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  • 301.
    Borgenstam, Annika
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Physical Metallurgy.
    Edmonds, D.
    Hillert, Mats
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Physical Metallurgy.
    Eutectoids with cementite as the major constituent in Fe-C-M alloys2016In: Acta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6454, E-ISSN 1873-2453, Vol. 103, 280-289 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The addition of a third element to hypereutectoid Fe-C alloys may cause inclusions of a minor constituent in the precipitate of cementite from austenite even if the initial austenite is supersaturated only with cementite. Cementite will often become the major constituent of this kind of microstructure. For Fe-C-Cu alloys this has been explained as the result of precipitation from supersaturated cementite. An alternative mechanism could be that the mixture of cementite and a minor constituent forms by simultaneous and cooperative growth of the two phases, i.e., by a reaction that may be regarded as eutectoid. This mechanism has already been applied to explain the occurrence of eutectoid colonies with cementite as the major constituent and a minor constituent for which there was no supersaturation initially. This phenomenon has been observed in hypereutectoid ternary Fe-C alloys with Al, Mn or Si. The necessary requirements on the ordinary isothermal phase diagram are now examined with a graphical method based on the slopes of tie-lines. It predicts the phenomenon in all cases where it has been observed, including Fe-C-Cu and not in the Fe-C-Ni and Fe-C-Cr systems where it has not been observed. The requirements become more evident when the calculated phase equilibria are plotted as an isothermal phase diagram with the alloy content as a function of the carbon activity instead of carbon content. Finally, a comparison is made with bainite in Fe-C alloys where ferrite is the major and cementite the minor constituent. The same two explanations have been proposed for that case.

  • 302.
    Borgenstam, Annika
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Physical Metallurgy.
    Hillert, Mats
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Physical Metallurgy.
    Kinetics of bainite transformation in steels2012In: Phase Transformations in Steels, Elsevier, 2012, Vol. 1, 468-501 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main kinetic features of the formation of bainite are discussed, firstly in relation to two incompatible hypotheses for the growth mechanism of bainitic ferrite. One is based on diffusionless growth of bainitic ferrite but diffusional growth of Widmanstätten ferrite. The other is based on the assumption that there is only one kind of acicular ferrite and it grows under simultaneous diffusion of carbon into the interior of the parent austenite. The kinetics of the first stage of bainite formation, the growth of acicular ferrite, is treated in detail because it has been subject to the more intensive research. The kinetics of the reactions by which cementite forms and the subsequent reactions, by which the transformation to bainite is completed, have been subject to less research.

  • 303.
    Borgh, Ida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Physical Metallurgy.
    Aspects of Structural Evolution in Cemented Carbide – Carbide Size, Shape and Stability2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cemented carbide is a composite material used in applications like cutting tools and rock drilling inserts. The material commonly consists of WC grains embedded in a Co-rich binder phase and the material properties strongly depend on the WC grain size. Hence, to tailor the properties it is important to understand the fundamental mechanisms of grain coarsening. At the same time, the higher demands on material properties today also require new solutions. In the present work, some different aspects of structural evolutions in cemented carbides have been investigated.

    The first part of the work considers WC grain coarsening by means of size, size distribution and shape. Some efforts of the work have been to evaluate the effects of C-activity and initial WC powder size and distribution on the coarsening behavior in the material using different characterization techniques, e.g. scanning electron microscopy, and electron backscattered diffraction. Additionally, two earlier developed models are used and evaluated with the experimental data. The results indicate that the C-activity will affect size, size distribution and shape of the WC grains. It was also observed that the initial WC powder size and size distribution will have a large influence on the WC grain coarsening. The statistical shape was found to fit a spherical approximation but for individual grains both faceted and non-faceted shapes was observed. Steps and planar defects were observed supporting that the nucleation of new atomic layers is the main rate limiting mechanism for grain coarsening.

    The second part of this work considers the carbide phase stability in the (Ti,Zr)C system. The phase stability was investigated after synthesizing and aging a mixed (Ti,Zr)C using X-ray diffraction and different types of electron microscopy techniques. A decomposed lamellar structure was found with a composition variation of approximately 10% between the 50-75 nm thick lamellas. The experimental investigations were supported by computational work and the results were in good agreement. Additionally, two cemented carbide related systems were studied. A miscibility gap was found in the two investigated systems, (Ti,Zr,W)(C,N)-Co or Fe-graphite, and the effect of N2-gas pressure was investigated suggesting a critical N2-gas pressure below 0.1 bar.

  • 304.
    Borgh, Ida
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Physical Metallurgy.
    Hedström, Peter
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Physical Metallurgy.
    Blomqvist, Andreas
    Ågren, John
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Physical Metallurgy.
    Odqvist, Joakim
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Physical Metallurgy.
    Synthesis and phase separation of (Ti,Zr)C2014In: Acta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6454, E-ISSN 1873-2453, Vol. 66, 209-218 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Synthesis and phase separation of (Ti,Zr)C were investigated in the present work. The (Ti,Zr)C phase was synthesized at 2200 C and subsequently aged at 1300 C for different times. The microstructure was investigated using X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy, and supplemented by first-principles calculations. The (Ti,Zr)C phase separates into a lamellar nanostructure with alternating Ti- and Zr-rich face-centered cubic domains as well as non-stoichiometric TiC and ZrC. The lamellar structure is a consequence of phase separation within the miscibility gap that is directionally constrained by high coherency stresses, as indicated by the first-principles calculations. Moreover, the increased hardness due to the phase separation suggests that the mixed carbide could be used as a strengthening constituent in, for example, cemented carbides.

  • 305.
    Borgh, Ida
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Physical Metallurgy.
    Hedström, Peter
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Physical Metallurgy.
    Borgenstam, Annika
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Physical Metallurgy.
    Ågren, John
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Physical Metallurgy.
    Odqvist, Joakim
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Physical Metallurgy.
    Effect of carbon activity and powder particle size on WC grain coarsening during sintering of cemented carbides2014In: International journal of refractory metals & hard materials, ISSN 0958-0611, Vol. 42, 30-35 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Liquid-phase sintering is an important step in the production of cemented carbides. During sintering, the average WC grain size increases, leading to a coarser structure, which affects the performance of the final product. The coarsening occurs by dissolution of small grains and growth of large grains. In the present work, the effect of high carbon activity during sintering on the WC grain coarsening has been evaluated using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) and the results have been compared with a previous work where sintering was performed at a lower carbon activity. A more homogeneous grain size distribution was observed in alloys sintered at a high carbon activity. In addition, the effect of the initial powder particle size distribution was investigated. It was found that the coarsening rate of a WC powder with an initial small average grain size is significantly higher as compared to the coarsening rate for a powder with a larger initial average grain size. The results obtained emphasize the importance of considering the complete particle size distribution in order to predict coarsening.

  • 306.
    Borgh, Ida
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Physical Metallurgy.
    Hedström, Peter
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Physical Metallurgy.
    Odqvist, Joakim
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Physical Metallurgy.
    Borgenstam, Annika
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Physical Metallurgy.
    Ågren, John
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Physical Metallurgy.
    Gholinia, Ali
    Winiarski, Bartlomiej
    Withers, Philip J.
    Thompson, George E.
    Mingard, Ken
    Gee, Mark G.
    On the three-dimensional structure of WC grains in cemented carbides2013In: Acta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6454, E-ISSN 1873-2453, Vol. 61, no 13, 4726-4733 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work, the size distribution and shape of WC grains in cemented carbides (WC-Co), with different Co contents, have been investigated in three dimensions. Direct three-dimensional (3-D) measurements, using focused ion beam serial sectioning and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD), were performed and a 3-D microstructure was reconstructed. These measurements were supplemented by two-dimensional (2-D) EBSD and scanning electron microscopy on extracted WC grains. The data from 2-D EBSD collected on planar sections were transformed to three dimensions using a recently developed statistical method based on an iterative inverse Saltykov procedure. This stereological analysis revealed that the assumed spherical shape of WC grains during the Saltykov method is reasonable and the estimated 3-D size distribution is qualitatively in good agreement with the actual distribution measured from 3-D EBSD. Although the spherical assumption is generally fair, the WC grains have both faceted and rounded surfaces. This is a consequence of the relatively low amount of liquid phase during sintering, which makes impingements significant. Furthermore, the observed terraced surface structure of some WC grains suggests that 2-D nucleation is the chief coarsening mechanism to consider.

  • 307.
    Borgh, Ida
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Physical Metallurgy.
    Hedström, Peter
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Physical Metallurgy.
    Persson, Tomas
    Norgren, Susanne
    Borgenstam, Annika
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Physical Metallurgy.
    Ågren, John
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Physical Metallurgy.
    Odqvist, Joakim
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Physical Metallurgy.
    Microstructure, grain size distribution and grain shape in WC-Co alloys sintered at different carbon activities2014In: International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials, ISSN 0958-0611, Vol. 43, 205-211 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The properties of cemented carbides strongly depend on the WC grain size and it is thus crucial to control coarsening of WC during processing. The aim of this work was to study the effect of sintering at different carbon activities on the final microstructure, as well as the coarsening behavior of the WC grains, including the size distribution and the shape of WC grains. These aspects were investigated for five WC-Co alloys sintered at 1410 C for 1 h at different carbon activities in the liquid, in the range from the graphite equilibrium (carbon activity of 1) to the eta (M6C) phase equilibrium (carbon activity of 0.33). The grain size distribution was experimentally evaluated for the different alloys using EBSD (electron backscatter diffraction). In addition, the shape of the WC grains was evaluated for the different alloys. It was found that the average WC grain size increased and the grain size distribution became slightly wider with increasing carbon activity. Comparing the two three-phase (WC-Co-eta and WC-Co-graphite) alloys a shape change of the WC grains was observed with larger grains having more planar surfaces and more triangular shape for the WC-Co-graphite alloy. It was indicated that in alloys with a relatively low volume fraction of the binder phase the WC grain shape is significantly affected by impingements. Moreover, after 1 h of sintering the WC grains are at a non-equilibrium state with regards to grain morphology.

  • 308.
    Borgh, Ida
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Physical Metallurgy.
    Norgren, Susanne
    Borgenstam, Annika
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Physical Metallurgy.
    Ågren, John
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Physical Metallurgy.
    Influence of nitrogen Gas pressure on the miscibility Gap in the Ti-Zr carbonitride system2012In: International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials, ISSN 0263-4368, Vol. 32, 11-15 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The microstructure of cemented carbides with a gradient structure at the surface consists of WC, cubic carbonitrides and a binder phase. The carbonitrides can, for example, consist of Ti(C,N)-Zr(C,N) where it is reasonable to believe that there is a miscibility gap with Ti-rich and Zr-rich carbonitrides. In the present work, the effect of the N-2-gas pressure on the equilibrium composition of the miscibility gap in the (Ti,Zr)(C,N) system has been investigated. In the study, the carbonitride system is in equilibrium with: WC, liquid binder, graphite and, N-2-gas of different pressures. Both Fe and Co are used as binder phase to study the effect of the binder phase. The results verify that there is a miscibility gap in the carbonitride system and that the region of the miscibility gap will change when N is introduced. There is a critical N-2-gas pressure lower than 0.1 bar and above that pressure the compositions of the carbonitride are rather constant as a result of the formation of a surface rim.

  • 309.
    Borkar, Hemant
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Seifeddine, Salem
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Jarfors, Anders
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Microstructure analysis of Al-Si-Cu alloys prepared by gradient solidification technique2015In: International Journal of Modern Physics B, ISSN 0217-9792, Vol. 29, no 10-11, 1540015Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Al–Si–Cu alloys were cast with the unique gradient solidification technique to producealloys with two cooling rates corresponding to secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) of ∼9 and ∼27 μm covering the microstructural fineness of common die cast components.The microstructure was studied with optical microscopy and scanning electronmicroscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and electronbackscattered diffraction (EBSD). The alloy with higher cooling rate, lower SDAS, hasa more homogeneous microstructure with well distributed network of eutectic and intermetallicphases. The results indicate the presence of Al–Fe–Si phases, Al–Cu phases andeutectic Si particles but their type, distribution and amount varies in the two alloys withdifferent SDAS. EBSD analysis was also performed to study the crystallographic orientationrelationships in the microstructure. One of the major highlights of this study is theunderstanding of the eutectic formation mechanism achieved by studying the orientationrelationships of the aluminum in the eutectic to the surrounding primary aluminumdendrites.

  • 310.
    Brandberg Hurtig, Jenny
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Micro-Modelling.
    Sichen, Du
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Micro-Modelling.
    Hydrogen pick-up after vacuum degassing2015In: Ironmaking & steelmaking, ISSN 0301-9233, E-ISSN 1743-2812, Vol. 42, no 1, 49-54 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present work aimed at determining the major source for hydrogen pick-up of the steel after vacuum degassing but before casting. Samples of slag and metal were taken at different stages during ladle treatment at SSAB. Hydrogen increase after vacuum treatment was observed. Moisture contents of the industrial slags were analysed and their water capacities were calculated. It could be seen that the hydrogen increase was correlated to the amount of moisture in the slag and the water capacity. The study showed that the slag containing most water was also the heat having the largest hydrogen increase. The slag with most water had the highest water capacity. It could be concluded that the major source for hydrogen increase after degassing was due to the slag-metal reaction.

  • 311.
    Brandtberg, Sebastian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials.
    Microstructural inhomogeneity and anisotropicproperties in IN-718 structures fabricated byElectron Beam Melting: Mikrostrukturell inhomogenitet och anisotropa egenskaper i strukturerav IN-718 tillverkade genom Electron Beam Melting2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Additive Manufacturing, or 3D printing, provides an opportunity to manufacture advanced 3D geometrieswith little material waste and reduced need for tooling compared to conventional methods. There are,however, challenges remaining regarding anisotropy in the mechanical properties of built components.

    The aim of this project is to investigate the anisotropy of additive manufactured material and the effect ofdifferent build directions. The material used is Inconel 718, which was manufactured by Electron BeamMelting as vertical and horizontal rods. The tests performed are microstructural investigations about thegrains, precipitates and porosities, but also include hardness testing and tensile testing. The material istested in its as-built state.

    The results show that the material consist of an anisotropic microstructure with elongated grains in thebuild direction. The build height has a bigger influence on the properties of the material than the builddirection for the specimens. The top pieces are consistently different from the others and are the leasthomogeneous. The microstructure consists of large quantities of delta-phase, and solidification pores arefound throughout the material. The hardness of the material differs from 324 HV to 408 HV depending onthe part of the build. The tensile testing shows that the vertically built specimens have a higher yieldstrength and ultimate tensile strength while the horizontally built specimens have a greater ductility.

  • 312. Breidi, A.
    et al.
    Fries, S. G.
    Palumbo, M.
    Ruban, Andrei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Material Physics. Materials Center Leoben Forschung GmbH, Leoben, Austria.
    First-principles modeling of energetic and mechanical properties of Ni-Cr, Ni-Re and Cr-Re random alloys2016In: Computational materials science, ISSN 0927-0256, E-ISSN 1879-0801, Vol. 117, 45-53 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We apply the exact-muffin-tin-orbitals (EMTO) method to investigate structural properties, formation enthalpies, mechanical stability and polycrystalline moduli in Ni-Re, Ni-Cr and Cr-Re disordered fcc, bcc and hcp phases. Substitutional disorder is treated by using the coherent potential approximation (CPA). We predict the alloy lattice parameters in good agreement with the experiment. We find a continuous softening, as a function of Cr composition, of the tetragonal shear modulus C' in fcc Ni-Cr phase indicating mechanical instability in Cr-rich Ni-Cr alloys. On the other hand, we show that the mechanical stability of fcc Ni-Re alloys persists through the whole composition range. We observe an intriguing behaviour of the Young's modulus vs. the intrinsic ductility curve in Ni-rich Ni-Re fcc phase.

  • 313. Brennhaugen, David D. E.
    et al.
    Mao, Huahai
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Computational Thermodynamics.
    Louzguine-Luzgin, Dmitri V.
    Arnberg, Lars
    Aune, Ragnhild E.
    Predictive modeling of glass forming ability in the Fe-Nb-B system using the CALPHAD approach2017In: Journal of Alloys and Compounds, ISSN 0925-8388, E-ISSN 1873-4669, Vol. 707, 120-125 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate values needed for the most commonly used indicators of good Glass Forming Ability (GFA) in alloys, i.e. the liquidus (T-l), crystallization (T-x) and glass transition (T-g) temperatures, are only available after successful production of the metallic glass of interest. This has traditionally made discovery of new metallic glasses an expensive and tedious procedure, based on trial-and-error methodology. The present study aims at testing the CALPHAD (Computer Coupling of Phase Diagrams and Thermochemistry) approach for predicting GFA in the Fe-Nb-B system by the use of the Thermo-Calc software and the thermodynamic database TCFE7. The melting temperatures and phase stabilities were calculated and combined with data for an atomic size mismatch factor, lambda, in order to identify and map potential high-GFA regions. Selected compositions in the identified regions were later produced by suction casting and melt spinning, and the potential success verified using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) was also used to compare thermodynamic calculations for the model predictions, and evaluate standard GFA indicators. The model is found to fit well with literature data, as well as predict new bulk glassy compositions at and around Fe70.5Nb7B22.5. These results show promise in further predictive use of the model.

  • 314.
    Broberg, Gunnar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Ahlbäck, Anton
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Wirhed, Oliver
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Study of an innovative ladle shroud to decrease slag carry over due to vortex formation2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 315.
    Broberg, Patrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering.
    Surface crack detection in welds using thermography2013In: NDT & E international, ISSN 0963-8695, E-ISSN 1879-1174, Vol. 57, 69-73 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermography is today used within non-destructive testing for detecting several different types of defects. The possibility for using thermography for detecting surface cracks in welded metal plates has here been investigated. During testing the weld is illuminated using a high power infrared light source. Due to surface cracks acting like black bodies, they will absorb more energy than the surrounding metal and can be identified as a warmer area when imaged using an infrared camera. Notches as well as real longitudinal cold cracks in a weld are investigated using the presented method. The results show that thermography is promising as a method for detection cracks open to the surface.

  • 316.
    Broberg, Patrik
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production System.
    Runnemalm, Anna
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production System.
    Analysis algorithm for surface crack detection by thermography with UV light excitation2016In: Quantitative InfraRed Thermography 2016: Abstracts / [ed] Kaczmarek, M. & Bujnowski, A., Gdańsk, Poland: Publishing Gdańsk University of Technology , 2016, 144-149 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surface crack defects can be detected by IR thermograpgy due to the high absorption of energy within the crack cavity. It is often difficult to detect the defect in the raw data, since the signal easily drowns in the background. It is therefore important to have good analysis algorithms that can reduce the background and enhance the defect. Here an analysis algorithm is presented which significantly increases the signal to noise ratio of the defects and reduces the image sequence from the camera to one image.

  • 317.
    Brusewitz Lindahl, Bonnie
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Computational Thermodynamics.
    Liu, Xuan L.
    Liu, Zi-Kui
    Selleby, Malin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Computational Thermodynamics.
    A thermodynamic re-assessment of Al-V toward an assessment of the ternary Al-Ti-V system2015In: Calphad, ISSN 0364-5916, E-ISSN 1873-2984, Vol. 51, 75-88 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Titanium alloys are highly sought after due to their excellent mechanical properties. One of the most commonly used Ti alloys is Ti-6Al-4V, which contains 6% Al and 4% V by weight. Despite the popularity of this alloy, no thermodynamic description of the ternary Al-Ti-V system has been published in the open literature. In this work an assessment procedure of the ternary Al-Ti-V system was initiated based on the binary descriptions by Witusiewitcz et al. (J. Alloys Compds. 465 (2008) 64-77 [1]) for (Al-Ti), Gong et al. (Int. J. Mater. Res. 95 (2004) 978-986 [2]) for (Al-V) and Saunders (COST 507, 2 (1998) 297-298 [3]) for (Ti-V). When combining the three binary systems and looking at the extrapolated ternary isothermal sections, it was found that there was a very large miscibility gap in the bcc phase. The origin of this miscibility gap was mainly the Al-V system and therefore it was decided to reassess this system. The Al-V system was reassessed according to available experimental data along with the enthalpies of formation of all compounds as well as the enthalpies of mixing for all terminal phases obtained by first-principles calculations based on the density functional theory. For the Al8V5 phase there are two different sets of data for the enthalpies of formation. These two sets are investigated in this work and it is found that the set not used by Gong et al. in their assessment of the Al-V binary system gives better extrapolations. The final description produced improved extrapolated ternary isothermal sections.

  • 318.
    Brämming, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    An Operational View on Foaming and Slopping Control in Top-blown BOS Vessels2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Slag formation plays a decisive role in all steelmaking processes. In top-blowing Basic Oxygen Steelmaking (BOS) i.e., in the LD process, an emulsion consisting of liquid slag, dispersed metal droplets, undissolved particles and solid precipitates will, together with process gases, form an expanding foam. Extensive research has defined the parameters that govern the foaming characteristics of BOS slag-metal emulsions. It is a well-known fact that certain process conditions in the Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) will lead to excessive foam growth, forcing foam out through the vessel opening (mouth). This process event is commonly known as slopping. Slopping results in loss of valuable metal, equipment damage, lost production time, unsafe work environment and pollution. A literature survey covering the slopping phenomena has been carried out, as well as a deeper investigation into the causes behind slopping on the BOF type LD/LBE at SSAB Europe, Luleå, equipped with an automatic system for slopping registration using image analysis Good slag formation and foam-growth control in order to avoid slopping is primarily accomplished by taking preventive “static” measures. The most common pre-blowing operational conditions favouring foam growth and, hence, slopping were found to be linked to oxygen lance positioning, hot metal Si and Mn contents, scrap quality and large additions of iron oxide bearing materials. Improved slopping control may be achieved by developing oxygen lance control schemes with automatic adjustment of the distance between the lance tip and the metal bath (i.e., the lance gap) according to scrap quality and ore additions. If “static” measures cannot be effectuated, a set of in-blow slopping preventive measures is needed. For such “dynamic” measures to be effective, it is necessary to have a system for slopping prediction. Trials with vessel vibration measurements for indirect foam height estimation in industrial scale BOFs, type LD/LBE, have been carried out. FFT spectrum analysis was applied in order to find the frequency band with best correlation to an estimated foam height. The results show that there is a correlation between vessel vibration and foam height which can be used for dynamic foam level and slopping control, and this during the entire blow. The vessel vibration results have been tested against what is the perhaps most commonly implemented technique for dynamic foam height estimation and slopping control, the audiometric system. Parallel vibration and audio measurements have been carried out on 130-tonne as well as on 300-tonne BOFs. The results show that during stable process conditions there is good agreement between the two methods in regard to foam height estimation and that combining the two methods will provide a powerful slopping prediction and control system. A feasibility study has been carried out with the aim to describe the possibilities and limitations of multivariate data analysis, including batch analysis, for dynamic BOS process control, mainly in regard to slopping prevention. Two principal modelling approaches were tested.A central part of this PhD work is the performed emulsion characterisation and the subsequent investigation into the influence of emulsion mineralogy and morphology on slopping in the LD process. The results are based on the study of emulsion samples from trial heats conducted in a 6-tonne pilot plant LD vessel. The main emulsion slag phase mineral species identified were di-calcium silicate, monoxides (mainly FeO, MnO and MgO), calcium ferrites and late-appearing tri-calcium silicate. The study also show that the iron oxidation state has a large influence on the emulsion mineralogy and morphology, as a higher Fe3+ content facilitates the precipitation of calcium ferrites, raising the emulsion apparent viscosity and, hence, the foam index. The same effect is caused by higher MgO contents (i.e., at saturation), resulting in the precipitation of monoxide phase. However, large volume fractions of emulsion precipitates will not always lead to slopping in the LD process. A second “requirement” for excessive foam growth is a simultaneously high gas generation rate. Vice versa; an LD heat may very well slop at low volume fractions of 2ndphase particles in the emulsion if the gas generation rate is sufficiently high. It is an indisputable fact that excessive foaming is one of the main features of the LD process, due to the practice of top-lance oxygen blowing, creating a highly oxidised slag, and heavy batch additions of basic slag formers, causing an initial formation of large quantities of precipitates. Therefore, preventing slopping is primarily a matter of tight process control, most importantly, control of the oxygen lance gap in order to reach a state of sufficiently high liquid MeO phase to minimise the emulsion apparent viscosity, but low enough to avoid over-oxidising and a high gas generation rate.

  • 319.
    Brämming, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Avoiding slopping in top-blown BOS vessels2010Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Slag formation plays a decisive role in all steelmaking processes. In top-blowing Basic Oxygen Steelmaking (BOS), i.e. in the LD process, an emulsion consisting of liquid slag, dispersed metal droplets and solid particles will, together with process gases, form an expanding foam. Extensive research has defined the parameters that govern the foaming characteristics of BOS slag emulsions. It is a well known fact that certain process conditions will lead to an excessive foam growth, forcing the foam out through the vessel opening (mouth). This process event is commonly known as slopping. Slopping results in loss of valuable metal, equipment damage, lost production time and pollution. A literature survey covering the slopping phenomena has been carried out, as well as a deeper investigation into the causes behind slopping on the BOS vessels, type LD/LBE, at SSAB EMEA Metallurgy Luleå, equipped with an automatic system for slopping registration using image analysis. Good slag formation and foam-growth control in order to avoid slopping is primarily accomplished by taking preventive "static" measures. Improved slopping control has been achieved by developing a new oxygen lance control scheme, featuring adjustment of the distance between the lance tip and the metal bath according to scrap quality and ore additions. If "static" measures cannot be effectuated, in-blow control measures are needed. For such "dynamic" measures to be effective, it is necessary to have a system for slopping prediction. In the early-1980s a system for foam level and slopping control, based on BOS vessel vibration, was temporarily installed and tested on one of the vessels in Luleå. Based on the experiences from these tests it was decided to re-investigate the vessel vibration measurement technique. Trials on industrial scale BOS vessels of type LD/LBE have been carried out. FFT spectrum analysis has been applied in order to find the frequency band with best correlation to an estimated foam height. The results show that there is a correlation between vessel vibration and foam height which can be used for dynamic foam level and slopping control. The vessel vibration results have been tested against perhaps the most common implemented technique for dynamic foam height estimation and slopping control, the audiometric system. Parallel vibration and audio measurements have been carried out on a 130-tonne as well as on 300-tonne BOS vessels. The results show that during stable process conditions there is good agreement between the two methods with regard to foam height estimation and that combining the two methods will provide a powerful slopping prediction and control system.

  • 320.
    Brämming, Mats
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Björkman, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Avoiding sloppy BOS process behavior2010In: Proceedings of the Iron & Steel Technology Conference: May 3 - 6, 2010, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.A / [ed] Ronald E. Ashburn, Warrendale, Pa: Association for Iron & Steel Technology , 2010, 1037-1047 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extreme BOS processing conditions may sometimes lead to excessive slag foaming and slopping, resulting in considerable amounts of metallic losses, equipment damage and un-necessary production disturbances. Control of slag formation without slopping is primarily accomplished by taking preventive measures. If static control measures are not effective then in-blow control measures are required and for these to be successful, it is necessary to employ a method for predicting slopping events. Such a system, utilizing BOS vessel vibration measurement, is presently being re-introduced at SSAB's BOS plant in Luleå, Sweden. A deep study into the causes of slopping has been carried out for a 114 tonne LD/LBE vessel, equipped with an automatic system for slopping registration using image analysis. Improved slopping control was achieved by developing a novel lance control scheme, with a new approach to the adjustment of lance position according to scrap quality and ore additions

  • 321. Brämming, Mats
    et al.
    Björkman, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Avoiding sloppy BOS process behavior2010In: Iron & Steel Technology, ISSN 1547-0423, Vol. 7, no 11, 66-75 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    SSAB EMEA's BOS plant in Luleå, Sweden installed a new system in April 2009 for slopping registration in order to raise the level of metallurgical process control. An excellent and well-documented tool for investigating the causes behind slopping is image analysis. The system scans each received camera image (25 per second) and counts the number of light pixels above a set threshold within a designated area of the camera frame. The scanning output is a 1-second number called the slopping value (in %). A 2-second average value is stored for a period of up to 14 days. Data for a complete year of production on BOS vessel LDI (over 11,000 heats) were collected and scrutinized. The multivariate analysis showed that main static causes behind slopping are the large additions of scrap of lower quality, mainly recycled large-size skulls and pig iron, but also purchased scrap, high ratio of dolomitic fluxes and high Si content in hot metal in the case of HS blowing regime.

  • 322.
    Brämming, Mats
    et al.
    Department of Process Integration, Swerea MEFOS AB.
    Björkman, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Samuelsson, Caisa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    BOF Process Control and Slopping Prediction Based on Multivariate Data Analysis2016In: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, E-ISSN 1869-344X, Vol. 87, no 3, 301-310 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A complex industrial batch processes such as the top-blown BOF steelmaking process, it is a complicated task to monitor and act on the progress of several important control parameters in order to avoid an undesired process event such as “slopping” and to secure a successful batch completion such as a sufficiently low steel phosphorous content. It would, therefore, be of much help to have an automated tool, which simultaneously can interpret a large number of process variables, with the function to warn of any imminent deviation from the normal batch evolution and to predict the batch end result. One way to compute, interpret, and visualize this “batch evolution” is to apply multivariate data analysis (MVDA). At SSAB Europe's steel plant in Luleå, new BOF process control devices are installed with the purpose to investigate the possibility for developing a dynamic system for slopping prediction. A main feature of this system is steelmaking vessel vibration measurements and audiometry to estimate foam height. This paper describes and discusses the usefulness of the MVDA approach for static and dynamic slopping prediction, as well as for end-of-blow phosphorous content prediction.

  • 323.
    Brämming, Mats
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Björkman, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Samuelsson, Caisa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    BOF slopping prediction based on multivariate data analysis2012In: Scanmet IV: 4th International Conference on Process Development in Iron and Steelmaking, Luleå: MEFOS , 2012, Vol. 1, 461-470 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 324.
    Brämming, Mats
    et al.
    SSAB EMEA, Luleå.
    Millman, Stuart
    Tata Steel Research, D & T, Teesside Technology Centre, Middlesbrough.
    Overbosch, Aart
    Tata Steel Research, D & T, IJmuiden Technology Centre.
    Kapilashrami, Abha
    Tata Steel Research, D & T, IJmuiden Technology Centre.
    Malmberg, Donald
    Swerea MEFOS AB.
    Björkman, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    BOS vessel vibration measurement for foam level detection2011In: ISIJ International, ISSN 0915-1559, E-ISSN 1347-5460, Vol. 51, no 1, 71-79 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the BOS process liquid slag together with dispersed metal droplets, solid particles and process gases form an expanding foam. Certain process conditions may lead to excessive foam growth, forcing foam out through the vessel mouth, an event commonly known as 'slopping'. Slopping results in loss of valuable metal, equipment damage and lost production time. In the early 1980s a system for foam level and slopping control was installed at SSAB's steel plant in Lulea, a system based on the correlation between BOS vessel vibration in a narrow low frequency band and foam development. The technique, in this case with an accelerometer mounted on the trunnion bearing housing, soon showed its usefulness, for example when adapting existing lance patterns to a change in oxygen lance design from a 3-hole to a 4-hole nozzle. Estimating the actual foam height in the BOS vessel was of great importance in the recently completed RFCS funded research project "IMPHOS" (Improving Phosphorus Refining). Based on the earlier positive experiences, it was decided to further develop the vessel vibration measurement technique. Trials on an industrial size BOS vessel type LD/LBE have been carried out, this time with a tri-axial accelerometer mounted on the vessel trunnion. FFT spectrum analysis has been used in order to find the frequency band with best correlation to the foam level development. The results show that there is a correlation between vessel vibration and foam height that can be used for dynamic foam level and slopping control

  • 325.
    Brämming, Mats
    et al.
    SSAB EMEA, Luleå.
    Parker, Gareth
    Tata Steel Europe - Long Products.
    Millman, Stuart
    Tata Research, D & T, Teesside Technology.
    Kapilashrami, Abha
    Tata Research, D & T, IJmuiden Technology Centre.
    Björkman, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Comparison between vessel vibration and audiometry for slopping control in the top-blown BOS process2011In: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, E-ISSN 1869-344X, Vol. 82, no 6, 683-692 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Excess slag foam growth is a frequent problem in the BOS process. In the worst case, foam is forced out of the vessel and this phenomenon, commonly called slopping, not only results in loss of valuable metal yield but also in equipment damage and lost production time. In order to minimize slopping, accurate estimation of the foam level inside the vessel is an important part of BOS process control. In the top blown BOS vessel, slopping control is achieved using both static and dynamic measures. The most common implemented technique for dynamic foam height estimation and slopping control is the audiometer system. An alternative method, vessel vibration monitoring, has been investigated as part of the work in a RFCS funded research project called IMPHOS. In order to judge the usefulness of this method, parallel vibration and audio measurements have been carried out on 130 tonne as well as on 300 tonne BOS vessels. The results show that during stable process conditions there is good agreement between the two methods with regard to foam height estimation and, as vessel vibration and audiometry are largely independent of each other, a combination of the two is likely to increase significantly the accuracy of slopping prediction

  • 326.
    Bu, Junfu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Jönsson, Pär G.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Zhao, Z.
    Transport properties of BaZr0.5Ce0.3Y0.2O3-δ proton conductor prepared by spark plasma sintering2016In: Ceramics International, ISSN 0272-8842, E-ISSN 1873-3956, Vol. 42, no 3, 4393-4399 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dense BaZr0.5Ce0.3Y0.2O3-δ (BZCY532) proton conductors were prepared by a spark plasma sintering method. Their conductivities were determined in different atmospheres: dry air, wet N2 and wet H2. Moreover, the potential electronic conductivity contribution to the total conductivity was also identified by testing their total conductivities at different oxygen partial pressures (1-10-24 atm) in combination with an XPS analysis. It is found that the prepared dense BZCY532 ceramics are good proton conductors at 600 °C. In addition, the Ce3+ concentration in the dense BZCY532 ceramics is around 3.5 atm% of the total Ce element, and the electronic contribution to the total conductivity can be neglected after a postheat treatment.

  • 327.
    Bu, Junfu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Jönsson, Pär G.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Zhao, Zhe
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    BaZr0.5Ce0.3Ln0.2O3-δ(Ln=Y, Sm, Gd, Dy) based electrolytes used for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cellsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 328.
    Bu, Junfu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Jönsson, Pär G.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Zhao, Zhe
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Yttrium doped hafnium oxide Hf0.69Y0.31O2-δ used for solid oxide fuel cell electrolytes and electronic materialsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An Yttrium doped hafnium oxide Hf0.69Y0.31O2-δ (YSH orYDH) is obtained by a modified solid state reactionmethod, where freeze drying is implemented to reduce theagglomeration. Refinement result shows that YSH is influorite cubic crystal with lattice parameter a = b = c =5.140674 Å (Figure 1). Based on this, the ionic radius ofY3+ in YSH for 8 coordination is 0.1006 nm, confirms theprevious prediction that it should be smaller than 0.1015nm. The YSH ceramic material with relative density of>97.5% can be obtained by conventional sintering at 1650℃ for 10hrs. Its conductivity is only 3.65×10-5 s cm-1 at700 ℃ (Figure 2), which is too low for solid oxide fuelcell application. However, its high dielectric constant22.03 (Figure 3a, average value, which is 1.4 times largerthan the pure Hafnia) and low dielectric loss over a widefrequency range and DC potential make it very promisingfor the microelectronic device application.

  • 329.
    Bu, Junfu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Jönsson, Pär Göran
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Zhao, Zhe
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering. Shanghai Institute of Technology, China.
    Electrical conductivities of translucent BaZr(X)Ce0.8-XY0.2O3-delta (x=0.5, 0.6, 0.7) ceramics2016In: Scripta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6462, E-ISSN 1872-8456, Vol. 115, 87-90 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The electrical conductivities of translucent BaZr0.5Ce0.3Y0.2O3-delta (x = 0.5, BZCY532), BaZr0.6Ce0.2Y0.2O3-delta (x = 0.6, BZCY622) and BaZr0.7Ce0.1Y0.2O3-delta(x = 0.7, BZCY712) proton conductors were investigated systematically in different atmospheres and also at different oxygen partial pressures. The obtained results indicate that translucent BZCY532, BZCY622 and BZCY712 ceramics are pure oxygen-ion and proton conductors without unfavorable electronic conduction. In addition, they represent promising proton conductors to be used as intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell electrolytes.

  • 330.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Hammarlund, Dan
    Lund University.
    Hjärthner-Holdar, Eva
    Swedish National Historical Museums.
    Lidén, Kerstin
    Stockholm University.
    Lindahl, Anders
    Lund University.
    Palm, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University.
    The Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database: a resource for international, multiproxy and transdisciplinary studies of environmental and climatic change2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate and environmental change are global challenges which require global data and infrastructure to investigate. These challenges also require a multi-proxy approach, integrating evidence from Quaternary science and archaeology with information from studies on modern ecology and physical processes among other disciplines. The Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database (SEAD http://www.sead.se) is a Swedish based international research e-infrastructure for storing, managing, analysing and disseminating palaeoenvironmental data from an almost unlimited number of analysis methods. The system currently makes available raw data from over 1500 sites (>5300 datasets) and the analysis of Quaternary fossil insects, plant macrofossils, pollen, geochemistry and sediment physical properties, dendrochronology and wood anatomy, ceramic geochemistry and bones, along with numerous dating methods. This capacity will be expanded in the near future to include isotopes, multi-spectral and archaeo-metalurgical data. SEAD also includes expandable climate and environment calibration datasets, a complete bibliography and extensive metadata and services for linking these data to other resources. All data is available as Open Access through http://qsead.sead.se and downloadable software.

     

    SEAD is maintained and managed at the Environmental Archaeology Lab and HUMlab at Umea University, Sweden. Development and data ingestion is progressing in cooperation with The Laboratory for Ceramic Research and the National Laboratory for Wood Anatomy and Dendrochronology at Lund University, Sweden, the Archaeological Research Laboratory, Stockholm University, the Geoarchaeological Laboratory, Swedish National Historical Museums Agency and several international partners and research projects. Current plans include expanding its capacity to serve as a data source for any system and integration with the Swedish National Heritage Board's information systems.

     

    SEAD is partnered with the Neotoma palaeoecology database (http://www.neotomadb.org) and a new initiative for building cyberinfrastructure for transdisciplinary research and visualization of the long-term human ecodynamics of the North Atlantic funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF).

  • 331.
    Buffington, Jack
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    The Beverage Can in the United States: Achieving a 100% Recycled Aluminum Can through Supply Chain Innovation2012In: JOM: The Member Journal of TMS, ISSN 1047-4838, E-ISSN 1543-1851, Vol. 64, no 8, 923-932 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this research is to analyze why recycled content is low (33-50%) in the aluminum can in the United States when it is technically possible to have a product that is made from 100% recycled material. A comprehensive literature review is conducted, followed by identification of five propositions determined with respect to the research problem. With respect to aluminum can recycling (and its research), there is a greater focus on the role of the consumer than the producer in the aluminum can supply chain system, which may impact on the role of innovation in addressing the problem. The upstream primary aluminum supply chain is vertically integrated and efficient within itself, but not integrated with the downstream secondary aluminum can market. Given the importance of the secondary aluminum market in the United States, there are significant recycling/efficiency/sustainability opportunities to address. As opposed to a dominant focus on consumers and their recycling habits, this study focuses on the aggregate aluminum can supply chain to apply innovation to the solution.

  • 332.
    Buffington, Jack
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    Peterson, Ray
    Defining a Closed-Loop US Aluminum Can Supply Chain Through Technical Design and Supply Chain Innovation2013In: JOM: The Member Journal of TMS, ISSN 1047-4838, E-ISSN 1543-1851, Vol. 65, no 8, 941-950 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to conduct a supply chain material flow analysis (MFA) for the U.S. aluminum can market, consistent with studies conducted for the overall worldwide aluminum industry. A technical definition of the use of alloys 5182 and 3104 is conducted by metallurgists for use in the "aluminum can" MFA. Four propositions are created: technical, economic, and supply chain factors are as important to secondary aluminum recycling in an aluminum can as higher recycling rates (P-1); the development of a unialloy aluminum can will increase reuse rates, but recycling rates must increase for this to happen (P-2); a closed-loop aluminum can supply chain is not able to be fully realized in today's environment but is very useful for understanding improvement through both supply and demand (P-3); and UBC supply can improve through a "voluntary deposit-refund system" approach (P-4).

  • 333.
    Buffington, John
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    The Viability of a "Voluntary Refund-Deposit System" for Aluminum Can Recycling in the U.S.2014In: Light Metals 2014, Wiley-Blackwell, 2014, 913-918 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of a voluntary deposit system is developed and modeled in this paper in comparison to the current state of a voluntary non-deposit (R<inf>1</inf>) and mandatory refund-deposit (R<inf>2</inf>) hybrid system in the U.S. The R<inf>3</inf> model is found to be optimal in comparison through an increase in the recycling rate, a reduction in operating costs, and the creation of a larger surplus to be used to pay for an IT-based tracking system and research grants to enable future innovations in the collection and processing of recyclables. In the R<inf>3</inf> model, consumers are only burdened if they choose to not recycle, or they wish to have the convenience of curbside pick-up.

  • 334.
    Bujtar, Peter
    et al.
    Southern General Hospital, Glasgow.
    Simonovics, Janos
    Southern General Hospital, Glasgow.
    Koptyug, Andrey
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    George, Sandor
    Southern General Hospital, Glasgow.
    Varadi, Karoly
    Southern General Hospital, Glasgow.
    Emerging manufacturing bioengineering technologies 2: Scaffold designing experiment using titanium scaffolds2014In: British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, ISSN 0266-4356, E-ISSN 1532-1940, Vol. 52, no 8, e60-e61 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Substantial volume defects of the head and neck oftenrequire customized solutions to improve quality of life likefree flap transfers.Titanium and its alloys are versatile materialsproviding the feature of osteointegration. The conditionswhich facilitate the deposition of lamellar bone are underextensive research. Our project aimed to determine whethertitanium can function as a scaffold - unlike simple plates - toenhance bone regeneration for load bearing structures. Thereaction of stem cells to scaffolds with varying stiffness willbe presented.Additive manufacturing were used to produce a variety ofscaffolds to optimize titanium structures. Electric beam melting(EBM) manufacturing allowed us to optimize the elasticmodulus (Young) of the titanium to match with cadaveric 

    bone from a previous project. Multidirectional mechanicaltests were performed on the various designs of titanium cellstructures (n=80). The predictability and quality of manufacturingwas assessed statistically and also with scanningelectron microscope (SEM).The results demonstrated structures matching the mechanicalproperties of bone and even anisotropy as our resultssuggest 3GPa elasticity. This allows the possibility to buildregenerating bone with predictable properties. In addition,predictable patterning - unlike etching and sandblasting - ofmicroscopic (nano) features found to be significant and nonhomogenous simple repetitive patterns provide better cellularresponse.The benefit that tissue engineering techniques offer isdecreased morbidity, relative independence from donor site,with a highly specific and customized shape. Titanium basedreconstruction constructs seems to offer an alternative futurefor bony reconstruction.

  • 335.
    Bååth, Lars
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK).
    A method for simultaneously measuring the positions of more than one surface in metallurgic processes1994Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 336.
    Bååth, Lars
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK).
    A method to simultaneously measuring the position of more than one surface in metallurgical processes1997Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    A method for measuring the position of at least one surface in a metallurgical process which includes the steps of providing a metallurgical melt, the metallurgical melt including at least a metal portion and a slag layer, providing a signal generator for generating signals at a plurality of frequencies over a frequency band, and providing an antenna for receiving the signals generated by the signal generator and for transmitting circularly polarized radio waves at the plurality of frequencies over the frequency band. The invention further includes the steps of disposing the antenna adjacent the metallurgical melt, transmitting the circularly polarized radio waves from the antenna toward the metallurgical melt, the circularly polarized radio waves being transmitted by the antenna at the plurality of frequencies over the frequency band, receiving reflected images of the transmitted radio waves through the antenna, the received reflected images of the transmitted radio waves having a substantially opposite circular polarization from the transmitted circularly polarized radio waves, determining a phase displacement between the transmitted radio waves and the received reflected images of the transmitted radio waves, transforming the determined phase displacement from a frequency to a time plane, and determining from the time plane transform a position of at least one surface of at least one of the metal portion and the slag layer.

  • 337.
    Bölke, Kristofer
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    IRONARC; a New Method for Energy Efficient Production of Iron Using Plasma Generators2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The most widely used process to reduce iron ore and to produce pig iron is the blast furnace. The blast furnace is a large source of CO2 emissions since it is a coal based process and due to that the main energy source and reducing agent is coke, it is difficult to reduce these further. IRONARC is a new method used to produce pig iron by reducing iron ore and all the energy used for heating comes from electricity, which gives the opportunity to use renewable resources. The process uses plasma generators that inject gas at high temperature and velocity into a slag that consists of iron oxides. The iron oxides are reduced in two steps that appear by using gas as reduction agent in the first step and carbon in the second step.   It exists in a smaller pilot plant scale and this project was the first step in the future upscaling of the IRONARC process.

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling was used and the goal was to determine the penetration depth of the IRONARC pilot plant process by numerical simulation in the software ANSYS FLUENT. The penetration depth is of importance because to be able to scale up the process it is important to know the flow pattern and the structure of the flow in the process, which is dependent on how far into the slag the gas reaches.

    Two numerical models were made. First an air-water model that described the initial penetration of air injected into water. The air-water simulation was made with parameters and data from an experiment found in literature. This was done to build an accurate CFD model for the penetration depth in FLUENT and validate the model with the results of the penetration depth from the experiment. The air-water simulation gave good and promising results and yielded the same result regarding the penetration depth as the experiment.  The model for the penetration depth was then used with the IRONARC geometry and parameters. After simulation the penetration depth of the IRONARC process was determined. For the future, the penetration depth of the pilot plant needs to be measured and compared with the simulated result for the penetration depth. 

  • 338.
    Calmunger, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    On High-Temperature Behaviours of Heat Resistant Austenitic Alloys2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Advanced heat resistant materials are important to achieve the transition to long term sustainable power generation. The global increase in energy consumption and the global warming from greenhouse gas emissions create the need for more sustainable power generation processes. Biomass-fired power plants with higher efficiency could generate more power but also reduce the emission of greenhouse gases, e.g. CO2. Biomass offers no net contribution of CO2 to the atmosphere. To obtain greater efficiency of power plants, one option is to increase the temperature and the pressure in the boiler section of the power plant. This requires improved material properties, such as higher yield strength, creep strength and high-temperature corrosion resistance, as well as structural integrity and safety.

    Today, some austenitic stainless steels are design to withstand temperatures up to 650 °C in tough environments. Nickel-based alloys are designed to withstand even higher temperatures. Austenitic stainless steels are more cost effective than nickel-based alloys due to a lower amount of expensive alloying elements. However, the performance of austenitic stainless steels at the elevated temperatures of future operation conditions in biomass-red power plants is not yet fully understood.

    This thesis presents research on the influence of long term high-temperature ageing on mechanical properties, the influence of very slow deformation rates at high-temperature on deformation, damage and fracture, and the influence of high-temperature environment and cyclic operation conditions on the material behaviour. Mechanical and thermal testing have been performed followed by subsequent studies of the microstructure, using scanning electron microscopy, to investigate the material behaviours.

    Results shows that long term ageing at high temperatures leads to the precipitation of intermetallic phases. These intermetallic phases are brittle at room temperature and become detrimental for the impact toughness of some of the austenitic stainless steels. During slow strain rate tensile deformation at elevated temperature time dependent deformation and recovery mechanisms are pronounced. The creep-fatigue interaction behaviour of an austenitic stainless steel show that dwell time gives shorter life at a lower strain range, but has none or small effect on the life at a higher strain range.

    Finally, this research results in an increased knowledge of the structural, mechanical and chemical behaviour as well as a deeper understanding of the deformation, damage and fracture mechanisms that occur in heat resistant austenitic alloys at high-temperature environments. It is believed that in the long term, this can contribute to material development achieving the transition to more sustainable power generation in biomass-red power plants.

  • 339.
    Calmunger, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chai, Guocai
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Sandvik Materials Technology,Sandviken, Sweden.
    Johansson, Sten
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Moverare, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Creep and Fatigue Interaction Behavior in Sanicro 25 Heat Resistant Austenitic Stainless Steel2016In: Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals, ISSN 0972-2815, E-ISSN 0975-1645, Vol. 69, no 2, 337-342 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sanicro 25 is a newly developed advanced high strength heat resistant austenitic stainless steel. The material shows good resistance to steam oxidation and flue gas corrosion, and has higher creep rupture strength than other austenitic stainless steels available today. It is thus an excellent candidate for superheaters and reheaters for advanced ultra-super critical power plants with efficiency higher than 50 %. This paper provides a study on the creep–fatigue interaction behavior of Sanicro 25 at 700 °C. Two strain ranges, 1 and 2 %, and two dwell times, 10 and 30 min, were used. The influences of dwell time on the cyclic deformation behavior and life has been evaluated. Due to stress relaxation the dwell time causes a larger plastic strain range compared to the tests without dwell time. The results also show that the dwell time leads to a shorter fatigue life for the lower strain range, but has no or small effect on the life for the higher strain range. Fracture investigations show that dwell times result in more intergranular cracking. With the use of the electron channeling contrast imaging technique, the influences of dwell time on the cyclic plastic deformation, precipitation behavior, recovery phenomena and local plasticity exhaustion have also been studied.

  • 340.
    Calmunger, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials.
    Eriksson, Robert
    Siemens AG, Huttenstr. 12, 10553 Berlin, Germany.
    Chai, Guocai
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Sandviken, Sweden.
    Johansson, Sten
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Moverare, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Surface Phase Transformation in Austenitic Stainless Steel Induced by Cyclic Oxidation in Humidified Air2015In: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 100, 524-534 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The formation of α’ martensite at the surface of an AISI 304 stainless steel subjected to cyclic heating in humidified air is reported. The α’ martensite formed during the cooling part of the cyclic tests due to local depletion of Cr and Mn and transformed back to austenite when the temperature again rose to 650 °C. The size of the α’ martensite region increased with increasing number of cycles. Thermodynamical simulations were used as basis for discussing the formation of α’ martensite. The effect of the α’ martensite on corrosion is also discussed.

  • 341.
    Cao, Weimin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Theoretical and experimental studies of surface and interfacial phenomena involving steel surfaces2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present work was initiated to investigate the surface- and interfacial phenomena for iron and slag/iron systems. The aim was to understand the mechanism of the effect of surface active elements on surface and interfacial properties. In the present work, the adsorption of oxygen and sulfur on iron surface as well as adatom surface movements were studied based on the ab initio method. BCC iron melting phenomena and sulfur diffusion in molten iron were investigated by Monte Carlo simulations. The impact of oxygen potential on interfacial mass transfer was carried out by X-ray sessile drop method.

    Firstly, the structural, electronic and magnetic properties as well as thermodynamic stability were studied by Density functional theory (DFT). The hollow site was found to be the most stable adsorption site both for oxygen and sulfur adsorbed on iron (100) surface, which is in agreement with the experiment. The relaxation geometries and difference charge density of the different adsorption systems were calculated to analyze the interaction and bonding properties between Fe and O/S. It can be found that the charge redistribution was related to the geometry relaxation. In addition, the sulfur coverage is considered from a quarter of one monolayer (1ML) to a full monolayer. It was found that the work function and its change Δφ increased with S coverage, in very good agreement with experiment. Due to a recent discussion regarding the influence of charge transfer on Δφ, it is shown in the present work that the increase in Δφ can be explained by the increasing surface dipole moment as a function of S coverage. S strongly interacts with the surface Fe layer and decreases the surface magnetic moment as the S coverage increases.

    Secondly, a two dimensional (2D) gas model based on density functional calculations combined with thermodynamics and statistical physics, was proposed to simulate the movement of the surface active elements, viz. oxygen and sulfur atoms on the Fe(100) surface. The average velocity of oxygen and sulfur atoms was found to be related to the vibration frequencies and energy barrier in the final expression developed. The calculated results were based on the density function and thermodynamics & statistical physics theories. In addition, this 2D gas model can be used to simulate and give an atomic view of the complex interfacial phenomena in the steelmaking refining process.

    A distance dependent atomistic Monte Carlo model was developed for studying the iron melting phenomenon as well as effect of sulfur on molten iron surface. The effect of boundary conditions on the melting process of an ensemble of bcc iron atoms has been investigated using a Lennard-Jones distance dependent pair potential. The stability of melting process was energetically and spatially analyzed under fixed wall and free surface conditions and the effects of short and long-range interactions were discussed. The role of boundary conditions was significantly reduced when long-range interactions were used in the simulation. This model was further developed for investigating the effect of sulfur on molten iron surface. A combination of fixed wall and free surface boundary condition was found to well-represent the molten bath configuration while considering the second nearest neighbor interactions. Calculations concerning the diffusion of sulfur on molten surface were carried out as a function of temperature and sulfur concentration. Our results show that sulfur atoms tended to diffuse away from the surface into the liquid bulk and the diffusion rate increased by increasing temperature.

    Finally, impact of oxygen potential on sulfur mass transfer at slag/metal interface, was carried out by X-ray sessile drop method. The movement of sulfur at the slag/metal interface was monitored in dynamic mode at temperature 1873 K under non-equilibrium conditions. The experiments were carried out with pure iron and CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-FeO slag (alumina saturated at the experimental temperature) contained in alumina crucibles with well-controlled partial pressures of oxygen and sulfur. As the partial pressure of oxygen increased, it was found that interfacial velocity as well as the oscillation amplitude increased. The thermo-physical and thermo-chemical properties of slag were also found to influence interfacial velocity.

     

  • 342.
    Cao, Weimin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Using and validation of the DFT method for oxygen adsorbed on the iron (100) surface2010In: Transactions of the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy Section C - Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy, ISSN 0371-9553, E-ISSN 1743-2855, Vol. 119, no 2, 67-70 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic and structural properties of atomic oxygen adsorbed on the iron (100) surface are examined using density functional theory calculations. The oxygen adsorbed on the iron (100) surface is investigated at the three adsorption sites top, bridge and hollow sites respectively. Adsorption energy, work function and surface geometries were calculated, the hollow site was found to be the most stable adsorption site, which is in agreement with the experiment. In addition, the difference charge density of the different adsorption system was calculated to analyse the interaction and bonding properties between Fe and O. It can be found out that the charge redistribution was related to the geometry relaxation. The calculated results are compared with the experimental and other theoretical results.

  • 343.
    Cao, Weimin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Delin, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Material Physics.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Calculation of Oxygen and Sulfur Average Velocity on the Iron Surface: A Two-dimensional Gas Model Study2010In: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, Vol. 81, no 11, 949-952 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work, a two-dimensional (2D) gas model is derived and used to simulate the average velocity of individual atoms of the surface active elements oxygen and sulfur on the Fe(100) surface. The average velocity of oxygen and sulfur atoms was found to be related to the vibration frequencies and minimal energy barrier. The calculated results are based on data from density functional calculations combined with thermodynamics and statistical physics. The calculated average velocity of oxygen on the Fe (100) is lower than that of sulphur. This is because of the stronger interaction between oxygen and the first iron layer. We conclude that our simple 2D gas model may be useful for simulating and understanding the complex interfacial phenomena in the steelmaking refining process from an atomic point of view.

  • 344.
    Cao, Weimin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Muhmood, Luckman
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Sulfur Transfer at Slag/Metal Interface-Impact of Oxygen Potential2012In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 43, no 2, 363-369 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work, the interfacial movement resulting from sulfur mass transfer at the slag/metal interface was monitored by X-ray sessile drop method in dynamic mode at temperature 1873 K (1600 A degrees C) under nonequilibrium conditions. The experiments were carried out with pure iron and CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-FeO slag (alumina saturated at the experimental temperature) contained in alumina crucibles with well-controlled partial pressures of oxygen and sulfur. The impact of oxygen potential on the droplet oscillation as sulfur from the gas phase reaches the metal drop through the intermediate slag phase was monitored. The interfacial velocity was investigated. It was found that the increases of interfacial velocity and the maximum oscillation time were mainly attributed to the partial pressure of oxygen increases. The experiment results were explained by previous ab initio calculations. The thermo-physical and thermo-chemical properties of slag were also found to influence interfacial velocity.

  • 345.
    Carlberg, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Jarfors, Anders
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    On vertical drag defects formation during direct chill (DC) casting of aluminum billets2014In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 45, no 1, 175-181 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During air-slip direct chill casting of aluminum billets, one of the major defects occurring includes traces along the billet called vertical drags (VDs). If the VDs are too deep or too many, then they cause scraping of the billets. As in the subsequent extrusion process, the surface quality is known to impair both the productivity and quality of the profiles. In cast-house practice, many theories circulate about the causes of VD defects and how to avoid them, but in the literature, no thorough treatments have been made to explain this phenomenon. In the current study, the outer appearance, structure around, and compositions at the defects are analyzed. A theory for the formation of the defects, their cause, and how their appearance is coupled to different alloy types is presented. The segregation in the vicinity of the defects is discussed based on deformation of semisolid materials and coupled to Reynolds dilatancy ingranular materials. The theory can explain differences between 6063 and 6005 alloys.

  • 346.
    Carlson, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Stener, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Sand, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Pålsson, Bertil
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    In-Situ Monitoring of Particle Velocities and Solids Concentration Variations in wet Low-Intensity Magnetic Separators2015In: 2015 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, IUS 2015: Taipei, 21-24 Oct. 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, 7329339Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In previous work, we have shown how an ultrasound pulse-echo setup can be used to simultaneously measure particle velocity profiles and local solids concentration variations in solid/liquid particle suspensions. In this paper, we demonstrate a real-world case where the system is installed in a wet low-intensity magnetic separator, a process in which magnetic material is separated from gangue. The method was evaluated at LKAB's R&D facilities in Malmberget, Sweden, on one of their pilot scale separators. The results show that it is possible to detect changes in the flow velocity patterns and the local solids concentration, as the operational conditions of the separator are varied.

  • 347.
    Carlson, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Stener, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Sand, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Pålsson, Bertil
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Monitoring local solids fraction variations in multiphase flow using pulse-echo ultrasound2015In: Physics Procedia, ISSN 1875-3892, E-ISSN 1875-3892, Vol. 70, 376-379 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an ultrasonic pulse-echo technique for on-line monitoring of variations in solids concentrations in particlesuspensions. The method is based on time-frequency analysis of the backscatter signals, exploring variations in spectral content ofthe backscatter as function of depth in the suspension. Experiments on a settling of magnetite particles in water, at varying solidsconcentrations, show that the settling process can be followed by studying the energy of backscattered ultrasound.

  • 348.
    Carlsson, Leo
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Processing.
    Using Multilayer Perceptrons asmeans to predict the end-pointtemperature in an Electric ArcFurnace2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 349.
    Carlsson, R.
    et al.
    Swedish State Power Board, Vällingby.
    Forssberg, Eric
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Sundberg, S.
    Boliden AB.
    Effects of beneficiation of steam coal at the power plant1982In: 9th International coal preparation congress. Technical papers, Indian Organizing Committee , 1982, E3.1-E3.27 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 350. Carlsson, Roy
    et al.
    Forssberg, Eric
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Ryk, Lennart
    Rening av ångkol med fysikaliska metoder före förbränning1982Report (Other academic)
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