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  • 301.
    Berlitz, Fanny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Soulaka, Nataline
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hur andraspråkselever tar sig an problemlösningsuppgifter: Svårigheter i utförandet av problemlösningsuppgifter för andraspråkselever och vilka stöd de kan få för att öka förståelsen2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att ta reda på vilka svårigheter som kan uppstå i problemlösning för elever som har svenska som andraspråk. För att ta reda på detta ställdes frågorna: “vilka svårigheter stöter elever med utländsk bakgrund på vid problemlösningsuppgifter?”  samt “vilket stöd kan de eleverna få i sitt lärande?” För att kunna svara på frågeställningarna utfördes en systematisk litteraturstudie och 12 artiklar har granskats och analyserats. När resultaten av artiklarna sammanställdes kunde vi komma fram till att det oftast handlar om en svårighet och att det finns fler sätt att stötta eleverna i utvecklingen. Det är huvudsakligen språkliga problem som eleverna stöter på, med detta menas både förståelse för enstaka ord och förståelsen av sammanhanget i uppgiften. Vad det gäller stöd beskrivs det främst fyra riktlinjer man kan förhålla sig till; 1) språkligt stöd, 2) laborativt material, 3) tydliga instruktioner och 4)  strategier och kontexten i uppgiften.

  • 302.
    Bern, Caroline
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Bedömning av kompetens i tekniska karriärspår: En fallstudie om hur föreställningar om kompetens, kompetensbedömning och karriär påverkar organisationers möjlighet att skapa inkludering och mångfald2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Having a diverse workforce has become an important issue in today’s organizations in order to capture a wide range of competence, skills and abilities. Today many companies encourage work with diversity and inclusion since they argue that it increases creativity and, in extent, company profit. However, many companies struggle to manage such work in a successful way. A method of creating the prerequisites for diversity and inclusion is to study the perception of competence and assessment processes. Assessment of competence is, for example, the basis for decision making in career advancement. The assessment requires one to decide on what competence is and in turn who is competent. The complexity of the concept of competence and norms being a part of the assessment process complicates such decisions. As an attempt to ensure that competence is assessed objectively, many companies apply different formalized procedures for inclusion and diversity work. This study aims to provide a deeper understanding of how career, assessment of competence and formalized procedures interact.

    A case study has been carried out in an engineering industry, which is referred to in the report as Organization A. The purpose of the study was to examine how formalized technical careers affect organizations' ability to create inclusion and diversity, based on perceptions of competence, competence assessment and career. To fulfil the purpose, the following two questions were stated.

    1. How are technical careers structured?
    2. What conditions do technical careers create for equal assessment of competence?

    In the study, a technical career path has been investigated within Organization A. The thesis is part of a MSc in Engineering and Education at KTH. The engineering part of the work is reflected in the technical point of view of the work where an organization with technology-intensive activities has been placed in focus. The educational part of my degree is applied by relating the organization's technical career paths to similar organizations in education, discussing similarities and differences in assessment processes. In order to answer the research questions, interviews with employees and focus groups with managers within Organization A have been conducted. The study shows how technical careers are organized based on formal and informal structures related to assessment of competence and norms affecting assessment processes. The observed technical career path within Organization A is based on an informal pyramid structure that allows for subjective perceptions of the purpose and goals of the career. This enables a view of employees' different capabilities to reach higher levels and is therefore problematized from a diversity and inclusion perspective.

    The assessment criteria of the career path provide room for interpretation and there is no education or support for managers how the criteria should be interpreted and applied. It is a result of a lack of management required to ensure that the career process is used the intended way. The shortcoming contributes to the fact that norms and prejudices can continue to influence the assessment process. The organization's implemented diversity and inclusion work provide some management but is done without caution. Processes of change requires follow-up and evaluation which is lacking. The organization can learn from what in learning research is addressed as formative assessment. The study shows a shortcoming in all three key parts included in formative assessment. Based on stated conclusions, recommendations are given to Organization A to question the purpose of the pyramid structure and to apply clearer management in terms of education and forums for collaboration. Additionally, recommendations are given for how the organization can apply formative assessment in career assessment processes.

  • 303.
    Berndtsson, Ina
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Nursing.
    Stoma therapist education on internet2008In: Proceedings with congress programme, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet is a good help and save time in the daily work for most of us registrar nurses. In the stoma therapist (ET) education where students often live in different places, is internet education a good alternative. In a digital classroom as community on internet the student collect tasks, send answers, have contact with the teacher and other students in the course. It is like a classroom and with a webb camera or video a lesson can be hold. The lessons can also be prerecorded so the students can look on it any time. The big different and advantage from a real classroom this community is opened 24 hours a day. Advantage and another positive effect is that student and teacher can communicate and answer the task when it suites them best.

    To participants an internet course does not mean less work, all communications must be written and read. This will take more time then verbally communication. One important thing, all communication is written, so it hade to be clear to avoid misunderstanding. To learn and understand each other the student and teacher have to have a two way communication.

    The practical educations can the students carry through on the hospital in the home city with support from the local ET- nurse and the practical examination can be done with instruction from the ET- course. When the students report the examination paper to other students they have to comment and discuss the result in the community. All students most give written comments and ask questions to the other students. The student can not “be seated” quiet, all comments and answers has to be documented. All students become attend.

    The stoma therapist education in a community on internet has great opportunities and is a good alternative.

  • 304.
    Bernhard, Dörte
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Andersson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Adult Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Swedish Folk High Schools and Inclusive Education2017In: Nordic Studies in Education, ISSN 1891-5914, E-ISSN 1891-5949, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 87-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on Swedish folk high schools’ participants with disabilities, and their learning environment within adult education. Facilitating factors are presented and discussed, as well as developmental factors regarding the adjustment of the learning environment. The basis for this empirical study is data from Statistics Sweden and a self-designed online questionnaire with respondents representing the folk high schools (N=212). Theoretical reference is given to concepts such as adult education and inclusive education. The results show there are an increased number of participants with disabilities in Swedish folk high schools. Furthermore, the study emphasizes the meaning of pedagogics with a personalized, individualized approach, and highlights a need for further education of adult educators about disability. The conclusion is that a stronger inclusive-education perspective with focus on learners’ diversity reflects only one side of practice, as this practice is also challenged by welfare system-steered processes that may conflict with an ideal of adult education as empowerment.

  • 305.
    Bernhard, Jonte
    et al.
    Department of Science and Technology, Linköping University, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Carstensen, Anna-Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Davidsen, Jacob
    Department of Communication and Psychology, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Ryberg, Thomas
    Department of Communication and Psychology, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Practical Epistemic Cognition in a Design Project - Engineering Students Developing Epistemic Fluency2019In: IEEE Transactions on Education, ISSN 0018-9359, E-ISSN 1557-9638, Vol. 62, no 3, p. 216-225, article id 8703388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contribution: This paper reports engineering students' practical epistemic cognition by studying their interactional work in situ. Studying "epistemologies in action'' the study breaks away from mainstream approaches that describe this in terms of beliefs or of stage theories.

    Background: In epistemology, knowledge is traditionally seen as "justified true belief'', neglecting knowledge related to action. Interest has increased in studying the epistemologies people use in situated action, and their development of epistemic fluency. How appropriate such approaches are in engineering and design education need further investigation.

    Research Questions: 1) How do students in the context of a design project use epistemic tools in their interactional work? and 2) What are the implications of the findings in terms of how students' cognitive and epistemological development could be conceptualized?

    Methodology: A collaborative group of six students were video recorded on the 14th day of a fifth-semester design project, as they were preparing for a formal critique session. The entire, almost 6 h, session was recorded by four video cameras mounted in the design studio, with an additional fifth body-mounted camera. The video data collected was analyzed using video ethnographic, conversation analysis, and embodied interaction analysis methods.

    Findings: The results show that the students use a wealth of bodily material resources as an integral and seamless part of their interactions as epistemic tools, in their joint production of understanding and imagining. The analysis also suggests that students' epistemological and cognitive development, individually and as a group, should be understood in terms of developing "epistemic fluency.'' 

  • 306.
    Bernhard, Jonte
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Carstensen, Anna-Karin
    Jonkoping Univ, Sweden.
    Davidsen, Jacob
    Aalborg Univ, Denmark.
    Ryberg, Thomas
    Aalborg Univ, Denmark.
    Practical Epistemic Cognition in a Design Project-Engineering Students Developing Epistemic Fluency2019In: IEEE Transactions on Education, ISSN 0018-9359, E-ISSN 1557-9638, Vol. 62, no 3, p. 216-225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contribution: This paper reports engineering students practical epistemic cognition by studying their interactional work in situ. Studying "epistemologies in action" the study breaks away from mainstream approaches that describe this in terms of beliefs or of stage theories. Background: In epistemology, knowledge is traditionally seen as "justified true belief," neglecting knowledge related to action. Interest has increased in studying the epistemologies people use in situated action, and their development of epistemic fluency. How appropriate such approaches are in engineering and design education need further investigation. Research Questions: 1) How do students in the context of a design project use epistemic tools in their interactional work? and 2) What are the implications of the findings in terms of how students cognitive and epistemological development could be conceptualized? Methodology: A collaborative group of six students were video recorded on the 14th day of a fifth-semester design project, as they were preparing for a formal critique session. The entire, almost 6 h, session was recorded by four video cameras mounted in the design studio, with an additional fifth body-mounted camera. The video data collected was analyzed using video ethnographic, conversation analysis, and embodied interaction analysis methods. Findings: The results show that the students use a wealth of bodily material resources as an integral and seamless part of their interactions as epistemic tools, in their joint production of understanding and imagining. The analysis also suggests that students epistemological and cognitive development, individually and as a group, should be understood in terms of developing "epistemic fluency."

  • 307.
    Bernhardsson, Lennarth
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    An eye for an I: a framework with focus on the integration of work and learning in higher education2018In: INTED 2018: Proceedings, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Higher education plays a new role in the society and the highly specialized labor market, and higher education institutes are expected to interact with and contribute to the surrounding society. University West in Sweden is since 2002 commissioned by the government to develop the pedagogical strategy called work-integrated learning (WIL) and WIL is the “trade mark” for the University. This means that pedagogical methods are based on WIL and that the faculty is working on further refinement and development in order to maximize the pedagogical gain offered by using the synergy between theory and practice.

    Work-integrated-learning activities are often implemented in a course as methods aligned to the learning outcomes regarding knowledge in the specific subject. However, another perspective is that the capacity to reflect and understand the integration of theory and practice could actually be a learning outcome in itself. From this perspective, it is vital to theoretically frame and formulate stringent learnings outcomes. To have a clear framework for this is important for curriculum design, course delivery and assessment, as well.

    In a self-evaluation conducted at the University, including focus groups with, both undergraduate and post graduate students, teachers, researchers and managers, a call for a framework has been expressed.

    In this conceptual paper, we propose a framework to support, design, delivery and assessment of work-integrated-learning progression, i.e. understanding of the integration between theory and practice. This framework is inspired by theories regarding constructive alignment [3], the SOLO taxonomy, agentic learning, SAMR-model and the RAT-model. RAT means Replacement, Amplifying and Replacement [4] while SAMR is the acronym for Substitution, Augmentation, Modification and Redefinition [5]. Our WIL-4U has also been inspired by SOLO taxonomy [6]

    In short, the framework for progression includes a progression from being descriptive regarding the observed practice, skills for comparing and evaluating practices, to be agentic in how theory and practice could be used in synergy for evolving, new theory and development of practice. Thereby, putting on eye on the “i” in WiL.

    Ultimately such a framework could support the progression of “WiL-understanding” through an educational program, and that students after graduation have developed readiness for “life-long-learning” and could be agentic at workplaces in the sense that practice and theory are used in synergy.

  • 308.
    Bernhardsson, Lennarth
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Willermark, Sara
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    "Just in Time": Tidig feedback för ökat lärande2018In: VILÄR Abstraktbok / [ed] Kristina Johansson, Trollhättan: Högskolan Väst , 2018, p. 7-7Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Genomströmning är ett begrepp som ofta används för att mäta hur lönsam en kursär för lärosätet. Det ger ett ekonomiskt mått på en kurs. Det är också ett mått på kvaliteten i studenternas arbeten. Ju bättre kvalitet och måluppfyllelse en inlämningsuppgift har desto större sannolikhet för ett godkänt betyg. Samtidigt kan det också ge en indikation på huruvida innehållet är svårt att ta till sig eller om kursmål är svåra att uppnå. Kursen Integritet och demokrati i Digitala Media vid Mediaavdelningen, Högskolan väst, har under flera år kämpat med relativt lågt antal godkända examinationsuppgifter vid första examinationstillfälle. Problemet diskuterades i lärarlaget och för att åtgärda problemet bestämde lärarna sig för att lämna feedback till studenterna i ett tidigare skede av kursen, med ett tydlig fokus på vad som behövde förbättras för att bli godkänd. Åtgärden resulterade i en ökad genomströmning och i denna text diskuteras vikten av att ge feedback i tid. Metoden för iterativ feedback ser vi också kan användas vid utbildningstillfällen där arbetsintegrerat lärande är ett kursmål.

  • 309.
    Bernhardsson, Patrik
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Bernhardsson, Lennarth
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Personal Learning Environment For Learning After University2018In: INTED 2018: Proceedings, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is becoming increasingly common for universities and schools to use some form of digital system between teachers and students. They usually use a Learning Management System (LMS). Watson [1] discusses the concept and systems used today and believes that the intentions with LMS are good but they lack valuable functions. They have most often been used to distribute instructions to students. It is a unified information that applies to all participants and is not in any way individualized or gives the individual student the unique support that may be needed for a good learning environment.

    Learning in the digital era requires new skills focusing on different digital artefacts [2]. Learning is also a lifelong process that not only happens in an institutional context. Learning takes place in both formal and informal contexts. Learning and work-related activities are connected today, and education needs to be shaped to support a continued process even after completion of formal learning [3].

    Instead of standardized one-way solutions for transferring instructions, in which is the way many LMS are used, students should during their time at the college learn tools that support learning and communication with others. By using the tools used in working life during the study time, the boundary is blurred between the school's LMS and tools commonly used in working life. [3]. Many LMS used in higher education is not used in business and the skills gained by students through LMS cannot easily be transformed into knowledge of the tools that companies use. By introducing tools that are widely used in business, students can create their own set of tools for communication, project management and information retrieval. The tools can then contribute to encouraging their own critical search of information based on which they can shape their unique knowledge and to act as an "agentic learner" [4]. The use of an LMS that students cannot use after completing studies does not give the same opportunities for continued learning as a set of ‘open tools’. They need to create a Personal Learning Environment (PLE) so that they can then continue to use same tools after completed studies. [5]

    Richards et al [6] describes a driven student as an "agentic learner". A self-employed individual with both pleasure and ability to learn as such can determine what needs to be learned from knowledge goals in a syllabus related to the individual's existing knowledge. In order to become such a driven student, a larger "toolbox" for learning is needed than a standardized LMS solution often offers.

    It is not new tools within LMS, adjustments and minor changes, which are needed. It is a whole new perspective where the focus is shifted from LMS to PLE. It is difficult to create understanding among students how tools locked in an LMS provide knowledge for an upcoming work life. A whole new set of tools is needed or what is described as a system change by Reigeluth [7]. A whole new perspective on what tools that support lifelong learning and not only university studies. Since the LMS is connected to the university the LMS is closed for external access and the student cannot access it after they leave the University.

    In this paper we discuss, based on a theoretical perspective, whether open cloud-based tools can form the student's PLE to replace the university's LMS.

  • 310.
    Bernström, Josefin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Stigsson, Jessica
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Nätkränkningar: Interventioner och relationer i skolan2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a systematic literature review over 12 peer reviewed articles regarding the topiccyberbullying. The purpose of this study is to summarise and critically discuss different interventions and preventions used to tackle cyberbullying in school environments.Interventions and preventions will be analysed from a relational perspective. The articles are sorted and discussed in four relevant categories. These are: Netiquette, building relationships, Learning through role models, antibullying programs. The study found that the foundation of most successful interventions against cyberbullying is healthy relationships between students and school staff. The result showed that based on meaningful relationships, successful interventions and preventions can be formed and used in school. It is important to acknowledge that not a single intervention can solve a complex problem like cyberbullying, but instead there is a need for a combination of different interventions and more knowledge about the phenomena cyberbullying.

  • 311.
    Berntsdotter, Matilda
    et al.
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Sundqvist, Linn
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Förskollärarens syn på sin kompetens inom bild och bildskapande.: En kvalitativ studie ur ett sociokulturellt perspektiv.2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine the preschool teachers' view of their competence in art and art creation, as well as the competence they consider that a preschool teacher should have and how competence can develop. In this study, we define competence as something you own in the practice of preschool education and that preschool teachers can meet the challenges that the profession requires. Competence is about being able to carry out an action in practice, and in this study, the expression summarizes what a person can in the field of art and art creation. Our study addresses the following questions; how do preschool teachers perceive their competence in art and art creation? What do the preschool teachers think they need in competence in art and art creation? What role do preschool teachers play in promoting their own and children's competence development in art and art creation? Four preschool teachers and a teacher for elementary school's older years who worked in preschool since her education was interviewed with a qualitative interviewing method from a sociocultural perspective. The results show that the competencies that preschoolers apprehend is competence that includes material knowledge, the ability to link activities with curriculum and theories, and to make it a fun-filled activity for the children. In order to develop their competence, the result shows that they use continuous education and collegial learning and in interaction with children.

  • 312.
    Berntsen, Jens
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Bäckström, Jonathan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Viktiga komponenter i e-lektioner: Implementation och evaluering av redigeringsverktyg för att skapa e-lektioner2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Throughout the ages, major technical breakthroughs have on several occasions been integrated into education, but each new technology has its strengths and weaknesses. With the development of the computer and its increased accessibility to the public, the amount of available teaching material (Clark & Mayer, 2016) and the number of students who are studying courses in e-learning has increased (Statista, 2015). E-learning is then, according to Clark & Mayer’s (2016) definition, learning that takes place through a digital medium. One possibility that arises with e-learning is that there are many ways of presenting material. One problem that arises then is to know which components should be used to create good e-lessons that promote student learning. The aim of the study is to identify which components are important for content creators to use in e-lessons and then, based on these components, develop an editing tool designed to create new e-lessons. To identify the appropriate components, a thematic analysis was first carried out on e-lessons from a learning platform in order to examine which components the instructional designers use to present material. Qualitative interviews were conducted to capture the instructional designers’ ideas and opinions regarding the components. These ideas and opinions were used together with the results of the thematic analysis to make didactic choices about which components are suitable for use in e-lessons. The development of the editing tool was done by creating multiple prototypes and discussing them with the instructional designers to determine the appearance of the components in the tool. From the thematic analysis, 7 themes emerged with a total of 22 sub-themes. The results of the didactic choices were 12 main components, for instance: text, image, video, quiz and examples. The editing tool that was built contains all 12 main components, but some components still lack some parts described in the didactic choices. The tool was evaluated by instructional designers who thought it worked but had some shortcomings that needs to be addressed.For the instructional designer to be able to use the editing tool to create and publish new e-lessons on the platform, the tool needs to be integrated into the platform, all components need to be completed and user experience improved.

  • 313.
    Berntson, Martin
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Disciplinary Research.
    Kyrkohistoria som en del av religionskunskapsämnets identitet - Reflektioner över läroplan och tillämpning2014In: 14 röster kring samhällsstudier och didaktik / [ed] Hans Albin Larsson, Jönköping: Samhällsstudier & Didaktik , 2014, p. 15-53Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 314.
    Berntzen, Agnes
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, School Based Research, Literacy Research.
    Läsförståelse: En kvalitativ studie om sex lärares beskrivningar av läsförståelseundervisningen i årskurs 1 och 22018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Undersökningar från PISA visar att läsförståelsen i Sverige har varit dalande i flera år. Densenaste undersökningen från 2015 visar dock motsatt resultat. Syftet med dennakvalitativa studie är att ta reda på hur lärare arbetar medläsförståelseundervisning. Forskningsfrågorna i studien är Vad beskriverlärare utifrån sina egna erfarenheter är betydelsefulla inslag i undervisningenför elevers läsförståelseutveckling? Hur utmanar och stöttar lärarna enskildaelever i läsförståelseutvecklingen?  Studien grundar sig på den sociokulturellateorin och beskriver att elevers läsförståelseutveckling sker i ettsocialt samspel, när lärare vägleder, stöttar och utmanar eleverna. Resultatetvisar att högläsning, grupparbete och att motivera eleven är betydelsefullainslag i undervisningen. Elever stöttas med hjälp av olika redskap såsomdigitala enheter eller läshjälp från läraren.

  • 315.
    Bertills, Karin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue).
    Augustine, Lilly
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Inclusive teaching skills and student engagement in physical education2019In: Frontiers in Education, ISSN 2504-284X, Vol. 4, no 74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Including students with disabilities in school-based Physical Education (PE) is common practice. However, little is known about students’ engagement and interaction in this environment and how it is related to PE teaching skills. Student engagement and interaction patterns were therefore observed. A multiple time-sampling method was used to perform observations of individual, contextual and environmental aspects of student engagement in school-based PE lessons. Three groups of students, aged 14 (n = 94), with: (1) Disabilities (n = 23), (2) Low grades (n = 27), and (3) High grades (n = 44) were compared. Students, independent of group, showed relatively high engagement in PE. The observed frequency of linking lesson content to PE syllabus in combination with using a vibrant affective tone when instructing was used as an indicator of high-/low-level teaching skills. Higher student engagement was observed in environments with high-level PE teaching skills, which included more whole group teaching, a higher frequency of student-teacher communicative proximity and more instructions. Students with disabilities and with low grades were more often observed in whole group activities, students with high grades in small group activities. The primary type of support provided to students with disabilities in PE seemed to consist of communicative proximity to the teacher. They were more often observed to be close to the teacher. Our results suggest that proximity to the teacher may serve as an indicator of inclusive teaching. In high-level teaching environments, teachers were more frequently in communicative proximity to all students, which facilitates learning. Lessons were also more focused (physically and academically) and technical devices and music were used for teaching purposes. More complex lesson content requires more instructions and our results show that, despite more instructions, all student groups were more on-task. Implied from our observations is that lesson complexity, the structuring of whole/small group formats, teacher proximity, and student engagement are aspects to consider when studying school-based PE. More instructions, closer communicative proximity and higher student engagement in high-level teaching provide students with more learning opportunities and facilitate feed-back and feed-forward, and individual support to students with disabilities.

  • 316.
    Bertilsson, Britta
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Samverkan- en bro mellan skola och hem: en kvalitativ undersökning om hur samverkan mellan skola och hem fungerar i en kommun i årskurserna 7-9 2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte är att få en ökad förståelse kring hur skola och hem i årskurs 7-9 samverkar samt vilka hinder och möjligheter rektorer uppfattar att samverkan kan ha. För att ta reda på detta användes gruppintervju som metod som och innefattar tre rektorers åsikter och tankar kring samverkan. De teoretiska perspektiv som studien utgår från är Erikson s (2004) fyra principer om samverkan mellan skola och det sociokulturella perspektivet. Eriksons (2004) fyra principer beskriver olika sätt att se på samverkan mellan skola och hem. Sammanfattningsvis visade resultatet att skolorna i undersökningen använder sig av två kategorier av samverkansformer: planerade- och oplanerade samverkansformer. De planerade samverkansformerna förekommer kontinuerligt under läsåret och är väl planerade innan de utförs. De oplanerade formerna används för att kontakta hemmet kring specifika händelser kring elevern. Främst ses samverkan som en möjlighet att ge hemmen en positiv syn av skolan som de i sin tur kan förmedla vidare till sina barn. Resultatet visarde att det finns en del hinder med samverkan., Eexempelvis har skola och hem olika syn på hur skolrelaterade situationer bör hanteras.  Även tiden visar sig vara en negativ faktor. Föräldrarna har idag inte tid att delta i möten som inte enbart berör deras barn.

  • 317.
    Bertilsson, Emelie
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science.
    Knutsson, Anna
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science.
    Hur gör jag för att lära dig läsa, så att du ska kunna läsa för att lära?: - en kvalitativ intervjustudie av sex lärares undervisning i läsförståelse2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att ta del av den erfarenhet som lärare har kring hur de bedriver undervisningen i läsförståelse. Studien är en kvalitativ intervjustudie, där sex lärare som är aktiva i verksamheten intervjuades. Resultatet av intervjuerna visade att lärarna kommunicerar att desynliggör strategier för eleverna och sedan vägleder dem i användningen. Det framkom även att lärarna använder sig av högläsning för att bredda elevernas ordförråd samt att de kommunicerar attde tar till vara på elevernas förförståelse och arbetar utifrån den, vilket förenklar förståelseprocessen. Lärarna belyser vikten av att samtala , då synliggörs det om eleven skapat förståelse för innehållet och strategin. Texten och nivån på texten påverkar elevens engagemang, vilket i sin tur påverkar utvecklingen av läsförmågan. Under studiens arbetsgång har det synliggjorts att lärarna kommunicerar att de bedriver en läsförståelseundervisning som har en balans mellan innehåll och strategi. En medveten läsförståelseundervisning är relativt nytt för lärare i verksamheten. För att få en god kvalité på undervisningen bör mer forskning bedrivas i svenska skolor. En framtida forskning kan vara att genomföra en aktionsforskning för att undersöka om lärarna har en balans mellan strategi och innehåll i läsförståelseundervisning i samtliga ämnen i skolan.

  • 318.
    Bertilsson, Frida
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stenlund, Tova
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The Testing Effect and Its Relation to Working Memory Capacity and Personality Characteristics2017In: Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology, ISSN 1945-8959, E-ISSN 1810-7621, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 241-259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Retrieval practice is known to lead to better retention of a to-be-learned material than restudy (i.e., the testing effect). However, few studies have investigated retrieval practice in relation to working memory capacity (WMC) and personality characteristics such as grittiness (Grit) and need for cognition (NFC). In two experiments, we examined retrieval practice and restudy of Swahili–Swedish word pairs in relation to individual differences in Grit and NFC. In Experiment 1, using a between-subjects design, a significant main effect of retention interval was qualified by a Group × Retention Interval interaction. However, there were no effects of Grit or NFC. In Experiment 2, a within-subjects design was used, and a measure of WMC was included. The analyses revealed a testing effect; but again, WMC, Grit, and NFC were not significantly associated with performance. These results indicate that retrieval practice levels out the playing field regarding WMC, NFC, and Grit.

  • 319.
    Bertram, Carol
    et al.
    University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
    Christiansen, Iben
    University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
    Mukeredzi, Tabitha
    University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
    Exploring the complexities of describing foundation phase teachers' professional knowledge base2015In: South African Journal of Childhood Education, ISSN 2223-7674, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 169-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to engage with the complexities of describing teachers' professional knowledge and eventually also their learning through written tests. The bigger research aim is to describe what knowledge foundation phase teachers acquired during their two years of study towards the Advanced Certificate of Teaching (ACT). We designed a written test to investigate the professional knowledge that teachers bring with them when they enrol for the ACT, with the aim of comparing their responses to the same test two years later, when they had completed the programme. The questionnaire included questions on teachers' content knowledge; their pedagogical content knowledge (in particular, teachers' knowledge about learner misconceptions, stages of learning, and ways of engaging these in making teaching decisions); and their personal knowledge (such as their beliefs about how children learn and barriers to learning). It spanned the fields of literacy in English and isiZulu, numeracy, and general pedagogy. Eighty-six foundation phase teachers enrolled for the ACT at the University of KwaZulu-Natal completed the questionnaire, and their responses pointed us to further methodological issues. We discuss the assumptions behind the design of the test/ questionnaire, the difficulties in formulating relevant questions, and the problems of 'accessing' specific elements of teacher knowledge through this type of instrument. Our process shows the difficulties both in constructing questions and in coding the responses, in particular concerning the pedagogical content knowledge component for teachers from Grade R to Grade 3.

  • 320.
    Berwari, Heve
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    Braim, Hero
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    Att undervisa om slöja: En undersökning om hur sex lärare undervisar om slöjan i religionsundervisningen om islam2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A study about how six teachers teach about the veil in the teaching of islam

  • 321.
    Berzell, Love
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Hamlin, Magdalena
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Undervisning om hållbar utveckling: Utveckling, implementering och utvärdering av ett lärarstöd2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable development has a prominent role in the curriculum for Swedish primary school and the ambition is that sustainable development will permeate the school’s work. Though it has been showed that teachers think that implementation of sustainable development is difficult to execute in practice. Perceived obstacles are, for instance, lack of time, knowledge within the area and inspiring examples and that sustainable development is fragmentedly presented in the curriculum. This leads to the fact that sustainable development is in practice either dealt with as small, separate units which in turns leads to the fact that students do not see the context, or with transdisciplinary teaching in specific themes that demands much time that teachers have difficulties to find time to teach all other matter in the curriculum.

    In this study a set-up of two teaching tutorials have been developed and evaluated in order to give a basis for a new teaching support, “Rädda vattnet – Rädda världen” (Swedish, “Save the water – Save the world”). The support can contribute to give the students a more holistic understanding of sustainable development, that is to say a more interdisciplinary understanding, if the teaching support is further developed. The two teaching tutorials were developed within the water-, chemistry- and technology related areas “plastics in the oceans” and “acidification”. They were then evaluated with help of a focus group interview consisting of teachers for grade 4-6 who had tested the teaching tutorials with their students.

    Four aspects that the teachers thought were significant for the applicability were identified, namely that the teaching support:

    • Make the students think it is fun

    • Is teaching content that are authentic and/or exists in the curriculum

    • Is simple for the teacher to use

    • Take time consumed and other frame factors into consideration (for example size of the student group).

  • 322.
    Birgersson, Emelie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    IKT i förskolan: En studie om förskollärares upplevelser av IKT som verktyg för språkutveckling2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 210 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a qualitative interview study which examines preschool pedagogues' experiences and thoughts about digital learning resources as a pedagogical tool for working with language development in preschools and how this may affect the pedagogical design of the work environment with children. The method consists of a qualitative scientific procedure grounded in semi-structured interviews with four preschool teachers. The results show that the preschool teachers see digital learning resources as an enriching pedagogical tool for language development and with a potential in several varying areas in relation to the learning of language. Most preschool teachers deemed themselves sufficiently knowledgeable and competent while working with these resources. They also considered the children as very competent and with lots of experience in the area. There were also shortcomings outlined in relation to proficiency and clear guidelines in the work with digital learning resources for the development of language. This may depend on several different factors such as clarity regarding guidelines in the Swedish national preschool curriculum, Lpfö98, and deficient understanding in this area. The study has outlined both possibilities and limitations in the work with digital learning tools for development of language which, hopefully, will contribute for further development in this area.

  • 323.
    Bisholt, Birgitta
    et al.
    Department of Health Sciences, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Ohlsson, Ulla
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Engström, Agneta Kullén
    School of Health, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Sundler, Annelie Johansson
    School of Life Sciences, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Margareta
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Nursing students' assessment of the learning environment in different clinical settings2014In: Nurse Education in Practice, ISSN 1471-5953, E-ISSN 1873-5223, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 304-310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Nursing students perform their clinical practice in different types of clinical settings. The clinical learning environment is important for students to be able to achieve desired learning outcomes. Knowledge is lacking about the learning environment in different clinical settings.

    AIM: The aim was to compare the learning environment in different clinical settings from the perspective of the nursing students.

    DESIGN: A cross-sectional study with comparative design was conducted.

    METHOD: Data was collected from 185 nursing students at three universities by means of a questionnaire involving the Clinical Learning Environment, Supervision and Nurse Teacher (CLES + T) evaluation scale. An open-ended question was added in order to ascertain reasons for dissatisfaction with the clinical placement.

    RESULTS: The nursing students' satisfaction with the placement did not differ between clinical settings. However, those with clinical placement in hospital departments agreed more strongly that sufficient meaningful learning situations occurred and that learning situations were multi-dimensional. Some students reported that the character of the clinical setting made it difficult to achieve the learning objectives.

    CONCLUSION: In the planning of the clinical placement, attention must be paid to whether the setting offers the student a meaningful learning situation where the appropriate learning outcome may be achieved.

  • 324.
    Bisholt, Birgitta
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Ohlsson, Ulla
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Kullén Engström, Agneta
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Sundler J, Annelie
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Gustafsson, Margareta
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Nursing students' assessment of the learning environment in different clinical settings2014In: Nurse Education in Practice, ISSN 1471-5953, E-ISSN 1873-5223, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 304-310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Nursing students perform their clinical practice in different types of clinical settings. The clinical learning environment is important for students to be able to achieve desired learning outcomes. Knowledge is lacking about the learning environment in different clinical settings. Aim The aim was to compare the learning environment in different clinical settings from the perspective of the nursing students. Design A cross-sectional study with comparative design was conducted. Method Data was collected from 185 nursing students at three universities by means of a questionnaire involving the Clinical Learning Environment, Supervision and Nurse Teacher (CLES + T) evaluation scale. An open-ended question was added in order to ascertain reasons for dissatisfaction with the clinical placement. Results The nursing students' satisfaction with the placement did not differ between clinical settings. However, those with clinical placement in hospital departments agreed more strongly that sufficient meaningful learning situations occurred and that learning situations were multi-dimensional. Some students reported that the character of the clinical setting made it difficult to achieve the learning objectives. Conclusion In the planning of the clinical placement, attention must be paid to whether the setting offers the student a meaningful learning situation where the appropriate learning outcome may be achieved.

  • 325.
    Bjerke, Kajsa
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science.
    Hanna, Andersson
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science.
    Utomhuspedagogik som metod för lärande: i ämnet biologi2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Litteraturstudien är systematisk och baseras på vetenskapliga artiklar. Syftet är att undersöka vad forskning belyser angående hur biologi i en utomhusmiljö påverkar elever samt beskriva vad forskningen visar om hur lärare ser på utomhuspedagogik. De frågeställningar studien baseras på är: Vad belyser forskningen om elevers lärande i en utomhusmiljö inom biologi? och Vad visar forskningen om lärares uppfattningar angående möjligheter och hinder med utomhuspedagogik? I resultatet framkommer det att flertalet av lärarna som deltagit i studierna var positiva till utomhuspedagogik eftersom det bidrog till ett förbättrat lärande, gynnade elevernas hälsa och skapade variation. Trots att de flesta lärare var positiva till utomhusundervisning var det även flertalet lärare som ansåg att det fanns svårigheter och hinder med arbetssättet. Eleverna själva ansåg att lektioner utomhus bidrog till en förbättrad hälsa  samtidigt som de ansåg att koncentration och inlärning förbättrades. Den slutsats vi drar av detta är att både lärare och elever är positivt inställda till utomhuspedagogik samtidigt som det sällan bedrivs lektioner utomhus. För att få fler lärare och skolor att bedriva undervisning utomhus anser vi att det borde bli mer utbildade inom utomhuspedagogik för att på så vis känna sig säkrare och tryggare att undervisa ute på ett pedagogiskt sätt. Förslag för vidare forskning inom området utomhuspedagogik skulle kunna vara att genom praktiskt utförande undersöka om och hur det påverkar elevers lärande. Då vi utförde manuella och systematiska sökningar upplevde vi att det var få studier där det beskrivits hur utomhuspedagogik påverkar eleverna, därför anser vi det vore passande att undersöka det som nämns ovan i vidare forskning.

  • 326.
    Bjers, Sanna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science.
    Hovius, Felicia
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science.
    Samspelets betydelse i kemiundervisningen: En aktionsforskningsstudie om hur yngre elever kommunicerar kemi med stöd av experiment2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Varje elev ska inhämta och utveckla kunskaper i de naturorienterade ämnena för att kunna vidareutbilda sig och skaffa sig en framtid inom ämnena. Studier visar att elever brister i förståelsen av naturvetenskapliga begrepp och saknar helhetsförståelse i ämnena. Samtalets betydelse i naturvetenskapsundervisningen är avgörande för vad eleverna lär sig. Ansatsen är baserad på aktionsforskning för att kunna utveckla praktiken i verksamheterna. Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur samspel och kommunikation mellan elever, genom ett undersökande arbetssätt, kan stötta elevers förståelse i kemi. Frågan som studien baseras på är: Hur samtalar elever i årskurs tre om kemi med stöd av experiment? Studien är utförd i två klasser i årskurs tre där totalt 28 elever deltog. Empirin samlades in med hjälp av videoupptagning och loggboksskrivande som sedan analyserades. Resultatet mynnade ut i fyra kategorier: eleverna samtalar genom att använda vardagsspråket, eleverna samtalar med och om begrepp, eleverna använder hypoteser och eleverna associerar till egna erfarenheter. Studiens centrala slutsats är att samspelet mellan eleverna i meningsfulla kontexter, möjliggjorde att eleverna kunde stötta varandra till att förstå naturvetenskapliga begrepp och fenomen. 

  • 327.
    Bjervås, Lise-Lotte
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Fairness in a preschool context2016In: Abstract book. 26th EECERA Annual Conference, Happiness, Relationships, Emotion & Deep Level Learning, Dublin, 31st-3rd September, 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim is to add to the knowledge of how fairness as a value can be communicated between teachers and children in preschool. The questions are: What do the teachers' actions and words convey to the children about the meaning of the value fairness? How is fairness imagined in relation to the collective versus in relation to the individual? What seems to be fair or unfair from the children's point of view? This study is based on research on moral values in Norwegian and Swedish preschools conducted by Johansson (2002, 2007a, 2007b, 2009, 2011) and Emilson (2007, 2008, 2009). The theoretical framework is taken from Habermas. Data has been gathered at a preschool and consists of video observations of interactions between teachers and children, as well as of the teachers' own narratives. The study was conducted in accordance with the ethical guidelines of the Swedish Research Council. The participants are informed about the study in accordance with these guidelines. They have signed a voluntary agreement to participate. The parents have also approved the video-recording of their children. No child has been filmed if they showed that they don't want to participate. The result shows that the teachers' ideas and actions concerning fairness are not always perceived by children in accordance with the adults' intentions. In order to broaden their understanding of how the value fairness may be expressed in the pedagogical practice, teachers need to become aware of both their own view of fairness and the children's view of fairness.

  • 328.
    Bjervås, Lise-Lotte
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Spänningsfält i det värdepedagogiska arbetet i förskolan2016In: Värdefull förskola : Perspektiv på värdepedagogiskt arbete / [ed] Anette Emilson & Ingeborg Moqvist-Lindberg, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2016, p. 61-87Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 329.
    Bjervås, Lise-Lotte
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Emilson, Anette
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Pedagogisk dokumentation för lärande2017In: Förskolan och barns utveckling / [ed] Anne-Li Lindgren, Niklas Pramling, Roger Säljö, Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2017, 1, p. 227-244Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 330.
    Bjureland, Sofie
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Genus- och könsroller i läromedel: - En läromedelsanalys av Magic och Happy, engelska årskurs 4-62017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines gender roles, with a basis in the fundamental values of the Swedish curriculum. I analyse dialogues in two commonly used textbooks, Magic! Classbook 5 by Hedencrona, Smed-Gerdin and Watcyn-Jones (2009) and Happy textbook year 6 by Sutcliffe, Thunman and Mälström Timling (2011) for English, 4-6. The dialogues are analysed with a quantitative and a qualitative method. In the qualitative analysis, I investigate gender awareness, using levels from negligence to a high level of gender awareness. The result of this study shows that the dialogues in the two textbooks do not entirely correspond with the fundamental values in the curriculum as some stereotypes appears.

  • 331.
    Bjursell, Cecilia
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    A virtual study in higher education2018In: INTED 2018 Proceedings / [ed] L. Gómez Chova, A. López Martínez, I. Candel Torres, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A study visit is when an individual or a group visits a site to learn about the context and to exchange knowledge with the people at the site. Study visits are often connected to efforts to create intercultural understanding within a course. Traditionally, study visits are connected to geographical sites: students travel to other countries or visit organisations relevant to their education and training. With the development of online environments, virtual study visits are emerging as an alternative to traditional study visits. This paper explores a virtual study visit. The purpose of the virtual study visit was for students to prepare for a laboratory exercise by getting familiar with the context where the exercise would take place. The virtual environment where the study visit took place was a model of the Foundry School they would visit later in the course. There were nine students in the course, and the results of their evaluation of the virtual study visit are presented in the paper. The discussion centres on the students’ perception of the virtual study visit in the course as well as a general consideration of how a virtual study visit can provide additional value in a higher education course. Some unique features of an educational virtual environment, which cannot be achieved in traditional classroom education, are discussed in the paper. The conclusion is that a virtual study visit can provide flexibility in time and space and the possibility to zoom between micro and macro levels in the model of the building. To achieve educational goals, both teachers and students need to engage in the preparation as well as in the virtual study visit itself.

  • 332.
    Bjursell, Cecilia
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Active ageing through work and learning2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The demographic changes, with an ageing population in many countries, are usually seen as a financial problem and the solution is to discuss a higher retirement age. In Sweden, the government is working with changes on several levels to make it possible to continue working later in life. This discussion is however paradoxical. People who are sick or worn-out are afraid of being forced to prolong their work life. People, who want to continue working, cannot stay because of employers’ negative attitude towards older employees. To work longer can be a way for individuals to stay active which promotes good health and well-being, but the discussion needs to include alternative solutions and a broader perspective, not just prolonging working life. Work is often equal to fulltime employment and the role of learning throughout (work)life is seldom addressed. In addition, one often forgets to ask the older adults themselves about their experience and opinion in this matter. We talk about them and not with them.

    The purpose of this paper is to study the role of work and learning in older adults lives. A survey was distributed in four pensioner's associations in one of Sweden’s county’s. 232 individuals replied and out of these, 83 (35,8%) have worked in some form after retirement. Only four of these had worked fulltime. About half had worked for payment and the rest had worked for non-profit organizations. The primary context for learning activities was to be involved in a study circle.

    Based on the results of this study, there was an expressed need for individual flexibility and adjustment so that pensioners could stay active and productive on their own terms. In today’s working life, flexibility is usually a demand on the workforce but rarely expected from employers. There is also a lack of the systematic integration of education in a lifelong perspective.

  • 333.
    Bjursell, Cecilia
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    E-mentorship for lifelong learning2019In: INTED 2019 Proceedings, 2019, p. 9750-9759Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has long been known that mentorship programs can provide both vocational and psycho-social support and development opportunities for program participants. Mentorship has proven itself to be a superior way to learn ‘on the job’, as this education and training are based on problem-oriented learning relevant for the specific work setting. It has been reported that traditional educational approaches with a fixed curriculum are not efficient when it comes to meeting an organizations’ needs and that it might be difficult, or even impossible, to apply what one has learned when one returns to one’s workplace. Problem-oriented learning that takes place at the workplace, as an alternative to traditional courses, has many advantages; for example, such learning can be linked to everyday tasks. The digitalization of mentorship can benefit from knowledge that has been developed within traditional mentorship programs, and in particular the structure of a program. At the same time, technological development can allow for the introduction of new and innovative ways of working with lifelong learning in organizations. This paper addresses the potential benefits from e-mentorship for workplace learning. E-mentorship and mentorship systems have been studied before but not to a large extent. Based on the continuous development of digital tools and the digitalization of work practices, there is a need to understand if and when these tools can contribute to strengthening mentorship aimed at workplace learning. A model for strategic mentorship that was developed to assist mentorship in the foundry industry is presented: Strategic Mentorship for Inclusion, Learning, and Equality (SMILE). The model is discussed in relation to three advantages with e-mentorship: (i) flexibility in time and space, (ii) variety of learning formats and, (iii) access to global expertise. The general conclusion is that since the model covers several aspects of inclusion in working life, with respect to the individual’s whole life-situation, e-mentorship may not be the most functional approach. Since psycho-social support is central in the model, in-person mentorship is preferred since this kind of mentorship tends to be more interactive. When it comes to online learning and e-mentorship, there are several tools that support interactivity, but they still have limitations compared to the physical meeting. The model also comprises several different areas which makes the mentorship more complex than just discussing a single task or problem. E-mentorship can however be a very good complement when there is need for flexibility in time and space, variety of learning formats and, access to global expertise. Finally, the organizational support from managers, in terms of structure and resources, determines what can be done. The provision of education to build competencies in mentorship as well as ICT skills are other aspects to include if there is a need to work strategically with mentorship and e-mentorship.

  • 334.
    Bjursell, Cecilia
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    EMIL’s EY 2012 Programme of Events: Report from Encell – National centre for lifelong learning in Sweden2012Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 335.
    Bjursell, Cecilia
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Kartläggning av lärande mellan generationer och utvärdering av utbildningsaktiviteter i projektet Affärsnytta och sociala medier2013Other (Other academic)
  • 336.
    Bjursell, Cecilia
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Knowledge management technology supporting individual learning preferences2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This conceptual paper focuses on variations in the preferred learning spaces of knowledge workers and resulting implications for the construction of an effective knowledge management technology system. The discussion in the paper is based on the cross-reference of ideas from literature on Knowledge Management (KM) and Experiential Learning Theory (ELT). When developing a Knowledge Management Technology (KMT) system, the technological possibilities are often the point of departure. Based on the discussion in this paper, I propose that the knowledge workers’ learning styles should be the proper point of departure. The paper presents a conceptual model based on the concept of learning spaces. An important finding is that data base technology is over-emphasized. Instead, more attention should be given to the role of ICT and social media in managing knowledge. This paper answers to calls for a focus on the knowledge worker in KM.

  • 337.
    Bjursell, Cecilia
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Organizing for Intergenerational Learning and Knowledge Sharing2015In: Journal of Intergenerational Relationships, ISSN 1535-0770, E-ISSN 1535-0932, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 285-301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased age diversity in society challenges organizations to rethink the purpose and structuring of learning. This article proposes that an intergenerational learning (IL) approach can be useful for addressing the emergent needs, since IL implies a reciprocal process of learning and knowledge development. Taking an IL approach involves a shift from “succession of knowledge” to “co-creation of knowledge” in knowledge-sharing efforts. This shift becomes crucial as the digital generation enters the workforce. This paper presents insights from a case where students and entrepreneurs were engaged in an IL project to learn about business advantages and social media.

  • 338.
    Bjursell, Cecilia
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Sweden’s Senior University: Bildung and fellowship2019In: The university of the third age and active ageing: European and Asian-Pacific perspectives / [ed] M. Formosa, Cham: Springer, 2019, p. 131-142Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The chapter provides an overview of the Swedish Senior University movement and explores why individuals choose to participate in the organised learning activities. Currently, there are 34 Senior Universities across the country and they have a total of 25,000 members. They are organised as independent associations but linked to the Swedish Folkuniversitet system, one of ten educational associations that exist in the Swedish Folkbildning organisation (a ‘general level’ education structure for adults). When one asks participants in Senior Universities why they are involved in the association’s activities, two main points are generally raised. First, that they wish to further their education by acquiring new knowledge, and secondly, that they aspire to be part of a social community with other, like-minded and same-aged peers. Senior Universities are self-organised associations, and they mainly attract people with academic backgrounds. Hence, Senior Universities should only be regarded as one of several possibilities for people at a later stage of the life course to engage in learning activities. The Senior University is seen as something positive for those who are active in the movement, but there are several different reasons why people attend.

  • 339.
    Bjursell, Cecilia
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Björklund Carlstedt, Anita
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping).
    Bridge jobs2019In: Encyclopedia of Gerontology and Population Aging / [ed] D. Gu & M. E. Dupre, Cham: Springer, 2019, p. 1-6Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 340.
    Bjursell, Cecilia
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Engström, Annika
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Supply Chain and Operations Management.
    A Lewinian approach to managing barriers to university–industry collaboration2019In: Higher Education Policy, ISSN 0952-8733, E-ISSN 1740-3863, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 129-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Calls are made by governments, university management and industry to increase university–industry (U–I) collaboration to find solutions for societal and economic problems that are too complex to be tackled within one sector alone. Researchers are often expected to realise these ideas, but when it comes to everyday research and knowledge development, individuals may encounter barriers to accomplishing this. The paper presents an empirical study of researchers’ view on U–I collaboration. Our focus in the analysis, inspired by the Lewinian field theory, is on the hindering forces that might create barriers to collaboration from a researcher’s perspective. Contrary to the previously used approaches taken in force field analysis, we perform a qualitative study, which might be better suited for this framework. In the literature on U–I collaboration, ‘orientation-related’ and ‘transaction-related’ barriers have been identified. In our analysis, we discuss hindering forces on the individual, intra- and interorganisational levels. In total, we find 18 key areas to identify possible hinders for collaboration and based on a Lewinian perspective, we suggest that removing hindering forces can benefit U–I collaboration. The paper recognises the need to regard universities as equal partners in U–I collaboration for sustainable knowledge production.

  • 341.
    Bjursell, Cecilia
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Engström, Annika
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Barriers to managing knowledge and learning in university: Industry cooperation2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Calls are made by governments, university management, and industry to increase university–industry cooperation to find solutions for societal and economic problems that are too large and complex to be tackled within one sector alone. These actors want to stimulate knowledge development and learning in university – industry cooperation to achieve innovation and growth. Researchers are often expected to take charge for realizing these ideas but when it comes to everyday research and knowledge development, individuals may encounter barriers for doing this. In this paper, we present an empirical study of researchers’ view on university – industry cooperation. Our focus in the analysis, inspired by the Lewinian field theory, is on the hindering forces that might create barriers for cooperation from a researcher’s perspective. Contrary to the previously used approaches taken in force field analysis, we perform a qualitative study which might be better suited for this framework. In the literature on cooperation and collaboration, ‘orientation-related’ and ‘transaction-related’ barriers have been identified. In our analysis, we also find other hindering forces related to person-task fit, identity, career and resources. These barriers are found on the individual and societal level, in addition to the previous two categories that are on the organizational level.

  • 342.
    Bjursell, Cecilia
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Florin Sädbom, Rebecka
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Mentorship programs - a way to inclusion and diversity at the workplace2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 343.
    Bjursell, Cecilia
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Florin Sädbom, Rebecka
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Praktiknära utbildningsforskning (PUF), Epistemic Cultures & Teaching Practices.
    Mentorship programs in the manufacturing industry2018In: European Journal of Training and Development, ISSN 2046-9012, E-ISSN 2046-9020, Vol. 42, no 7/8, p. 455-469Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    This paper aims to present a literature review of studies of mentorship programs in the manufacturing industry so as to lay a theoretical basis for learning at work.

    Design/methodology/approach

    A literature review with focus on mentorship programs in the manufacturing industry was used. A search for relevant peer-reviewed articles, in four databases, rendered 315 hits, but only one article dealt with mentorship programs in an industry similar to the manufacturing industry. Thus, it is concluded that there is a lack of research on this area. The selection criteria were broadened so as to include 16 articles on mentorship programs for learning at work.

    Findings

    Three dominant areas emerged from this review: definitions of mentorship, characteristics of a good mentor and mentorship program structures. The establishment of a mentorship program requires a clear purpose; contextual knowledge; and adaption to the profession, the organization and to individual needs. In addition to their findings, the authors discuss relationships in mentoring programs, what can be understood by “reading between the lines” and the ongoing digitalization of mentorship programs.

    Originality/value

    Mentorship has proven itself to be a superior way to learn on the job. This paper provides practical information about establishing mentorship programs in the manufacturing industry, with a particular focus on the moulding industry.

  • 344.
    Bjursell, Cecilia
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Florin Sädbom, Rebecka
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Strategiskt mentorskap: Mentorskapsprogram för arbetsplatsförlagt lärande2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Mentorskap erbjuder ett överlägset sätt att lära sig yrkeskunskap och för attsocialiseras in på arbetsplatsen enligt flera studier som vi har tagit del av. Den här rapporten presenterar en modell för ett strategiskt mentorskap som utvecklades i ett ESF-projekt och jämför den med forskningslitteratur om mentorskapsmodeller för arbetsplatslärande.

    SMILE-modellen utvecklades baserat på tidigare kunskaper och erfarenheter från Ingjuta-projektet. SMILE är en akronym för strategiskt mentorskap för inklude- ring, lärande och jämlikhet. Modellen består av följande fyra delar:

    • Ledningens stöd. På vilket sätt är mentorskap en strategisk fråga i organi- sationen och hur stödjer ledningen detta med konkreta insatser?

    • Inkludering. Hur samverkar företaget med andra aktörer så att individens livssituation som helhet fungerar?

    • Lärande. Vilka verktyg och metoder har de anställda tillgång till för att stödja sitt eget och andras lärande?

    • Jämlikhet. Hur uppmuntras och tillvaratas variation och olikheter på ett jämlikt sätt och till företagets bästa?

    Ledningens stöd är avgörande för att de övriga tre ska fungera.

    I litteraturstudien återkom följande områden:

    • Innebörden av mentorskap. Det finns flera sätt att definiera mentorskap men i grunden handlar det om överföring av kunskap från en erfaren person till en annan person med mindre erfarenhet. För att betona vikten av att både mentor och adept fortsätter utvecklas har vi i den här rapporten definierat mentorskap som en lärandesituation då två individer möts för att ge varandra inspiration och vägledning för att vidareutvecklas, ofta i relation till ett yrke.

    • Mentorns egenskaper. Mentorskapsprogram är inte starkare än de mentorer som ingår och i rapporten går vi igenom en rad egenskaper och förmågor som en effektiv mentor ska ha. Centralt är att fungera som en förebild och att kunna ge både positiv och negativ återkoppling för att stödja denyrkesmässiga och den psykosociala utvecklingen. En viktig bit är att arbeta med utveckling av en mentor eftersom mentorskap är något annat än yrkes- kunskap. Med andra ord, en erfaren och kunnig medarbetare är inte samma sak som en erfaren och kunnig mentor.

    • Mentorskapsprogram. Utbildning och träning som sker på arbetsplatsen har flera fördelar: det är ofta kostnadseffektivt, det kan anpassas till individens och organisationens kompetensbehov och det kan vara ett sätt att ta tillvara medarbetarnas kompetens. De programstrukturer som beskrivs i den här rapporten poängterar en bredare ansats där yrkeskunskaper sätts i relation till andra kompetenser. Ledningens stöd uttrycks genom att erbjuda organisatoriska förutsättningar som främjar lärande och förändring.

    • Effekter av mentorskap. Effekter avser den förändring som sker efter en viss insats men eftersom forskning kan ha olika karaktär och ansatser valde vi en bredare definition. Med effekter menar vi de slutsatser som visar på effekter eller som kan förväntas få effekter när de tillämpas i en konkret situation. Utifrån artiklarnas slutsatser framträder programstrukturer, mentorns egenskaper och förmågor, e-mentorskap, IT-system och kvinnors karriär som centrala områden.

    Rapporten avslutas med ett avsnitt där vi presenterar några konkreta rekommendationer för den som ska starta ett mentorskapsprogram i sin organisation.för den som ska starta ett mentorskapsprogram i sin organisation.

  • 345.
    Björck, Catrine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Communication with images2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this presentation I would like to present an example of my visual research material and discuss methods of analysis.

    The aim with my research is to get an understanding for how teachers work and can work with picture analysis in the compulsory school on the basis of young people's own image world and with digital techniques.

    My experience is that teachers work with this following a tradition and that teachers feels secure in having a picture or a recognized process to assess and to evaluate. I think art education to a greater extent must work with the consumption and use of images.

    In art education today we also have to work with digital techniques in a greater extent so that we prepare pupils for the big amount of pictures they meet in everyday life. In work with picture communication and digital techniques we give pupils a possibility to take an active interest in ideological and cultural questions and to be an active citizen.

    The National Evaluation of the art subject NU-03 supports my opinions and is the basis for my thoughts. The report highlights the use of converting the subject to more of a communication subject, where interpretation and reception of images play a more prominent part than we see today. The authors of the report NU-03 also point out the importance of using digital techniques in order to strengthen the use in working life and society.

    My principal research focus lies on the teacher role in work with digital techniques. How do they work with images from e.g. homepages, films on the Internet, where pupils often locate themselves? In what way do teacher design lessons to make pupils understand the impact of images and in order to develop pupils own creativity and understanding of the visual culture that is surrounding us in society? In the use of a digital medium the pupils will be given another possibility to expose their creativity for others in society.

    In the study I want to elucidate the teacher's role in this kind of work.

    Central issues for the study are:

    • How can teachers work with communication on the basis of the pupils own world of images?

    • Which role do teachers have in work with digital techniques?

    • How can assessment be made of interpretation and reflection rather than the production of images?

    Theoretical framework and Method

    My theoretical framework is in the social semiotic area and I am also interested in using ethno methodology and conversation analysis in my study.

    In spring 2009 I made observations in three different compulsory schools in art classes. When I did these observations I found it difficult to hear what the teachers said to the pupils in different locations in the classroom. In the autumn 2009 I did a test-study in an art class in compulsory school, to see how the use of observation with video cameras would work out. I had one stationary camera and one hand camera, with which I followed the teacher. I also placed a MP3 player round the neck of the teacher to test if that was a way to hear the conversations better.

    One insight of these studies is that, when I did observations without a camera I had a better overview of the action in the class. But with the hand camera I could catch different conversations and analyze them afterwards. 

  • 346.
    Björck, Ville
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Problematizing work integrated learning2018In: VILÄR abstraktbok / [ed] Kristina Johansson, Trollhättan: Högskolan Väst , 2018, p. 1-1Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The discourse on Work-integrated Learning (WIL) has long promoted a binary reading of graduate employability. This reading is problematic because in key ways it polarises 'theory' and 'practice' for students, and thereby create the very theory- practice gap that WIL seeks to bridge. To explore this problem, I conduct a genealogical discourse analysis of how the idea of graduate employability operates in 87 present and past official documents about the Cooperative Education (Co-op) WIL model. The bulk of the empirical material consists of student-oriented brochures that the University of Cincinnati (USA), the University of Waterloo (Canada) and University West (Sweden) have used between 1928 and 2018 to promote Co-op to prospective and enrolled Co-op students. The results show that two accounts of this idea are often used in both present and past documents. These are the practice acclaiming account and the theory and practice account. The former account is merely creating the theory-practice gap while the latter is in one way creating this gap and in another way bridging it. I argue that a non-binary reading of graduate employability could be useful for students because it could emphasise that employability is about knowing how theories (ideas and principles etc.) and practice co-exist in professional work. This message does not disconnect theory from practice but could instead encourage students to learn how they co-exist in this work, an insight which could make them experts at 'doing' theories at work. I finally argue that one way of providing scope for a non-binary reading of graduate employability is to create a non-dualistic WIL desig s how theories and practice co-exist in professional work.

  • 347.
    Björfeldt, Emmy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Estetikens betydelse för barns lärande i förskolan: Förskollärares arbete med estetik i förskolan2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study is to examine how preschool teacher looks at aesthetics and how they are using the aesthetics of everyday activities. As a method I have used a qualitative interview form, and I interviewed four preschool teachers. My study is based on a socio-cultural perspective with the direction of Vygotsky's theory of the child's interaction and learning.

    The results showed that preschool teachers who participated in my survey agreed that the aesthetics and the aesthetic forms of expression are important for children's learning. That offers all kinds of aesthetics and all sorts of materials and the chance to give an expression of what you think is fun is important for my respondents.

  • 348.
    Björk, Anna
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education.
    AKK och Flerspråkighet: en intervjustudie med speciallärare och specialpedagoger om AKK för flerspråkiga elever i gymnasiesärskolan2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 60 credits / 90 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to examine the work carried out at Swedish upper-secondary special schools for pupils with learning disabilities in the subject area of language and communication, with particular focus on augmentative and alternative communication and multilingualism. The learning process is approached from a sociocultural perspective in this study, which entails that learning is taken to occur in social contexts in which interaction, communication, and co-operation play key roles. The method takes the form of semi-structured qualitative interviews inspired by a phenomenographical approach in the hope of highlighting five areas communication, possibilities, obstacles, AAC and competence development, that special education teachers and special educators are faced with in their work with students with language and communication impairments. The results show that special education teachers and special educators demonstrate a high capacity to see both possibilities and obstacles in the teaching process, together with an understanding for the students’ differing functional impairments and needs. The challenges facing special education teachers and special educators when dealing with multilingual student groups give an indication of the difficulties attached to determining remedies capable of leading to students’ increased participation and comprehension of the subject area. The two alternatives offered by Swedish special schools are individual native language instruction (in which the student is separated from the class) and support within the classroom in the form of a personal assistant with knowledge of the native language. The study demonstrates that the latter is preferable as means for a student to progress in their learning. The result also indicates that special education teachers and special educators have great understanding for the importance of using AAC in instructing materials but at the same time there are many things to be done about translating AAC material in order to increase educational participation for multilingual students. Results also indicates that peer learning within the profession is desirable.

  • 349.
    Björk, Annika
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Teacher Education (LUT).
    Nilsson, Sara
    Halmstad University, School of Teacher Education (LUT).
    ”Det finns jättemycket luckor, att de inte förstår”: –      En studie om barns och pedagogers kunskap i antalsuppfattning.2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Matematik finns överallt men trots det har vi genom studien fått fram att ”det finns jättemycket luckor, att de inte förstår”.  Detta citat är hämtat ifrån en av våra intervjuer och speglar vårt resultat. Studien är kvalitativ och vi har intervjuat pedagoger samt låtit barn, i förskola och årskurs 1, utföra matematikuppgifter. I denna studie har vi fokuserat på grunderna i matematik. Syftet med studien har varit att utröna kunskaper inom antalsuppfattning hos barn. Vi har även belyst pedagogernas kunskaper inom antalsuppfattning samt hur de arbetar med detta. I studien har vi influerats av Piagets och Vygotskijs tankar om hur barn lär. Resultaten i vår studie har analyserats med inspiration av hermeneutiken. Resultaten visar att det finns okunskap hos både barn och pedagoger gällande antalsuppfattning. Det gäller bland annat barn som helt saknar kunskaper inom detta samt att pedagoger uppfattar att subitizing, se stycke 3.4., och ett till ett-principen, se stycke 3.5., är detsamma som antalsuppfattning. Pedagoger behöver djupare förståelse för de matematiska begreppen inom den grundläggande matematiken. Det i sin tur kan medföra ett tydligare matematiskt språk vilket kan underlätta kommunikationen sinsemellan. I sin tur kan det möjliggöra för pedagoger att tillsammans lättare kunna utveckla barns matematiska färdigheter som de behöver i sin vardag som vuxna samhällsmedborgare. 

  • 350.
    Björk, Jessica
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    Kränkningar i fritidshemmet: Lärares förståelse av kränkningar och arbetet med att motverka dessa2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den här undersökningen är att bringa kunskap om vad lärare i fritidshem anser vara kränkningar och kunskap om hur de arbetar för att motverka dessa i fritidshemmet.

    • Vad har lärare i fritidshem för förståelse av begreppet kränkningar?
    • Hur beskriver lärare i fritidshem att de arbetar för att motverka kränkningar i fritidshemmet?

    Studien är kvalitativ och för insamling av empirin har semistrukturerade intervjuer använts.

    Fem lärare i fritidshem har intervjuats och efter bearbetning och analys av empirin, har studien fått ett resultat. Studiens resultat presenteras under olika teman. I resultatet framkom att lärarna anser att en kränkning är när en elev känner sig kränkt, oavsett om det är en fysisk, verbal, psykosocial eller kränkning via digitala verktyg. Fritidshemmen där lärarna är anställda har arbetssätt och rutiner för att motverka kränkningar.

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