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  • 301.
    Albert, Ferenc
    Stockholm University.
    En empirisk studie av stamning: ett försök att tolka stamningens uppkomstbetingelser och behandling enligt psykoanalytisk teori1980Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 302. Albertsson, A.
    et al.
    Johansson-Hidén, Birgitta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Värmlandskliniken. Utvecklingsansvar åt alla1991Report (Other academic)
  • 303.
    Albertsson, Linda
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Kroppsuppfattning hos pojkar på gymnasiet och dess relation till självkänsla, narcissism och BMI2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Kroppsuppfattningen handlar om hur en person ser på sin egen kropp. Höga nivåer av narcissism har tidigare sammankopplats med låga nivåer av kroppsmissnöje och höga nivåer av självkänsla (A. L. Jackson, S. K. Ervin & N. C. Hodge, 1992). Enkät undersökning genomfördes med syfte att studera om nivån av kroppsmissnöje hos pojkar i åldrarna 16 till 19 år (n = 104) påverkades av graden av narcissism samt graden av bas- och förvärvad självkänsla och nivån av BMI. Resultaten visade att narcissism var svagt korrelerande med både bas- och förvärvad självkänsla. Det fanns ingen skillnad mellan vare sig åldersgrupperna eller BMI nivåerna gällande nivån av kroppsmissnöje. Resultaten i den aktuella studien var överlag inte i linje med tidigare forskning.

  • 304.
    Albertsson, Pontus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Evaluation of Insight Training of Ambulance Drivers in Sweden Using DART: a New E-learning Tool2011In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 12, no 6, p. 621-629Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate whether a new e-learning tool for insight training of ambulance drivers can have an effect on drivers’ driving behaviors, perceived driving competence, competence to assess risks, self-reflection, and safety attitudes.

    Methods: A quasi-experimental study design, with participants nonrandomly assigned into a control and intervention group, was used. The intervention group participated in the insight-training course and the control group did not. Both groups completed a self- and peer assessment online questionnaire before and after the training.

    Results: The main finding is that the ambulance drivers assessed themselves through the instruments after the training, with the e-learning tool Driver Access Recording Tool (DART), as safer drivers in the areas of speed adaptation, closing up, and overtaking. In the answers from the group-based evaluation, the ambulance drivers responded that they were more reflective/analytical, had increased their risk awareness, and had changed their driving behaviors.

    Conclusions: After insight training, the ambulance drivers in this study assessed themselves as safer drivers in several important areas, including speed adaptation, closing up, and overtaking. In future training of ambulance drivers there should be more focus on insight training instead of previous training focusing on maneuvering capabilities.

  • 305.
    Albin, Björn
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Qin, Jiang
    School of Humanities Fujian Medical University P R of China.
    Hong, Zhang
    School of Humanities Fujian Medical University P R of China.
    Mental Health in the left-behind Children in the Fujian Province of China2013In: Journal of Public Mental Health, ISSN 1746-5729, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 21-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - An increasing number of people are migrating within the borders of China. Some migrants have to leave their children behind, and 58,000,000 children are estimated to be living as left-behind children. Earlier studies have found severe mental problems in left-behind children, but different factors could influence their mental health. The aim of this study was to investigate the mental health of these left-behind children and to determine possible influencing factors.

    Design/methodology/approach - Data for this study were collected in one province of the P R of China with a validated instrument, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) to investigate behavior in 13- to 15-year old children.

    Findings - No significant difference was found in total difficulty score and in any subscale score of SDQ when we compared left-behind children with children who were not left behind. A significant difference in emotional difficulty subscale score was found between girls who were left behind and girls who were not. Some socio-economic factors such as poor family economy and living with relatives, friends or grandparents, were identified as risk factors.

    Originality/value - When strategies for support of the mental health in left-behind children are developed, they will need to be individualized according to the gender, social and economic situation and focused on emotional and conduct problems.

  • 306.
    Albinsson, Johanna
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Koro, Johanna
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Självskada (NSSI) och externaliserade problem2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Med utgångspunkt att självskadebeteende är ett internaliserat problem är syftet med studien att i en ungdomspopulation undersöka om självskadebeteende även är länkat till externaliserade problem. Vi undersöker även om självskadebeteende hänger samman med att i olika miljöer utsättas och utsätta andra för negativa beteenden. Studien använder redan insamlade data i forskningsprojekt kallat - “Sju Skolor”: Center for Developmental Research (CDR). Data samlades in från 1478 högstadieelever. I studien fann vi samband mellan självskadebeteende (NSSI) och utåtagerande problem (kriminalitet, drickande, etc.). Vi fann också att ungdomar med självskadebeteende utmärks av att de i sina vardagsmiljöer både är utsatta för negativa beteenden från andra och utsätter andra för negativa beteenden. Detta är en viktig upptäckt när det kommer till att behandla och förebygga självskadebeteende (NSSI) hos unga.

  • 307.
    Albinsson, Louise
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Sahlsten, Jessica
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Personlighetstest vid rekrytering: En kvalitativ studie ur ett arbetsperspektiv2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Personality tests for recruitment context is a common selection method for companies. In the recruitment process personality test are used as a tool to find the right person for the right place. The purpose of this qualitative study is to find examples of how this is used as a selection method in the recruitment of managers and the function tests have been in the recruitment process. To achieve the aim and answer the questions semi-structured interviews were carried out, to illustrate the respondents' perceptions, sensations and experiences on personality tests in recruitment. This was studied from two angles, namely with HR and store managers at ICA Special. The respondents interviewed were two women from ICA Specials HR department and four store managers, a man and three women from ICA Maxi stores. Respondents were aged from 35-60 years. Interview guides were divided into two parts, one interview guide for HR and one interview guide for store managers. The interview material was analyzed based on a thematic analysis. In the result, it was seen that a personality test has the function of a complement to discern candidates, to verify what the hiring manager sees, hears and feels during the process, but also as a self-reflection of the store managers who have performed the test. Moreover, it emerged in the results that the feedback of the candidate's profile is considered one of the most significant steps in the recruitment process and that respondents felt this should be related to the candidate in the form of a call. Finally, HR uses the communicative competence in the feedback of the candidate's profile as they relate to the profile, to get the candidate to gain a better understanding of their profile content.

  • 308.
    Albonius, Malin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lannergård, Anna-Stina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Should I stay or should I go En studie om arbetstagares avsikt att lämna sin anställning inom socialtjänsten2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 309.
    Alborn, Jonas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Planning and Media Design.
    3D och kommunal fysisk planering2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    På senare år har tekniker för 3D-visualisering fått ett allt mer utbrett användande inom kommunal fysisk planering. Detta, plus att jag själv använder tekniken i mitt dagliga arbete som planarkitekt, väckte frågor kring skälet till införandet av tekniken, vilka beslut och förväntningar som legat till grund för införandet och vilket forskningsstöd tekniken har, vad gäller visualisering, tydlighet och kommunicerbarhet i planarbetet. Detta examensarbete i Fysisk planering vid BTH, vill belysa dessa frågor. Arbetet består av litteratursökning efter adekvat forskning i ämnet, en enkät ställd till ett litet urval av anställda och politiker i fyra kommuner som är medlemmar i ett 3D nätverk, en dokumentsökning på samma kommuners hemsidor samt en kompletterande enkätundersökning bland planarkitekter i fem andra kommuner som inte är medlemmar i ovan nämnda nätverk. Forskningsstöd för effektiviteten i eller för- och nackdelar med att använda 3D-modeller för ökad förståelse och kommunikation mellan tjänstemän och politiker samt med allmänheten, i samband med kommunal fysisk planering, saknas. Genom sammanställningar av forskning inom fälten miljöpsykologi och åskådlig planredovisning samt svensk arkitekturforskning kan man ändå få ledtrådar till möjligheter och svårigheter med användningen av 3D visualisering och dess roll som kommunikationsmedel. Rätt använd skulle tekniken kunna stärka möjligheten till åskådliggörande, men det finns också risker, kopplade till användande av tekniken. Det främsta skälet till att kommuner inför 3D-teknik inom fysisk planering, uppges av såväl Planarkitekter, kommuntjänstemän med ansvar för 3D tekniken, samt bland politiker vara önskan om att öka förståelsen hos medborgarna, av förslag till förändring av den fysiska miljön. Något som också oftast motsvaras i kommunernas dokument, där sådana finns. Alla kommuner har inte dokumenterade officiella inriktnings- och policydokument i frågan. Forskningen pekar dock på risker vid användning av visualisering i tidiga skeden av processen. I den avslutande diskussionen berörs arbetets frågeställningar, potentiella problem och möjligheter med användandet av tekniken samt förslag till områden för vidare studier. I slutsatserna konstateras att det finns en diskrepans mellan den övervägande positiva synen på användningen i kommunerna och det som forskningen visar.

  • 310.
    Aldentorp, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sömnighet hos dagtidsarbetande med vanlig 40-timmarsvecka2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett intressant ämne inom sömnforskningen är sömnighet, vilken ofta  mäts med subjektiva skalor som Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS). Då många undersökningar görs på natt- och skiftarbetare, finns lite data för dagtidsarbetande att jämföra med. Syftet med föreliggande uppsats är att ur sömnighetsdata från förmätningen i en studie vid stressforskningsinstitutet, bilda en uppfattning om sömnighetsmönster hos dagtidsarbetande. Sömn- och vakenhetsdagböcker fylldes i av 821 personer under en vecka och resultaten analyserades med variansanalys för upprepade mätningar med inomgruppsfaktorerna veckodag samt tidpunkt och mellangruppsfaktorerna kön, ålder samt sömnlängd. Signifikanta huvudeffekter återfanns av dag, tid, kön och ålder samt interaktionseffekter av dag/tid, tid/ålder samt tid/kön. Resultaten verkar ge en representativ bild över sömnigheten hos dagtidsarbetande med 40-timmarsvecka, och är troligen generaliserbara till andra inom samma grupp så länge inte arbetsuppgifterna är alltför fysiskt eller mentalt krävande, vilket skulle kunna öka sömnigheten.

  • 311.
    Alderholm, Jessika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ungdomars perspektiv på psykoterapier som de ensidigt avslutat: En kvalitativ enkät- och intervjustudie2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Avhopp i terapin är vanligt förekommande. Det som saknas i kunskapen kring avhopp och dess bakgrund är patientens inifrånperspektiv och framförallt hos den allt mer växande patientgruppen unga vuxna. Denna studie har genom kvallitativ metod undersökt de unga vuxnas upplevelser av sin tyerapi. Genom tematisk analys av materialet fann man i studien att subjektiv känsla av att må bättre är en anledning till avhopp samtidigt som det var typiskt att de hade kvarstående problem. Anmärkninsgvärt många uttryckte att anledningen till avhoppet var att de var missnöjda med terapeuten och den behandling som man fått. Man upplevde att terapeuten var för snäll och oempatisk samt att metoden inte hjälpte dem med sina problem. Genom empati för individens varande behöver vi möta unga vuxnas förväntningar så att visnterna med att gå kvar i terapi överväger kostnaderna.

  • 312.
    Alderholm, Jessika
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Arvidsson, Linda
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Att växa genom lidande: posttraumatic growth och positiva förändringar efter en nära anhörigs suicid2007Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract:

    The purpose of this study is to capture experiencies of how life can change for the better after the struggle with the suicide of a close relative, focusing on posttraumatic growth and positive changes. The study contributes to the research area where trauma is considered a possible opportunity for growth within the traumatized individual. Qualitative interviews were conducted with six individuals all of whom have lost a close relative to suicide. The participants expressed PTG in the themes selfperception, interpersonal relationships, and philosophy of life. Positive changes that emerged were: changes in personality, changed priorities, the ability to interact with people on a deeper level, renewed perspectives on death, values time spent with family more, deeper sense of happiness and gratitude, and new possibilities. The result shows that something good can come out of a trauma as severe as this one.

  • 313.
    Alderhorn, Eric
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Boutz, Lisa
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Hur känner jag för miljön? Känslor, värderingar ioch miljövänligt beteende2009Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 314.
    Aldrin, Lina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kennedy, Maeve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hälsobesvär vid icke-toxisk kemisk exponering: Effekter av negativ affekt och luktvalens2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 315.
    Aldrin, Mattias
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Löfqvist, Alice
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ledarskapets betydelse för medarbetarna. En studie om hur sociala föreställningar och ledarskap påverkar medarbetarengagemanget.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 316. Alehagen, Siw
    et al.
    Wijma, Barbro
    Lundberg, Ulf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Wijma, Klaas
    Fear, pain and stress hormones during labor and delivery2005In: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology, ISSN 0167-482X, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 153-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To investigate the course of fear, pain and stress hormones during labor, and the associations between fear, pain, stress hormones and duration of labor in nulliparous women with and without epidural analgesia (EDA).

    Method: One day during gestation weeks 37-39, urinary and salivary samples were collected to measure catecholamines and cortisol. Hourly during labor, the participants answered the Delivery Fear Scale and a pain intensity scale, and urinary and salivary samples were collected to measure stress hormones.

    Results: The course of fear, pain and stress hormones differed throughout labor in women with and without EDA. Pain and cortisol increased throughout labor in women without EDA. Women who received EDA had more fear, but not more pain, before the administration of the EDA than women who did not receive EDA. Pain, fear and catecholamines decreased when women received EDA, but fear and pain increased again later in labor. Fear and pain correlated, as well as levels of fear in the different phases of labor. During phase one of labor epinephrine and duration of the phase were negatively correlated.

    Conclusion: The course of fear, pain and concentrations of stress hormones differed, highly influenced by the administration of EDA. Fear and pain correlated more pronounced than stress hormones and fear, pain and duration of labor.

  • 317.
    Alenius, Marianne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Molitor, Ingrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Expressivt skrivande mot stress: Förståelse av innehåll och process i nio ungdomars texter2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Stressymtom hos ungdomar, och bland dem främst unga tjejer, har ökat markant de senaste 20 åren och utgör idag ett stort hälsoproblem. Inom ramen för ett projekt mot stress i gymnasieskolan under år 2006 fick elever med självrapporterade stressymtom prova på metoden expressivt skrivande. Föreliggande studie bygger på det textmaterial som nio ungdomar lämnade in, där tjejer utgjorde en stor majoritet. Syftet med studien var att djupare förstå innebörden av ungdomars stress samt att undersöka hur processen ser ut när de använder metoden expressivt skrivande. Två stora områden som upptog deltagarna var relationer i familjen samt olika former av krav på prestation. Det är tydligt att föräldrarna har en fortsatt stor betydelse för dessa ungdomar på väg mot vuxenlivet. Skrivprocessen varierade för de deltagande ungdomarna. En bearbetning av svåra och/eller stressande händelser bedöms dock ha skett hos flertalet. Expressivt skrivande bedöms kunna vara en meningsfull intervention mot stress. I de fall ungdomar mår mycket dåligt kan man dock inte utgå från att expressivt skrivande är tillräckligt. Vidare forskning krävs för att mäta effekten av denna typ av intervention.

  • 318.
    Aleson, Dan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    En effectiveness-studie av KBT-behandlingar för GAD på en specialistmottagning2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: While the efficacy of Dugas and Robichauds (2007) CBT treatment model for GAD has been tested in clinical trials, it is still unclear how the treatment is received in a outpatient setting with clinically referred patients. The present effectiveness study aimed to examine the effect of Dugas and Robichauds (2007) CBT treatment on a large outpatient group (N=188) diagnosed with GAD. In addition other types of CBT treatments delivered to the outpatient group were examined, as well as potential moderators for treatment effect such as age, sex, initial GAD-7 scores and concurrent pharmacological treatment. The treatment for the outpatient group was delivered in a clinic (WeMind, www.wemind.se) specialized in treatments of depression and anxiety.  Method: The study is an analysis of gathered data from CBT treatments of GAD during a 3 year span at the clinic. Patients (N=188) diagnosed with GAD were categorized according to type of CBT treatment received and if treatment was completed with intact data. 71 patients were treated with Dugas and Robichauds (2007) CBT treatment, but 22 of these patients also received other CBT interventions at the same time. 33 patients received other kinds of CBT treatment. A large group (N=84) had missing data or did not complete treatment. Measurements taken at the beginning and end of treatment were Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale-7 (GAD-7), Public Health Questionnaire-9  (PHQ-9) and Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ). Clinical remission was measured at the end of treatment with the help of the therapists. A completeranalysis design was used with no waitlist or control group. Results: A paired samples T-test for patients treated with Dugas and Robichauds (2007) CBT treatment and measured with GAD-7 and PHQ-9 gave significant results for GAD-7, t70=13,17 (p<0.001) and PHQ-9, t67=10,25 (P<0.001). 46 of the 71 patients (65%) was assessed with clinical remission (no clinical diagnoses after treatment). Effectsize calculated with Cohen's d were GAD-7=1.76, PHQ-9=1.46 and PSWQ=1.76. Moderators were examined by calculating GAD-7 change score (difference pre-post GAD-7) and correlating the change score with age, sex, initial GAD-7 score and pharmacological treatment. Age and sex gave no significant results. Whether concurrent pharmacological treatment had an moderator effect was examined by categorizing the patients into three groups: (1) no pharmacological treatment, (2) stable pharmacological treatment and (3) changed pharmacological treatment (increased dosage or new treatment). Again no significant effect was found. One positive significant correlation was found with initial GAD-7 scores and GAD-7 change score, GAD-7, r=.66, t69=7,36 (p<0.001). Higher initial GAD-7 measurement correlated with a greater change score. Conclusions:The results indicate a large treatment effect for Dugas and Robichauds (2007) CBT treatment model for GAD in an normal outpatient setting, with clinically referred patients and treatment administered by general CBT therapists. The effect was superior compared to the group that received general CBT treatment interventions for GAD. The effect of treatment measured with GAD-7 and PHQ-9 was also drastically improved if other CBT interventions was added to the treatment model, but these interventions did not have an effect on clinical remission. Serious limitations such as a high percentage of drop outs, a completeranalysis model, no control group and no follow up data restrict the possible interpretations of the results.

  • 319. Aletta, F.
    et al.
    Axelsson, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Kang, J.
    Towards acoustic indicators for soundscape design2014In: Proceeding of Forum Acusticum 2014, 2014, article id SS31_10Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Scientific research on how people perceive, experience or understand the acoustic environment as a whole (i.e., soundscape) is still in development, both with regards to acoustic properties, as well as personality and individual differences. In order to predict how people would perceive an acoustic environment, it is central to identify the underlying acoustic properties of soundscapes. In this study these properties were approached by investigating the visual similarity of colour prints of 50 audio spectrograms (time vs. frequency), representing audio recordings of a variety of acoustic environments. In total, 15 female and 15 male students from the University of Sheffield were recruited to assess the 50 spectrograms by sorting them into groups based on how similar they were perceived to be. A distance matrix, derived from the sorting data, was subjected to a Multidimensional Scaling analysis to map the underlying dimensions of similarity among the spectrograms, which are proposed to represent the underlying acoustic properties of the corresponding acoustic environments. Three dimensions were identified. The first dimension relates to Distinguishable–Indistinguishable sound sources, the second dimension to Background–Foreground sounds, and the third dimension to Intrusive–Smooth sound sources. The results also show that established acoustic parameters are inappropriate as indicators of acoustic environments and that further research is needed in this field.

  • 320. Aletta, Francesco
    et al.
    Axelsson, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Kang, Jian
    Dimensions Underlying the Perceived Similarity of Acoustic Environments2017In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, article id 1162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scientific research on how people perceive or experience and/or understand the acoustic environment as a whole (i.e., soundscape) is still in development. In order to predict how people would perceive an acoustic environment, it is central to identify its underlying acoustic properties. This was the purpose of the present study. Three successive experiments were conducted. With the aid of 30 university students, the first experiment mapped the underlying dimensions of perceived similarity among 50 acoustic environments, using a visual sorting task of their spectrograms. Three dimensions were identified: (1) Distinguishable-Indistinguishable sound sources, (2) Background-Foreground sounds, and (3) Intrusive-Smooth sound sources. The second experiment was aimed to validate the results from Experiment 1 by a listening experiment. However, a majority of the 10 expert listeners involved in Experiment 2 used a qualitatively different approach than the 30 university students in Experiment 1. A third experiment was conducted in which 10 more expert listeners performed the same task as per Experiment 2, with spliced audio signals. Nevertheless, Experiment 3 provided a statistically significantly worse result than Experiment 2. These results suggest that information about the meaning of the recorded sounds could be retrieved in the spectrograms, and that the meaning of the sounds may be captured with the aid of holistic features of the acoustic environment, but such features are still unexplored and further in-depth research is needed in this field.

  • 321. Aletta, Francesco
    et al.
    Kang, Jian
    Axelsson, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics. University of Sheffield, United Kingdom.
    Soundscape descriptors and a conceptual framework for developing predictive soundscape models2016In: Landscape and Urban Planning, ISSN 0169-2046, E-ISSN 1872-6062, Vol. 149, p. 65-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soundscape exists through human perception of the acoustic environment. This paper investigates how soundscape currently is assessed and measured. It reviews and analyzes the main soundscape descriptors in the soundscape literature, and provides a conceptual framework for developing predictive models in soundscape studies. A predictive soundscape model provides a means of predicting the value of a soundscape descriptor, and the blueprint for how to design soundscape. It is the key for implementing the soundscape approach in urban planning and design. The challenge is to select the appropriate soundscape descriptor and to identify its predictors. The majority of available soundscape descriptors are converging towards a 2-dimensional soundscape model of perceived affective quality (e.g., Pleasantness–Eventfulness, or Calmness–Vibrancy). A third potential dimension is the appropriateness of a soundscape to a place. This dimensions provides complementary information beyond the perceived affective quality. However, it depends largely on context, and because a soundscape may be appropriate to a place although it is poor, this descriptor must probably not be used on its own. With regards to predictors, or soundscape indicators, perceived properties of the acoustic environment (e.g., perceived sound sources) are winning over established acoustic and psychoacoustic metrics. To move this area forward it is necessary that the international soundscape community comes together and agrees on relevant soundscape descriptors. This includes to agree on numerical scales and assessment procedures, as well as to standardize them.

  • 322. Aletta, Francesco
    et al.
    Margaritis, Efstathios
    Filipan, Karlo
    Puyana Romero, Virginia
    Axelsson, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Kang, Jian
    Characterization of the soundscape in Valley Gardens, Brighton, by a soundwalk prior to an urban design intervention2015In: Proceedings of Euronoise 2015 / [ed] C. Glorieux, Nederlands Akoestisch Genootschap and ABAV - Belgian Acoustical Society , 2015, p. 1547-1552, article id 357Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to characterize the soundscape of the Valley Gardens in Brighton before the area is converted into a downtown park. Valley Gardens is located in the busy city centre. It extends from the Brighton Pier at the seafront and approximately 1.5 km to the north. It includes Old Stein, Victoria Gardens, St Peter’s Church, and The Level. In 2015 work will commence on redeveloping Victoria Gardens and St Peter’s Church. In order to characterize the soundscape of the Valley Gardens prior to this urban design intervention a soundwalk was conducted. In October 2014, a group of 21 persons -experts in acoustics and officers of the City Council- were guided through the area together, and assessed the soundscape at eight sites: five within the Valley Gardens and three reference sites. The assessments covered the soundscape quality, how appropriate the soundscape is to the place, the dominance of perceived sound sources, and the affective quality of the soundscape. In addition, binaural recordings and sound-level measurements were conducted at each of the eight sites during the soundwalk. Preliminary results indicate that the Valley Gardens was dominated by the sound of road traffic, and that the soundscape was perceived as inappropriate to the place. Consequently, the planned design intervention should reduce the dominance of road-traffic sound and introduce more positive sounds, like the sound of people and nature. This would be done through careful planning of the landscape and human activities within the area. The plan is to follow-up these results with a post-intervention soundwalk.

  • 323.
    Alevcan, Meleknur
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Effects of Self-Stigma Among the People With Schizophrenia2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    People who are diagnosed with schizophrenia experience prejudice and discrimination both in the society and in their own world as a form of internalization which is also called as self-stigma. Although public stigma is occurred by a larger population, self-stigma also plays an important role by having patients suffer numerous negative consequences. In this article, I focused on those negative consequences of self-stigma for people with schizophrenia. Furthermore, I examined how the negative effects of the stigma plays an important role during the treatment process. As a method, I interviewed 10 patients who were diagnosed with schizophrenia based on 10 open-ended questions and analyzed the data afterwards which helped me understand the negative effects of internalized self-stigma on them. The majority of the responses indicated that they were worried to be viewed unfavorably which led them avoid telling their mental illness to others. The results also showed that they have poor quality of life, little to none social interactions and troubles continuing their medical and therapeutic treatments because of their internalized negative thoughts.

  • 324.
    Alexandersson, David
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stress inom Räddningstjänsten: En studie om samband mellan krav, kontroll, socialt stöd och brandmäns upplevda stressnivå.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Fire and rescue services have an important function in society and aims to deliver effective emergency response to the public's benefit. Meanwhile, the firefighting profession a high-risk profession where firefighters are exposed to diseases caused by the physical environment as various forms of cancers. They are also exposed to organizational health risks like negative stress, which is the focus of this paper. The aim of the thesis was to make clear whether there is a relationship between psychosocial work environment and perceived stress among firefighters. The issue was whether the levels of demands, control and social support can predict firemens perceived stress level? A total of 67 firefighters from two different cities in southern Sweden participated. The independent variables were demands, control and social support, measured with Swedish Demand Control Support Questionnaire. Stress was measured with the Swedish version of the Perceived Stress Scale. Demand and social support were significant predictors. Demand had a positive relationship with stress and social support was negative associated with stress. Control could not predict stress. This result is consistent to some extent with previous research.

  • 325.
    Alexandersson, Marie
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Health.
    Mäns upplevelse av sin kroppsbild efter att ha genomgått behandling för prostatacancer.2014Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: I världen finns det mer än 1,1 miljoner män med prostatacancer. De män som behandlas för sin cancer påverkas både psykiskt och fysiskt. Efter behandlingen lever männen under en stor påfrestning som påverkar dem dagligen. Hur männen själva upplever sin kroppsbild och ser på vardagen är avgörande betydelse för att vårdpersonalen ska kunna bistå med stöd så att männens vardag underlättas. Syfte: var att belysa mäns upplevelser av den egna kroppsbilden efter genomgången behandling av prostatacancer. Metod: Studien är formad som en litteraturstudie baserad på nio artiklar, vars metod var intervjuer. En artikel baserades på både intervju och enkät. Insamlat textmaterial analyserades med en manifest innehållsanalys. Resultat: Männen som genomgår en behandling för prostatacancer kan förlora en del av sin manlighet vilket kan medföra känslor av ensamhet och sorg med en sänkt självkänsla. Samtidigt upplever männen att deras identitet har förändrats till att bli mer kvinnlig. Beroende av hur kroppen funkar efter behandling behöver de planera och ha rutiner i vardagen för att kunna uppnå en så normal funktion som möjligt. Slutsats: Männen som behandlas för sin prostatacancer upplever att vardagen är mycket jobbig. Eftersom männen ofta har svårt att prata om sina kroppsförändringar får de ofta själv hitta metoder i vardagen som minimerar lidandet och ökar välbefinnandet. Sjuksköterskan måste finna möjligheter för att öppna upp för samtal med männen för att kunna hjälpa dem.

  • 326.
    Alexandersson, Paula
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Carrvik, Marie
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Personlighet och medarbetarskap2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to find correlations between personality traits, experienced employee empowerment and job satisfaction. Employee empowerment means the sense of meaning, competence, self-determination and impact. The study examined if there was a gap between experienced and desired empowerment and if this gap could be explained by personality. The study also examined if this gap had a connection to satisfaction. The questionnaire was carried out at the Swedish Maritime Administration. To measure different personalities, the personality scale mini-IPIP6 was used and in order to measure experienced and desired empowerment, the Spreitzer’s Empowerment Scale was used. The results showed that the personality trait neuroticism correlated negatively with experienced employee empowerment, desired empowerment and job satisfaction. Extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness correlated positively with perceived employee empowerment, desired empowerment and job satisfaction. The results confirm previous research done with the well-established theory of the "Big Five, while employee empowerment is a rather new concept.

  • 327.
    Alexandersson, Pelle
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Psykometrisk prövning av PG-13; ett självskattningsinstrument för ihållande sorg2010Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Frågan om ”normal” respektive ”patologisk” sorg har under en lång tid varit ett omdiskuterat ämne inom psykologin och psykiatrin. En grupp forskare har tagit fram kriterier på ett syndrom som fått benämningen ihållande sorg (”prolonged grief”). Studier har visat på att ihållande sorg är ett distinkt syndrom separat från depression, posttraumatisk stressyndrom och generaliserat ångestsyndrom. Ihållande sorg föreslås ingå som en diagnos i de kommande versionerna av de diagnostiska manualerna DSM och ICD. Syftet med denna studie var att översätta självskattningsinstrumentet Prolonged Grief Disorder (PG-13) till svenska, och undersöka dess reliabilitet och validitet genom bland annat en explorativ och konfirmatorisk faktoranalys. Studien genomfördes på ett annonsrekryterat heterogent sample (n=162 varav 90 % var kvinnor) vad gäller typ av dödsfall och relation till den avlidne. Respondenterna besvarade en webb- eller pappersenkät som bestod av 75 items. PG-13 bedöms ha en hög reliabilitet, god begrepps- och samtidig validitet samt en måttlig diskriminativ validitet.

  • 328.
    Alexius, Katarina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Hollander, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Barns behov och vilja vid tvångsvård till följd av omsorgsbrist2014In: Barnrätt : en antologi / [ed] Ann-Christin Cederborg & Wiweka Warnling-Nerep, Stockholm: Norstedts Juridik AB, 2014, 1, p. 21-38Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vid omhändertaganden av barn ska barnets bästa vara avgörande för de beslut som fattas. I den praktiska tillämpningen innefattar begreppet ofta tolkningar av barns behov, såsom dessa definieras av kompetenta vuxna, och barnets vilja, såsom denna uttrycks av barnet eller uttolkas av vuxna. I denna studie undersöks uttrycken barns behov och vilja samt hur barns behov och vilja bedöms i sociala utredningar och domar som rör tvångsomhändertaganden till följd av omsorgssvikt av barn i familjer där någon förälder har intellektuell funktionsnedsättning.

  • 329.
    Alfermann, D.
    et al.
    Faculty of Sports Sciences, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). The P.F. Lesgaft State Academy, St Petersburg, Russian Federation.
    Zemaityte, A.
    University of Vilnius, Vilnius, Lithuania & Department of Pyschology, University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany.
    Reactions to sport career termination: A cross-national comparison of German, Lithuanian, and Russian athletes2004In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 61-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To assess the cognitive, emotional, and behavioural consequences of sport career termination of national and international level athletes in three nations.

    Design and methods: Athletes of Germany (n=88), Lithuania (n=65), and Russia (n=101) were asked to describe in retrospect their reactions to career termination. The Athletic Retirement Questionnaire developed by the first two authors and presented in three corresponding languages was used. Planning of retirement and national identity served as independent variables. Dependent variables were reasons and circumstances for career termination, participants’ emotional reactions, coping reactions, athletic identity during and after sport career, and adjustment to life after career termination.

    Results: Analyses of variance revealed significant main effects of retirement planning and national identity on most dependent variables. Planning of retirement contributed to significantly better cognitive, emotional, and behavioural adaptation. In addition, high athletic identity contributed to less positive reactions to retirement and to more problems in the adaptation process. The emotional reactions of Russian and Lithuanian athletes were similar, but differed from the German athletes who, in general, showed more positive and lesser negative emotions after retirement. Though accepting the reality of retirement was the most often used coping strategy among all participants, Lithuanian athletes showed more denial and Russian athletes more distraction strategies after retirement than the other nations.

    Discussion: The results are discussed with regard to athletes’ readiness for career transition in different social and cultural environments. Recommendations are given on how to help athletes to prepare for and to cope with career termination. © 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 330.
    Alfermann, Dorothee
    et al.
    Leipzig University, Leipzig, Germany.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Sport psychology in Europe – Women’s perspective2013In: Abstracts of the ISSP 13th World Congress of Sport Psychology: July 21-26, 2013, Beijing Sport University, Beijing, China, Beijing, 2013, p. 55-55Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Compared to other disciplines of psychology, sport and exercise psychology is a very young field. Sport psychology associations were founded in a variety of countries (particularly in Europe and North America) in the 1960es and later, after the first World Congress of Sport Psychology had taken place in Rome in 1965. Despite the fact that even in those ages quite a few women were studying psychology and afterwards starting a scientific career, females in sport psychology were extremely underrepresented. One of the reasons could lie in the fact that sport, much more than psychology, was a stereotypically male field, with only a few opportunities available to women. Making a career in sport psychology was then a double contradiction for women. First, making a career in general contradicted the typical female role, and second, making a career in sport meant an untypical field for women.

    The presentation will be structured as a dialogue between the two presenters – female sport psychologists working in the field for more than 30 years. Both were born and started their careers during the period of the Cold War: Dorothee Alfermann in the Federal Republic of Germany, and Natalia Stambulova in the Soviet Union. Both countries do not exist on the European map any more reflecting dramatic political, social and economic changes in Europe during the last two decades. All the changes in the European context put their impacts on the development of sport and exercise psychology in Europe including overall organizational development, as well as female careers and their contributions to European Federation of Sport Psychology (FEPSAC), other international sport psychology organizations (e.g., ISSP, AASP) and international sport psychology events (e.g., Congresses). The dialogue will be structured around the following three themes: (a) the presenters’ own careers analyzed from the point of gender issues (e.g., female professional role models and mentors), (b) history of European sport and exercise psychology, foundation of FEPSAC and contribution of its first President Ema Geron (1969-1973), and (c) female sport psychology professionals’ role in today’s European sport psychology and their contributions to FEPSAC, ISSP, AASP, national sport psychology associations, the editorial board of Psychology of Sport and Exercise, the European Forum of Applied Sport Psychologists, the European Master’s Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology (EMSSEP), and the recent European Master’s (Mundus) Program in Sport and Exercise Psychology (EMPSEP).

  • 331.
    Alfermann, Dorothee
    et al.
    Leipzig University, Leipzig, Germany.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Center for Sport and Health Science (CIHF).
    Zemaityte, Aiste
    University of Vilnius, Vilnius, Lithuania.
    Causes and consequences of career termination: A comparison of German, Russian and Lithuanian athletes2001In: International Society of Sport Psychology (ISSP) 10th World Congress of Sport Psychology: organized by Democritus University of Thrace, University of Thessaly, Hellenic Society of Sport Psychology : in the dawn of the new millennium : May 28-June 2, 2001, Skiathos, Hellas : programme and proceedings: vol. 4 / [ed] Athanasios Papaioannou, Marios Goudas, Yannis Theodorakis, Thessaloniki, Greece: Christodoulidi Publications , 2001, p. 26-28Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 332. Alfonsson, S
    et al.
    Maathz, P
    Hursti, T
    Inter Format Reliability ofQuestionnaires used in ICBT2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 333.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Impulsivity, Negative Mood, and Disordered Eating in Obesity2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bariatric surgery is a life-altering procedure that leads to substantial weight loss for most patients with obesity. Psychiatric conditions that may interfere with eating behavior and other behavioral prescriptions after surgery are common. Disordered eating is an established risk factor for inferior weight loss but the effects of negative mood and impulsivity are largely unknown. This thesis aims to investigate the prevalence of and associations between these potential risk factors and eating behavior in bariatric surgery patients.

    Study I assessed the prevalence of adult Attention Deficits/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms in bariatric surgery patients. Symptoms of adult ADHD were elevated compared to the normal population and associated with symptoms of disordered eating, anxiety, and depression.

    Study II investigated whether treatment with Behavioral Activation (BA) could ameliorate binge eating and other symptoms of disordered eating in patients with obesity and Binge Eating Disorder. The results showed that BA was effective in increasing activity levels and improving mood but not in ameliorating binge eating in these patients.

    Study III was a prospective study on disordered eating, symptoms of depression and anxiety, symptoms of adult ADHD, and alcohol risk consumption before surgery and at follow-up after 12 months. After controlling for age, no variable measured before surgery could predict weight loss after surgery. Disordered eating after surgery was associated with inferior weight loss in men and a subgroup of older female participants.

    The present thesis concludes that symptoms of adult ADHD are common among bariatric surgery patients and associated with disordered eating. There is no indication that symptoms of adult ADHD are associated with short-term inferior weight loss after surgery. However, adult ADHD may be a risk factor for postsurgical alcohol abuse. The treatment study showed no direct association among activity, mood, and binge eating. BA, while effective in improving mood, was found not to be an effective treatment for BED, at least in the short group format investigated.

  • 334.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Psychology in Healthcare.
    Treatment Adherence in Internet-Based CBT: The Effects of Presentation, Support and Motivation2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Homework assignments that patient work with between sessions is a key component in both face-to-face and Internet-based Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT). However, adherence to assignments is often low and it is largely unclear what factors predict or affect treatment adherence, and in the end, treatment outcomes. The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate if treatment presentation and therapist support can affect adherence and treatment outcome in internet-based CBT, whether adherence can be predicted by motivation variables and to compare differences in face-to-face and online conditions in this regard.

    A randomized controlled trial with a brief online relaxation program for people with stress and anxiety symptoms was conducted (n = 162). Participants in the enhanced support conditions completed a larger proportion of the online treatment but adherence was not affected by enhanced treatment presentation (Study I). Participants reported reduced symptoms of stress and anxiety after the relaxation program but there were no significant additional effects of enhanced presentation or support (Study II). Participants who adhered to the prescribed assignments reported lower symptom levels at study end, regardless of treatment conditions. Adherence to the online treatment was predicted by subject factors such as treatment credibility prior to the treatment and intrinsic motivation during the treatment (Study III). To further elucidate how motivation may affect adherence, an experiment with a one-session psychotherapy model was subsequently conducted (n = 100). Participants who were randomized to the face-to-face condition reported higher motivation for the assignment and completed significantly more of the homework compared to participants in the online condition (Study IV). Self-reported intrinsic motivation could predict adherence in both conditions while new motivational variables were identified specifically for the online condition.

    The results from these studies confirm that adherence to assignments in Internet-based CBT is difficult to affect with treatment features but can be predicted early in treatment by subject factors such as treatment credibility and motivation. How such motivational variables can be affected to improve treatments is still unclear.

  • 335.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Psychology in Healthcare. Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience Karolinska Institutet & Stockholm Health Care Services, Stockholm County Council, Sweden.
    Johansson, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Uddling, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hursti, Timo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Differences in motivation and adherence to a prescribed assignment after face-to-face and online psychoeducation: A randomized experiment2017In: BMC Psychology, E-ISSN 2050-7283, Vol. 5, no 1, article id 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Adherence to treatment homework is associated with positive outcomes in behavioral psychotherapy but compliance to assignments is still often moderate. Whether adherence can be predicted by different types of motivation for the task and whether motivation plays different roles in face-to-face compared to online psychotherapy is unknown. If models of motivation, such as Self-determination theory, can be used to predict patients’ behavior, it may facilitate further research into homework promotion. The aims of this study were, therefore, to investigate whether motivation variables could predict adherence to a prescribed assignment in face-to-face and online interventions using a psychotherapy analog model. Methods: A total of 100 participants were included in this study and randomized to either a face-to-face or online intervention. Participants in both groups received a psychoeducation session and were given an assignment for the subsequent week. The main outcome measurements were self-reported motivation and adherence to the assignment. Results: Participant in the face-to-face condition reported significantly higher levels of motivation and showed higher levels of adherence compared to participants in the online condition. Adherence to the assignment was positively associated with intrinsic motivation and intervention credibility in the whole sample and especially in the online group. Conclusions: This study shows that intrinsic motivation and intervention credibility are strong predictors of adherence to assignments, especially in online interventions. The results indicate that intrinsic motivation may be partly substituted with face-to-face contact with a therapist. It may also be possible to identify patients with low motivation in online interventions who are at risk of dropping out. Methods for making online interventions more intrinsically motivating without increasing external pressure are needed.

  • 336.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Psychosocial oncology and supportive care.
    Maathz, Pernilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hursti, Timo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Interformat Reliability of Digital Psychiatric Self-Report Questionnaires: A Systematic Review2014In: Journal of Medical Internet Research, ISSN 1438-8871, E-ISSN 1438-8871, Vol. 16, no 12, p. 86-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Research on Internet-based interventions typically use digital versions of pen and paper self-report symptom scales. However, adaptation into the digital format could affect the psychometric properties of established self-report scales. Several studies have investigated differences between digital and pen and paper versions of instruments, but no systematic review of the results has yet been done.

    OBJECTIVE: This review aims to assess the interformat reliability of self-report symptom scales used in digital or online psychotherapy research.

    METHODS: Three databases (MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO) were systematically reviewed for studies investigating the reliability between digital and pen and paper versions of psychiatric symptom scales.

    RESULTS: From a total of 1504 publications, 33 were included in the review, and interformat reliability of 40 different symptom scales was assessed. Significant differences in mean total scores between formats were found in 10 of 62 analyses. These differences were found in just a few studies, which indicates that the results were due to study effects and sample effects rather than unreliable instruments. The interformat reliability ranged from r=.35 to r=.99; however, the majority of instruments showed a strong correlation between format scores. The quality of the included studies varied, and several studies had insufficient power to detect small differences between formats.

    CONCLUSIONS: When digital versions of self-report symptom scales are compared to pen and paper versions, most scales show high interformat reliability. This supports the reliability of results obtained in psychotherapy research on the Internet and the comparability of the results to traditional psychotherapy research. There are, however, some instruments that consistently show low interformat reliability, suggesting that these conclusions cannot be generalized to all questionnaires. Most studies had at least some methodological issues with insufficient statistical power being the most common issue. Future studies should preferably provide information about the transformation of the instrument into digital format and the procedure for data collection in more detail.

  • 337.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Psychology in Healthcare.
    Olsson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Psychology in Healthcare.
    Hursti, Timo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Motivation and Treatment Credibility Predicts Dropout, Treatment Adherence, and Clinical Outcomes in an Internet-Based Cognitive Behavioral Relaxation Program: A Randomized Controlled Trial.2016In: Journal of Medical Internet Research, ISSN 1438-8871, E-ISSN 1438-8871, Vol. 18, no 3, article id e52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In previous research, variables such as age, education, treatment credibility, and therapeutic alliance have shown to affect patients' treatment adherence and outcome in Internet-based psychotherapy. A more detailed understanding of how such variables are associated with different measures of adherence and clinical outcomes may help in designing more effective online therapy.

    Objective: The aims of this study were to investigate demographical, psychological, and treatment-specific variables that could predict dropout, treatment adherence, and treatment outcomes in a study of online relaxation for mild to moderate stress symptoms.

    Methods: Participant dropout and attrition as well as data from self-report instruments completed before, during, and after the online relaxation program were analyzed. Multiple linear and logistical regression analyses were conducted to predict early dropout, overall attrition, online treatment progress, number of registered relaxation exercises, posttreatment symptom levels, and reliable improvement.

    Results: Dropout was significantly predicted by treatment credibility, whereas overall attrition was associated with reporting a focus on immediate consequences and experiencing a low level of intrinsic motivation for the treatment. Treatment progress was predicted by education level and treatment credibility, whereas number of registered relaxation exercises was associated with experiencing intrinsic motivation for the treatment. Posttreatment stress symptoms were positively predicted by feeling external pressure to participate in the treatment and negatively predicted by treatment credibility. Reporting reliable symptom improvement after treatment was predicted by treatment credibility and therapeutic bond.

    Conclusions: This study confirmed that treatment credibility and a good working alliance are factors associated with successful Internet-based psychotherapy. Further, the study showed that measuring adherence in different ways provides somewhat different results, which underscore the importance of carefully defining treatment adherence in psychotherapy research. Lastly, the results suggest that finding the treatment interesting and engaging may help patients carry through with the intervention and complete prescribed assignments, a result that may help guide the design of future interventions.

  • 338.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Psychology in Healthcare.
    Olsson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Psychology in Healthcare.
    Hursti, Timo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The effects of therapist support and treatment presentation on the clinical outcomes of an Internet based applied relaxation program2015In: Internet Interventions, ISSN 2214-7829, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 289-296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Symptoms of stress are common in the general population and associated with health risks and economic costs. Applied relaxation training has shown to be effective for reducing stress and worry both as a self-help treatment and as an internet-based intervention with therapist support. However, what factors may affect the outcome of internet based relaxation training is unclear. The aims of the present study were to investigate the effect of a brief internet based relaxation program for people with symptoms of stress or worry and to assess whether enhancing the quality of intervention presentation or therapist support had an impact on outcomes.

    Participants were randomized in a full factorial design to either Normal or Enhanced treatment Presentation and either Normal or Enhanced therapist Support in a four-week online program with applied relaxation. The main outcome measures were self-report instruments of stress and worry.

    A total of 162 participants were included in the study and 94 and 84 participants completed the post and follow-up measurements respectively. Participants in all conditions improved significantly on the main outcome measures, and the different levels of Presentation or therapist Support did not significantly affect treatment outcome. Registered number of completed exercises was a predictor of better treatment outcome, but this effect was independent of treatment condition. Enhancing internet based interventions by improving presentations and the quality of support may thus not be the best way to further improve the effect of internet based interventions. More specific knowledge of the mechanisms that affect outcomes in online psychotherapy is needed.

  • 339.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Psychology in Healthcare.
    Olsson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Psychology in Healthcare.
    Hursti, Timo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Høyer Lundh, Marie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences. Department of Nursing, Metropolitan University College, 2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark.
    Johansson, Birgitta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Socio-demographic and clinical variables associated with psychological distress one and three years after a breast cancer diagnosis2016In: Supportive Care in Cancer, ISSN 0941-4355, E-ISSN 1433-7339, Vol. 24, no 9, p. 4017-4023Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: A large group of women (20-30%) report psychological distress shortly after breast cancer diagnosis, and some experience continued or increased symptoms over time. The aim of this study was to investigate socio-demographic and clinical variables associated with sustained psychological distress in this patient group. METHODS: Women with breast cancer (n=833) completed self-report questionnaires regarding socio-demographic and clinical variables shortly after (T1) and 3years after diagnosis (T2) while data on illness severity were collected from a quality register. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used as a measure of psychological distress at both time points. RESULTS: The number of participants who reported elevated levels of anxiety was 231 (28%) at T1 and 231 (28%) at T2 while elevated depressive symptoms was reported by 119 (14%) women at T1 and 92 (11%) at T2. Despite non-significant differences in mean scores over time, 91 (15%) participants reported increased anxiety symptoms and 47 (7%) reported increased depressive symptoms. Poor financial situation, lack of social support, previous psychiatric treatment, and high levels of fatigue were associated with both anxiety and depressive symptoms. Reporting high levels of fatigue was the variable most strongly associated with increased psychological distress over time. CONCLUSION: Most participants reported decreased psychological distress over time, but there were subgroups of women who experienced sustained or increased symptoms of anxiety or depression. Participants with poor financial status, previous psychological problems, or high levels of fatigue may be at increased risk of psychological distress. Such individuals may benefit most from psychosocial interventions.

  • 340.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Psychology in Healthcare.
    Olsson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Psychology in Healthcare.
    Linderman, Sofia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Winnerhed, Sara
    Hursti, Timo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Is online treatment adherence affected by presentation and therapist support?: A randomized controlled trial2016In: Computers in human behavior, ISSN 0747-5632, E-ISSN 1873-7692, Vol. 60, p. 550-558Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In both face to face and Internet based Cognitive Behavior Therapy, patients' adherence can be improved by different means such as by using motivational techniques or automatic reminders. The main aim of this study was to investigate whether enriched treatment material presentation and/or increased frequency and quality of support would increase participants' adherence to an online relaxation program. One hundred and sixty-two participants with mild to moderate symptoms of stress or worry were included in this study. Participants were randomized to either Normal or Enhanced intervention presentation and Normal or Enhanced support in a full factorial design. Main outcome variables were progress through the online intervention and adherence to prescribed exercises. Participants in the Enhanced support group progressed further through the program than participants in the Normal support group (Z = 2.11, p = .035, r = .17) but there were no significant differences found between the Normal and Enhanced presentation groups. Participants registered a mean of 60% of the prescribed exercises with no significant differences between groups. This study shows that adherence to online interventions can be increased by increased frequency and quality of therapeutic contact. Future studies may investigate how to increase adherence to prescribed homework assignments and whether parts of the therapeutic support may be substituted with automatic systems with retained effects.

  • 341.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Parling, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ghaderi, Ata
    Group Behavioral activation for patients with severe obesity and Binge eating disorder: A randomized controlled trial2015In: Behavior modification, ISSN 0145-4455, E-ISSN 1552-4167, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 270-294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to assess whether behavioral activation (BA) is an efficacious treatment for decreasing eating disorder symptoms in patients with obesity and binge eating disorder (BED). Ninety-six patients with severe obesity and BED were randomized to either 10 sessions of group BA or wait-list control. The study was conducted at an obesity clinic in a regular hospital setting. The treatment improved some aspects of disordered eating and had a positive effect on depressive symptoms but there was no significant difference between the groups regarding binge eating and most other symptoms. Improved mood but lack of effect on binge eating suggests that dysfunctional eating (including BED) is maintained by other mechanisms than low activation and negative mood. However, future studies need to investigate whether effects of BA on binge eating might emerge later than at post-assessment, as in interpersonal psychotherapy for bulimia nervosa.

  • 342.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Parling, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ghaderi, Ata
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet.
    Self-€reported symptoms of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder among obese patients seeking bariatric surgery and its relation to alcohol consumption, disordered eating and gender2013In: Clinical Obesity, ISSN 1758-8103, E-ISSN 1758-8111, Vol. 3, no 5, p. 124-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What is already known about this subject

    • Symptoms of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are common among people with obesity.
    • Symptoms of ADHD are associated with other impulsive behaviours.
    • Impulsivity can manifest differently in women and men.

    What this study adds

    • The prevalence of ADHD symptoms was equal in both sexes in this patient group.
    • ADHD symptoms were associated with hazardous alcohol consumption in men but not in women.
    • It may be important to investigate several comorbid conditions simultaneously instead of a single diagnosis.

    Eating disorders and adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), both characterized by deficits in impulse control, are common among bariatric surgery patients. Previous studies in other groups have found gender differences in how symptoms of ADHD and eating disorders manifest as women show more disordered eating and men show more risk consumption of alcohol. In the present study, the association between symptoms of adult ADHD, eating disorders and hazardous alcohol consumption was investigated, while considering gender differences. Self-report questionnaires were obtained from 276 bariatric surgery patients 3–6 months before surgery. The prevalence rates of adult ADHD and binge eating disorder (BED) were 8.6% and 6.3%, respectively, with no evidence of gender difference in the prevalence rates. Hazardous alcohol consumption was reported by a significantly larger portion of men (16.9%) than women (8.6%). There was an association between adult ADHD and both BED and hazardous alcohol consumption. However, symptoms of adult ADHD were associated with hazardous alcohol consumption in men but not in women. Our results suggest gender differences in hazardous alcohol consumption and self-reported symptoms of disordered eating despite similar prevalence rate of BED, but no gender difference in symptoms of adult ADHD. Finally, as the associations between these variables seem to be different in women and men, future

  • 343.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Sweden; Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Parling, Thomas
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Sweden.
    Spännargård, Asa
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Tobias
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Sweden.
    The effects of clinical supervision on supervisees and patients in cognitive behavioral therapy: a systematic review2018In: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, ISSN 1650-6073, E-ISSN 1651-2316, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 206-228Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Clinical supervision is a central part of psychotherapist training but the empirical support for specific supervision theories or features is unclear. The aims of this study were to systematically review the empirical research literature regarding the effects of clinical supervision on therapists competences and clinical outcomes within Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT). A comprehensive database search resulted in 4103 identified publications. Of these, 133 were scrutinized and in the end 5 studies were included in the review for data synthesis. The five studies were heterogeneous in scope and quality and only one provided firm empirical support for the positive effects of clinical supervision on therapists competence. The remaining four studies suffered from methodological weaknesses, but provided some preliminary support that clinical supervision may be beneficiary for novice therapists. No study could show benefits from supervision for patients. The research literature suggests that clinical supervision may have some potential effects on novice therapists competence compared to no supervision but the effects on clinical outcomes are still unclear. While bug-in-the-eye live supervision may be more effective than standard delayed supervision, the effects of specific supervision models or features are also unclear. There is a continued need for high-quality empirical studies on the effects of clinical supervision in psychotherapy.

  • 344.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Clinical Psychology in Healthcare. Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Parling, Thomas
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Spännargård, Åsa
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Stockholm, Sweden; Linköping Univ, Dept Behav Sci & Learning, Linköping, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Tobias
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The effects of clinical supervision on supervisees and patients in cognitive behavioral therapy: a systematic review2018In: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, ISSN 1650-6073, E-ISSN 1651-2316, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 206-228Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Clinical supervision is a central part of psychotherapist training but the empirical support for specific supervision theories or features is unclear. The aims of this study were to systematically review the empirical research literature regarding the effects of clinical supervision on therapists’ competences and clinical outcomes within Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT). A comprehensive database search resulted in 4103 identified publications. Of these, 133 were scrutinized and in the end 5 studies were included in the review for data synthesis. The five studies were heterogeneous in scope and quality and only one provided firm empirical support for the positive effects of clinical supervision on therapists’ competence. The remaining four studies suffered from methodological weaknesses, but provided some preliminary support that clinical supervision may be beneficiary for novice therapists. No study could show benefits from supervision for patients. The research literature suggests that clinical supervision may have some potential effects on novice therapists’ competence compared to no supervision but the effects on clinical outcomes are still unclear. While bug-in-the-eye live supervision may be more effective than standard delayed supervision, the effects of specific supervision models or features are also unclear. There is a continued need for high-quality empirical studies on the effects of clinical supervision in psychotherapy.

  • 345.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Psychology in Healthcare.
    Sewall, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lidholm, Henning
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hursti, Timo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The meal pattern questionnaire: A psychometric evaluation using the eating disorder examination2016In: Eating Behaviors, ISSN 1471-0153, E-ISSN 1873-7358, Vol. 21, p. 7-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    Meal pattern is an important variable in both obesity treatment and treatment for eating disorders. Momentary assessment and eating diaries are highly valid measurement methods but often cumbersome and not always feasible to use in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to design and evaluate a self-report instrument for measuring meal patterns.

    Method

    The Pattern of eating item from the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) interview was adapted to self-report format to follow the same overall structure as the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. The new instrument was named the Meal Patterns Questionnaire (MPQ) and was compared with the EDE in a student sample (n = 105) and an obese sample (n = 111).

    Results

    The individual items of the MPQ and the EDE showed moderate to high correlations (rho = .63–89) in the two samples. Significant differences between the MPQ and EDE were only found for two items in the obese sample. The total scores correlated to a high degree (rho = .87/.74) in both samples and no significant differences were found in this variable.

    Discussion

    The MPQ can provide an overall picture of a person's eating patterns and is a valid way to collect data regarding meal patterns. The MPQ may be a useable tool in clinical practice and research studies when more extensive instruments cannot be used. Future studies should evaluate the MPQ in diverse cultural populations and with more ecological assessment methods.

  • 346.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Stockholm Health Care Services, Sweden; Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Spännargård, Åsa
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Stockholm Health Care Services, Sweden.
    Parling, Thomas
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Stockholm Health Care Services, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Stockholm Health Care Services, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Tobias
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Stockholm Health Care Services, Sweden.
    The effects of clinical supervision on supervisees and patients in cognitive-behavioral therapy: a study protocol for a systematic review.2017In: Systematic Reviews, E-ISSN 2046-4053, Vol. 6, no 1, article id 94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Clinical supervision by a senior therapist is a very common practice in psychotherapist training and psychiatric care settings. Though clinical supervision is advocated by most educational and governing institutions, the effects of clinical supervision on the supervisees' competence, e.g., attitudes, behaviors, and skills, as well as on treatment outcomes and other patient variables are debated and largely unknown. Evidence-based practice is advocated in clinical settings but has not yet been fully implemented in educational or clinical training settings. The aim of this systematic review is to synthesize and present the empirical literature regarding effects of clinical supervision in cognitive-behavioral therapy.

    METHODS: This study will include a systematic review of the literature to identify studies that have empirically investigated the effects of supervision on supervised psychotherapists and/or the supervisees' patients. A comprehensive search strategy will be conducted to identify published controlled studies indexed in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library databases. Data on supervision outcomes in both psychotherapists and their patients will be extracted, synthesized, and reported. Risk of bias and quality of the included studies will be assessed systematically.

    DISCUSSION: This systematic review will rigorously follow established guidelines for systematic reviews in order to summarize and present the evidence base for clinical supervision in cognitive-behavioral therapy and may aid further research and discussion in this area.

    SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42016046834.

  • 347.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Clinical Psychology in Healthcare. Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm, Sweden.
    Spännargård, Åsa
    Parling, Thomas
    Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Lundgren, Tobias
    The effects of clinical supervision on supervisees and patients in cognitive-behavioral therapy: a study protocol for a systematic review2017In: Systematic Reviews, E-ISSN 2046-4053, Vol. 6, no 94, p. 1-6Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Clinical supervision by a senior therapist is a very common practice in psychotherapist training and psychiatric care settings. Though clinical supervision is advocated by most educational and governing institutions, the effects of clinical supervision on the supervisees ’ competence, e.g., attitudes, behaviors, and skills, as well as on treatment outcomes and other patient variables are debated and largely unknown. Evidence-based practice is advocated in clinical settings but has not yet been fully implemented in educational or clinical training settings. The aim of this systematic review is to synthesize and present the empirical literature regarding effects of clinical supervision in cognitive-behavioral therapy. Methods: This study will include a systematic review of the literature to identify studies that have empirically investigated the effects of supervision on supervised psychotherapists and/or the supervisees ’ patients. A comprehensive search strategy will be conducted to identify published controlled studies indexed in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library databases. Data on supervision outcomes in both psychotherapists and their patients will be extracted, synthesized, and reported. Risk of bias and quality of the included studies will be assessed systematically. Discussion: This systematic review will rigorously follow established guidelines for systematic reviews in order to summarize and present the evidence base for clinical supervision in cognitive-behavioral therapy and may aid further research and discussion in this area.

  • 348.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundbom, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Upper Abdominal Surgery.
    Ghaderi, Ata
    Is age a better predictor of weight loss one year after Gastric bypass than symptoms of disordered eating, depression, adult ADHD, and alcohol consumption?2014In: Eating Behaviors, ISSN 1471-0153, E-ISSN 1873-7358, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 644-647Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION:

    Findings regarding psychological risk factors for low weight loss after bariatric surgery have been inconsistent. The association between gender and weight outcome is unclear while younger age has been consistently shown to be associated with better weight outcome. The aim of this study was to analyze the interactions between gender and age on the one hand and symptoms of disordered eating, depression, adult ADHD and alcohol consumption on the other hand in regard to weight loss after gastric bypass.

    METHODS:

    Bariatric surgery patients were recruited and asked to fill out self-report questionnaires regarding behavioral risk factors before and twelve months after surgery. Data from one hundred and twenty-nine patients were analyzed.

    RESULTS:

    After controlling for age, no psychological variable measured prior to surgery could predict weight loss after twelve months. After surgery, there was an interaction effect between age, gender and specific eating disorder symptoms. Specifically, loss of control over eating was a risk factor for low weight loss among older, but not among younger, female participants. Symptoms of adult ADHD were associated with elevated alcohol consumption after surgery.

    DISCUSSION:

    These results indicate that age and gender may moderate the effects of potential risk factors for inferior weight outcome. This interaction could potentially be one of the reasons behind the mixed findings in this field. Thus, there are important gender differences in the bariatric population that should be considered. The present study is the first to show that symptoms of adult ADHD may not be a risk factor for inferior weight loss but for alcohol risk consumption after gastric bypass.

  • 349.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Clinical Psychology in Healthcare. Centre for Psychiatry Research Department of Clinical Neuroscience Karolinska Institutet & Stockholm Health Care Services, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wallin, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Maathz, Pernilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Factor structure and validity of the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 in Swedish translation2017In: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 1351-0126, E-ISSN 1365-2850, Vol. 24, no 2-3, p. 154-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction There is a constant need for theoretically sound and valid self-report instruments for measuring psychological distress. Previous studies have shown that the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) is theoretically sound, but there have been some inconsistent results regarding its factor structure. Aims The aim of the present study was to investigate and elucidate the factor structure and convergent validity of the DASS-21. Methods A total of 624 participants recruited from student, primary care and psychotherapy populations. The factor structure of the DASS-21 was assessed by confirmatory factor analyses and the convergent validity by investigating its unique correlations with other psychiatric instruments. Results A bifactor structure with depression, anxiety, stress and a general factor provided the best fit indices for the DASS-21. The convergent validity was adequate for the Depression and Anxiety subscales but more ambiguous for the Stress subscale. Discussion The present study overall supports the validity and factor structure of the DASS-21. Implications for practice The DASS-21 can be used to measure symptoms of depression and anxiety as well as overall distress. It can be useful for mental health nurses, and other first-line psychiatric professionals, in need of a short, feasible and valid instrument in everyday care

  • 350.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Clinical Psychology in Healthcare.
    Weineland-Strandskov, Sandra
    Sundbom, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Upper Abdominal Surgery.
    Self-Reported Hedonism Predicts 12-Month Weight Loss After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass2017In: Obesity Surgery, ISSN 0960-8923, E-ISSN 1708-0428, Vol. 27, no 8, p. 2073-2078Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Research regarding psychological risk factors for reduced weight loss after bariatric surgery has yielded mixed results, especially for variables measured prior to surgery. More profound personality factors have shown better promise and one such factor that may be relevant in this context is time perspective, i.e., the tendency to focus on present or future consequences. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive value of time perspective for 12-month weight loss after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery.

    Methods A total of 158 patients were included and completed self-report instruments prior to surgery. Weight loss was measured after 12 months by medical staff. Background variables as well as self-reported disordered eating, psychological distress, and time perspective were analyzed with regression analysis to identify significant predictors for 12-month weight loss.

    Results The mean BMI loss at 12 months was 14 units, from 45 to 30 kg/m(2). Age, sex, and time perspective could significantly predict weight loss but only male sex and self-reported hedonism were independent risk factors for reduced weight loss in the final regression model.

    Conclusion In this study, self-reported hedonistic time perspective proved to be a better predictor for 12-month weight loss than symptoms of disordered eating and psychological distress. It is possible that a hedonistic tendency of focusing on immediate consequences and rewards is analogous to the impaired delay discounting seen in previous studies of bariatric surgery candidates. Further studies are needed to identify whether these patients may benefit from extended care and support after surgery.

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