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  • 301.
    Edfors, Ellinor
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön PRO-CARE.
    Westergren, Albert
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön PRO-CARE.
    Home-living elderly people’s views on food and meals2012In: Journal of Aging Research, ISSN 2090-2204, p. 761291-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background.

    The aim of the study was to describe home-living elderly people’s views on the importance of food andmeals. Methods. Semistructured interviews with twelve elderly people. The interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis.

    Results.

    Respondents described how their past influenced their present experiences and views on food and meals. Increased reliance on and need of support with food and meals frequently arose in connection with major changes in their life situations. Sudden events meant a breaking point with a transition from independence to dependence and a need for assistance from relatives and/or the community. With the perspective from the past and in the context of dependency, respondents described meals during the day, quality of food, buying, transporting, cooking, and eating food.

    Conclusions.

    Meeting the need for optimal nutritional status for older people living at home requires knowledge of individual preferences and habits, from both their earlier and current lives. It is important to pay attention to risk factors that could compromise an individual’s ability to independently manage their diet, such as major life events and hospitalisation. Individual needs for self-determination and involvement should be considered in planning and development efforts for elderly people related to food and meals.

  • 302.
    Edfors, Ellinor
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Westergren, Albert
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    "Om man ska ha mat, ska det vara god mat": äldre personers upplevelser av mat och måltider i ordinärt boende2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to capture the older persons' experiences in relation to foodand meals in ordinary housing.

    Method:Semi-structured interviews, with twelve older persons, on the basis of the instrument

    "Seniors in the community: Risk Evaluation for Eating and Nutrition, Version II" (SCREEN II). The interviews were analyzed with manifest and latent content analysis.

    Results:Respondents described how past life largely influenced their current experiences and views on food and meals. Increased reliance and need for support arose frequently in connection with a major change in the life situation. The results showed that the SCREEN II is useful for measuring the risk of malnutrition under Swedish conditions.

    Conclusions: Older people's knowledge about good and nutritious food as well as individual needs for self-determination and feeling involved should be considered in planning and development efforts related to food and meals in ordinary housing. SCREEN II can be considered as an appropriate instrument to use in the context of preventive home visits, in order to identify risk factors that can cause malnutrition. Further research in larger samples is needed.

  • 303.
    Edfors, Ellinor
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Westergren, Albert
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    "Om man ska ha mat, ska det vara god mat": äldres upplevelser av mat och måltid i ordinärt boende2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Malnutrition, vilket inkluderar både undernäring och övervikt/fetma, är ett vanligt problem bland äldre personer, som kan leda till fysiska och psykiska funktionsnedsättningar. Flertal äldre personer i ordinärt boende som lever ensamma har svårigheter med att införskaffa, tillaga och äta sin mat. Genom förebyggande åtgärder kan uppkomst och försämring av malnutrition, ökat beroende, behov av institutionell vård och försämrad livskvalitet förebyggas.

    Syfte: Syfte med studien var att utifrån äldre personers upplevelser och erfarenheter undersöka och kartlägga mat och måltider i ordinärt boende.

    Metod: Semistrukturerade intervjuer, med tolv äldre personer, utifrån instrumentet ”Seniors in the community: Risk evaluation for eating and nutrition, version II” (SCREEN II). Intervjuerna analyserades med manifest och latent innehållsanalys.

    Resultat: Analysen av intervjuerna visade att respondenternas tidigare liv i hög grad påverkade nuvarande upplevelser av och syn på mat och måltider. Ökat beroende och behov av stöd uppkom inte sällan i samband med en större förändring i livssituationen. Resultatet visar att SCREEN II är ett användbart instrument för att mäta risk för malnutrition under svenska förhållanden.

    Slutsats: Äldre personers kunskaper kring god och näringsriktig mat samt individuella behov av självbestämmande och delaktighet bör beaktas i planering och utveckling av insatser kopplade till mat och måltider i ordinärt boende. För att uppmärksamma riskfaktorer som kan leda till malnutrition kan SCREEN II vara ett lämpligt instrument att använda i samband med förebyggande hembesök. Det finns ett behov av mer omfattande forskning inom området.

  • 304.
    Edman, Sebastian
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Söderlund, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Moberg, Marcus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Apro, William
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    mTORC1 Signaling in Individual Human Muscle Fibers Following Resistance Exercise in Combination With Intake of Essential Amino Acids2019In: Frontiers in nutrition, ISSN 2296-861X, Vol. 6, article id 96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human muscles contain a mixture of type I and type II fibers with different contractile and metabolic properties. Little is presently known about the effect of anabolic stimuli, in particular nutrition, on the molecular responses of these different fiber types. Here, we examine the effect of resistance exercise in combination with intake of essential amino acids (EAA) on mTORC1 signaling in individual type I and type II human muscle fibers. Five strength-trained men performed two sessions of heavy leg press exercise. During exercise and recovery, the subjects ingested an aqueous solution of EAA (290 mg/kg) or flavored water (placebo). Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis before and 90 min after exercise. The biopsies were freeze-dried and single fibers dissected out and weighed (range 0.95-8.1 mu g). The fibers were homogenized individually and identified as type I or II by incubation with antibodies against the different isoforms of myosin. They were also analyzed for both the levels of protein as well as phosphorylation of proteins in the mTORC1 pathway using Western blotting. The levels of the S6K1 and eEF2 proteins were similar to 50% higher in type II than in type I fibers (P < 0.05), but no difference was found between fiber types with respect to the level of mTOR protein. Resistance exercise led to non-significant increases (2-3-fold) in mTOR and S6K1 phosphorylation as well as a 50% decrease (P < 0.05) in eEF2 phosphorylation in both fiber types. Intake of EAA caused a 2 and 6-fold higher (P < 0.05) elevation of mTOR and S6K1 phosphorylation, respectively, in both type I and type II fibers compared to placebo, with no effect on phosphorylation of eEF2. In conclusion, protein levels of S6K1 and eEF2 were significantly higher in type II than type I fibers suggesting higher capacity of the mTOR pathway in type II fibers. Ingestion of EAA enhanced the effect of resistance exercise on phosphorylation of mTOR and S6K1 in both fiber types, but with considerable variation between single fibers of both types.

  • 305. Eiben, G
    et al.
    Andersson, C S
    Rothenberg, Elisabet
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Sundh, V
    Steen, B
    Lissner, L
    Secular trends in diet among elderly Swedes: cohort comparisons over three decades2004In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 7, no 5, p. 637-644Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare dietary practices among different birth cohorts of 70-year-old Swedes, who were examined between 1971 and 2000.

    Setting: Göteborg, Sweden.

    Design: Four population-based samples of 1360 70-year-olds, born in 1901, 1911, 1922 and 1930, have undergone health examinations and dietary assessments over a period of almost three decades. One-hour diet history (DH) interviews were conducted in 1971, 1981, 1992 and 2000 with a total of 758 women and 602 women. The formats and contents of the dietary examinations were similar over the years. Statistical analysis of linear trends was conducted, using year of examination as the independent variable, to detect secular trends in food and nutrient intakes across cohorts.

    Results: At the 2000 examination, the majority of 70-year-olds consumed nutritionally adequate diets. Later-born cohorts consumed more yoghurt, breakfast cereals, fruit, vegetables, chicken, rice and pasta than earlier-born cohorts. Consumption of low-fat spread and milk also increased, along with that of wine, light beer and candy. In contrast, potatoes, cakes and sugar were consumed less in 2000 than in 1971. The ratio of reported energy intake to estimated basal metabolic rate did not show any systematic trend over time in women, but showed a significant upward trend in men.

    Conclusions: The diet history method has captured changes in food selections in the elderly without changing in general format over three decades. Dietary quality has improved in a number of ways, and these findings in the elderly are consistent with national food consumption trends in the general population.

  • 306.
    Eiffener, Elodie
    et al.
    Department of Health Promotion, NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Center+, Maastricht, the Netherlands.
    Eli, Karin
    Unit for Biocultural Variation and Obesity, Institute of Social and Cultural Anthropology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK ; Division of Health Sciences, Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK.
    Ek, Anna
    Unit of Pediatrics, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sandvik, Pernilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Somaraki, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Kremers, Stef
    Department of Health Promotion, NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Center+, Maastricht, the Netherlands.
    Sleddens, Ester
    Department of Health Promotion, NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Center+, Maastricht, the Netherlands.
    Nowicka, Paulina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics. Unit of Pediatrics, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The influence of preschoolers' emotional and behavioural problems on obesity treatment outcomes: Secondary findings from a randomized controlled trial2019In: Pediatric Obesity, ISSN 2047-6302, E-ISSN 2047-6310, p. 1-12, article id e12556Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Few studies have explored the influence of preschoolers' behavioural problems on obesity treatment.

    Objectives: To assess emotional and behavioural problems before and after an obesity intervention and examine relationships between changes in child behaviour and changes in weight status.

    Method: The study included 77 children (4‐6 years old, 53% girls, mean body mass index [BMI] z‐score of 3.0 [SD 0.6]) who participated in the More and Less Study, a randomized controlled trial. Families were randomized to a parenting program or to standard treatment. The children's heights and weights (BMI z‐score, primary outcome) were measured at baseline and 12 months post baseline. Parents rated their children's behaviours (secondary outcome) on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) for ages 1.5 to 5 years, a questionnaire that measures psychosocial health and functioning, encompassing emotional and behavioural problems. Changes in child behaviour during treatment were examined through paired samples t tests; the influence of child behaviour on treatment effects was examined through linear regressions.

    Results: Child emotional and behavioural problems significantly improved after obesity treatment. Lower scores were found for Emotional Reactivity, Sleep Problems, Affective Problems, Aggressive Behaviour, Externalizing Behaviours, Oppositional Defiant Problems, and Total Problems. Child behaviour significantly affected obesity treatment results: Attention Problems and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) at baseline contributed to increasing BMI z‐scores, whereas Oppositional Defiant Problems, Externalizing Behaviours, and a higher number of behavioural problems predicted decreasing BMI z‐scores.

    Conclusions: Child behaviours at baseline influenced treatment results. Child emotional and behavioural problems improved post treatment. The results suggest that obesity treatment may help in reducing emotional distress among preschoolers.

  • 307.
    Ejlertsson, Göran
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS).
    Gott liv tarvar god mat2009In: Livskvalitet öster om leden: om att steka ål, äta socker och bygga hus men också om frukten, supen, bakterien, hälsan & döden, Tomelilla: ÖsterlenAkademien , 2009, p. 55-64Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 308. Ek, Anna
    et al.
    Sorjonen, Kimmo
    Eli, Karin
    Lindberg, Louise
    Nyman, Jonna
    Marcus, Claude
    Nowicka, Paulina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics. Karolinska Inst, Div Pediat, Dept Clin Sci Intervent & Technol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Associations between Parental Concerns about Preschoolers' Weight and Eating and Parental Feeding Practices: Results from Analyses of the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire, the Child Feeding Questionnaire, and the Lifestyle Behavior Checklist2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 1, article id e0147257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Insight into parents' perceptions of their children's eating behaviors is crucial for the development of successful childhood obesity programs. However, links between children's eating behaviors and parental feeding practices and concerns have yet to be established. This study aims to examine associations between parental perceptions of preschoolers' eating behaviors and parental feeding practices. First, it tests the original 8-factor structure of the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ). Second, it examines the associations with parental feeding practices, measured with the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Questionnaires were sent to parents from 25 schools/preschools in Stockholm, Sweden and to parents starting a childhood obesity intervention. The CEBQ factor structure was tested with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Associations between CEBQ subscales Food approach and Food avoidance and CFQ factors Restriction, Pressure to eat and Monitoring were examined with structural equation modelling (SEM), adjusting for child and parental characteristics, and parental confidence, measured with the Lifestyle Behavior Checklist (LBC). CFQ Concern for child weight and Perceived responsibility for child eating were used as mediators.

    RESULTS: 478 parents completed the questionnaires (children: 52% girls, mean age 5.5 years, 20% overweight/obese). A modified 8-factor structure showed an acceptable fit (TLI = 0.91, CFI = 0.92, RMSEA = 0.05 and SRMR = 0.06) after dropping one item and allowing three pairs of error terms to correlate. The SEM model demonstrated that Food approach had a weak direct effect on Restriction, but a moderate (β = 0.30) indirect effect via Concern, resulting in a substantial total effect (β = 0.37). Food avoidance had a strong positive effect on Pressure to eat (β = 0.71).

    DISCUSSION: The CEBQ is a valid instrument for assessing parental perceptions of preschoolers' eating behaviors. Parental pressure to eat was strongly associated with children's food avoidance. Parental restriction, however, was more strongly associated with parents' concerns about their children's weights than with children's food approach. This suggests that childhood obesity interventions should address parents' perceptions of healthy weight alongside perceptions of healthy eating.

  • 309. Ek, Weronica E.
    et al.
    Reznichenko, Anna
    Ripke, Stephan
    Niesler, Beate
    Zucchelli, Marco
    Rivera, Natalia V.
    Schmidt, Peter T.
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Magnusson, Patrik
    Talley, Nicholas J.
    Holliday, Elizabeth G.
    Houghton, Lesley
    Gazouli, Maria
    Karamanolis, George
    Rappold, Gudrun
    Burwinkel, Barbara
    Surowy, Harald
    Rafter, Joseph
    Assadi, Ghazaleh
    Li, Ling
    Papadaki, Evangelia
    Gambaccini, Dario
    Marchi, Santino
    Colucci, Rocchina
    Blandizzi, Corrado
    Barbaro, Raffaella
    Karling, Pontus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Walter, Susanna
    Ohlsson, Bodil
    Tornblom, Hans
    Bresso, Francesca
    Andreasson, Anna
    Dlugosz, Aldona
    Simren, Magnus
    Agreus, Lars
    Lindberg, Greger
    Boeckxstaens, Guy
    Bellini, Massimo
    Stanghellini, Vincenzo
    Barbara, Giovanni
    Daly, Mark J.
    Camilleri, Michael
    Wouters, Mira M.
    D'Amato, Mauro
    Exploring the genetics of irritable bowel syndrome: a GWA study in the general population and replication in multinational case-control cohorts2015In: Gut, ISSN 0017-5749, E-ISSN 1468-3288, Vol. 64, no 11, p. 1774-1782Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective IBS shows genetic predisposition, but adequately powered gene-hunting efforts have been scarce so far. We sought to identify true IBS genetic risk factors by means of genome-wide association (GWA) and independent replication studies. Design We conducted a GWA study (GWAS) of IBS in a general population sample of 11 326 Swedish twins. IBS cases (N=534) and asymptomatic controls (N=4932) were identified based on questionnaire data. Suggestive association signals were followed-up in 3511 individuals from six case-control cohorts. We sought genotype-gene expression correlations through single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-expression quantitative trait loci interactions testing, and performed in silico prediction of gene function. We compared candidate gene expression by real-time qPCR in rectal mucosal biopsies of patients with IBS and controls. Results One locus at 7p22.1, which includes the genes KDELR2 (KDEL endoplasmic reticulum protein retention receptor 2) and GRID2IP (glutamate receptor, ionotropic, delta 2 (Grid2) interacting protein), showed consistent IBS risk effects in the index GWAS and all replication cohorts and reached p=9.31 x 10(-6) in a meta-analysis of all datasets. Several SNPs in this region are associated with cis effects on KDELR2 expression, and a trend for increased mucosal KDLER2 mRNA expression was observed in IBS cases compared with controls. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that general population-based studies combined with analyses of patient cohorts provide good opportunities for gene discovery in IBS. The 7p22.1 and other risk signals detected in this study constitute a good starting platform for hypothesis testing in future functional investigations.

  • 310.
    Ekelund, Ulf
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin.
    Sjöström, Michael
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden;.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden;.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin.
    Total daily energy expenditure and pattern of physical activity measured by minute-by-minute heart rate monitoring in 14-15 year old Swedish adolescents2000In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 54, no 3, p. 195-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To assess total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) and patterns of physical activity among Swedish male and female adolescents and to relate the amount and intensity of physical activity to existing recommendations (energy expenditure equal to or above 12.4 kJ/kg/day or accumulation of 30 min/day in moderate physical activity equal to 4.5 times sedentary energy expenditure or more).

    DESIGN: TDEE, physical activity level (PAL=TDEE/BMR), energy expenditure (EE) and time spent in different intensities of physical activity were assessed by using minute-by-minute heart rate monitoring in combination with laboratory measured sedentary energy expenditure (SEE) and peak oxygen uptake.

    SETTING: Department of Physical Education and Health, Orebro University, and Department of Clinical Physiology, Orebro Medical Centre Hospital, Sweden.

    SUBJECTS: Eighty-two 14-15 y old adolescents (42 boys, 40 girls) from the city of Orebro, randomly selected through a two-stage sampling procedure.

    RESULTS: TDEE was 12.8 MJ/day and 10.0 MJ/day for boys and girls respectively (P<0.001) and PAL was 1.74 and 1.67 (NS). Forty-four percent and 47%, respectively, of TDEE referred to EE in physical activity, of which 70% for both genders referred to light physical activity (corresponding to <4.5 times SEE). Eleven boys and 14 girls had an EE lower than 12.4 kJ/kg/day and/or did not accumulate 30 min/day in physical activity >/=4.5 SEE. Those (n=20) with the highest PAL values (>2.01 and 1.81, respectively) spent 149 min/day at a >/=4.5 SEE intensity level compared to 40 min/day for those (n=30) with the lowest PAL values (<1.55 and 1.45, respectively).

    CONCLUSIONS: Swedish adolescent boys and girls are similarly physically active. The major amount of time devoted to physical activity refers to light physical activity. At least thirty percent of adolescents seem not to achieve appropriate levels of physical activity considered to be beneficial for health.

  • 311.
    Ekelund, Ulf
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sjöström, Michael
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden;.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden;.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden;.
    Total daily energy expenditure and pattern of physical activity measured by minute-by-minute heart rate monitoring in 14-15 year old Swedish adolescents2000In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 54, no 3, p. 195-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To assess total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) and patterns of physical activity among Swedish male and female adolescents and to relate the amount and intensity of physical activity to existing recommendations (energy expenditure equal to or above 12.4 kJ/kg/day or accumulation of 30 min/day in moderate physical activity equal to 4.5 times sedentary energy expenditure or more).

    DESIGN: TDEE, physical activity level (PAL=TDEE/BMR), energy expenditure (EE) and time spent in different intensities of physical activity were assessed by using minute-by-minute heart rate monitoring in combination with laboratory measured sedentary energy expenditure (SEE) and peak oxygen uptake.

    SETTING: Department of Physical Education and Health, Orebro University, and Department of Clinical Physiology, Orebro Medical Centre Hospital, Sweden.

    SUBJECTS: Eighty-two 14-15 y old adolescents (42 boys, 40 girls) from the city of Orebro, randomly selected through a two-stage sampling procedure.

    RESULTS: TDEE was 12.8 MJ/day and 10.0 MJ/day for boys and girls respectively (P<0.001) and PAL was 1.74 and 1.67 (NS). Forty-four percent and 47%, respectively, of TDEE referred to EE in physical activity, of which 70% for both genders referred to light physical activity (corresponding to <4.5 times SEE). Eleven boys and 14 girls had an EE lower than 12.4 kJ/kg/day and/or did not accumulate 30 min/day in physical activity >/=4.5 SEE. Those (n=20) with the highest PAL values (>2.01 and 1.81, respectively) spent 149 min/day at a >/=4.5 SEE intensity level compared to 40 min/day for those (n=30) with the lowest PAL values (<1.55 and 1.45, respectively).

    CONCLUSIONS: Swedish adolescent boys and girls are similarly physically active. The major amount of time devoted to physical activity refers to light physical activity. At least thirty percent of adolescents seem not to achieve appropriate levels of physical activity considered to be beneficial for health.

  • 312. Ekelund, Ulf
    et al.
    Ward, Heather A.
    Norat, Teresa
    Luan, Jian'an
    May, Anne M.
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Sharp, Stephen J.
    Overvad, Kim
    Ostergaard, Jane Nautrup
    TjOnneland, Anne
    Johnsen, Nina Fons
    Mesrine, Sylvie
    Foamier, Agnes
    Fagherazzi, Guy
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Lagiou, Pagona
    Trichopoulos, Dimitrios
    Li, Kuanrong
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Ferrari, Pietro
    Licaj, Idlir
    Jenab, Mazda
    Bergmann, Manuela
    Boeing, Heiner
    Palli, Domenico
    Sieri, Sabina
    Panico, Salvatore
    Tumino, Rosario
    Vineis, Paolo
    Peeters, Petra H.
    Monnikhof, Evelyn
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas
    Ramon Quiros, J.
    Agudo, Antonio
    Sanchez, Maria-Jose
    Maria Huerta, Jose
    Ardanaz, Eva
    Arriola, Larraitz
    Hedblad, Bo
    Wirfalt, Elisabet
    Sund, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Johansson, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Lyon, France.
    Key, Timothy J.
    Travis, Ruth C.
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Brage, Soren
    Wareham, Nicholas J.
    Riboli, Elio
    Physical activity and all-cause mortality across levels of overall and abdominal adiposity in European men and women: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Study (EPIC)2015In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 101, no 3, p. 613-621Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The higher risk of death resulting from excess adiposity may be attenuated by physical activity (PA). However, the theoretical number of deaths reduced by eliminating physical inactivity compared with overall and abdominal obesity remains unclear.

    Objective: We examined whether overall and abdominal adiposity modified the association between PA and all-cause mortality and estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) and the years of life gained for these exposures.

    Design: This was a cohort study in 334,161 European men and women. The mean follow-up time was 12.4 y, corresponding to 4,154,915 person-years. Height, weight, and waist circumference (WC) were measured in the clinic. PA was assessed with a validated self-report instrument. The combined associations between PA, BMI, and WC with mortality were examined with Cox proportional hazards models, stratified by center and age group, and adjusted for sex, education, smoking, and alcohol intake. Center-specific PAF associated with inactivity, body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) (>30), and WC (>= 102 cm for men, >= 88 cm for women) were calculated and combined in random-effects meta-analysis. Life-tables analyses were used to estimate gains in life expectancy for the exposures.

    Results: Significant interactions (PA x BMI and PA x WC) were observed, so HRs were estimated within BMI and WC strata. The hazards of all-cause mortality were reduced by 16-30% in moderately inactive individuals compared with those categorized as inactive in different strata of BMI and WC. Avoiding all inactivity would theoretically reduce all-cause mortality by 7.35% (95% CI: 5.88%, 8.83%). Corresponding estimates for avoiding obesity (BMI >30) were 3.66% (95% CI: 2.30%, 5.01%). The estimates for avoiding high WC were similar to those for physical inactivity.

    Conclusion: The greatest reductions in mortality risk were observed between the 2 lowest activity groups across levels of general and abdominal adiposity, which suggests that efforts to encourage even small increases in activity in inactive individuals may be beneficial to public health.

  • 313. Ekstedt, Mirjam
    et al.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Ingre, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Marcus, Claude
    Sleep, physical activity and BMI in six to ten-year-old children measured by accelerometry: a cross-sectional study2013In: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, ISSN 1479-5868, E-ISSN 1479-5868, Vol. 10, p. 82-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aim of this study is to describe the relationship between objective measures of sleep, physical activity and BMI in Swedish pre-adolescents. The day-to-day association between physical activity and sleep quality as well as week-day and weekend pattern of sleep is also described. Method: We conducted a cross sectional study consisted of a cohort of 1.231 children aged six to ten years within the Stockholm county area. Sleep and physical activity were measured by accelerometry during seven consecutive days. Outcome measures are total sleep time, sleep efficiency, sleep start and sleep end; physical activity intensity divided into: sedentary (<1.5 METS), light (1.5 to 3 METS) and moderate-to-vigorous (> 3 METS); and Body Mass Index standard deviations score, BMIsds. Results: Total sleep time decreased with increasing age, and was shorter in boys than girls on both weekdays and weekends. Late bedtime but consistent wake-up time during weekends made total sleep time shorter on weekends than on weekdays. Day-to-day within-subject analysis revealed that moderate-to-vigorous intense physical activity promoted an increased sleep efficiency the following night (CI < 0.001 to 0.047), while total sleep time was not affected (CI -0.003 to 0.043). Neither sleep duration (CI -0.024 to 0.022) nor sleep efficiency (CI -0.019 to 0.028) affected mean physical activity level the subsequent day. The between-subject analysis indicates that the sleep of children characterized by high moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during the day was frequently interrupted (SE = -. 23, P < .01). A negative association between BMIsds and sleep duration was found (-. 10, p < .01). Conclusions: Short sleep duration was associated with high BMI in six to ten year old children. This study underscores the importance of consistent bedtimes throughout the week for promoting sleep duration in preadolescents. Furthermore, this study suggests that a large proportion of intensive physical activity during the day might promote good sleep quality.

  • 314.
    Ekstedt, Mirjam
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Systems Safety and Management.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ingre, Michael
    Stockholm University.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Marcus, Claude
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Sleep, physical activity and BMI in six to ten-year-old children measured by accelerometry: a cross-sectional study2013In: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, ISSN 1479-5868, E-ISSN 1479-5868, Vol. 10, no 82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aim of this study is to describe the relationship between objective measures of sleep, physical activity and BMI in Swedish pre-adolescents. The day-to-day association between physical activity and sleep quality as well as week-day and weekend pattern of sleep is also described. Method: We conducted a cross sectional study consisted of a cohort of 1.231 children aged six to ten years within the Stockholm county area. Sleep and physical activity were measured by accelerometry during seven consecutive days. Outcome measures are total sleep time, sleep efficiency, sleep start and sleep end; physical activity intensity divided into: sedentary (<1.5 METS), light (1.5 to 3 METS) and moderate-to-vigorous (> 3 METS); and Body Mass Index standard deviations score, BMIsds. Results: Total sleep time decreased with increasing age, and was shorter in boys than girls on both weekdays and weekends. Late bedtime but consistent wake-up time during weekends made total sleep time shorter on weekends than on weekdays. Day-to-day within-subject analysis revealed that moderate-to-vigorous intense physical activity promoted an increased sleep efficiency the following night (CI < 0.001 to 0.047), while total sleep time was not affected (CI -0.003 to 0.043). Neither sleep duration (CI -0.024 to 0.022) nor sleep efficiency (CI -0.019 to 0.028) affected mean physical activity level the subsequent day. The between-subject analysis indicates that the sleep of children characterized by high moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during the day was frequently interrupted (SE = -. 23, P < .01). A negative association between BMIsds and sleep duration was found (-. 10, p < .01). Conclusions: Short sleep duration was associated with high BMI in six to ten year old children. This study underscores the importance of consistent bedtimes throughout the week for promoting sleep duration in preadolescents. Furthermore, this study suggests that a large proportion of intensive physical activity during the day might promote good sleep quality.

  • 315.
    Elhassan, Mohammed
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap. University of Copenhagen.
    Olsson, Viktoria
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Langton, Maud
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Quality aspects of insects as food: nutritional, sensory, and related concepts2019In: Foods, E-ISSN 2304-8158, Vol. 8, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n the search for another appealing source of future food to cover the increasing need for nutrients of a growing global population, this study reviewed the potential of insects as human food. Most previous reviews have dealt with insects as a group, making it difficult to evaluate each individual insect species as food because of the generalized data. This study assessed some common edible insects, but concentrated on mealworms. Insects, especially mealworms, have a similar or higher nutritional value than many conventional food sources. For example, the protein content of mealworm larvae is reported to be almost 50% of dry weight, while the fat content is about 30% of larval dry weight. Mealworms can be cooked by different methods, such as hot air drying, oven broiling, roasting, pan frying, deep frying, boiling, steaming, and microwaving. Oven broiling in particular gives a desirable aroma of steamed corn for consumers. Changes in the flavor, taste, and texture of mealworm products during storage have not been studied, but must be determined before mealworms can be used as a commercial food source. Factors controlling the shelf-life of mealworms, such as their packaging and storage, should be identified and considered with respect to the feasibility of using mealworms on a commercial scale.

  • 316. Eli, Karin
    et al.
    Hörnell, Agneta
    Etminan Malek, Mahnoush
    Nowicka, Paulina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics. Division of Pediatrics, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology (CLINTEC), Karolinska Institute, 141 57 Huddinge, Sweden.
    Water, juice, or soda? Mothers and grandmothers of preschoolers discuss the acceptability and accessibility of beverages2017In: Appetite, ISSN 0195-6663, E-ISSN 1095-8304, Vol. 112, p. 133-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intake of sugary beverages is strongly associated with weight gain and obesity among children; however, differences between mothers' and grandmothers' attitudes and practices concerning young children's beverage consumption remain unclear. This is notable since about a quarter of families in the US and the UK rely on grandparents as the main providers of informal childcare. The aim of this study is to examine mothers' and maternal grandmothers' attitudes, knowledge, and practices regarding preschool-age children's beverage consumption. The analysis focuses on identifying intergenerational similarities and differences, given the potential impact that such differences might have on young children's beverage consumption habits. Twenty-two semi-structured interviews, representing eleven families, were analyzed using thematic analysis. The sample included all mother-maternal grandmother dyads from The Grandparents Study, which took place in Eugene, Oregon, USA. More than half of mothers and grandmothers met overweight/obesity criteria. Among the children (mean age 4.7 years; five girls and six boys), seven met overweight/obesity criteria. Most mothers and grandmothers were unemployed, and reported an annual household income below 30,000 USD. The analysis identified three thematic categories: 1) mothers and grandmothers agree about the hierarchy of healthiness between and within beverages, though juice occupies an ambivalent position; 2) mothers and grandmothers cite role modeling and the home environment as important in regulating preschoolers' beverage intake; 3) mothers and grandmothers balance between restricting sugar-sweetened beverages and using these beverages as treats. The results suggest that when mothers and grandmothers use soda, juice, and juice-drinks as treats, they do so within a wider dynamic of balancing practices, and within two intersecting domains: the hierarchy of beverages, including the still ambivalent status of juice as healthy or unhealthy, and the definition of ‘special occasion’.

  • 317. Eli, Karin
    et al.
    Hörnell, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Malek, Mahnoush Etminan
    Nowicka, Paulina
    Water, juice, or soda?: Mothers and grandmothers of preschoolers discuss the acceptability and accessibility of beverages2017In: Appetite, ISSN 0195-6663, E-ISSN 1095-8304, Vol. 112, p. 133-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intake of sugary beverages is strongly associated with weight gain and obesity among children; however, differences between mothers' and grandmothers' attitudes and practices concerning young children's beverage consumption remain unclear. This is notable since about a quarter of families in the US and the UK rely on grandparents as the main providers of informal childcare. The aim of this study is to examine mothers' and maternal grandmothers' attitudes, knowledge, and practices regarding preschool aged children's beverage consumption. The analysis focuses on identifying intergenerational similarities and differences, given the potential impact that such differences might have on young children's beverage consumption habits. Twenty-two semi-structured interviews, representing eleven families, were analyzed using thematic analysis. The sample included all mother – maternal grandmother dyads from The Grandparents Study, which took place in Eugene, Oregon, USA. More than half of mothers and grandmothers met overweight/obesity criteria. Among the children (mean age 4.7 years; five girls and six boys), seven met overweight/obesity criteria. Most mothers and grandmothers were unemployed, and most reported an annual household income below 30,000 USD. The analysis identified three thematic categories: 1) mothers and grandmothers agree about the hierarchy of healthiness between and within beverages, though juice occupies an ambivalent position; 2) mothers and grandmothers cite role modeling and the home environment as important in regulating preschoolers' beverage intake; 3) mothers and grandmothers balance between restricting sugary beverages and using these beverages as treats. The results suggest that when mothers and grandmothers use soda, juice, and juice-drinks as treats, they do so within a wider dynamic of balancing practices, and within two intersecting domains: the hierarchy of beverages, including the still ambivalent status of juice as healthy or unhealthy, and the definition of 'special occasion'.

  • 318. El-Khoury, Antoine E
    et al.
    Forslund, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Olsson, Roger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Branth, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Sjödin, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Atkinson, Alan
    Selvaraj, Amalini
    Hambraeus, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Young, Vernon R
    Moderate exercise at energy balance does not affect 24-h leucine oxidation or nitrogen retention in healthy men1997In: American Journal of Physiology, ISSN 0002-9513, E-ISSN 2163-5773, Vol. 273, no 2, p. E394-E407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Short-term metabolic experiments have revealed that physical exercise increases the oxidation of leucine, which has been interpreted to indicate an increased requirement for dietary protein in physically active subjects. Because it may be inaccurate to extrapolate measurements of amino acid oxidation made over a few hours to the entire day, we have carried out a continuous 24-h intravenous [1-13C]leucine/[15N]urea tracer study in eight healthy adult men. Their diet supplied 1 g protein.kg-1.day-1, and exercise (mean maximal O2 consumption 46%) was for 90 min during the 12-h fast and 12-h fed periods of the day. Subjects were adapted to the diet and exercise regimen for 6 days. Then, on day 7, they were dressed in the University of Uppsala energy metabolic unit's direct calorimeter suit, were connected to an open-hood indirect calorimeter, and received the tracers. Exercise increased leucine oxidation by approximately 50 and 30% over preexercise rates for fast and fed periods, respectively. This increase amounted to approximately 4-7% of daily leucine oxidation. Subjects remained in body leucine equilibrium (balance -4.6 +/- 10.5 mg.kg-1.day-1; -3.6 +/- 8.3% of intake; P = not significant from zero balance). Therefore, moderate exercise did not cause a significant deterioration in leucine homeostasis at a protein intake of 1 g.kg-1.day-1. These findings underscore the importance of carrying out precise, continuous, 24-h measurements of whole body leucine kinetics; this model should be of value in studies concerning the quantitative interactions among physical exercise, energy/protein metabolism, and diet in humans.

  • 319.
    Ellegård, L.
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Dept Internal Med & Clin Nutr, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Aldenbratt, Annika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical diabetology and metabolism.
    Svensson, Maria K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical diabetology and metabolism.
    Lindberg, C.
    Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Neuromuscular Ctr, Dept Neurol, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Body composition in patients with primary neuromuscular disease assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and three different bioimpedance devices2019In: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN, ISSN 2405-4577, Vol. 29, p. 142-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Patients with primary neuromuscular disease have reduced muscle mass, and use of body mass index to assess nutritional status and body composition can therefore be questioned. Dual emission X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) can estimate muscle mass, but is not always readily available. Bioimpedance is a simple, portable and "easy to use" method for the assessment of body composition.

    Objectives: To assess muscle mass by DXA in 143 patients with primary neuromuscular disease and validate three bioimpedance devices; Impedimed SFB7, (BISIMPEDIMED), Xitron4200 (BISXITRON) and Tanita MC180MA (MFBIATANITA).

    Methods: Body composition was assessed by DXA in 143, by BISIMPEDIMED in 116, by MFBIATANITA in 104 and by BISXITRON in 35 patients.

    Results: Muscle mass assessed by DXA, and phase angle (PhA) were below reference values in all female and 96% of male patients. BISIMPEDIMED underestimated muscle mass by 6.5±14.2 kg (p < 0.001), but this could be corrected after exclusion of resistance (Ri) values > 3500 Ohm (p = 0.84). MFBIATANITA over-estimated muscle mass by 30.8±9.1 kg (p < 0.001) with systematic bias, whereas BISXITRON was in agreement with DXA, and without systematic bias. Muscle mass was strongly correlated to PhA (rPEARSON = 0.75, p < 0.01).

    Conclusion: Patients with primary neuromuscular disease have proportionally more fat and less muscle mass than the population in general, despite normal BMI. Muscle mass can be assessed by bioimpedance in these patients, but performance and bias depends on device. Phase angle by bioimpedance correlates to muscle mass, and could therefore potentially be used a surrogate measure of muscle mass during follow up.

  • 320.
    Elmsjö, Albert
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Rosqvist, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Engskog, Mikael K R
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Haglöf, Jakob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Kullberg, Joel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Iggman, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Johansson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Ahlström, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Arvidsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Pettersson, Curt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    NMR-based metabolic profiling in healthy individuals overfed different types of fat: links to changes in liver fat accumulation and lean tissue mass.2015In: Nutrition & Diabetes, ISSN 2044-4052, E-ISSN 2044-4052, Vol. 5, no 19, p. e182-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Overeating different dietary fatty acids influence the amount of liver fat stored during weight gain, however, the mechanisms responsible are unclear. We aimed to identify non-lipid metabolites that may differentiate between saturated (SFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) overfeeding using a non-targeted metabolomic approach. We also investigated the possible relationships between plasma metabolites and body fat accumulation.

    METHODS: In a randomized study (LIPOGAIN study), n=39 healthy individuals were overfed with muffins containing SFA or PUFA. Plasma samples were precipitated with cold acetonitrile and analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Pattern recognition techniques were used to overview the data, identify variables contributing to group classification and to correlate metabolites with fat accumulation.

    RESULTS: We previously reported that SFA causes a greater accumulation of liver fat, visceral fat and total body fat, whereas lean tissue levels increases less compared with PUFA, despite comparable weight gain. In this study, lactate and acetate were identified as important contributors to group classification between SFA and PUFA (P<0.05). Furthermore, the fat depots (total body fat, visceral adipose tissue and liver fat) and lean tissue correlated (P(corr)>0.5) all with two or more metabolites (for example, branched amino acids, alanine, acetate and lactate). The metabolite composition differed in a manner that may indicate higher insulin sensitivity after a diet with PUFA compared with SFA, but this needs to be confirmed in future studies.

    CONCLUSION: A non-lipid metabolic profiling approach only identified a few metabolites that differentiated between SFA and PUFA overfeeding. Whether these metabolite changes are involved in depot-specific fat storage and increased lean tissue mass during overeating needs further investigation.

  • 321.
    Elshorbagy, Amany K.
    et al.
    Univ Alexandria, Dept Physiol, Fac Med, Alexandria, Egypt.
    Samocha-Bonet, Dorit
    Garvan Inst Med Res, Diabet & Metab Div, Sydney, NSW, Australia;Univ New South Wales, Fac Med, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Jernerén, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Univ Oxford, Dept Pharmacol, Oxford, England.
    Turner, Cheryl
    Univ Oxford, Dept Pharmacol, Oxford, England.
    Refsum, Helga
    Univ Oslo, Inst Basic Med Sci, Dept Nutr, Oslo, Norway;Univ Oxford, Dept Pharmacol, Oxford, England.
    Heilbronn, Leonie K.
    Univ Adelaide, Discipline Med, Adelaide, SA, Australia;Garvan Inst Med Res, Diabet & Metab Div, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Food Overconsumption in Healthy Adults Triggers Early and Sustained Increases in Serum Branched-Chain Amino Acids and Changes in Cysteine Linked to Fat Gain2018In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 148, no 7, p. 1073-1080Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Plasma concentrations of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and the sulfur-containing amino acid cysteine are associated with obesity and insulin resistance. BCAAs predict future diabetes. Objective: We investigated amino acid changes during food overconsumption. Methods: Forty healthy men and women with a body mass index (mean +/- SEM) of 25.6 +/- 0.6 were overfed by 1250 kcal/d for 28 d, increasing consumption of all macronutrients. Insulin sensitivity and body composition were assessed at baseline (day 0) and day 28. Fasting serum amino acids were measured at days 0, 3, and 28. Linear mixed-effects models evaluated the effect of time in the total group and separately in those with low and high body fat gain (below compared with at or above median fat gain, 1.95 kg). At days 0 and 28, insulin-induced suppression of serum amino acids during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp test and, in a subset (n = 20), adipose tissue mRNA expression of selected amino acid metabolizing enzymes were assessed. Results: Weight increased by 2.8 kg. High fat gainers gained 2.6 kg fat mass compared with 1.1 kg in low fat gainers. Valine and isoleucine increased at day 3 (+17% and +22%, respectively; P <= 0.002) and remained elevated at day 28, despite a decline in valine (P = 0.019) from day 3 values. Methionine, cystathionine, and taurine were unaffected. Serum total cysteine (tCys) transiently increased at day 3 (+11%; P = 0.022) only in high fat gainers (P-interaction = 0.043), in whom the cysteine catabolic enzyme cysteine dioxygenase (CDO1) was induced (+26%; P = 0.025) in adipose tissue (P-interaction = 0.045). Overconsumption did not alter adipose tissue mRNA expression of the BCAA-metabolizing enzymes branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase E1 alpha polypeptide (BCKDHA) or branched-chain amino transferase 1 (BCAT1). In the total population at day 0, insulin infusion decreased all serum amino acids (-11% to -47%; P < 0.01), except for homocysteine and tCys, which were unchanged, and glutathione, which was increased by 54%. At day 28, insulin increased tCys (+8%), and the insulin-induced suppression of taurine and phenylalanine observed at day 0, but not that of BCAAs, was significantly impaired. Conclusions: These findings highlight the role of nutrient oversupply in increasing fasting BCAA concentrations in healthy adults. The link between cysteine availability, CDO1 expression, and fat gain deserves investigation.

  • 322. Emaus, Marleen J.
    et al.
    Peeters, Petra H. M.
    Bakker, Marije F.
    Overvad, Kim
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Olsen, Anja
    Romieu, Isabelle
    Ferrari, Pietro
    Dossus, Laure
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine
    Baglietto, Laura
    Fortner, Renee T.
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Boeing, Heiner
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Lagiou, Pagona
    Trichopoulos, Dimitrios
    Masala, Giovanna
    Pala, Valeria
    Panico, Salvatore
    Tumino, Rosario
    Polidoro, Silvia
    Skeie, Guri
    Lund, Eiliv
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Ramon Quiros, J.
    Travier, Noemie
    Sanchez, Maria-Jose
    Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores
    Ardanaz, Eva
    Dorronsoro, Miren
    Winkvist, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research. Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wennberg, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Travis, Ruth C.
    Key, Timothy J.
    Aune, Dagfinn
    Gunter, Marc
    Riboli, Elio
    van Gils, Carla H.
    Vegetable and fruit consumption and the risk of hormone receptor-defined breast cancer in the EPIC cohort2016In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 103, no 1, p. 168-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The recent literature indicates that a high vegetable intake and not a high fruit intake could be associated with decreased steroid hormone receptor–negative breast cancer risk.

    Objective: This study aimed to investigate the association between vegetable and fruit intake and steroid hormone receptor–defined breast cancer risk.

    Design: A total of 335,054 female participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort were included in this study (mean ± SD age: 50.8 ± 9.8 y). Vegetable and fruit intake was measured by country-specific questionnaires filled out at recruitment between 1992 and 2000 with the use of standardized procedures. Cox proportional hazards models were stratified by age at recruitment and study center and were adjusted for breast cancer risk factors.

    Results: After a median follow-up of 11.5 y (IQR: 10.1–12.3 y), 10,197 incident invasive breast cancers were diagnosed [3479 estrogen and progesterone receptor positive (ER+PR+); 1021 ER and PR negative (ER−PR−)]. Compared with the lowest quintile, the highest quintile of vegetable intake was associated with a lower risk of overall breast cancer (HRquintile 5–quintile 1: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.80, 0.94). Although the inverse association was most apparent for ER−PR− breast cancer (ER−PR−: HRquintile 5–quintile 1: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.96; P-trend = 0.03; ER+PR+: HRquintile 5–quintile 1: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.79, 1.05; P-trend = 0.14), the test for heterogeneity by hormone receptor status was not significant (P-heterogeneity = 0.09). Fruit intake was not significantly associated with total and hormone receptor–defined breast cancer risk.

    Conclusion: This study supports evidence that a high vegetable intake is associated with lower (mainly hormone receptor–negative) breast cancer risk.

  • 323. Eneroth, Hanna
    et al.
    Wallin, Stina
    Leander, Karin
    Nilsson Sommar, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Åkesson, Agneta
    Risks and Benefits of Increased Nut Consumption: Cardiovascular Health Benefits Outweigh the Burden of Carcinogenic Effects Attributed to Aflatoxin B1 Exposure2017In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 9, no 12, article id 1355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nuts are rich in nutrients and mounting evidence shows that consumption reduces cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence. Nuts may also be a major source of aflatoxin B₁, a potent liver carcinogen and the risk/benefit balance is unknown. Based on national statistics and data from the PREDIMED intervention trial, we estimated the potential CVD-reduction if Swedes aged 55-79 consumed 30 g nuts/day, instead of the current national average of five grams per day. We also assessed the reduction in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) due to myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. We estimated the aflatoxin B₁ exposure from nuts and calculated the margin of exposure. The approximation that one nanogram aflatoxin B₁/kg body weight/day results in one additional liver cancer case/10 million person-years was used to estimate the number of liver cancer cases. The increased nut consumption scenario prevented more than 7000 CVDs in 2013 (306/100,000 person-years) and contributed to about 55,000 saved DALYs for stroke and 22,000 for MI. The concomitant increase in aflatoxin B₁ exposure caused an estimated zero to three additional cases of liver cancer, corresponding to 159 DALYs spent, emphasizing the associated risks. Increased nut consumption, as part of a varied healthy diet, is warranted even when aflatoxin B₁ exposure is taken into account. However, efforts to reduce aflatoxin exposure from food are essential.

  • 324.
    Engelheart, Stina
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Brummer, Robert Jan
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Assessment of nutritional status in the elderly: a proposed function-driven model2018In: Food & Nutrition Research, ISSN 1654-6628, E-ISSN 1654-661X, Vol. 62, article id 1366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is no accepted or standardized definition of 'malnutrition'. Hence, there is also no definition of what constitutes an adequate nutritional status. In elderly people, assessment of nutritional status is complex and is complicated by multi-morbidity and disabilities combined with nutrition-related problems, such as dysphagia, decreased appetite, fatigue, and muscle weakness.

    Objective: We propose a nutritional status model that presents nutritional status from a comprehensive functional perspective. This model visualizes the complexity of the nutritional status in elderly people.

    Design and results: The presented model could be interpreted as the nutritional status is conditional to a person's optimal function or situation. Another way of looking at it might be that a person's nutritional status affects his or her optimal situation. The proposed model includes four domains: (1) physical function and capacity; (2) health and somatic disorders; (3) food and nutrition; and (4) cognitive, affective, and sensory function. Each domain has a major impact on nutritional status, which in turn has a major impact on the outcome of each domain.

    Conclusions: Nutritional status is a multifaceted concept and there exist several knowledge gaps in the diagnosis, prevention, and optimization of treatment of inadequate nutritional status in elderly people. The nutritional status model may be useful in nutritional assessment research, as well as in the clinical setting.

  • 325. Engeset, D.
    et al.
    Skeie, G.
    Olsen, A.
    Nilsson, Lena Maria
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Dietary patterns and whole grain in Scandinavia. The HELGA project2013In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 63, no Supplement 1, p. 341-341Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and objectives: In the recent years a trendwithin nutrition epidemiology has been to assess overall dietaryquality, often by identifying dietary patterns. The HELGAstudy population is based on samples of existing cohorts fromthe three Scandinavian countries. All three cohorts are part ofthe EPIC study. The aim of this study is to find a typical wholegrain pattern in Scandinavia and see if the pattern is similar inthe three countries.Methods: The associations among the variables were investigatedby factor analysis.Results: Both Norway and Sweden had two breakfast patternsand one dinner pattern. Both the countries had a healthybreakfast pattern including food items commonly consideredhealthy, such as fruit, yoghurt and breakfast cereals. However,coarse bread was the main item in a more traditional pattern for Norway, while it was a part of the healthy pattern inSweden. The second breakfast pattern in Sweden included unhealthyitems like white bread, cakes, sweets, soft drinks andalcohol. The dinner pattern was almost equal in Sweden andNorway. Denmark differed from the other Scandinavian countriesconcerning dietary patterns. Only one breakfast patternwas found. This pattern had some similarities with the traditionalNorwegian pattern, but scored high on all whole grainitems while in Norway only wheat had a high score. Two dinnerpatterns are seen for Denmark, the healthier one includesfruit and vegetables, fish and poultry, the second includes meatand meat products, ice cream and alcohol.Conclusions: When comparing dietary patterns from thethree Scandinavian countries, we find both differences andsimilarities. The main whole grain item used in Norway andSweden seems to be wheat, while rye is more dominant in Denmark.

  • 326. Engeset, Dagrun
    et al.
    Braaten, Tonje
    Teucher, Birgit
    Kühn, Tilman
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B
    Leenders, Max
    Agudo, Antonio
    Bergmann, Manuela M
    Valanou, Elisavet
    Naska, Androniki
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Key, Timothy J
    Crowe, Francesca L
    Overvad, Kim
    Sonestedt, Emily
    Mattiello, Amalia
    Peeters, Petra H
    Wennberg, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Jansson, Jan Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Dossus, Laure
    Dartois, Laureen
    Li, Kuanrong
    Barricarte, Aurelio
    Ward, Heather
    Riboli, Elio
    Agnoli, Claudia
    Huerta, José María
    Sánchez, María-José
    Tumino, Rosario
    Altzibar, Jone M
    Vineis, Paolo
    Masala, Giovanna
    Ferrari, Pietro
    Muller, David C
    Johansson, Mattias
    Luisa Redondo, M
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Olsen, Anja
    Olsen, Karina Standahl
    Brustad, Magritt
    Skeie, Guri
    Lund, Eiliv
    Fish consumption and mortality in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort2015In: European Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0393-2990, E-ISSN 1573-7284, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 57-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fish is a source of important nutrients and may play a role in preventing heart diseases and other health outcomes. However, studies of overall mortality and cause-specific mortality related to fish consumption are inconclusive. We examined the rate of overall mortality, as well as mortality from ischaemic heart disease and cancer in relation to the intake of total fish, lean fish, and fatty fish in a large prospective cohort including ten European countries. More than 500,000 men and women completed a dietary questionnaire in 1992-1999 and were followed up for mortality until the end of 2010. 32,587 persons were reported dead since enrolment. Hazard ratios and their 99 % confidence interval were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression models. Fish consumption was examined using quintiles based on reported consumption, using moderate fish consumption (third quintile) as reference, and as continuous variables, using increments of 10 g/day. All analyses were adjusted for possible confounders. No association was seen for fish consumption and overall or cause-specific mortality for both the categorical and the continuous analyses, but there seemed to be a U-shaped trend (p < 0.000) with fatty fish consumption and total mortality and with total fish consumption and cancer mortality (p = 0.046).

  • 327. Engeset, Dagrun
    et al.
    Hofoss, Dag
    Nilsson, Lena Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Olsen, Anja
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Skeie, Guri
    Dietary patterns and whole grain cereals in the Scandinavian countries: differences and similarities. The HELGA project2015In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 905-915Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To identify dietary patterns with whole grains as a main focus to see if there is a similar whole grain pattern in the three Scandinavian countries; Denmark, Sweden and Norway. Another objective is to see if items suggested for a Nordic Food Index will form a typical Nordic pattern when using factor analysis. Setting: The HELGA study population is based on samples of existing cohorts: the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study, the Swedish Vasterbotten cohort and the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study. The HELGA study aims to generate knowledge about the health effects of whole grain foods. Subjects: The study included a total of 119 913 participants. Design: The associations among food variables from FFQ were investigated by principal component analysis. Only food groups common for all three cohorts were included. High factor loading of a food item shows high correlation of the item to the specific diet pattern. Results: The main whole grain for Denmark and Sweden was rye, while Norway had highest consumption of wheat. Three similar patterns were found: a cereal pattern, a meat pattern and a bread pattern. However, even if the patterns look similar, the food items belonging to the patterns differ between countries. Conclusions: High loadings on breakfast cereals and whole grain oat were common in the cereal patterns for all three countries. Thus, the cereal pattern may be considered a common Scandinavian whole grain pattern. Food items belonging to a Nordic Food Index were distributed between different patterns.

  • 328.
    Englund, Davis A.
    et al.
    Tufts Univ, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutr Res Ctr Aging, Nutr Exercise Physiol & Sarcopenia Lab, Boston, USA.
    Kirn, Dylan R.
    Tufts Univ, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutr Res Ctr Aging, Nutr Exercise Physiol & Sarcopenia Lab, Boston, USA.
    Koochek, Afsaneh
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Zhu, Hao
    Hebrew SeniorLife, Inst Aging Res, Boston, USA.
    Travison, Thomas G.
    Hebrew SeniorLife, Inst Aging Res, Boston, USA; Harvard Med Sch, Boston, USA.
    Reid, Kieran F.
    Tufts Univ, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutr Res Ctr Aging, Nutr Exercise Physiol & Sarcopenia Lab, Boston, USA.
    von Berens, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Melin, Michael
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Lab Med, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Gustafsson, Thomas
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Lab Med, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fielding, Roger A.
    Tufts Univ, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutr Res Ctr Aging, Nutr Exercise Physiol & Sarcopenia Lab, Boston, USA.
    Nutritional Supplementation With Physical Activity Improves Muscle Composition in Mobility-Limited Older Adults, The VIVE2 Study: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial2018In: The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences, ISSN 1079-5006, E-ISSN 1758-535X, Vol. 73, no 1, p. 95-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Nutritional supplementation and physical activity have been shown to positively influence muscle mass and strength in older adults. The efficacy of long-term nutritional supplementation in combination with physical activity in older adults remains unclear.

    Methods: Mobility-limited (short physical performance battery [SPPB] ≤9) and vitamin D insufficient (serum 25(OH) D 9–24 ng/mL) older adults were recruited for this study. All subjects participated in a physical activity program. Subjects were randomized to consume a daily nutritional supplement (150 kcal, 20 g whey protein, 800 IU vitamin D, 119 mL beverage) or placebo (30 kcal, nonnutritive, 119 mL). In a prespecified secondary analysis, we examined total-body composition (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), thigh composition (computed tomography), and muscle strength, power, and quality before and after the 6-month intervention.

    Results: One hundred and forty-nine subjects were randomized into the study [mean (standard deviation, SD) age 78.5 (5.4) years; 46.3% female; mean (SD) short physical performance battery 7.9 (1.2); mean (SD) vitamin D 18.7 (6.4) ng/mL]. After the intervention period both groups demonstrated improvements in muscle strength, body composition, and thigh composition. Nutritional supplementation lead to further losses of intermuscular fat (p = .049) and increased normal muscle density (p = .018).

    Conclusions: Six months of physical activity resulted in improvements in body composition, subcutaneous fat, intermuscular fat, and strength measures. The addition of nutritional supplementation resulted in further declines in intermuscular fat and improved muscle density compared to placebo. These results suggest nutritional supplementation provides additional benefits to mobility-limited older adults undergoing exercise training.

  • 329.
    Englund, Davis
    et al.
    Tufts Univ, Nutr Exercise Physiol & Sarcopenia Lab, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutr Res Ctr Aging, Boston, MA 02111 USA..
    Kirn, Dylan
    Tufts Univ, Nutr Exercise Physiol & Sarcopenia Lab, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutr Res Ctr Aging, Boston, MA 02111 USA..
    Koochek, Afsaneh
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Travison, Thomas
    Hebrew SeniorLife, Inst Aging Res, Boston, MA USA..
    Reid, Kieran
    Tufts Univ, Nutr Exercise Physiol & Sarcopenia Lab, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutr Res Ctr Aging, Boston, MA 02111 USA..
    von Berens, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Zhu, Hao
    Hebrew SeniorLife, Inst Aging Res, Boston, MA USA..
    Lilja, Mats
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Lab Med, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Gustafsson, Thomas
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Lab Med, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Fielding, Roger
    Tufts Univ, Nutr Exercise Physiol & Sarcopenia Lab, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutr Res Ctr Aging, Boston, MA 02111 USA..
    Nutritional supplementation with physical activity improves muscle composition in mobility-limited older adults, the VIVE2 study: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial2017In: The FASEB Journal, ISSN 0892-6638, E-ISSN 1530-6860, Vol. 31, no S1, article id 460.3Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 330.
    Ericsson, Madelene
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Sjödin, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Burén, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Försämrad hjärtfunktion efter fyra veckors intag av lågkolhydrat/högfettkost hos möss: Kan vi lära av translationell forskning?2017In: Svensk kardiologi, ISSN 1400-5816, no 1, p. 33-35Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 331.
    Eriksson, Britt
    Linköping university, Linköping, Sweden.
    Metabolic, methodological and developmental aspects of body composition: Studies in women and children with special reference to early life mechanisms behind childhood obesity2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades the number of children with overweight has increased worldwide. To understand the mechanisms behind this development, knowledge regarding metabolism and physiology in relation to the nutritional situation in early life is of importance. In particular, information about body composition development during early childhood is relevant. This thesis presents three studies in this area. In the pregnancy study serum samples, collected from 23 women before, during and after pregnancy, were analysed for serum levels of leptin, adiponectin and resistin and used to assess insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in relation to the total body fat (TBF) content of the women. TBF (%) and leptin were significantly correlated with HOMA-IR before and during pregnancy. When HOMA-IR was regressed on TBF (%) the slope of the regression line was 0.111 in gestational week 32 and significantly (p<0.05) higher than the value before pregnancy, 0.046, indicating that healthy pregnancy enhances the relationship between body fatness and insulin resistance. In the HF-study hydration of fat-free mass (hydration factor, HF) was assessed in 12 newborns using the doubly labelled water (DLW) method and air displacement plethysmography (PeaPod). HF was 80.9% with a low biological variability (0.81% of average HF). In the longitudinal study the body density of 108 healthy fullterm infants (53 girls, 55 boys) was measured at one and 12 weeks of age using PeaPod. Body composition was calculated using two models (Fomon’s and Butte’s). BMI values for the mothers of the infants were assessed before pregnancy. Body composition and total energy expenditure using the DLW-method were assessed in 20 of these children at the age of 1.5 years, when their sleeping metabolic rate was measured using indirect calorimetry and their resting energy metabolism was calculated using prediction equations. Butte´s model gave significantly (p<0.05) lower values for TBF than Fomon´s model, and invalid results for five newborns. Using Fomon´s model, at one week of age girls contained 13.4 ± 3.7 % and boys contained 12.5 ± 4.0 % TBF. The corresponding figures at 12 weeks were 26.3 ± 4.2 % and 26.4 ± 5.1 %. The mothers’ BMI values before pregnancy were correlated with the body weight but not with the TBF (g,%) or fat-free mass (g) of their infants at one week of age. At 1.5 years of age girls (n=9) contained 28.0±2.8 % and boys (n=11) 28.3±3.7 % TBF. Between one and 12 weeks of age all infants increased their TBF content, while 13 children increased and seven children decreased their TBF content between the ages of 12 weeks and 1.5 years. The results demonstrated that predicting rather than measuring resting energy metabolism involves a risk for spurious correlations between TBF and physical activity level. The level of physical activity (x), was negatively correlated with [TBF (%) at 1.5 years minus TBF (%) at 12 weeks] (y), r=-0.52, p=0.02. In conclusion, the results suggest that the body fat content of a woman has a stimulating effect on the growth, rather than on the fat retention, of her foetus. They also show that the Fomon model is the best available model when calculating the body composition of infants from body density. Finally, the results indicate that physical activity at the age of 1.5 years is important regarding the rate at which the high level of body fat, typical of infancy, decreases in early childhood.

  • 332.
    Eriksson, Britt
    et al.
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Henriksson, Hanna
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Löf, Marie
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Hannestad, Ulf
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Forsum, Elisabet
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Body-composition development during early childhood and energy expenditure in response to physical activity in 1.5-y-old children2012In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 96, no 3, p. 567-573Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has increased recently, but the mechanisms involved are incompletely known. Previous research has shown a correlation between the percentage of total body fat (TBF) and physical activity level (PAL). However, the PAL values used may involve a risk of spurious correlations because they are often based on predicted rather than measured estimates of resting energy metabolism. l

    Objectives: We studied the development of body composition during early childhood and the relation between the percentage of TBF and PAL on the basis of the measured resting energy metabolism.

    Design: Body composition was previously measured in 108 children when they were 1 and 12 wk old. When 44 of these children (21 girls and 23 boys) were 1.5 y old, their total energy expenditure and TBF were assessed by using the doubly labeled water method. Resting energy metabolism, which was assessed by using indirect calorimetry, was used to calculate PAL.

    Results: Significant correlations were shown for TBF (r = 0.32, P = 0.035) and fat-free mass (r = 0.34, P = 0.025) between values (kg) assessed at 12 wk and 1.5 y of age. For TBF (kg) a significant interaction (P = 0.035) indicated a possible sex difference. PAL at 1.5 y was negatively correlated with the percentage of TBF (r = -0.40, P = 0.0076) and the increase in the percentage of TBF between 12 wk and 1.5 y (r = 0.38, P = 0.0105).

    Conclusions: The results indicate that body fatness and physical activity interact during early childhood and thereby influence obesity risk. Our results are based on a small sample, but nevertheless, they motivate additional studies in boys compared with girls regarding the development of body composition during early life.

  • 333.
    Eriksson, Britt
    et al.
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Löf, Marie
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Department of Computer and Information Science, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Hannestad, Ulf
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Forsum, Elisabet
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Fat-free mass hydration in newborns: assessment and implications for body composition studies2011In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 100, no 5, p. 680-686Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Equipment (Pea Pod) for assessing infant body density accurately and conveniently has recently become available. This density can be converted to body composition using the “Fomon” or the “Butte” model. These models differ regarding the water content in fat-free mass (hydration factor, HF). We assessed HF and its biological variability in newborns and compared results calculated using the two models at one and 12 weeks. Body volume and body weight were measured in 12 infants less than 10 days old using Pea Pod. Their total body water was assessed using isotope dilution. Their HF was found to be 80.9% with low biological variability (0.81% of average HF). Further, Pea Pod was used to assess body density of 108 infants at one and 12 weeks of age. Values for body fat (%) calculated using the “Butte” model were significantly lower than when using the “Fomon” model at one week (p<0.05) and 12 weeks (p<0.01). The difference between the two models was particularly large at one week, probably due to their different HF-values. Our HF-value is in agreement with that in the “Fomon” model and our results support the conclusion that this model is preferable when calculating body composition in infants.

  • 334.
    Eriksson, Britt
    et al.
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Löf, Marie
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Olausson, Hanna
    Department of Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Forsum, Elisabet
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Body fat, insulin resistance, energy expenditure and serum concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and resistin before, during and after pregnancy in healthy Swedish women2010In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 103, no 1, p. 50-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Healthy human pregnancy is associated with changes in food intake, body fatness, energy expenditure and insulin resistance. However, available knowledge is limited regarding the physiological basis of these changes. Published evidence suggests that so-called adipokines (i.e. leptin, adiponectin and resistin) have significant roles when such changes are established. We explored, throughout a complete pregnancy, relationships between total body fat (TBF), energy expenditure, insulin resistance (homeostasic model of insulin resistance, HOMA-IR) and serum concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and resistin. Such concentrations were assessed before pregnancy in gestational weeks 8, 14, 20, 32 and 35, and 2 weeks postpartum in twenty-three healthy women. TBF, BMR (n 23) and HOMA-IR (n 17) were assessed before pregnancy in gestational weeks 14 and 32 and 2 weeks postpartum. TBF (%) was correlated with HOMA-IR (r 0.68-0.79, P < 0.01) and with serum leptin (r 0.85-0.88, P < 0.001) before and during pregnancy. Serum leptin was correlated with HOMA-IR (r 0.53-0.70, P < 0.05) before and during pregnancy. Serum adiponectin was inversely correlated with HOMA-IR in gestational week 32 (r - 0.52, P < 0.05). When HOMA-IR was regressed on TBF (%), the slope of the regression line was 0.046 before pregnancy, which was significantly (P < 0.05) different from the corresponding value, 0.111, in gestational week 32. The results indicate that pregnancy has an enhancing effect on the relationship between body fatness and insulin resistance. This effect, possibly mediated by leptin, may represent a mechanism by which offspring size is regulated in response to the nutritional situation of the mother.

  • 335.
    Eriksson, Britt
    et al.
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Olsson, Hanna
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Löf, Marie
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Hannestad, Ulf
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Forsum, Elisabet
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Body composition and energy expenditure in response to physical activity in 1.5-year-old children studied by means of the doubly labeled water methodManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During recent decades the prevalence of overweight and obesity in childhood has increased and studies of the mechanisms involved are motivated. Previous research has shown a correlation between total body fat (TBF) (%) and physical activity level (PAL) but the assessment of PAL has often involved a risk for spurious correlations. Thus we compared PAL calculated using basal metabolic rate (BMR) predicted from equations, based on body weight (PALBMR) and associated with a risk for spurious correlations, with PAL calculated using sleeping metabolic rate (SMR) assessed using indirect calorimetry (PALSMR) in 20 healthy children aged 1.5 years. Total energy expenditure and body fatness were assessed using the doubly labelled water method. Body fatness of these children was also assessed at one week and three months of age. PALBMR was significantly (r=-0.48, p=0.03) correlated with TBF (%) while PALSMR was not. Furthermore, the increase in body fatness between three months and 1.5 years was significantly (r=-0.52, p=0.02) correlated with PALSMR at the age of 1.5 years. Our results indicate complex relationships between body fatness and physical activity in early life. When conducting studies in this area, resting energy metabolism should be measured rather than predicted using equations based on body weight.

  • 336.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    SPF seniorerna.
    Brunegård, Gudrun
    Landstinget Kalmar län.
    Rothenberg, Elisabet
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Undernäring dubbelt så kostsam som fetma2018In: Dagens samhälle, p. 9-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Undernäring är en dold epidemi. Trots att det är ett stort folkhälsoproblem talar nästan ingen om den. Men det finns i hemmen, på sjukhus och på äldreboenden. En ny rapport, som har kartlagt dess omfattning, visar att uppskattningsvis 400 000 svenskar befinner sig i riskzonen.

  • 337.
    Eriksson, Nathalie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Damfotbollsspelares kostintag under 24 timmar retroperspektiv intervjustudie: En tvärsnittundersökning2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to examine the dietary intake of female amateur football players in the division 2, 3 and 5 in the middle part of Sweden. The study is a descriptive, cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach. Data collection consisted of 24 hour recall interviews and a questionnaire with background information about the participant. The participants consisted of 40 female football players from divisions 2, 3 and 5. The participants' average calorie intake was estimated using the program Dietist Net Pro 1979 kilocalories (kcal)/day, compared with the average recommended daily allowance (RDA), which was estimated at 2137 kcal. The low energy consumption contributed to the participants' inability to meet the RDA for iron, folate, vitamin D, calcium, magnesium and carbohydrates. There were 19 participants who ate more than the average amount of energy and 21 participants who ate below the average amount of calories. No statistically significant differences in energy or nutrient intake could be established between the participants in different divisions or age groups. Female football players in this study were found to eat too little energy (food) on the basis of their energy needs, which may potentially contribute to nutritional deficiencies, specifically in iron, folate, vitamin D, calcium, magnesium and carbohydrates. Deficiencies in these nutrients may lead to impaired performance in training and matches, impaired general health and recovery, and to a break-down of body tissues for energy.

  • 338. Erlich, Rita
    et al.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm.
    Wahlqvist, Mark L
    Cooking as a healthy behaviour2012In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 15, no 7, p. 1139-1140Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 339. Erlich, Rita
    et al.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wahlqvist, Mark L
    Cooking as a healthy behaviour2012In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 15, no 7, p. 1139-1140Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 340. Eussen, Simone JPM
    et al.
    Nilsen, Roy M
    Midttun, Oivind
    Hustad, Steinar
    IJssennagger, Noortje
    Meyer, Klaus
    Fredriksen, Ase
    Ulvik, Arve
    Ueland, Per M
    Brennan, Paul
    Johansson, Mattias
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas
    Vineis, Paolo
    Chuang, Shu-Chun
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine
    Dossus, Laure
    Perquier, Florence
    Overvad, Kim
    Teucher, Birgit
    Grote, Verena A
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Adarakis, George
    Plada, Maria
    Sieri, Sabina
    Tumino, Rosario
    Santucci de Magistris, Maria
    Ros, Martine M
    Peeters, Petra HM
    Luisa Redondo, Maria
    Zamora-Ros, Raul
    Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores
    Ardanaz, Eva
    Sonestedt, Emily
    Ericson, Ulrika
    Schneede, Jörn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Pharmacology.
    van Guelpen, Bethany
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Wark, Petra A
    Gallo, Valentina
    Norat, Teresa
    Riboli, Elio
    Vollset, Stein Emil
    North-south gradients in plasma concentrations of B-vitamins and other components of one-carbon metabolism in Western Europe: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study2013In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 110, no 2, p. 363-374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different lifestyle patterns across Europe may influence plasma concentrations of B-vitamins and one-carbon metabolites and their relation to chronic disease. Comparison of published data on one-carbon metabolites in Western European regions is difficult due to differences in sampling procedures and analytical methods between studies. The present study aimed, to compare plasma concentrations of one-carbon metabolites in Western European regions with one laboratory performing all biochemical analyses. We performed the present study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort among 5446 presumptively healthy individuals. Quantile regression was used to compare sex-specific median concentrations between Northern (Denmark and Sweden), Central (France, Germany, The Netherlands and United Kingdom) and Southern (Greece, Spain and Italy) European regions. The lowest folate concentrations were observed in Northern Europe (men, 10.4 nmol/l; women, 10.7 nmol/l) and highest concentrations in Central Europe. Cobalamin concentrations were slightly higher in Northern Europe (men, 330 pmol/l; women, 352 pmol/l) compared with Central and Southern Europe, but did not show a clear north-south gradient. Vitamin B-2 concentrations were highest in Northern Europe (men, 22.2 nmol/l; women, 26.0 nmol/l) and decreased towards Southern Europe (P-trend < 0.001). Vitamin B-6 concentrations were highest in Central Europe in men (77.3 nmol/l) and highest in the North among women (70.4 nmol/l), with decreasing concentrations towards Southern Europe in women (P-trend < 0.001). In men, concentrations of serine, glycine and sarcosine increased from the north to south. In women, sarcosine increased from Northern to Southern Europe. These findings may provide relevant information for the study of regional differences of chronic disease incidence in association with lifestyle.

  • 341. Eyre, Sintra
    et al.
    Rothenberg, Elisabet
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg.
    Behandling med proteinreducerad kost vid njursvikt: Majoritet av svenska njurmedicinska enheter tillämpar metoden, visar enkät. [Treatment with protein-restricted diet in renal failure. The majority of Swedish renal units practice the method according to a questionnaire]2008In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 105, no 30-31, p. 2089-2093Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the use of low protein diet (LPD) in Sweden using a questionnaire distributed to renal dietitians and nephrologists in 1997 and dietitians in 2006. Close to 80% of the dietitians answered the questionnaires, representing approximately 68% of the nephrology clinics in Sweden. A majority of these clinics use LPD, though there are several clinics who find this to be an inappropriate treatment for the pre-dialysis patient. The protein levels have become more individualized during the past decade, in accordance with the guidelines of the Swedish Association of Nephrologist. Very low protein diets (0.3 g protein/kg/day) are not in use any more.

  • 342.
    Fallahi Khoshknab, M.
    et al.
    Nursing, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran .
    Mazaheri, Monir
    Karolinska Institute.
    Tamizi, Z.
    Clinical Research Center, Razi Educational Center, Tehran, Iran .
    Khankh, H. R.
    Nursing, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran .
    Babaei, R.m.
    Social Science, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran .
    Ghazanfari, N.
    Nursing, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran .
    Khoshknab, P. F
    Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran .
    The effect of weight monitoring and recording on control of obesity and overweight2011In: Eating and Weight Disorders, ISSN 1124-4909, E-ISSN 1590-1262, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 137-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Obesity is one of the dilemmas of the recent century and imposes huge costs related to its complications and diseases on people and societies. This study aims to investigate whether recording and monitoring weight and its changes can modify eating habits and therefore weight control.

    METHODS: This is a quasi-experimental interventional study. Seventy nine of the staff of the University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation (USWR) were randomly placed in two intervention (N=40) and control (39) groups. A standard weight scale and height meter was used to measure weight, height and body mass index (BMI). For the intervention group, weight was measured, recorded and announced to the participants twice a week for 3 months. For the control group, weight measurement and recording was done once in the beginning of the study and once at the end of the study. Data were analyzed using SPSS ver.11.5 and compared between groups.

    RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the average age between the groups. Mean pre-intervention weight was 87.08±10.9 Kg and 85.83±16.44 Kg in the intervention and control groups, respectively and was not significantly different. Mean post-intervention weight was 83.5 Kg in the intervention group, which was significantly different from pre-intervention weight. Mean post-intervention weight was 86.31 Kg in the control group that was not significantly different from pre-intervention weight.

    CONCLUSION: Recording and monitoring weight and its changes in overweight people can affect weight control since knowledge and insight about weight may motivate people to modify their eating habits. We therefore recommend this strategy as an adjuvant to weight control programs.

  • 343.
    Fallahi Khoshknab, M.
    et al.
    University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Mazaheri, Monir
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Tamizi, Z.
    Razi Educational Center, Tehran, Iran.
    Khankh, H.R.
    University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Babaei, R.m.
    University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Ghazanfari, N.
    University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Khoshknab, P.F
    Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    The effect of weight monitoring and recording on control of obesity and overweight2011In: Eating and Weight Disorders, ISSN 1124-4909, E-ISSN 1590-1262, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 137-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Obesity is one of the dilemmas of the recent century and imposes huge costs related to its complications and diseases on people and societies. This study aims to investigate whether recording and monitoring weight and its changes can modify eating habits and therefore weight control. METHODS: This is a quasi-experimental interventional study. Seventy nine of the staff of the University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation (USWR) were randomly placed in two intervention (N=40) and control (39) groups. A standard weight scale and height meter was used to measure weight, height and body mass index (BMI). For the intervention group, weight was measured, recorded and announced to the participants twice a week for 3 months. For the control group, weight measurement and recording was done once in the beginning of the study and once at the end of the study. Data were analyzed using SPSS ver.11.5 and compared between groups. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the average age between the groups. Mean pre-intervention weight was 87.08±10.9 Kg and 85.83±16.44 Kg in the intervention and control groups, respectively and was not significantly different. Mean post-intervention weight was 83.5 Kg in the intervention group, which was significantly different from pre-intervention weight. Mean post-intervention weight was 86.31 Kg in the control group that was not significantly different from pre-intervention weight. CONCLUSION: Recording and monitoring weight and its changes in overweight people can affect weight control since knowledge and insight about weight may motivate people to modify their eating habits. We therefore recommend this strategy as an adjuvant to weight control programs.

  • 344.
    Fallaize, R.
    et al.
    Univ Reading, Hugh Sinclair Unit Human Nutr, Reading RG6 6AP, Berks, England.;Univ Reading, Inst Cardiovasc & Metab Res, Reading RG6 6AP, Berks, England..
    Carvalho-Wells, A. L.
    Univ Reading, Hugh Sinclair Unit Human Nutr, Reading RG6 6AP, Berks, England.;Univ Reading, Inst Cardiovasc & Metab Res, Reading RG6 6AP, Berks, England..
    Ayres, K.
    Univ Reading, Dept Math & Stat, Reading RG6 6AP, Berks, England..
    Dembinska-Kiec, A.
    Univ Med Coll, Dept Clin Biochem, Krakow, Poland..
    Drevon, C. A.
    Oslo Univ Hosp Oslo, Dept Clin Endocrinol, Oslo, Norway..
    DeFoort, C.
    INSERM, Human Nutr & Lipids 476, F-13258 Marseille, France..
    Lopez-Miranda, J.
    IMIBIC Reina Sofia Univ Hosp Univ Cordoba, Lipid & Atherosclerosis Unit, Cordoba, Spain..
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Blaak, E.
    Maastricht Univ, Med Ctr, NUTRIM Sch Nutr & Translat Res Metab, NL-6200 MD Maastricht, Netherlands..
    Roche, H. M.
    UCD Conway Inst, Nutrigen Res Grp, Dublin, Ireland..
    Lovegrove, J. A.
    Univ Reading, Hugh Sinclair Unit Human Nutr, Reading RG6 6AP, Berks, England.;Univ Reading, Inst Cardiovasc & Metab Res, Reading RG6 6AP, Berks, England..
    Interactions between APOE genotype and plasma fatty acids on cardiometabolic risk markers in individuals with the Metabolic Syndrome2015In: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, ISSN 0029-6651, E-ISSN 1475-2719, Vol. 74, no OCE5, p. E286-E286Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 345.
    Fallaize, Rosalind
    et al.
    Univ Reading, Hugh Sinclair Unit Human Nutr, Reading RG6 6AP, Berks, England.;Univ Reading, Inst Cardiovasc & Metab Res, Reading RG6 6AP, Berks, England.;Univ Hertfordshire, Sch Life & Med Sci, Coll Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB, Herts, England..
    Carvalho-Wells, Andrew L.
    Univ Reading, Hugh Sinclair Unit Human Nutr, Reading RG6 6AP, Berks, England.;Univ Reading, Inst Cardiovasc & Metab Res, Reading RG6 6AP, Berks, England..
    Tierney, Audrey C.
    Univ Coll Dublin, Conway Inst, Nutrigen Res Grp, Dublin, Ireland..
    Marin, Carmen
    Univ Cordoba, IMIBIC, Reina Sofia Univ Hosp, Lipids & Atherosclerosis Unit, Cordoba, Spain..
    Kiec-Wilk, Beata
    Univ Med Coll, Dept Metab Dis, Krakow, Poland..
    Dembinska-Kiec, Aldona
    Jagiellonian Univ, Dept Clin Biochem, Coll Med, Krakow, Poland..
    Drevon, Christian A.
    Univ Oslo, Dept Nutr, Inst Basic Med Sci, Fac Med, Oslo, Norway..
    DeFoort, Catherine
    INSERM, Human Nutr & Lipids 476, Marseille, France..
    Lopez-Miranda, Jose
    Univ Cordoba, IMIBIC, Reina Sofia Univ Hosp, Lipids & Atherosclerosis Unit, Cordoba, Spain..
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Saris, Wim H.
    MUMC, Dept Human Biol, NUTRIM Sch Nutr & Translat Res Metab, Maastricht, Netherlands..
    Blaak, Ellen E.
    MUMC, Dept Human Biol, NUTRIM Sch Nutr & Translat Res Metab, Maastricht, Netherlands..
    Roche, Helen M.
    Univ Coll Dublin, Conway Inst, Nutrigen Res Grp, Dublin, Ireland..
    Lovegrove, Julie A.
    Univ Reading, Hugh Sinclair Unit Human Nutr, Reading RG6 6AP, Berks, England.;Univ Reading, Inst Cardiovasc & Metab Res, Reading RG6 6AP, Berks, England..
    APOE genotype influences insulin resistance, apolipoprotein CII and CIII according to plasma fatty acid profile in the Metabolic Syndrome2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 6274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metabolic markers associated with the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) may be affected by interactions between the APOE genotype and plasma fatty acids (FA). In this study, we explored FA-gene interactions between the missense APOE polymorphisms and FA status on metabolic markers in MetS. Plasma FA, blood pressure, insulin sensitivity and lipid concentrations were determined at baseline and following a 12-week randomized, controlled, parallel, dietary FA intervention in 442 adults with MetS (LIPGENE study). FA-APOE gene interactions at baseline and following change in plasma FA were assessed using adjusted general linear models. At baseline E4 carriers had higher plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and apolipoprotein B (apo B) compared with E2 carriers; and higher TC, LDL-C and apo B compared with E3/E3. Whilst elevated plasma n-3 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) was associated with a beneficially lower concentration of apo CIII in E2 carriers, a high proportion of plasma C16:0 was associated with insulin resistance in E4 carriers. Following FA intervention, a reduction in plasma long-chain n-3 PUFA was associated with a reduction in apo CII concentration in E2 carriers. Our novel data suggest that individuals with MetS may benefit from personalized dietary interventions based on APOE genotype.

  • 346.
    Fang, X.
    et al.
    Unit of Biostatistics, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Han, H.
    Department of Health Statistics, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China.
    Li, M.
    Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China.
    Liang, C.
    Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China.
    Fan, Z.
    Department of Cardiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Aaseth, J.
    Kongsvinger Hospital Division, Innlandet Hospital Trust, Kongsvinger, Norway; Kongsvinger Hospital Division, Innlandet Hospital Trust, Kongsvinger, Norway.
    He, J.
    Department of Health Statistics, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China.
    Montgomery, Scott
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, UK.
    Cao, Yang
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Unit of Biostatistics, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dose-Response Relationship between Dietary Magnesium Intake and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Regression Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies2016In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 8, no 11, article id 739Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The epidemiological evidence for a dose-response relationship between magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is sparse. The aim of the study was to summarize the evidence for the association of dietary magnesium intake with risk of T2D and evaluate the dose-response relationship. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies that reported dietary magnesium intake and risk of incident T2D. We identified relevant studies by searching major scientific literature databases and grey literature resources from their inception to February 2016. We included cohort studies that provided risk ratios, i.e., relative risks (RRs), odds ratios (ORs) or hazard ratios (HRs), for T2D. Linear dose-response relationships were assessed using random-effects meta-regression. Potential nonlinear associations were evaluated using restricted cubic splines. A total of 25 studies met the eligibility criteria. These studies comprised 637,922 individuals including 26,828 with a T2D diagnosis. Compared with the lowest magnesium consumption group in the population, the risk of T2D was reduced by 17% across all the studies; 19% in women and 16% in men. A statistically significant linear dose-response relationship was found between incremental magnesium intake and T2D risk. After adjusting for age and body mass index, the risk of T2D incidence was reduced by 8%-13% for per 100 mg/day increment in dietary magnesium intake. There was no evidence to support a nonlinear dose-response relationship between dietary magnesium intake and T2D risk. The combined data supports a role for magnesium in reducing risk of T2D, with a statistically significant linear dose-response pattern within the reference dose range of dietary intake among Asian and US populations. The evidence from Europe and black people is limited and more prospective studies are needed for the two subgroups.

  • 347.
    Farooqi, Nighat
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Pulmonary Medicine. Umea Univ Hosp, Dept Resp Med & Allergy, SE-90185 Umea, Sweden.
    Slinde, F.
    Håglin, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Sandström, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Pulmonary Medicine.
    Assessment of energy intake in women with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A doubly labeled water method study2015In: The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, ISSN 1279-7707, E-ISSN 1760-4788, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 518-524Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To maintain energy balance, reliable methods for assessing energy intake and expenditure should be used in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The purpose of this study was to validate the diet history and 7-day food diary methods of assessing energy intake (EI) using total energy expenditure (TEE) with the doubly labeled water (DLW) method (TEEDLW) as the criterion method in outpatient women with COPD. EI was assessed by diet history (EIDH) and a 7-day food diary (EIFD) in 19 women with COPD, using TEEDLW as the criterion method. The three methods were compared using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and Bland-Altman analyses. The participants were classified according to their reporting status (EI/TEE) as valid-reporters 0.79-1.21, under-reporters < 0.79 or over-reporters > 1.21. Diet history underestimated reported EI by 28%, and 7-day food diary underestimated EI by approximately 20% compared with TEEDLW. The ICC analysis showed weak agreement between TEEDLW and EIDH (ICC=-0.01; 95%CI-0.10 to 0.17) and between TEEDLW and EIFD (ICC=0.11; 95%CI -0.16 to 0.44). The Bland-Altman plots revealed a slight systematic bias for both methods. For diet history, six women (32%) were identified as valid-reporters, and for the 7-day food diary, twelve women (63%) were identified as valid-reporters. The accuracy of reported EI was only related to BMI. The diet history and 7-day food diary methods underestimated energy intake in women with COPD compared with the DLW method. Individuals with higher BMIs are prone to underreporting. Seven-day food diaries should be used with caution in assessing EI in women with COPD.

  • 348.
    Farvid, Maryam S.
    et al.
    Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, USA ; Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran ; Massachusetts General Hospital, USA.
    Malekshah, Akbar F.
    Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Pourshams, Akram
    Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Poustchi, Hossein
    Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Sepanlou, Sadaf G.
    Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Sharafkhah, Maryam
    Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Khoshnia, Masoud
    Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Farvid, Mojtaba
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Abnet, Christian C.
    National Cancer Institute, USA.
    Kamangar, Farin
    Morgan State University, USA.
    Dawsey, Sanford M.
    National Cancer Institute, USA.
    Brennan, Paul
    International Agency for Research on Cancer, France.
    Pharoah, Paul D.
    University of Cambridge, UK.
    Boffetta, Paolo
    Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, USA.
    Willett, Walter C.
    Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, USA ; Brigham and Women's Hospital, USA ; Harvard University, USA.
    Malekzadeh, Reza
    Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Dietary Protein Sources and All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality: The Golestan Cohort Study in Iran2017In: American Journal of Preventive Medicine, ISSN 0749-3797, E-ISSN 1873-2607, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 237-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Dietary protein comes from foods with greatly different compositions that may not relate equally with mortality risk. Few cohort studies from non-Western countries have examined the association between various dietary protein sources and cause-specific mortality. Therefore, the associations between dietary protein sources and all-cause, cardiovascular disease, and cancer mortality were evaluated in the Golestan Cohort Study in Iran. Methods: Among 42,403 men and women who completed a dietary questionnaire at baseline, 3,291 deaths were documented during 11 years of follow up (2004-2015). Cox proportional hazards models estimated age-adjusted and multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for all cause and disease-specific mortality in relation to dietary protein sources. Data were analyzed from 2015 to 2016. Results: Comparing the highest versus the lowest quartile, egg consumption was associated with lower all-cause mortality risk (HR=0.88, 95% CI=0.79, 0.97, ptrend=0.03). In multivariate analysis, the highest versus the lowest quartile of fish consumption was associated with reduced risk of total cancer (HR=0.79, 95% CI=0.64, 0.98, ptrend=0.03) and gastrointestinal cancer (HR=0.75, 95% CI=0.56, 1.00, ptrend=0.02) mortality. The highest versus the lowest quintile of legume consumption was associated with reduced total cancer (HR=0.72, 95% CI=0.58, 0.89, ptrend=0.004), gastrointestinal cancer (HR=0.76, 95% CI=0.58, 1.01, ptrend=0.05), and other cancer (HR=0.66, 95% CI=0.47, 0.93, ptrend=0.04) mortality. Significant associations between total red meat and poultry intake and allcause, cardiovascular disease, or cancer mortality rate were not observed among all participants. Conclusions: These findings support an association of higher fish and legume consumption with lower cancer mortality, and higher egg consumption with lower all-cause mortality. (C) 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 349.
    Faxén Irving, Gerd
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Karlström, Brita
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Rothenberg, Elisabet
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Geriatrisk nutrition2016 (ed. 2)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Geriatrisk nutrition utkom första gången 2010. Denna bok är en reviderad upplaga, som har förändrats på flera sätt både avseendeinnehåll, struktur och lay-out. Boken riktar sig både till studenter inom olika vårdutbildningar och till yrkesverksamma inomvård och omsorg av äldre. Den har ambitionen att ge en förståelse för hur åldrandet påverkar kroppens funktioner och hälsan.Fokus i boken ligger på mat, näring och nutrition och de specifika nutritionsproblem som följer med åldrandet. Boken vill ävenge en medicinsk bakgrund till olika sjukdomar som är vanliga hos äldre, vilket är förutsättningen för att förstå sjukdomsspecifiknutritionsbehandling. Boken tar också upp regelverk, organisation och kvalitet samt etiska och kulturella aspekter på nutritionsomhändertagandeav äldre. Helt nytt är ett kapitel om centrala begrepp och termer samt ett separat kapitel om kulturella aspekteroch ett utökat avsnitt som behandlar D vitamin. Boken är faktagranskad av personer med specifika kompetenser inom olikaområden som boken tar upp.

  • 350.
    Faxén Irving, Gerd
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Rothenberg, Elisabet
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Lukt, smak och aptit2016In: Geratrisk nutrition / [ed] Faxén Irving, G., Karlström, B., & Rothenberg, E., Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2016, 2, p. 67-78Chapter in book (Other academic)
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