU, GPU and FPGA. This enables better performance, but also introduces additional complexity with respect to the software deployment. For complex systems it is not obvious which deployment is the best. For different constraints and requirements, different deployment configuration can be optimal. To address this problem, an approach is to model the system, including both software and hardware parts, with specification of extra-functional properties. The deployment can be then modeled and an (semi)optimal solution can be provided. In this paper we present an overview of our planned research on software modeling and software deployment of heterogeneous embedded systems, which enables assisting the developer in designing this type of systems. 

  • 314.
    Campeanu, Gabriel
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Sentilles, Séverine
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    A GPU-aware Component Model Extension for Heterogeneous Embedded Systems2015Inngår i: The Tenth International Conference on Software Engineering Advances ICSEA 2015, 2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    One way for modern embedded systems to tackle the demand for more complex functionality requiring more computational power is to take advantage of heterogeneous hardware. These hardware platforms are constructed from the combination of different processing units including both traditional CPUs and for example Graphical Processing Units (GPUs). However, there is a lack of efficient approaches supporting software development for such systems. In particular, modern software development approaches, such as component-based development, do not provide sufficient support for heterogeneous hardware platforms. This paper presents a component model extension, which defines specific features for components with GPU capabilities. The benefits of the proposed solution include an increased system performance by accelerating the communication between GPU-aware components and the possibility to control the distribution of GPU computation resources at system level.

  • 315.
    Campeanu, Gabriel
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Sentilles, Séverine
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Allocation Optimization for Component-based Embedded Systems with GPUs2018Inngår i: 44th Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications SEAA 2018, 2018, s. 101-110Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Platforms equipped with GPU processors help mitigating the ever-increasing computational demands of modern embedded systems. Such systems can be specifically developed by using component-based development thanks to the concept of flexible components. Through this concept, a component can be transparently executed either on a CPU or a GPU. However, this flexibility complicates the allocation process because it adds additional complexity (i.e., due to the undecided CPU or GPU execution) and constraints to consider (i.e., CPUs and GPUs properties). In this work, we address this problem by providing an optimization model for component-based embedded systems executing on both CPU and GPU. The model addresses important optimization goals, characteristic to the embedded system domain, such as memory usage, energy usage and execution time. A novelty of this work is the formal description of the optimization model, which supports the usage of mixed integer nonlinear programming to compute optimal allocation schemes. To examine the feasibility of the proposed method, we apply the optimization model on a vision system constructed using the industrial Rubus component model.

  • 316.
    Campeanu, Gabriel
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Sentilles, Séverine
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Component Allocation Optimization for Heterogeneous CPU-GPU Embedded Systems2014Inngår i: The 40th Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications SEAA 2014, Verona, 27-29 Aug. 2014, 2014, s. 229-236Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In a quest to improve system performance, embedded systems are today increasingly relying on heterogeneous platforms that combine different types of processing units such as CPUs, GPUs and FPGAs. However, having better hardware capability alone does not guarantee higher performance; how functionality is allocated onto the appropriate processing units strongly impacts the system performance as well. Yet, with this increase in hardware complexity, finding suitable allocation schemes is becoming a challenge as many new constraints and requirements must now be taken into consideration. In this paper, we present a formal model for allocation optimization of embedded systems which contains a mix of CPU and GPU processing nodes. The allocation takes into consideration the software and hardware architectures, the system requirements and criteria upon which the allocation should be optimized. In its current version, optimized allocation schemes are generated through an integer programming technique to balance the system resource utilization and to optimize the system performance using the GPU resources.

  • 317.
    Campeanu, Gabriel
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Sentilles, Séverine
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Developing CPU-GPU Embedded Systems using Platform-Agnostic Components2017Inngår i: Proceedings - 43rd Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, SEAA 2017, 2017, s. 176-180, artikkel-id 8051345Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, there are many embedded systems with different architectures that have incorporated GPUs. However, it is difficult to develop CPU-GPU embedded systems using component-based development (CBD), since existing CBD ap- proaches have no support for GPU development. In this context, when targeting a particular CPU-GPU platform, the component developer is forced to construct hardware-specific components, which are problematic to (re-)use in different contexts. More- over, hard-coding specific GPU-usage characteristics (e.g., the number of utilized GPU threads) inside the component is not possible without making detailed assumptions about the system in which the component is used, which conflicts with separation- of-concerns CBD principle. The paper presents a solution to allow component-based development of platform-agnostic CPU-GPU embedded systems through: i) high-level API, ii) adapters, and iii) code template. The API abstracts the specifics of the different platforms, while the adapters externalize hardware-specific activities outside components. We also raise the decision regarding the GPU- usage specifications, from the component to the system level. Furthermore, to minimize the development effort, we provide a code template that contains ready-made code fragments required for GPU development. As a case study, we examine the feasibility of our solution applied on a component-based vision system of an underwater robot.

  • 318.
    Campeanu, Gabriel
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Sentilles, Séverine
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Flexible Components for Development of Embedded Systems with GPUs2017Inngår i: 24th Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference APSEC 2017, 2017, s. 219-228Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, embedded systems incorporate GPUs through a multitude of different architectures. When it comes to the development of these systems with GPUs, component-based development is ill-equipped as it does not provide support for GPUs. Instead, the component developer needs to encapsulate inside the component, besides functionality, settings and environment information that are specific to a particular GPU architecture. This binds the component this GPU architecture. Using these hardware-specific components characterized by restricted reusability, the system developer is confined to a limited design space which may negatively impact the overall system feasibility. 

    In this paper, we introduce the concept of flexible components, which are components that can be executed indifferently on CPU or GPU, regardless of the architecture. Using flexible components, component developers are relieved from the side development activities (e.g., environment information) which are automatically handled by component-level mechanisms. To enhance component communications, connection elements (i.e., adapters) are generated to handle component data transmission, taking in consideration the platform characteristics. Finally, our proposed solution is evaluated by using flexible components to implement the vision system of an underwater robot, and execute it on three platforms with different GPU architectures.

  • 319.
    Campeanu, Gabriel
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Sentilles, Séverine
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Optimized Realization of Software Components with Flexible OpenCL Functionality2018Inngår i: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Evaluation of Novel Approaches to Software Engineering, ENASE 2018, Funchal, Madeira, Portugal, March 23-24, 2018, 2018, s. 77-88Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, the newly available embedded boards with GPUs provide a solution to satisfy the ever-increasing requirements of modern embedded systems. Component-based development is a well-known paradigm used to develop embedded systems. However, this paradigm lacks GPU support to address the specifics of these new boards. This leads to components that typically have reduced reusability, poor maintainability and portability. One way to tackle the existing shortcomings is through flexible components, i.e., platform-agnostic components that, at design time, offer the possibility to be executed either on CPU or GPU. The current realization of flexible components, i.e., as regular components with functionality tailored for the selected hardware, introduces additional overheads such as component communication overhead. In order to tackle the introduced overheads, our solution groups connected flexible components under a flexible group that conceptually behaves as a component. We introduce an algorithm to identify the existing groups in a given component-based system and the generation rules that automatically realizes groups as regular components. To evaluate the feasibility of the new concept, the flexible group is implemented using a state-of-the-practice component model (i.e., Rubus) and examined through the vision system of an underwater robot.

  • 320.
    Campeanu, Gabriel
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Séntilles, Séverine
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Extending the Rubus Component Model with GPU-Aware Components2016Inngår i: Proceedings - 2016 19th International ACM SIGSOFT Symposium on Component-Based Software Engineering, CBSE 2016, 2016, s. 59-68Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To support the complex functionality expected of modern embedded systems, the trend is to supplement CPUs with Graphical Processing Units (GPUs), thus creating heterogeneous embedded systems. However, taking full advantage of GPUs increases the complexity of the development and requires dedicated support, and no such support exists in the component models currently available. The only solution today is to completely encapsulate all GPU-specific information and operations within the components, which increases the communication overhead and reduces component reusability, thus significantly limiting the applicability of component-based development to heterogeneous embedded systems. In this paper, we propose to extend Rubus, an industrial component model for embedded systems, with dedicated support for GPUs. We introduce new constructs, including GPU ports and automatically generated adapters to facilitate seamless component communication over the heterogeneous processing units, regardless of whether the components use the CPU, GPU, or both. A running example is used for the problem description, the proposed extension, and to evaluate our solution.

  • 321.
    Campeanu, Gabriel
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Improving Run-Time Memory Utilization of Component-based Embedded Systems with Non-Critical Functionality2017Inngår i: The Twelfth International Conference on Software Engineering Advances ICSEA 2017, 2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many contemporary embedded systems have to deal with huge amount of data, coming from the interaction with the environment, due to their data-intensive applications. However, due to some inherent properties of these systems, such as limited energy and resources (compute and storage), it is important that the resources should be used in an efficient way. For example, camera sensors of a robot may provide low-resolution frames for positioning itself in an open environment, and high-resolution frames to analyze detected objects. Component-based software development techniques and models have proven to be efficient for the development of these systems. Many component models used in the industry (e.g., Rubus, IEC 61131) allocate, at the system initialization, enough resources to satisfy the demands of the system's critical functionality. These resources are retained by the critical functionality even when they are not fully utilized. In this paper, we introduce a method that, when possible, distributes the unused memory of the critical functionality to the non-critical functionality in order to improve its performance. The method uses a monitoring solution that checks the memory utilization, and triggers the memory distribution whenever possible. As a proof of concept, we realize the proposed method in an industrial component model. As an evaluation, we use an underwater robot case study to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed solution.

  • 322.
    Campeanu, Gabriel
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Scavenging Run-time Resources to Boost Utilization in Component-based Embedded Systems with GPUs2018Inngår i: International Journal On Advances in Software, ISSN 1942-2628, E-ISSN 1942-2628, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 159-169Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many modern embedded systems with GPUs are required to process huge amount of data that is sensed from their environment. However, due to some inherent properties of these systems such as limited energy, computation and storage resources, it is important that the resources should be used in an efficient way. For example, camera sensors of a robot may provide low-resolution frames for positioning itself in an open environment and high-resolution frames to analyze detected objects. In this paper, we introduce a method that, when possible, scavenges the unused resources (i.e., memory and number of GPU computation threads) from the critical functionality and distributes them to the non-critical functionality. As a result, the overall system performance is improved without compromising the critical functionality. The method uses a monitoring solution that checks the utilization of the system resources and triggers their distribution to the non-critical functionality whenever possible. As a proof of concept, we realize the proposed method in a state-of-the-practice component model for embedded systems. As an evaluation, we use an underwater robot case study to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed solution.

  • 323.
    Campeanu, Gabriel
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Saadatmand, Mehrdad
    SICS Swedish ICT, Västerås, Sweden.
    A 2-layer component-based architecture for heterogeneous CPU-GPU embedded systems2016Inngår i: Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, Volume 448, 2016, s. 629-639Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional embedded systems are evolving into heterogeneous systems in order to address new and more demanding software requirements. Modern embedded systems are constructed by combining different computation units, such as traditional CPUs with Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). Adding GPUs to conventional CPU-based embedded systems enhances the computation power but also increases the complexity in developing software applications. A method that can help to tackle and address the software complexity issue of heterogeneous systems is component-based development. The allocation of the software application onto the appropriate computation node is greatly influenced by the system information load. The allocation process is increased in difficulty when we use, instead of common CPU-based systems, complex CPU-GPU systems. This paper presents a 2-layer component-based architecture for heterogeneous embedded systems, which has the purpose to ease the software-to-hardware allocation process. The solution abstracts the CPU-GPU detailed component-based design into single software components in order to decrease the amount of information delivered to the allocator. The last part of the paper describes the activities of the allocation process while using our proposed solution, when applied on a real system demonstrator.

  • 324.
    Campeanu, Gabriel
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Saadatmand, Mehrdad
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science (SICS), Sweden.
    Run-Time Component Allocation in CPU-GPU Embedded Systems2017Inngår i: 32nd ACM SIGAPP Symposium On Applied Computing SAC2017, 2017, s. 1259-1265Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, many of the modern embedded applications such as vehicles and robots, interact with the environment and receive huge amount of data through various sensors such as cameras and radars. The challenge of processing large amount of data, within an acceptable performance, is solvedby employing embedded systems that incorporate complementary attributes of CPUs and Graphics Processing Units (GPUs), i.e., sequential and parallel execution models. Component-based development (CBD) is a software engineering methodology that augments the applications development through reuse of software blocks known as components. In developing a CPU-GPU embedded application using CBD, allocation of components to different processing units of the platform is an important activity which can affect the overall performance of the system. In this context, there is also often the need to support and achieve run-time component allocation due to various factors and situations that can happen during system execution, such as switching off parts of the system for energy saving. In this paper, we provide a solution that dynamically allocates components using various system information such as the available resources (e.g., available GPU memory) and the software behavior (e.g., in terms of GPU memory usage). The novelty of our work is a formal allocation model that considers GPU system characteristics computed on-the-fly through software monitoring solutions. For the presentation and validation of our solution, we utilize an existing underwater robot demonstrator.

  • 325.
    Cano, J.
    et al.
    Instituto de Telecomunicações - Fac de Engenharia, Universidade Do Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    Pereira, A.
    Instituto de Telecomunicações - Fac de Engenharia, Universidade Do Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    Oliveira, L.
    Instituto de Telecomunicações - Fac de Engenharia, Universidade Do Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    Almeida, Luis
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Instituto de Telecomunicações - Fac de Engenharia, Universidade Do Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    Scheduling feedback for scalability and reliability in a streaming multicast protocol2015Inngår i: IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems - Proceedings, WFCS, 2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of mobile devices accessing the Internet is continuously increasing, creating new problems. For example, when many wireless clients try to access the same video stream in the same hot spot, multicast transmission must be used. However, multicast packets are unacknowledged and may present a high loss rate under adverse conditions which may jeopardize the quality of the streaming. In a severe scenario, packet losses may affect all video frames, preventing the clients from receiving the video stream at all. Therefore, we propose a novel reliable multicast protocol, tailored to streaming applications, that also scales to many clients under the same access point. It uses a feedback repeat request mechanism per client and such requests are adequately scheduled by the streaming server. This mechanism, which is the focus of this paper, also allows differentiating the quality of service provided to the clients, polling their feedback independently. We show experimental and simulation results that confirm the desired scalability and reliable streaming, with efficient bandwidth usage. The results also show a clear superiority in mitigating lost packets with respect to other approaches to the same problem, with benefits reaching and even going beyond one order of magnitude in packets recovery.

  • 326.
    Cano, Julio
    et al.
    University of Porto Porto, Portugal.
    Almeida, Luis
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Feedback Management for Scaling Clients in Streaming Multicast2015Inngår i: Proceedings of the 30th Annual ACM Symposium on Applied Computing, 2015, s. 669-671Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The increase in the number of mobile devices accessing the Internet creates new problems. A specific case is when a large number of wirelessclients try to access the same video stream in the same hot spot, which requires multicast transmission. However, multicast packets are unconfirmed and to compensate their higher loss rate we propose using a feedback repeat request mechanism per client. Then, the number ofclients is scaled up by adequately scheduling their feedback in the streaming server. This mechanism also allows managing the QoS provided to the clients controlling their feedback rate independently. Our preliminary results confirm the desired scalability with reliable streaming.

  • 327.
    Cao, Jingyue
    et al.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Ashjaei, Seyed Mohammad Hossein
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Cuijpers, Pieter J.L.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    J. Bril, Reinder
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lukkien, Johan
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    An Independent yet Efficient Analysis of Bandwidth Reservation for Credit-based Shaping in Ethernet TSN2018Inngår i: International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems WFCS'18, Imperia, Italy, 2018, s. 1-10Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethernet TSN is an upcoming communication standard for industrial distributed embedded systems with high demands on bandwidth and traffic delay. In this paper, we present and prove an improved analysis to determine bandwidth reservations for credit based shapers in a single Ethernet TSN switch. We compare this new analysis, which is based on eligible intervals, to the state-of-the-art bandwidth reservation analysis based on busy periods through experiments. Despite its low complexity and the independence of the knowledge of the interfering traffic, the results show an improvement of efficiency, i.e., a decrease of the required bandwidth, for the new analysis.

  • 328.
    Capannini, Gabriele
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Dato, D.
    Tiscali S.p.A., Cagliari, Italy.
    Lucchese, C.
    ISTI-CNR, Pisa, Italy.
    Mori, M.
    Tiscali S.p.A., Cagliari, Italy.
    Nardini, F. M.
    ISTI-CNR, Pisa, Italy.
    Orlando, S.
    University Ca' Foscari of Venice, Italy.
    Perego, R.
    ISTI-CNR, Pisa, Italy.
    Tonellotto, N.
    ISTI-CNR, Pisa, Italy.
    QuickRank: A C++ suite of learning to rank algorithms2015Inngår i: CEUR Workshop Proceedings, 2015, Vol. 1404Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ranking is a central task of many Information Retrieval (IR) problems, particularly challenging in the case of large-scale Web collections where it involves effectiveness requirements and effciency constraints that are not common to other ranking-based applications. This paper describes QuickRank, a C++ suite of effcient and effective Learning to Rank (LtR) algorithms that allows high-quality ranking functions to be devised from possibly huge training datasets. QuickRank is a project with a double goal: i) answering industrial need of Tiscali S.p.A. for a exible and scalable LtR solution for learning ranking models from huge training datasets; ii) providing the IR research community with a exible, extensible and effcient LtR framework to design LtR solutions and fairly compare the performance of different algorithms and ranking models. This paper presents our choices in designing QuickRank and report some preliminary use experiences.

  • 329.
    Capannini, Gabriele
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Larsson, Thomas B
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Adaptive Collision Culling for Large-Scale Simulations by a Parallel Sweep and Prune Algorithm2016Inngår i: Proceedings of the 16th Eurographics Symposium on Parallel Graphics and Visualization EGPGV 2016, Groningen, Netherlands: Eurographics Association , 2016, s. 1-10Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 330.
    Capannini, Gabriele
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Larsson, Thomas B
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Adaptive Collision Culling for Massive Simulations by a Parallel and Context-Aware Sweep and Prune Algorithm2018Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, ISSN 1077-2626, E-ISSN 1941-0506, Vol. 4, nr 7, s. 2064-2077Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an improved parallel Sweep and Prune algorithm that solves the dynamic box intersection problem in three dimensions. It scales up to very large datasets, which makes it suitable for broad phase collision detection in complex moving body simulations. Our algorithm gracefully handles high-density scenarios, including challenging clustering behavior, by using a double-axis sweeping approach and a cache-friendly succinct data structure. The algorithm is realized by three parallel stages for sorting, candidate generation, and object pairing. By the use of temporal coherence, our sorting stage runs with close to optimal load balancing. Furthermore, our approach is characterized by a work-division strategy that relies on adaptive partitioning, which leads to almost ideal scalability. In addition, for scenarios that involves intense clustering along several axes simultaneously, we propose an enhancement that increases the context-awareness of the algorithm. By exploiting information gathered along three orthogonal axes, an efficient choice of what range query to perform can be made per object during run-time. Experimental results show high performance for up to millions of objects on modern multi-core CPUs.

  • 331.
    Capannini, Gabriele
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Larsson, Thomas B
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Efficient Collision Culling by a Succinct Bi-dimensional Sweep and Prune Algorithm2016Inngår i: Proceedings of the 32nd Spring Conference on Computer Graphics, 2016, s. 25-32Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 332.
    Capannini, Gabriele
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Larsson, Thomas B
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Output Sensitive Collision Detection for Unisize Boxes2016Inngår i: Proceedings of SIGRAD 2016, Visby, Sweden, 2016, s. 22-27Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 333.
    Capannini, Gabriele
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lucchese, C.
    Istituto di Scienza e Tecnologie dell'Informazione (ISTI) of the National Research Council of Italy (CNR), Pisa, Italy.
    Nardini, F. M.
    Istituto di Scienza e Tecnologie dell'Informazione (ISTI) of the National Research Council of Italy (CNR), Pisa, Italy.
    Orlando, S.
    University Ca’ Foscari of Venice, Italy.
    Perego, R.
    Istituto di Scienza e Tecnologie dell'Informazione (ISTI) of the National Research Council of Italy (CNR), Pisa, Italy.
    Tonellotto, N.
    Istituto di Scienza e Tecnologie dell'Informazione (ISTI) of the National Research Council of Italy (CNR), Pisa, Italy.
    Quality versus efficiency in document scoring with learning-to-rank models2016Inngår i: Information Processing & Management, ISSN 0306-4573, E-ISSN 1873-5371, Vol. 52, nr 6, s. 1161-1177Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning-to-Rank (LtR) techniques leverage machine learning algorithms and large amounts of training data to induce high-quality ranking functions. Given a set of documents and a user query, these functions are able to precisely predict a score for each of the documents, in turn exploited to effectively rank them. Although the scoring efficiency of LtR models is critical in several applications – e.g., it directly impacts on response time and throughput of Web query processing – it has received relatively little attention so far. The goal of this work is to experimentally investigate the scoring efficiency of LtR models along with their ranking quality. Specifically, we show that machine-learned ranking models exhibit a quality versus efficiency trade-off. For example, each family of LtR algorithms has tuning parameters that can influence both effectiveness and efficiency, where higher ranking quality is generally obtained with more complex and expensive models. Moreover, LtR algorithms that learn complex models, such as those based on forests of regression trees, are generally more expensive and more effective than other algorithms that induce simpler models like linear combination of features. We extensively analyze the quality versus efficiency trade-off of a wide spectrum of state-of-the-art LtR, and we propose a sound methodology to devise the most effective ranker given a time budget. To guarantee reproducibility, we used publicly available datasets and we contribute an open source C++ framework providing optimized, multi-threaded implementations of the most effective tree-based learners: Gradient Boosted Regression Trees (GBRT), Lambda-Mart (Λ-MART), and the first public-domain implementation of Oblivious Lambda-Mart (Ωλ-MART), an algorithm that induces forests of oblivious regression trees. We investigate how the different training parameters impact on the quality versus efficiency trade-off, and provide a thorough comparison of several algorithms in the quality-cost space. The experiments conducted show that there is not an overall best algorithm, but the optimal choice depends on the time budget.

  • 334.
    Capilla, R.
    et al.
    Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Madrid, Spain.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Cetina, C.
    Universidad San Jorge, Zaragoza, Spain.
    Foreword2018Inngår i: Lect. Notes Comput. Sci., Springer Verlag , 2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 335.
    Capilla, R.
    et al.
    Rey Juan Carlos University, Madrid, Spain.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Cetina Englada, C.
    Universidad San Jorge, Zaragoza, Spain.
    The new era of software reuse2019Inngår i: Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, ISSN 2047-7473, E-ISSN 2047-7481, Vol. 31, nr 8, artikkel-id e2221Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 336.
    Capilla, Rafael
    et al.
    King Juan Carlos University (URJC), Spain.
    Gallina, BarbaraMälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.Cetina, CarlosSan Jorge University (USJ), Spain.
    New Opportunities for Software Reuse2018Konferanseproceedings (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume contains the proceedings of the International Conference on Software Reuse (ICSR 18) held during May 21–23, 2018, in Madrid, Spain. The International Conference on Software Reuse is the premier international event in the software reuse community. The main goal of ICSR is to present the most recent advances and breakthroughs in the area of software reuse and to promote an intensive and continuous exchange among researchers and practitioners. The conference featured two keynotes by John Favaro, Intecs SpA (Italy) and Alberto Abella from MELODA (Spain). We received 29 submissions (excluding withdrawn submissions). Each submission was reviewed by three Program Committee members. The Program Committee decided to accept 11 papers (nine full papers and two short ones), resulting in an acceptance rate of 37.9%. The program also included one full-day tutorial, one invited talk, and a panel about the future of software reuse. This conference was a collaborative work that could only be realized through many dedicated efforts. We would like to thank all the colleagues who made possible the success of ICSR 2018: Barbara Gallina, Carlos Cetina, Mathieu Acher, Tewfik Ziadi, Roberto E. López Herrejón, Gregorio Robles, Jens Knodel, Carlos Carrillo, and Alejandro Valdezate. We also thank the ICSR Steering Committee for the approval to organize this edition in Madrid. Last but not least, we would like to sincerely thank all authors who submitted papers to the conference for their contributions and interest in ICSR 2018. We also thank the members of the Program Committee and the additional reviewers for their accurate reviews as well as their participation in the discussions of the submissions. Finally, we thank Danilo Beuche for his tutorial and the members that participated as panelists including the support from people of The Reuse Company (Spain).

  • 337.
    Capilla, Rafael
    et al.
    Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Mostoles, Spain.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Cetina, Carlos
    Universidad San Jorge, Zaragoza, Spain.
    Favaro, John
    Intecs Solutions, Pisa, Italy.
    Opportunities for Software Reuse in an Uncertain World: From Past to Emerging Trends2019Inngår i: Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, ISSN 2047-7473, E-ISSN 2047-7481, Vol. 31, nr 8, artikkel-id e2217Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Much has been investigated about software reuse since the software crisis. The development of software reuse methods, implementation techniques, and cost models has resulted in a significant amount of research over years. Nevertheless, the increasing adoption of reuse techniques, many of them subsumed under higher level software engineering processes, and advanced programming techniques that ease the way to reuse software assets, have hidden somehow in the recent years new research trends on the practice of reuse and caused the disappearance of several reuse conferences. Also, new forms of reuse like open data and feature models have brought new opportunities for reuse beyond the traditional software components. From past to present, we summarize in this research the recent history of software reuse, and we report new research areas and forms of reuse according to current needs in industry and application domains, as well as promising research trends for the upcoming years.

  • 338.
    Carlson, Jan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Håkansson, J.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Pettersson, P.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    SaveCCM: An Analysable Component Model for Real-Time Systems2006Inngår i: Electronical Notes in Theoretical Computer Science, ISSN 1571-0661, E-ISSN 1571-0661, Vol. 160, nr 1, s. 127-140Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Component based development is a promising approach for embedded systems. Typical for embedded software is the presence of resource constraints in multiple dimensions. An essential dimension is time, since many embedded systems have real-time requirements. We define a formal semantics of a component language for embedded systems, SaveCCM, a language designed with vehicle applications and safety concerns in focus. The semantics is defined by a transformation into timed automata with tasks, a formalism that explicitly models timing and real-time task scheduling. A simple SaveCCM system with a PI controller is used as a case study. Temporal properties of the PI controller have been successfully verified using the timed automata model checker Uppaal.

  • 339.
    Carlson, Jan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lennvall, Tomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Fohler, Gerhard
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Enhancing time triggered scheduling with value based overload handling and task migration2003Inngår i: Proceedings - 6th IEEE International Symposium on Object-Oriented Real-Time Distributed Computing, ISORC 2003, 2003, s. 121-128Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Time triggered methods provide deterministic behaviour suitable for critical real-time systems. The), perform less favourably, however if the arrival times of some activities are not known in advance, in particular if overload situations have to be anticipated. In many systems, the criticality of only a subset of activities justify the cost associated with the time triggered methods. In this paper we consider distributed systems where a subset of critical activities are handled in a time triggered fashion, via an offline schedule. At runtime, the arrival of aperiodic tasks may cause overload that demands to be handled in such a way that i) time triggered activities still meet all their original constraints, ii) execution of high-valued tasks are prioritised over tasks with lower value, iii) tasks can be quickly migrated to balance the overall system load. We give a precise formulation of overload detection and value based task rejection in the presence of offline scheduled tasks, and present a heuristic algorithm to handle overload. To benefit from the distributed setting, the overload handling includes an algorithm that integrates migration of rejected tasks with resource reclaiming and an acceptance test of newly arrived tasks. Simulation results underline the effectiveness of the presented approach.

  • 340.
    Carlson, Jan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    Mälardalens högskola. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Petersen, K.
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science, Kista, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A Context Model for Architectural Decision Support2016Inngår i: Proceedings - 2016 1st International Workshop on Decision Making in Software ARCHitecture, MARCH 2016, 2016, s. 9-15Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing efficient and effective decision making support includes identifying means to reduce repeated manual work and providing possibilities to take advantage of the experience gained in previous decision situations. For this to be possible, there is a need to explicitly model the context of a decision case, for example to determine how much the evidence from one decision case can be trusted in another, similar context. In earlier work, context has been recognized as important when transferring and understanding outcomes between cases. The contribution of this paper is threefold. First, we describe different ways of utilizing context in an envisioned decision support system. Thereby, we distinguish between internal and external context usage, possibilities of context representation, and context inheritance. Second, we present a systematically developed context model comprised of five types of context information, namely organization, product, stakeholder, development method & technology, and market & business. Third, we exemplary illustrate the relation of the context information to architectural decision making using existing literature. 

  • 341.
    Carlson, Jan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Åkerholm, Mikael
    Mälardalens högskola.
    An event algebra extension of the triggering mechanism in a component model for embedded systems2005Inngår i: Electronical Notes in Theoretical Computer Science, ISSN 1571-0661, E-ISSN 1571-0661, Vol. 141, nr 3, s. 107-121Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we present how the component triggering in SaveCCM, a component model intended for embedded vehicular systems, can be extended by means of an event algebra. The extension allows components to be triggered by complex event patterns, and not only by clock signals or single external events. Separating the detection of triggering conditions from the definition of the triggered services permits more general components and thus improves component reusability. Providing event detection mechanisms within the component model means that triggering conditions are explicitly available for system analysis at design time. An event algebra is used to define the complex triggering conditions. This algebra has a relatively simple declarative semantics and well documented algebraic properties, which facilitates formal and informal reasoning about the system. The algebra also ensures that detection of triggering conditions can be efficiently implemented with limited resources, which is critical in embedded applications.

  • 342.
    Caro-Romero, J. R.
    et al.
    University of Malaga, Malaga, Spain.
    Ballesteros, Joaquin
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Garcia-Lagos, F.
    University of Malaga, Malaga, Spain.
    Urdiales, C.
    University of Malaga, Malaga, Spain.
    Sandoval, F.
    University of Malaga, Malaga, Spain.
    A Neural Network for Stance Phase Detection in Smart Cane Users2019Inngår i: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 11506, Springer Verlag , 2019, s. 310-321Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Persons with disabilities often rely on assistive devices to carry on their Activities of Daily Living. Deploying sensors on these devices may provide continuous valuable knowledge on their state and condition. Canes are among the most frequently used assistive devices, regularly employed for ambulation by persons with pain on lower limbs and also for balance. Load on canes is reportedly a meaningful condition indicator. Ideally, it corresponds to the time cane users support weight on their lower limb (stance phase). However, in reality, this relationship is not straightforward. We present a Multilayer Perceptron to reliably predict the Stance Phase in cane users using a simple support detection module on commercial canes. The system has been successfully tested on five cane users in care facilities in Spain. It has been optimized to run on a low cost microcontroller. 

  • 343.
    Castagnari, C.
    et al.
    Division of Computer Science, Smart Mobility Lab, University of Camerino, Via Madonna delle Carceri 9, Camerino, MC, Italy.
    de Berardinis, J.
    Division of Computer Science, Smart Mobility Lab, University of Camerino, Via Madonna delle Carceri 9, Camerino, MC, Italy.
    Forcina, G.
    Division of Computer Science, Smart Mobility Lab, University of Camerino, Via Madonna delle Carceri 9, Camerino, MC, Italy.
    Jafari, A.
    School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Menntavegur 1, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Lightweight preprocessing for agent-based simulation of smart mobility initiatives2018Inngår i: Lect. Notes Comput. Sci., Springer Verlag , 2018, s. 541-557Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the impacts of a mobility initiative prior to deployment is a complex task for both urban planners and transport companies. To support this task, Tangramob offers an agent-based simulation framework for assessing the evolution of urban traffic after the introduction of new mobility services. However, Tangramob simulations are computationally expensive due to their iterative nature. Thus, we simplified the Tangramob model into a Timed Rebeca (TRebeca) model and we designed a tool-chain that generates instances of this model starting from the same Tangramob’s inputs. Running TRebeca models allows users to get an idea of how mobility initiatives affect the system performance, in a short time, without resorting to the simulator. To validate this approach, we compared the output of both the simulator and the TRebeca model on a collection of mobility initiatives. Results show a correlation between them, thus demonstrating the usefulness of using TRebeca models for unconventional contexts of application.

  • 344.
    Castellanos Ardila, Julieth Patricia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Facilitating Automated Compliance Checking of Processes against Safety Standards2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 345.
    Castellanos Ardila, Julieth Patricia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Facilitating Automated Compliance Checking of Processes against Safety Standards2019Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A system is safety-critical if its malfunctioning could have catastrophic consequences for people, property or the environment, e.g., the failure in a car's braking system could be potentially tragic. To produce such type of systems, special procedures, and strategies, that permit their safer deployment into society, should be used. Therefore, manufacturers of safety-critical systems comply with domain-specific safety standards, which embody the public consensus of acceptably safe. Safety standards also contain a repository of expert knowledge and best practices that can, to some extent, facilitate the safety-critical system’s engineering. In some domains, the applicable safety standards establish the accepted procedures that regulate the development processes. For claiming compliance with such standards, companies should adapt their practices and provide convincing justifications regarding the processes used to produce their systems, from the initial steps of the production. In particular, the planning of the development process, in accordance with the prescribed process-related requirements specified in the standard, is an essential piece of evidence for compliance assessment. However, providing such evidence can be time-consuming and prone-to-error since it requires that process engineers check the fulfillment of hundreds of requirements based on their processes specifications. With access to suitable tool-supported methodologies, process engineers would be able to perform their job efficiently and accurately.

    Safety standards prescribe requirements in natural language by using notions that are subtly similar to the concepts used to describe laws. In particular, requirements in the standards introduce conditions that are obligatory for claiming compliance. Requirements also define tailoring rules, which are actions that permit to comply with the standard in an alternative way. Unfortunately, current approaches for software verification are not furnished with these notions, which could make their use in compliance checking difficult. However, existing tool-supported methodologies designed in the legal compliance context, which are also proved in the business domain, could be exploited for defining an adequate automated compliance checking approach that suits the conditions required in the safety-critical context.

    The goal of this Licentiate thesis is to propose a novel approach that combines: 1) process modeling capabilities for representing systems and software process specifications, 2) normative representation capabilities for interpreting the requirements of the safety standards in an adequate machine-readable form, and 3) compliance checking capabilities to provide the analysis required to conclude whether the model of a process corresponds to the model with the compliant states proposed by the standard's requirements. Our approach contributes to facilitating compliance checking by providing automatic reasoning from the requirements prescribed by the standards, and the description of the process they regulate. It also contributes to cross-fertilize two communities that were previously isolated, namely safety-critical and legal compliance contexts. Besides, we propose an approach for mastering the interplay between highly-related standards. This approach includes the reuse capabilities provided by SoPLE (Safety-oriented Process Line Engineering), which is a methodological approach aiming at systematizing the reuse of process-related information in the context of safety-critical systems. With the addition of SoPLE, we aim at planting the seeds for the future provision of systematic reuse of compliance proofs. Hitherto, our proposed methodology has been evaluated with academic examples that show the potential benefits of its use.

  • 346.
    Castellanos Ardila, Julieth Patricia
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Formal Contract Logic Based Patterns for Facilitating Compliance Checking against ISO 262622018Inngår i: CEUR Workshop Proceedings, Volume 2049, 2018, s. 65-72Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    ISO 26262 demands a confirmation review of the safety plan, which includes the compliance checking of planned processes against safety requirements. Formal Contract Logic (FCL), a logic-based language stemming from business compliance, provides means to formalize normative requirements enabling automatic compliance checking. However, formalizing safety requirements in FCL requires skills, which cannot be taken for granted. In this paper, we provide a set of ISO 26262-specific FCL compliance patterns to facilitate rules formalization. First, we identify and define the patterns, based on Dwyer' et al.'s specification patterns style. Then, we instantiate the patterns to illustrate their applicability. Finally, we sketch conclusions and future work.

  • 347.
    Castellanos Ardila, Julieth Patricia
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Towards Efficiently Checking Compliance Against Automotive Security and Safety Standards2017Inngår i: The 7th IEEE International Workshop on Software Certification WoSoCer 2017, 2017, s. 317-324Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing connectivity of the systems that we rely on e.g. transportation vehicles is pushing towards the introduction of new standards aimed at providing a baseline to address cybersecurity besides safety. If the interplay of the two normative spaces is not mastered, compliance management might become more time consuming and costly, preventing engineers from dedicating their energies to system engineering. In this paper, we build on top of previous work aimed at increasing efficiency and confidence in compliance management. More specifically, we contribute to building a terminological framework needed to enable the systematization of commonalities and variabilities within ISO 26262 and SAE J3061. Then, we focus our attention on the requirements for software design and implementation and we use defeasible logic to prove compliance. Based on the compliance checking results, we reveal reuse opportunities. Finally, we draw our conclusions and sketch future research directions.

  • 348.
    Castellanos Ardila, Julieth Patricia
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Towards Increased Efficiency and Confidence in Process Compliance2017Inngår i: 24th European & Asian Systems, Software & Service Process Improvement & Innovation EuroAsiaSPI2 '17, 2017, s. 162-174Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, the engineering of (software) systems has to comply with di erent standards, which often exhibit common requirements or at least a signi cant potential for synergy. Compliance management is a delicate, time-consuming, and costly activity, which would bene- t from increased con dence, automation, and systematic reuse. In this paper, we introduce a new approach, called SoPLE&Logic-basedCM. SoPLE&Logic-basedCM combines (safety-oriented) process line engineering with defeasible logic-based approaches for formal compliance checking. As a result of this combination, SoPLE&Logic-basedCM enables automation of compliance checking and systematic reuse of process elements as well as compliance proofs. To illustrate SoPLE&Logic-basedCM, we apply it to the automotive domain and we draw our lessons learnt.

  • 349.
    Castellanos Ardila, Julieth Patricia
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Governatori, Guido
    Data61, CSIRO, Australia.
    Lessons Learned while formalizing ISO 26262 for Compliance Checking2018Inngår i: Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Technologies for Regulatory Compliance (TeReCom), 2018, s. 5-16Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A confirmation review of the safety plan is required during compliance assessment with ISO 26262. Its production could be facilitated by creating a specification of the standard’s requirements in FCL (Formal Contract Logic), which is a language that can be used to automatically checking compliance. However, we have learned, via previous experiences, that interpreting ISO 26262 requirements and specifying them in FCL is complex. Thus, we perform a formalization-oriented pre-processing of ISO 26262 to find effective ways to proceed with this task. In this paper, we present the lessons learned from this pre-processing which includes the identification of the essential normative parts to be formalized, the identification of SCP (Safety Compliance Patterns) and its subsequent documentation as templates, and the definition of a methodological guideline to facilitate the formalization of normative clauses. Finally, we illustrate the defined methodology by formalizing ISO 26262 part 3 and discuss our findings.

  • 350.
    Castellanos Ardila, Julieth Patricia
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    UL Muram, Faiz
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Enabling Compliance Checking against Safety Standards from SPEM 2.0 Process Models2018Inngår i: The Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications SEAA 2018, 2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Compliance with process-based safety standards may imply the provision of a safety plan and its corresponding compliance justification. The provision of this justification is time-consuming since it requires that the process engineer checks the fulfillment of hundred of requirements by taking into account the evidence provided by the process entities. Available methodologies and their implemented tools can be used to automate this checking and provide a compliance report that can be part of the justification to be scrutinized by the safety auditor. In this paper, we explain our compliance checking vision for supporting the process engineer, in which the interaction between SPEM 2.0 (Software & Systems Process Engineering Metamodel) and Regorous (a tool-supported methodology for compliance checking) is established. Then, we focus on SPEM 2.0 to identify mechanisms to provide the minimal set of elements required to be processed by Regorous and describe how to implement them in EPF Composer. We also illustrate these mechanisms by modeling a simple example from ISO 26262 and show how a compliance report can be used to trace unfulfilled requirements.

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