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  • 301. Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    Berghauser Pont, M.
    Colding, Johan
    Gren, Å.
    Legeby, A.
    Marcus, L.
    DN Debatt: ”Nytt miljonprogram – unik chans att lösa flera frågor”2016In: Dagens nyheterArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 302. Barton, Nick
    et al.
    Stephansson, OveLuleå tekniska universitet.
    Rock joints: proceedings of the International Symposium on Rock Joints, Loen / Norway / 4-6 June 19901990Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 303. Basu, A.
    et al.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Business case for sustainable performance: management at the project level leading to project sustainability2002In: MTM - 2002 Proceedings: International Seminar on Mining, Technology, and Management for Business Excellence, New Delhi, November 2002, Hyderabad: Mining Engineers' Association of India , 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 304.
    Basu, Arun J.
    et al.
    Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College London.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Innovation and technology driven sustainability performance management framework (ITSPM) for the mining and minerals sector2004In: International Journal of Mining, Reclamation and Environment, ISSN 1748-0930, E-ISSN 1748-0949, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 135-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable development (SD) has been defined as the development that lasts while also contributing to a better quality of life for everyone involved (stakeholders). This is a global concept that integrates and balances the social, economic, and environment factors. A major component of implementing the SD concepts is its governance. Activities such as training and developing standards of measuring SD (indicators) are of critical importance for control and proper implementation of SD for the mining and minerals industry in a global scale maintaining the local constraints. Achieving project sustainability satisfies a local sustainability goal, which in turn would contribute to the corporate sustainability, and then the global sustainability of a country or a region. A sustainable development framework in the form of sustainable performance management (SPM) is addressed. Implementation of SPM requires a set of indicators for measuring, monitoring, and reporting the progress. This paper emphasises the need for innovation and technology driven sustainable performance management (ITSPM) framework, encapsulated by a Multi-Stakeholder Process (MSP) for performance management and developing the relevant performance indicators.

  • 305.
    Batsos, Epameinondas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geodesy and Geoinformatics.
    Rabbi, Atta
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geodesy and Geoinformatics.
    Clustering and cartographic simplification of point data set2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 306.
    Beaktas, Oguz
    et al.
    Warwick Manufacturing Group, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, United Kingdom.
    Jones, Jeffrey A.
    Warwick Manufacturing Group, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, United Kingdom.
    Sankararaman, Shankar
    PricewaterhouseCoopers, San Jose, CA 95110, United States.
    Roychoudhury, Indranil
    Stinger Ghaffarian Technologies, Inc., NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035, United States.
    Goebel, Kai
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics. NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035, United States.
    Reconstructing secondary test database from PHM08 challenge data set2018In: Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this data article, a reconstructed database, which provides information from PHM08 challenge data set, is presented. The original turbofan engine data were from the Prognostic Center of Excellence (PCoE) of NASA Ames Research Center (Saxena and Goebel, 2008), and were simulated by the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation (C-MAPSS) (Saxena et al., 2008). The data set is further divided into "training", "test" and "final test" subsets. It is expected from collaborators to train their models using “training” data subset, evaluate the Remaining Useful Life (RUL) prediction performance on “test” subset and finally, apply the models to the “final test” subset for competition. However, the "final test" results can only be submitted once by email to PCoE. Before the results are sent for performance evaluation, in order to pre-validate the dataset with true RUL values, this data article introduces reconstructed secondary datasets derived from the noisy degradation patterns of original trajectories. Reconstructed database refers to data that were collected from the training trajectories. Fundamentally, it is formed of individual partial trajectories in which the RUL is known as a ground truth. Its use provides a robust validation of the model developed for the PHM08 data challenge that would otherwise be ambiguous due to the high-risk of one-time submission. These data and analyses support the research data article “A Neural Network Filtering Approach for Similarity-Based Remaining Useful Life Estimations” (Bektas et al., 2018).

  • 307.
    Bektas, Oguz
    et al.
    Warwick Manufacturing Group, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK.
    Jones, Jeffrey A.
    Warwick Manufacturing Group, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK.
    Sankararaman, Shankar
    Data Science and Analytics Manager,Pricewaterhouse Cooper, San Jose, USA.
    Roychoudhury, Indranil
    Stinger Ghaffarian Technologies, Inc.NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, USA.
    Goebel, Kai
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics. NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, USA.
    A neural network filtering approach for similarity-based remaining useful life estimation2018In: The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, ISSN 0268-3768, E-ISSN 1433-3015Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of prognostics and health management is ever more prevalent with advanced techniques of estimation methods. However, data processing and remaining useful life prediction algorithms are often very different. Some difficulties in accurate prediction can be tackled by redefining raw data parameters into more meaningful and comprehensive health level indicators that will then provide performance information. Proper data processing has a significant importance on remaining useful life predictions, for example, to deal with data limitations or/and multi-regime operating conditions. The framework proposed in this paper considers a similarity-based prognostic algorithm that is fed by the use of data normalisation and filtering methods for operational trajectories of complex systems. This is combined with a data-driven prognostic technique based on feed-forward neural networks with multi-regime normalisation. In particular, the paper takes a close look at how pre-processing methods affect algorithm performance. The work presented herein shows a conceptual prognostic framework that overcomes challenges presented by short-term test datasets and that increases the prediction performance with regards to prognostic metrics.

  • 308. Benda, Sten
    EMC undersökning i Kiruna 2003-06-23--272004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Många tågförseningar förorsakas av elektromagnetiska störningar t.ex. åsknedslag och signaler som slår om till rött av okänd anledning. Med detta som grund enades arbetsgrupp TURSAM (Tillämpat underhåll i samverkan) på rekommendation av Banverket Projektering Luleå kontoret, om att anlita EMCES Sten Benda att försöka identifiera bakomliggande orsak till dessa störningar. Sten Benda utförde tillsammans med Banverket Norra Banregionen, personal från EISLAB (LTU) underökningar och mätningar på anläggningar: Syfte var att hitta de bakomliggande orsakerna till elektromagnetiska störningar i järnvägsmiljö. Målsättning för den här undersökningen är att fastställa om elektromagnetiska störningar kan orsaka problem som kan påverka järnvägsdrift. Sten Bendas undersökning och rapport visar på ett antal allvarliga fel bl.a. Grundläggande fel i överordnade föreskrifter, missförstånd angående hur skärmning av elektromagnetiska fält skall utföras vilket medför att nya anläggningar byggs och monteras så att EMC-skyddet helt förstörs. Felaktig terminologi användes, bl a förväxlas begreppen låg-ohmig och låg-impediv. Stora dyra kurar (30 tkr/st) för skärmning perforeras med hål, med rätt installation kan billigare kurar (5 tkr/st) användas. Slutbesiktningen släpper igenom för många byggfel och dokumentationen i anläggningarna stämmer inte överens med verkligt montage. Elsäkerheten bevakas inte.

  • 309.
    Bengtsson, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geodesy and Satellite Positioning.
    Grönkvist, Mikael
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geodesy and Satellite Positioning.
    Performing Geographic Information System Analyses on Building Information Management Models2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the usage of both BIM (Building Information Modelling) and 3D-GIS (Three-Dimensional Geographic Information Systems) has increased within the field of urban development and construction, so has the interest in connecting these two tools.  One possibility of integration is the potential of visualising BIM models together with other spatial data in 3D. Another is to be able to perform spatial 3D analyses on the models. Both of these can be achieved through use of GIS software.

    This study explores how integration of BIM and GIS could look. The goal was to perform typical GIS analyses in 3D on BIM models. Previous research points towards some success within the field through use of the indicated standard format for each tool – IFC (Industry Foundation Classes) for BIM and CityGML (City Geographic Markup Language) for GIS. Transformation between the formats took place through use of the BIM software Revit, the transformation tool FME and the GIS software ArcGIS. A couple of reviewed applications of GIS analyses were chosen for testing on the converted models – indoor network analysis, visibility analysis and spatial analysis for 3D buildings.

    The input data in the study was several BIM models, both models created for real-life usage and others that only function as sample data within the different software. From the results of the practical work it can be concluded that a simple, automated and full-scale integration does not seem to be within reach quite yet. Most transformations between IFC and CityGML failed to some extent, especially the more detailed and complex ones. In some test cases, the file could not be imported into ArcGIS and in others geometries were missing or existing even though they should not. There were also examples where geometries had been moved during the process. As a consequence of these problems, most analyses failed or did not give meaningful results. A few of the original analyses did give positive results. Combining (flawed) CityGML models with other spatial data for visualisation purposes worked rather well. Both the shadow volume and sightline analyses did also get reasonable results which indicates that there might be a future for those applications.

    The obstacles for a full-scale integration identified during the work were divided into four different categories. The first is BIM usage and routines where created models need to be of high quality if the final results are to be correct. The second are problems concerning the level of detail, especially the lack of common definitions for the amount of details and information. The third category concerns the connection between local and global coordinate systems where a solution in form of updates to IFC might already be in place. The fourth, and largest, category contains those surrounding the different formats and software used. Here, focus should lie on the transformation between IFC and CityGML.

    There are plenty of possible, future, work concerning these different problems. There is also potential in developing own tools for integration or performing different analyses than those chosen for this thesis.

  • 310.
    Bengtsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Nilsson, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Klimatsimulering av ett kyrktorn uppfört i sten2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete syftar till att utreda klimatsimuleringsprogrammen IDA-ICE och WUFI, hur dessa program kan komplettera varandra och användas till simulering av kyrktorn som blivit byggda i sten. IDA-ICE har av tidigare utredningar klargjort att detta program inte redovisa fuktlagring i konstruktioner vilket WUFI gör, därav valet till dessa program. Klimatsimuleringarna utförs i Nässjö gamla kyrkas torn som är byggt av stenblock som sammanfogats med kalkbruk.

    Utredningen görs med hjälp av klimatloggar som mäter temperatur och relativ fuktighet. Dessa mätinstrument placeras ut i Nässjö gamla kyrkas torn för mätning. Värdena för klimatloggarna jämförs med simuleringarnas värden från IDA-ICE och WUFI.

    Klimatsimuleringarna visar sig inte ge samma värden av temperatur eller relativ fuktighet gentemot klimatloggarnas uppmätta värden. Klimatdatan i IDA-ICE skiljer sig mycket från verkligheten vilket bland annat påverkar resultatet. WUFI simulerar endimensionella punkter för konstruktioner vilket innebär att uppbyggnaden av ytterväggarna i programmet inte ger en rättvis bild mot verkligheten, vilket också påverkar resultatet. Resultatet ger därför en bristfällighet till användning av dessa simuleringsprogram, för utredning av klimatet i kyrktorn som är byggda i sten. Det är istället säkrare att använda klimatloggar vid utredningar av klimat, för denna typ av byggnad, då dessa, rätt kalibrerade är tillförlitliga.

  • 311.
    Berg, Marianne
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Berglund, Helene
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Utvärdering av möjligheten att använda UAS vid gränsmätning i skogsmiljö2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Real properties in Dalarna often consist of small lots of forest or agriculture. These lots are often elongated and consequently impractical, therefore the Swedish mapping, cadastral and land registration authority performs comprising land consolidations. These are to swap land between the owners of the properties, in order to form appropriate lots, for purpose of, inter alia, promoting investment and development opportunities in the region. In order to establish a map, a decision basis, for the valuation of the lot, the claimed proprietary right has to be surveyed. The work is performed with NRTK (network-RTK) or total station, and the maximum allowed planar deviation is 0.50 m (base level requirement). The purpose of this study was to examine whether there is a possibility of using Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) when claimed property boundaries are going to be surveyed. UAS is a system consisting of an unmanned aerial vehicle, a digital camera, a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, an Inertial Navigation System (INS) and a control station.

    In a delimitated area of about 24 ha in Norra Åbyggeby, north of Gävle, black and white and white markers, with the size of 0.40x0.40 m, were positioned in the terrain and then surveyed as ground control points or boundary points with network RTK. Mean planimetric coordinates have been calculated for the control points, which have been used as reference coordinates. These have been compared with the coordinates measured in an orthophotomosaic produced from flights with UAS at an altitude of 100 and 180 m. To get a further comparison, the coordinates were determined by a block adjustment in the software PhotoScan from Agisoft. The object identification of the markers, placed in different environments, and from different altitudes has been studied.

    The digitalization in the orthophotomosaic resulted in a Root Mean Square error (RMS-value) of 0.083 m at an altitude of 100 m and a value of 0.049 m at an altitude of 180 m. Corresponding RMS values were 0.071 m at an altitude of 100 m and 0.077 m at an altitude of 180 m when computed in PhotoScan. F-test has been calculated using the four RMS values, the result of the F-test showed that coordinates obtained in an orthophotomosaic, in ArcMap, are equivalent to coordinates obtained by block adjustment, in PhotoScan. The F-test also showed that the coordinates are equivalent from altitudes 100 and 180 m by block adjustment, but they are not equivalent when they are obtained in an orthophotomosaic from altitudes 100 and 180 m. If we disregard the systematic error at three of the points (orthophotomosaic 100 m) the F-test did not show any statistically significant difference between the two altitudes.

    All deviations were below the base level requirement. The largest planar deviation was 0.181 m at an altitude of 100 m and 0.083 m at an altitude of 180 m. Corresponding values for PhotoScan were 0.155 m and 0.148 m. How dense the forest was where the marker was placed and the impact of the sun, in terms of shadows and brightness, have affected the composition of the mosaic, and consequently the deviations. UAS can be used for surveying of claimed property boundaries, but there is no guarantee that all signalized boundary points can be surveyed directly in the orthophotomosaic. One recommendation is to use a less accurate method for the measurement of the ground control points (needed for the georeferencing of the point cloud/orthophotomosaic) than the method used in this thesis. The higher altitude is preferable because the time requirement of the flight will be shorter, and a smaller number of aerial photos need to be processed. Choose the method that the user is used to, manual digitizing in an orthophotomosaic or automatic calculation in a block adjustment.

  • 312.
    Berg, Susanne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Uppföljning efter PCB sanering: -En studie av kommuners uppföljande verksamhet efter PCB sanering i byggnad2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 313.
    Berg, Sven
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Jungmar, Ulf
    Bodycote Materials Testing AB, Linköping.
    Lundberg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Vähäoja, Pekka
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Oulu.
    Investigation of the measurement precision of oil analysis instruments, using fully formulated oils: Part 1: Spectroscopic instruments2011In: Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, ISSN 0036-8792, E-ISSN 1758-5775, Vol. 63, no 6, p. 404-411Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The aim of this study is to determine the variation of the different oil analysis instruments in terms of standard deviation and CV-values, when measuring samples of fully formulated hydraulic and gear oils taken from working systems. Design/methodology/approach - In this investigation, two different spectrometric techniques, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometers (ICP-OES) and rotating disk electrode-optical emission spectrometers (RDE-OES), have been studied to determine the instruments' precision of measurement and ability to measure the absolute level of contamination. The study was based on a series of measurements using artificial contamination mixed with oil. Findings - The ICP has better precision of measurement of the two instruments, but cannot predict the absolute values of contamination when oil samples are only treated by organic solvent dilution if the samples include large or dense particles. It is therefore not too good, with the sample pre-treatment method used, at detecting wear processes that produce dense/large particles, such as pitting failure. For instance, microwave-assisted acid digestion could be used for sample pre-treating to obtain accurate results in that case. It should, however, be able to detect wear mechanisms that produce small particles such as abrasive wear in any case. The ICP has a repeatability value of r=3 percent and a reproducibility value of R=12 percent for contamination levels of between 50 and 400 ppm and r=0.6 and R=2 ppm, respectively, at values below 50 ppm. The RDE cannot predict the absolute value of contamination if this includes large or dense particles if proper sample pre-treatment is not used. It is therefore not good at detecting wear mechanisms that produces dense/large particles (if the oil samples are not pre-treated properly) such as pitting but should be able to detect abrasive wear and similar processes that produce small particles in any case. The RDE's precision of measurement is not as good as the ICP, with a reproducibility variation of R=r=25 percent for contamination levels between 20 and 500 ppm and R=r=6 ppm for contamination level below 20 ppm. Research limitations/implications - Only the effects from lubricating oils are studied. Practical implications - This study will significantly increase the industrial knowledge concerning measurement precision in particle contamination measurement systems. Originality/value - No similar study is found

  • 314.
    Berg, Sven
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Jungmar, Ulf
    Bodycote Materials Testing AB, Linköping.
    Lundberg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Vähäoja, Pekka
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Oulu.
    Investigation of the measurement precision of oil analysis instruments, using fully formulated oils: Part 2: Contamination-measuring instruments2011In: Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, ISSN 0036-8792, E-ISSN 1758-5775, Vol. 63, no 6, p. 412-419Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The aim of this study is to determine the variation of the different oil analysis instruments in terms of standard deviation and CV-values, when measuring samples of fully formulated hydraulic and gear oils taken from working systems. Design/methodology/approach - In this investigation two different spectrometric techniques, ICP-OES and RDE-OES, have been studied to determine the instruments' precision of measurement and ability to measure the absolute level of contamination. Findings - The ICP has better precision of measurement of the two instruments, but cannot predict the absolute values of contamination when oil samples are only treated by organic solvent dilution if the samples include large or dense particles. It is therefore not too good, with the sample pre-treatment method used, at detecting wear processes that produce dense/large particles, such as pitting failure. For instance, microwave-assisted acid digestion could be used for sample pre-treating to obtain accurate results in that case. It should, however, be able to detect wear mechanisms that produce small particles such as abrasive wear in any case: the ICP has a repeatability value of ITr/IT=3 per cent and a reproducibility value of ITR/IT=12 per cent for contamination levels of between 50-400 PPM and ITr/IT=0.6 PPM and ITR/IT=2 PPM, respectively, at values below 50 PPM; the RDE cannot predict the absolute value of contamination if this includes large or dense particles if proper sample pre-treatment is not used. It is therefore not good at detecting wear mechanisms that produce dense/large particles (if the oil samples are not pre-treated properly) such as pitting but should be able to detect abrasive wear and similar processes that produce small particles in any case; the RDE's precision of measurement is not as good as the ICP, with a reproducibility variation of ITR/IT=ITr/IT=25 per cent for contamination levels between 20-500 PPM and ITR/IT=ITr/IT=6 PPM for contamination level below 20 PPM. Research limitations/implications - Measuring only on fully formulated oils from hydraulic and gear systems. Practical implications - The study will be of significant support regarding industrial interpretation of measurement results from the most common oil particle measurement methods. Originality/value - No other similar studies are known

  • 315.
    Berg, Sven
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Lundberg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Rheological properties of contaminated oil2000In: Proceedings of the International Tribology Conference: ITC Nagasaki 2000 ; October 29 - November 2, 2000, Tokyo: Japan Society of Tribologists , 2000, p. 1239-1243Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 316.
    Berg, Therese
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Lighting design.
    Siljeskog, Adam
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Lighting design.
    Belysningsnivåer vid receptionsdiskar2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to identify if there is reason to change the requirementsand recommendations for illumination in reception desks areas. This studyexamines how lighting in reception desks areas actually is and how the staff perceivesthe lighting.

    Hotels today usually have subdued environments that vary according to the typeof experience intended for their guests. Our interest has been to explore the receptiondesks area as an important and separate element within the hotel. We havecompared “Ljus och Rum” recommendations (Swedish Standards Institute [SIS],2011) with actual measured light levels for four reception desks areas and examinedhow the staff perceives how the lighting affects their performance of dailytasks.

    The methods we have used are light measurement, evenness calculations, visualanalysis and surveys. Lighting measurements were performed at four differenthotels in Gothenburg. The questionnaire was directed to the hotel staff in order toascertain their perception of the lighting in and around the reception’s desks area.In order to get an impression of and gain an overall understanding for the lighting,a visual analysis was done at each hotel.

    The majority of the staff considers the lighting sufficient to perform their duties.It is clear that the lighting is perceived differently in each of the four hotels, dependingon how each hotel is formed and how the lighting is designed.

  • 317.
    Bergdahl, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Magnus, Rönn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Planering för funktionintegrering - problem och utgångspunkter2001Report (Other academic)
  • 318.
    Bergdahl, Lina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    CPTED för en trygg park: En studie om betydelsen av den fysiska miljöns utformning i en park ur ett trygghetsperspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 319.
    Berges, Luis
    et al.
    Department of Design Engineering and Manufacturing, University of Zaragoza.
    Galar, Diego
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Stenström, Christer
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Qualitative and quantitative aspects of maintenance performance measurement: a data fusion approach2013In: International Journal of Strategic Engineering Asset Management (IJSEAM), ISSN 1759-9733, E-ISSN 1759-9741, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 238-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The measurement of maintenance performance is often faced with a lack in knowledge about the real function of the maintenance department within organisations, and consequently appropriate targets from the global mission and vision are absence. Measurement metrics are not adapted to real needs, which have a strong human factor; nor is there a roadmap of the amount of data to be collected, their processing or how they are used in decision making. This article proposes a model where qualitative and quantitative methods are combined to complement the advantages of both.

  • 320.
    Berggren, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Förnyelselagen, möjlighet eller hot?: Förnyelse av äldre inskrivna avtalsrättigheter, Gävle kommuns hantering av förnyelsekravet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to the so-called ”förnyelselagen”, the Renewal Act, all title registration of contractual rights registered before 1 July 1968 will be de-registered from the Real Property Register, unless renewal is applied for the right no later than 31 December 2018. The aim of the degree project is to pay attention to the renewal requirement. The objective is partly to investigate how the municipality of Gävle will handle the renewal requirement, and partly to facilitate the municipality to determine for which registered rights renewal needs to be sought.

    Unnecessary registered rights cause additional work and costs at cadastral procedures and the Renewal Act is considered to be an effective tool to de-register unnecessary registered rights. At the same time, concerns have been expressed that right holders will apply for renewal for all registered rights that are affected, without investigate which of them are unnecessary. In addition, there is also a concern that the renewal requirement may be overlooked by right holders for rights that are still relevant, which can lead to legal loss.

    Three methods were used in the study. Juridical method was used to investigate the legal situation regarding what happens with registered rights that are de-registered from the Real Property Register. To study how a major right holder acts, an investigation of registered rights was made in the Real Property Register regarding the municipality of Gävle. Furthermore, interviews were conducted with representatives of the municipality concerning the work with the renewal requirement.

    A result of the juridical method is that there are four different situations when an unregistered right may end. The result of the inventory in the Real Property Register, shows that there are about 1 400 registered rights that affect the properties of the municipality. The interviews resulted in that the municipality is informed about the renewal requirement and the municipality in most cases will investigate which registered rights should be renewed.

    The first conclusion is that unregistered contractual rights currently remain valid in the same manner as registered rights, but they may end in four situations if they are not monitored by the right holder. Such protection of unregistered rights is found to be practically impossible in most cases regarding the municipality of Gävle. The other conclusion is that the municipality will investigate which registered rights that need to be renewed, therefore the risk of legal loss can be assessed as low. Finally, it can be concluded that the Renewal Act is an opportunity rather than a threat for the municipality of Gävle.

  • 321.
    Berggren, Filip
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Österlund, Robin
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Hur ansvariga vid vägarbeten ser på sin uppgift kopplat till säkerhet och framkomlighet2011Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 1997, the Swedish parliament adopted a decision on Vision Zero (nollvision) in the road 

    and transport system. Vision Zero means that no one should be killed or seriously injured in 

    traffic accidents in the road transport system (Prop. 2003/04: 160). For the Transport 

    Administration in Sweden (Trafikverket), this means increased demands on security and 

    signage at road work sites around the country. This in turn means increased demands on the 

    contractors that carry out road work for the Transport Administration. The Transport 

    Administration wants a better understanding how entrepreneurs in various operational areas in 

    the Eastern Region perceive their role as responsible for safety and accessibility on roadwork 

    sites and to better understand the problems that can occur when signage is inadequate. In this 

    report, governing documents for the operating entrepreneurs have been studied, in addition, 

    searches of literature in various transport databases have been made. Interviews have been 

    made with the operating entrepreneurs who have had the opportunity to highlight their views 

    on roadwork. The results of the study are a compilation of things the contractors put emphasis 

    on. Among other things, several of them want to separate service equipment 

    (trafikanordningar) from the procurement because it is possible to win offers with a lower bid 

    amount, depending on how signage is made and safety is ensured. Many contractors also call 

    for more clarification from the Transport Administration, and say that it is often unclear what 

    the relevant directives are. Hopefully, this report will help increase the Transport 

    Administration’s understanding of the roadwork performed by contractors and help them 

    towards Vision Zero.  

     

    Keywords 

    vägarbete, trafikanordning, utmärkning, nollvision, trafikanordningsplan, konkurrenssättning, 

    skyltning, framkomlighet 

  • 322.
    Bergkvist, Joel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geodesy and Satellite Positioning.
    Optimal Design of Network for Control of Total Station Instruments2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis uses the Minimum Norm Quadratic Unbiased Estimation (MINQUE) to estimatestandard deviation of observations of a total station. Different setups are created byaltering the number of stations and targets and their relative position in the network tostudy the effect that different setups have to the estimation and define what are importantto minimize the effect of the setup to the estimation.A lot of research has been done around methods for estimation of variance and covariancecomponents, since it is useful in many fields. Various approaches exists to solve theproblem of variance components estimation. Geodesy is a special case, were their often isa apriori knowledge of how well an instrument is able to record measurements. There isan ISO-standard for testing and verification of geodetic instrument but also an alternativeapproach the KTH-Total Station Check.For the estimation three main types of setups were defined and used in the simulation.These main types were then altered to see how different changes to the setup effect theoverall estimation. The alterations were changes in distance between station and targets,changes in vertical distance between stations and targets and the amount of observationscarried out by adding more stations and targets to the setups.The result of the simulations shows that the tested changes in the setups do effectthe estimation. It was not possible to determine by how much for each change, becausea change in vertical displacement also meant a change in angles and distance betweenthe station and the target. Increasing the amount of stations and targets or one of themshows that standard deviation of the estimation becomes smaller. The effect can be seenindependent of which type of setup that is used. The most important factor to how goodthe estimation will be is the amount of observations.

  • 323.
    Berglund, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Who wins from academic consulting2013In: Design Education-Growing Our Future: Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Engineering and Product Design Education (E&pde13, Glasgow: The Design Society Institution of Engineering Designers , 2013, p. 82-87Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    University teachers who start teaching right after graduation have not used and developed their knowledge professionally thus they have never had the opportunity to test their acquired knowledge in practice. This results in teaching that tends to be heavily theoretical because the teacher teaches what he/she has learned in studies, instead of teaching the knowledge gained through professional experience. Unfortunately a teacher can feel insecure when not knowing if their teaching reflects currently used methods and/or appropriate tools. An effect of this can be that teachers who feel insufficient in their role as teachers. The aim of this paper is to see if academic consulting not only increases the practical experience of the teacher, but also helps the teacher in their role and gives them a better understanding of what the state of the art is. While some schools have some cooperation with the business community, both in student projects and research projects, although it is not common with external non-research consultation projects, which are conducted by the university teachers. A questionnaire was sent to both teachers and students’ asking them of their experience of academic consulting’s benefits to the classroom experience. As a follow-up were several interviewed, along with clients to gain more insight. The results showed that teachers, students and the clients benefited from these types of projects.

  • 324.
    Berglund, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Håkansson, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    A systematic self-assessment tool2012In: Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Engineering and Product Design Education: Design Education for Future Wellbeing, EPDE 2012, 2012, p. 311-316Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Bologna Process has led to fundamental changes in the way students are taught. This in turn has led to new quality assurance systems for teaching. For good outcomes to occur both the teachers and students need to be aware of the intended learning outcome (ILO) and this is made clearer by well defined Teacher/Learner Activities (TLAs). The Systematic Grading Procedure (SGP) has been shown to assist teachers grading student’s 3D-image work, fulfilling a need for assistance in subjects requiring grading of subjective nature. With the application of this method have both teachers and students been given a tool that helps them better understand the grading process and the level of importance of different parts of the 3D work. The aim of this study was to assess students’ learning outcomes. The SGP was used and compared by both teachers and students in assessing their own work. This study used four students who were introduced to the SGP at the introduction of the course. This was done to give then an idea how they are to understand the ILOs. After one of their assignments was graded the students were given an opportunity to improve their work using the SPG. Three of the four choose to improve their work. The ensuing interview and results showed that the SGP could be used as a tool to help students and teachers with the ILO and TLAs. In addition to that the SGP should further be tested for verification.

  • 325.
    Berglund, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Högström, Per
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Is video feedback in higher education worth a byte?2015In: Great Expectations: Design Teaching, Research & Enterprise: Design Teaching, Research & Enterprise - Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Engineering and Product Design Education (E&PDE15) / [ed] Ahmed Kovacevic ; Guy Bingham; Brian Parkinsson, Glasgow: The Design Society Institution of Engineering Designers , 2015, p. 258-263Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Feedback can be given in various situations, like after examinations, project work, and course completion. It is widely accepted that feedback is important for students’ learning, and it can be used in various ways, such as, written, face-to-face, and with the assistance of video recordings. This study focuses on the use of video recorded feedback to gather knowledge on how video recorded feedback can enhance the students learning. Since feedback in the study was given in video recordings, an alternate way was introduced, which add further insights for teaching and learning at university levels. The results showed that 94% preferred video recorded feedback over written feedback and they, in general, preferred face to face feedback (59%). Although, follow-up questions showed that the students found the recorded option beneficial since they could review the video several times in order to see and hear exactly what was stated and what part of their work it related to. In conclusion, video feedback of student work was perceived to be beneficial and the students and the teacher positively accepted it.

  • 326.
    Berglund, Emil
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Thörnqvist, Simon
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Detaljplan med enskilt huvudmannaskap för allmänna platser: planering kontra genomförande2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie har vi utrett om genomförandet av allmänna platser inom detaljplanelagda områden med enskilt huvudmannaskap utförts i enlighet med kommunens intentioner. Studien baserades på elva detaljplaner inom tre kommuner i Västra Götalandsregionen där planhandlingar granskats och jämförts med de förrättningar som skett på områdena. Slutligen besiktigades också områdena för att se hur det blev i verkligheten. Granskningen visade att kommunernas intentioner har följts överlag men avvikelser förekommer. Vi kom fram till att enskilt huvudmannaskap kan vara en fungerande lösning för att säkerställa kommunens intentioner om de använder sig av planbestämmelser för att reglera utformningen av allmänna platser i detaljplan.

    En kortare studie av aktuell lagstiftning visar att kommunerna får använda sig av planbestämmelser på allmän plats vid enskilt huvudmannaskap i samma grad som kommunen skall använda sig av dessa vid kommunalt huvudmannaskap.

    Med ett kommittédirektiv som bakgrund, där det b.la. skall utredas hur tillgängligheten till allmänna platser med enskilt huvudmannaskap skall vara, har vi under besiktningen av områdena också undersökt hur tillgängligheten faktiskt var. Besiktningen visade att tillgängligheten till de allmänna platserna varierade mellan de kommuner vi granskade.

    En enkätundersökning visar att lantmäterimyndigheterna anser att samarbetet med kommunerna är för dålig p.g.a. bristande resurser. Lantmäterimyndigheterna har som utgångspunkt att följa planbestämmelser gällande utformning av allmänna platser. Det förekommer att lantmäterimyndigheterna förbiser prövning av väsentlighet och båtnad i de fall detaljplan ligger till grund för förrättningen.

    Övriga slutsatser vi dragit från arbetet är att naturområden som skall vara allmänt tillgängliga ej bör ingå i en gemensamhetsanläggning då väsentlighetsvillkoret enligt Anläggningslagen, AL kan ifrågasättas. Vi kom också fram till att anläggningsbesluten bör utformas mer utförligt för att tydliggöra kostnader och ansvar för fastighetsägare i framtiden.

  • 327.
    Berglund, Filip
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Structural analysis and condition monitoring of grinding mills: a case study2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Grinding mills are large rotating cylindrical steel vessels used to grind ore and minerals into finer particles. The mills are important parts of the mineral enrichment process and the grinding is the last step of the comminution process, where the particle size is reduced by a combination of abrasion and impact.The rotation of the mill under loaded conditions can result in fatigue cracks. Fatigue cracks and associated failures have been identified as a major problem in mineral processing plants. The cracks lead to unpredicted and unplanned production stoppages for inspections and for repair and replacement of the cracked mill parts. This leads to increasing costs due to production loss, additional man-hours and spare parts.The purpose of the research presented in this licentiate thesis was to calculate the structural strains, stresses, displacements, etc. in grinding mills in operation, to prevent overloading, to calculate crack propagation speeds and critical crack lengths, and to develop new improved mills that would withstand the current loading. This research has also aimed to propose, develop and test methods for the detection and monitoring of fatigue cracks in mills during operation, in order to facilitate optimal maintenance decision-making based on current crack sizes.The performed research is a case study of the secondary pebble mills of LKAB, a mining company in northern Sweden. The mills are situated inside dressing plants KA1 and KA2 in Kiruna. To achieve the goals, a number of crack detection and monitoring methods were investigated and evaluated as to their ability to find and monitor fatigue cracks on the running mills. Measurements with wireless strain measurement equipment, infrared thermography and crack propagation sensors were performed on the mills in operation.A finite element model of a mill was developed to calculate the strains and stresses in the mill at any position in the mill and for any loading condition. A variety of spatial discretizations, boundary conditions, material properties and loading alternatives were considered to simulate the behaviour of the real mill in the best possible way. To calculate the loading on the mills in operation, a mathematical model and computer software were developed to calculate the charge configuration, as well as the loading and the magnitude and distribution of the forces acting on the mill in operation. Using the finite element model and the computer software, the global displacement field of the entire mill structure was calculated using quasi-static loading for different inputs of the charge and process parameters.To verify the finite element results, the measured strain ranges for one complete rotation of the mill were compared with the corresponding calculated ones. The numerical results were also verified with logged process data, such as bearing reaction forces. One conclusion, based on the comparisons, is that the developed finite element model and the developed software tools can be considered useful for engineering applications.The developed software tools, together with the finite element model, make it possible to calculate the global displacement field of the entire mill structure for any situation. This is achieved by inputting the desired process data and charge parameters into the software, calculating the loads and force distributions, exporting them to the finite element model, and running the simulation. From the global displacement field, strains, stresses, reaction forces, displacements, etc. can be calculated with standard routines for any position in the mill.The performed research work gives a deeper understanding of the field of structural analysis and load calculation of grinding mills in operation. The complexity of modelling the behaviour of mills in operation is high. Consequently, it is difficult to obtain accurate estimations of crack propagation speeds and critical crack sizes based on the calculated stresses.It has been found that strain measurements, with strain gauges attached to the mill mandrel, can be used to detect and monitor larger circumferential cracks near the flanges in the mill in operation, since the measured strain ranges increase with the crack size. It has further been found that infrared thermography can be used as a method to indicate cracks without stopping the mill, as the increased thermal gradient around the cracks can be detected by a special type of thermal instrument.Crack propagation sensors have proven to be ideal for high-precision online monitoring of the crack propagation of smaller cracks at the corners of the manholes in the mill. Finally, it has been found that strain measurement is a useful method not only to verify finite element results and to detect and monitor cracks, but also to prevent overloading of the mill and to estimate charge features such as the filling level, the charge shape and the position of the charge circumferentially inside the mill during operation.

  • 328.
    Berglund, Filip
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Structural analysis of a rotating mining mill with the finite element method2011In: Proceedings of Computational Modelling'11, Minerals Engineering International , 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 329.
    Berglund, Filip
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Nordström, Jakob
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Parida, Aditya
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Non-destructive testing (NDT) methods for detection and monitoring of fatigue cracks in mining mills2011In: International Journal of COMADEM, ISSN 1363-7681, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 18-26Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 330.
    Berglund, Filip
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Parida, Aditya
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Health monitoring of mining mills with infrared thermography2011In: Proceedings of the 24th International Congress on Condition Monitoring and Diagnosis Engineering Management: COMADEM 2011 / [ed] Maneesh Singh; Raj B.K.N. Rao; J.P. Liyanage, COMADEM International, 2011, p. 1190-1196Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Infrared thermography has been investigated as a non destructive testing method for health monitoring of rotating mining mills. The idea is to monitor the thermal differences on the mill surface with thermal camera in order to detect and maintain cracks and other material damage in the mill material. A general description of the thermography technique, the theory behind, advantages and drawbacks as well as its use in other applications is presented. To test the usefulness of the method, real life measurements with IR-camera have been performed on several mining mills at a mining company located in northern Sweden. The results from these measurements are presented and discussed in this article. Infrared thermography is a fast and relatively cheap inspection method which can find and monitor material damage in rotating mining mills and help the maintenance personal in taking the corrective maintenance decisions.

  • 331.
    Berglund, Gabriella
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Mechanics, Byggteknik.
    Utveckling av fastighet i Uppsala innerstad: Förslagshandlingar till flerbostadshus för studenter2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 332.
    Berglund, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Karlsson, Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Den juridiska odlingsgränsen och dess inverkan på förvärv av statlig mark: En studie av markförvärv i samband med samhällsomvandlingen i Kiruna2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Two urban transformations are in progress in northern Sweden today, in Kiruna and in Malmberget, due to expanding mining operations. The relocation of the two cities requires land acquisition. In Kiruna there are specific conditions due to certain protection provided by the so called cultivation border. The purpose of the study is to give a wide perspective on this unique cultivation border and indicate its association with land acquisition. In order to achieve the purpose of the study the history of the cultivation border, the urban transformations and national interests were investigated, as well as the process of land acquisition and how it can be improved. A literature study, qualitative interviews and visits at Kiruna and Malmberget was used to gain knowledge within the topic.As early as in the 1500s, the Swedish government started to take control of the northern parts of the country and encouraged its colonization. The cultivation border was created in the late 1800s to protect the Sami people and their industry from the settlers. The urban transformations are very extensive and have major impacts on the environment. Involved participants want to construct new areas before deconstructing the old ones. There are several different national interests in Kiruna and in Malmberget areas that have to be taken into account in the planning process. Two of those interests are the reindeer and mining industries. The mining industry takes precedence due to its economic benefits to the whole country. The State owns lots of land in Kiruna and in order to acquire it, the government has to give its approval. An application for such an acquirement must be adjudicated by the Swedish Board of Agriculture, the County Administrative Board, affected Sami villages and the National Property Board of Sweden. The high amount of authorities involved makes the process of aquisition long and an improvement to shorten it is to increase the competence of the involved parties and their intercommunication. The purpose of the cultivation border is still considered to be valid, although today for example the tourism is more important than the agriculturing to protect the Sami people.

  • 333.
    Bergman, Gösta
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Spatial Planning.
    Planering för trygghet: En undersökning om narrativs betydelse för den fysiska planeringen2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Att planera för mer trygga och jämställda miljöer där både män och kvinnor, barn och gamla känner en större känsla av trygghet är väldigt aktuellt inom den fysiska planeringen. Uppsatsen tar avstamp i problematiken om att det finns en vilja att planera för trygghet men att det saknas riktlinjer i hur trygghet och jämställdhet kan uppnås.

    Uppsatsen syftar till att bidra med en ökad kunskap och förståelse kring möjligheten och förmågan att planera för trygghet genom att se till olika gömda narrativ om trygghet. Problemformuleringen har operationaliserats i tre frågor som senare ska diskuteras.

    —   Hur genereras kunskap om trygghet inom planeringen?               

    —   Vilka antaganden om trygghet finns inom planeringen?

    —   Vilka åtgärder föreslås för att åstadkomma tryggare miljöer? 

    Uppsatsen teoretiska perspektiv bygger på postrukturalism och intersektionalitet som både är två teoretiska ansatser som ämnar att se bortom det hegemoniska narrativet för att hitta de historier och berättelser som gömmer sig bakom den. Intersektionella perspektivet hävdar att det finns maktstrukturer i samhället baserade på genus, klass och etnicitet som hindrar vissa berättelser från att berättas. Den tidigare forskningen fokuserar på maktrelationer och speciellt den mellan män och kvinnor och den otrygghet kvinnor känner för vissa offentliga platser.

    Undersökningen av trygghetsvandringarna visar på att det är snarare ålder än genus som påverkar en aktörs upplevda känsla av otrygghet. Vidare ses ungdomar som de aktörer som orsakar otrygghet medan barn och äldre ses som de aktörer som upplever otrygghet. Resultatet visar också på att narrativen är väldigt skilda och att det finns många scener som uppfattas otrygga.

    Diskussion lyfter problematiken med tanken om kunskap som något objektivt, något som kan legitimera en viss typ av fysisk åtgärd i planeringen. Den kunskap som trygghetsvandringar genererar argumenteras för att vara en reproducering av en redan berättade historia om trygghet. En berättelse baserad på en hegemonisk föreställning om vad trygghet innebär. Vidare diskuteras att de antaganden som finns om trygghet i planeringen inte nödvändigtvis behöver vara sanna. Idén om att genus är en de viktig faktor om man ser till maktrelationer och vilka berättelser om trygghet som har möjlighet att berättas kan ifrågasättas då enligt undersökningen är snarare ålder som avgör aktörers möjlighet att berätta sina historier. Vidare diskuteras hur fysiska åtgärder för att skapa en tryggare miljö kan verkligen leda till tryggare miljöer, huruvida detta är en placeboeffekt kan diskuteras.

    Utifrån undersökningen samt diskussion har följande slutsatser dragits. Kunskap är en viktig faktor inom planeringen för att legitimera vissa typer av åtgärder. De narrativ som har identifierats visar på att den kunskap som generas är en reproducering av en redan etablerad berättelse över vad trygghet är och vad det innebär att vara otrygg. Vidare visar undersökningen att de antaganden som finns över trygghet inte nödvändigtvis behöver vara sanna. De identifierade narrativen visar att det är snarare ålder som maktfaktor än genus som förklarar vilka berättelser som blir hörda. Vidare visar undersökningen att otrygghet kan planeras bort med hjälp av fysiska åtgärder men då skapandet av en placeboeffekt. För att skapa riktig trygghet behöver det sociala och maktrelationerna mellan olika aktörer tas med in i ekvationen. Mångfalden av personer och berättelser visar på en svårighet att planera för en trygg miljö där alla känner sig inkluderade. Till sist dras slutsatsen att trygghetsvandringarna som medel sätter själva ramarna för vilka berättelser som blir berättade. 

  • 334.
    Bergman, Peter
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Optimisation of fragmentation and comminution at Boliden Mineral, Aitik Operation2005Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna avhandling är att optimera fragmenteringen i Bolidens Minerals dagbrott Aitikgruvan. Sprängning är en av huvudprocesserna i gruvbrytning och dess resultat har stor inverkan på gruvans totala ekonomi. Resultatet av fragmenteringen påverkar inte bara gruvans produktivitet och enhetskostnader utan även de efterföljande processerna krossning och malning i anrikningsverket. Optimeringar av delar i ett system leder ofta till en suboptimering av hela systemet. Traditionellt har gruvan och anrikningsverket varit uppdelade i separata resultatenheter med följd att gruvan suboptimerad sprängningen mot gruvans kostnader, utan hänsyn till resultatet längre fram i produktionskedjan. I det här arbetet inriktas designen av sprängningen mot de optimering av hela processen gruva och anrikning, d.v.s. maximera genomsättningen. Primärkvarnarna i anrikningsverket har identifierats som flakhals i produktionssystemet, gruva/anrikningsverk, varför sprängoptimering inriktas mot att maximera genomsättningen i dessa. Aitikgruvan är utrustad med teknik som möjliggör spårning av malmen från position i gruvan genom anrikningsverk, vilket medför att även resultat i anrikningsverk, t.ex. genomsättning i primärkvarnarna, kan återkopplas till dess ursprungliga position i gruvan. Utifrån kvarnarnas beteende, fyllnadsgrad, effekt och ingående styckefall, under produktion, kan en optimal förändring i styckefall bestämmas. Med utgångspunkt från att malmen har lika fragmenteringsegenskaper i dess stupningsriktning kan antagandet göras att malmen i underliggande pall har liknande mekaniska egenskaper som den aktuella salvan/området, vilket antas ge lika resultat vid samma sprängdesign. Det optimala styckefallet återkopplas till gruvan och en sprängdomänsindelning och sprängdesign för dessa domäner kan göras för nästkommande brytningsnivå. Med utgångspunkt från det optimala styckefallet för primärkvarnarna för de olika områdena i gruvan, bestäms sprängdesignen för underliggande pall med hjälp av en sprängmodell och en krossmodell. För att modellera krossningen och sprängningen görs inga laboratorietest eller fältarbeten, utan de ingående parametrarna fås ur den styckefallsfördelning, både före och efter kross, som uppnås i de olika sprängdomänerna. För att undersöka om finare styckefall ger ökad genomsättning i primärkvarnarna har fem testsalvor skjutits och utvärderats. Salvorna har jämförts mot de salvor som låg rakt ovan i föregående pall. Testsalvorna fick 35% högre specifik laddning än vad som vanligtvis används. Salvornas position i gruvan var inte valda utifrån sprängdomänsindelningen, utan tagna när tillfälle gavs. Genomsättningsökningen för de fem testsalvorna blev i medel åtta procent. För de två testsalvorna som låg i sprängdomänen som har den högsta förväntade genomsättningsökningen blev genomsättningen 14 respektive 22 procent högre. Den samlade kunskapen om styckefallets inverkan på genomsättningen i primärkvarnarna pekar mot att finare styckefall i regel ger högre genomsättning. Innan metodiken med att bestämma det optimala styckefallet kan användas fullt ut, måste fler undersökningar göras för att fastställa sambanden, framförallt behövs fler testsalvor. För utveckling av kross- och sprängmodellerna måste styckefallsmätningen bli mer tillförlitlig.

  • 335.
    Bergqvist, Jimmy
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Spatial Planning.
    Should I stay or should I go?: En fallstudie om krympande kommuners inställning till befolkningsminskningar2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Många av Sveriges kommuner krymper. Trenden sett till det halvlånga perspektivet, de senaste femton åren, ger att invånarantalet i knappt hälften av landets kommuner är lägre nu än det var vid millennieskiftet. Även sett i ett något längre perspektiv, sedan mitten av sjuttiotalet, är antalet krympande kommuner ungefär lika stort som nu. När fenomenet krympande kommuner är så pass vanligt som det ändå är och har varit i så pass många år så vill man gärna tro att frågan om befolkningsminskningar och hur de kan och bör hanteras vore en viktig fråga för de krympande kommunerna att behandla i sina översiktsplaner.

    Jämfört med hur dåligt undersökt ämnet krympande städer är i Sverige blir kontrasten mot ett par andra länder i främst Europa slående. I Tyskland finns det bland annat ett nationellt program som syftar till att hjälpa krympande städer att anpassa sin fysiska struktur till de nya befolkningsmässiga förutsättningarna. Den tyske forskaren Thorsten Wiechmanns studie av staden Dresden mynnade bland annat ut i en modell med tre stadsbyggnadsmässiga faser som Wiechmann menar att Dresden gått igenom sedan början av 1990-talet. I det här arbetet översätts modellen med de tre faserna i en matris och ett försök görs att tolka dem och försöka applicera modellen på krympande svenska kommuner. De frågeställningar som behandlas är:

    - Hur kan översiktsplanering i krympande svenska kommuner förstås utifrån Wiechmanns faser?

    - Vilka typer av strategier för att hantera befolkningsminskning upplevs som verkningsfulla av svenska kommuner?

    Det här arbetet tar ett innehållsanalytiskt och tematikanalytiskt grepp på översiktsplanering i krympande svenska kommuner. Fyra kommuner ingår i studien, dessa är i bokstavsordning Emmaboda kommun, Laxå kommun, Olofströms kommun och Skinnskattebergs kommun som alla har upplevt en befolkningsminskning på mer än fem procent sedan millennieskiftet och mer än femton procent sedan mitten av sjuttiotalet. I studien ingår två översiktsplaner från respektive kommun, totalt åtta översiktsplaner. Översiktsplanerna är de två senaste lagakraftvunna översiktsplanerna, vilka analyseras med avseende på hur de kan inordnas i en på förhand bestämd mall, konstruerad efter modellen med Wiechmanns tre faser.

    Resultatet av studien visar att översiktsplanerna, både de tidigare och de nu gällande, i allra högsta grad befinner sig i den andra av Wiechmanns tre faser, och väldigt lite har skett mellan de båda generationerna översiktsplaner. Den förändring som trots allt har skett är en svag rörelse mot den tredje fasen, men trenden är inte på något sätt tydlig. De strategier som verkar upplevas som verkningsfulla handlar till stor del om att: skapa attraktiva boendemiljöer, skapa ett varierat och brett bostadsutbud och se till att kommunens arbete utförs på ett professionellt sätt.

    Slutsatsen är att det fortfarande efter den här studiens färdigställande är oklart om översiktsplanering i krympande svenska kommuner alls kan förstås med hjälp av Wiechmanns tre faser och att fortsatta studier på ämnet, gärna med en längre tidshorisont kanske kan ge svar på om det krävs att en ny modell utarbetas - en modell där faserna bättre stämmer överens med situationen i svenska krympande kommuner. 

  • 336.
    BERGQVIST, JIMMY
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Spatial Planning.
    Staden i bildspråk: om planering och legitimitet genom metaforer2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

     

    De senaste decenniernas förskjutning mot governance har gjort samhällsplaneringen alltmer komplex och fler aktörer har tagit plats i planeringen. De viljor och ideal som dessa aktörer har kommer till uttryck bland annat genom språkbruket i arkitekttävlingar, ett språkbruk som innehåller många metaforer. Ett flertal studier har kunnat påvisa metaforernas påverkanskraft på mänskliga resonemang - genom att tala om världen på ett särskilt sätt kan metaforerna legitimera vissa handlingar och världsbilder och samtidigt osynliggöra andra.

     

    I syfte att synliggöra det språkbruk som präglar samtida arkitekttävlingar ämnar den här uppsatsen att besvara två frågor: vilka begreppsliga metaforer används i samtida svenska arkitekttävlingar för stadsdelar? samt vilka problem, åtgärder och aktörer legitimeras av bruket av metaforer i arkitekttävlingarna? Genom att anlägga ett perspektiv från den kognitiva lingvistiken och utföra en metaforanalys på språkbruket i fem olika arkitekttävlingar för stadsdelar upptäcker den här studien att metaforerna som används i samtida tävlingar visar en stor bredd av dels teman och ämnen och dels åtgärder och aktörer som legitimeras i tävlingarna. Metaforerna representerar både levande och icke-levande domäner, både vardagsnära och mer branschspecifika. De teman som kan skönjas är: den biologiska staden, staden som kultur och media, att driva staden som ett företag, staden som svärd och sköld, staden som egendom, när staden blir sin motsats, den mekaniska staden, staden som håller ihop och staden som ännu inte finns. Det finns tendenser i materialet att icke-levande ting tillskrivs en agens som de i bokstavlig mening inte kan ha och att flera av de åtgärder som legitimeras i materialet har en tydlig geografisk profil där vissa platser i staden premieras framför andra.

  • 337.
    Bergsjö, Joline
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geodesy and Satellite Positioning.
    Photogrammetric point cloud generation and surface interpolation for change detection2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years the science revolving image matching algorithms has gotten an upswing mostly due to its benefits in computer vision. This has led to new opportunities for photogrammetric methods to compete with LiDAR data when it comes to 3D-point clouds and generating surface models. In Sweden a project to create a high resolution national height model started in 2009 and today almost the entirety of Sweden has been scanned with LiDAR sensors. The objective for this project is to achieve a height model with high spatial resolution and high accuracy in height. As for today no update of this model is planned in the project so it’s up to each municipality or company who needs a recent height model to update themselves. This thesis aims to investigate the benefits and shortcomings of using photogrammetric measures for generating and updating surface models. Two image matching software are used, ERDAS photogrammetry and Spacemetric Keystone, to generate a 3D point cloud of a rural area in Botkyrka municipality. The point clouds are interpolated into surface models using different interpolation percentiles and different resolutions.

    The photogrammetric point clouds are evaluated on how well they fit a reference point cloud, the surfaces are evaluated on how they are affected by the different interpolation percentiles and image resolutions. An analysis to see if the accuracy improves when the point cloud is interpolated into a surface. The result shows that photogrammetric point clouds follows the profile of the ground well but contains a lot of noise in the forest covered areas. A lower image resolution improves the accuracy for the forest feature in the surfaces. The results also show that noise-reduction is essential to generate a surface with decent accuracy. Furthermore, the results identify problem areas in dry deciduous forest where the photogrammetric method fails to capture the forest.

  • 338.
    Bergström, Eric
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Användning av LiDAR och ArcGIS inom skogsbruk i Sverige2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) has in the past decade developed a lot and is used as a data collection method for inventory of forest. The Swedish National Land Survey is between 2009 and 2015 carrying out a nationwide airborne laser scanning throughout Sweden, and this laser scanning process will lead to a new national elevation model called NNH. Data generated from this height model can be used by the forest industry to make forest inventories. The software developer ESRI Inc. has developed a support for handling LiDAR data in their new version of ArcGIS, ArcGIS 10.1. The purpose of this study is to investigate how the forest industry in Sweden are using LiDAR data, identifying gaps and needs, how ArcGIS is used and how ArcGIS can be developed to match the forest industry. This study was founded by comparing the new version of ArcGIS with the previous version and by interviewing six relevant people who are active in the industry. People from several stakeholders were interviewed: foresters, researchers and technical consultants.The results of the comparison between ArcGIS 10.0 and ArcGIS 10.1 show the potential of LiDAR data and how easy it is to deal with LiDAR data in the new version of ArcGIS. The results of the interviews show that the data available from the NNH are fully sufficient for forest inventory at stand level. It is however not sufficient for analysis of individual trees. Some of those interviewed experienced ArcGIS as an advanced and time-consuming program to learn while others emphasize that it will be interesting with support for managing LiDAR data. The interviewed consultants mostly use software that they have developed by themselves for managing LiDAR data, while other interviewees use ArcGIS as the main program. ESRI Sweden was not sure of the quality of the NNH and how much the forest industry uses NNH, before this study. But it turned out that the NNH data are widely used already, and that quality is adequate. ArcGIS is sometimes perceived as an advanced program and it has often to do with time constraints. If time is available the problem often can be fixed. LiDAR, and NNH is good and useful now, but the question is what will happen when it's time for the forest companies to make their next inventory?

  • 339.
    Bergström, Louise
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Hjälsten, Lisa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Förutsättningar för avgränsning av bilfri zon: Exemplifierat i Gävle stad2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Car-free zones are a planning strategy that strives for a sustainable urban environment, focusing on reducing car use in people's everyday lives. The purpose of this study has been to investigate what preconditions that have been taken into account when defining car-free zones, to find out how car-free zones are to be delimited in Swedish cities. The aim of the study was to identify which preconditions that are important when designing a car-free zone. Then the preconditions were applied in Gävle to exemplify where a car-free zone is possible and optimal for the municipality of Gävle.

    The study was carried out with two methods to determine the conditions for the delimitations of car-free zones. First, a qualitative content analysis of four existing and planned car-free zones was carried out through an inductive approach to planning documents, reports, scientific articles, books and organizations' websites. The existing and planned car-free zones were the pedestrian street Ströget, Helsinki, Oslo and the district Vauban. Thereafter four semi-structured interviews were conducted. The interviewees were traffic planners from Gävle Municipality, Sundsvall Municipality, Umeå Municipality and Eskilstuna Municipality. Preconditions emerging from the content analysis and interviews were shown in themed tables to compare the preconditions emerged from the two methods. A comparison between the content analysis and the interviews identified nine preconditions. These nine preconditions are density, trade, public buildings, green spaces, meeting places, cycle paths, public transport, walk paths and multistory car parks. The preconditions were applied to an orthophoto of Gävle in ArcMap 10.6 to illustrate where a car-free zone is possible and most optimal to implement in Gävle city. The application of the preconditions resulted in an area that centered in central Gävle

  • 340.
    Bergvall, Therese
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Upphävande av onyttiga officialservitut vid bildande av gemensamhetsanläggningar2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Officialservitut är en rättighet där en fastighet får nyttja annans fastighet för ett speciellt behov. Sådana servitut bildas genom beslut av lantmäterimyndigheten eller domstolen. När ett servitut inte längre behövs eller används för en fastighet förfaller det inte automatiskt. Om servitutet inte upphävs blir det onyttigt. Idag finns det många onyttiga servitut som belastar fastighetsregistret och på så sätt även förrättningsverksamheten.

    Syftet med det här arbetet är att öka kunskapen om onyttiga officialservitut samt att bidra till att på sikt minska förekomsten av belastande officialservitut. Eftersom det bildas relativt många gemensamhetsanläggningar idag kan många servitut komma att bli onyttiga när en anläggning bildas och servitut inte upphävs. Därför är det intressant att analysera varför servitut inte alltid upphävs i en sådan situation samt om någon förändring skulle kunna göras för att minska antalet onyttiga servitut. Genom en minskning av dessa skulle förrättningar bli effektivare och kostnaderna mindre.

    De metoder som har använts i arbetet är: (1) en litteraturstudie där tidigare forskning, svensk lagstiftning och propositioner studerats; (2) en granskning av förrättningsakter för att analysera hur förrättningslantmätare har hanterat vägservitut som blivit onyttiga vid bildandet av gemensamhetsanläggningar; (3) en intervjustudie för att analysera hur lantmätare idag behandlar onyttiga servitut när de påträffas vid bildandet av gemensamhetsanläggningar.

    Resultatet visar bland annat att förrättningslantmätare inte kan ta officialinitiativ för att upphäva onyttiga servitut vid en anläggningsförrättning. För ett upphävande krävs en ansökan, överenskommelse eller ett yrkande. Det har också framkommit att fokus kanske inte ligger på att upphäva onyttiga servitut när en gemensamhetsanläggning bildas. Slutsatsen av vad som har störst påverkan på att onyttiga servitut inte alltid upphävs är enligt studien, tid och kostnad. För att på sikt minska förekomsten av onyttiga officialservitut skulle en ”pott” av anslagspengar kunna skapas som lantmätare kan nyttja för att upphäva sådana servitut. Ytterligare ett förslag kan vara att införa en ny paragraf som ger lantmätare rätt att ta eget initiativ till att upphäva servitut som blir uppenbart onödiga vid bildandet av gemensamhetsanläggningar. De berörda fastighetsägarna borde inte bli missnöjda eftersom anläggningen ska tillgodose samma rätt som servitutet gjorde.

  • 341.
    Berndtsson, My
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Lighting design. Tekniska Högskolan i Jönköping.
    Pettersson, Sara
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Lighting design. Tekniska Högskolan i Jönköping.
    Provrumsbelysning2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The fitting room is an important part of a clothing store, it's often where the customer decides if they want to buy the garment or not. Therefore it is important that the customer can feel safe and comfortable when they are trying the clothing. A typical fitting room in Sweden today has only one bright spotlight that emits light either towards the face or from the ceiling above. This study explores possible lighting solutions that take into account the customer's experience in the fitting room.

    The study aim to increase understanding of the importance of a good light in fitting rooms, so that customers gets a nice experience and that clothes, body shape and facial features are shown in a natural way. The issue therefore included how lighting can affect the customer's perception of the clothing and how the perception of body shape, facial features and the clothes change in different lighting solutions.

    To answer these questions, observations were made in various clothing stores, followed by an experimental study divided into two parts. The first part was a practical part where trying different lighting directions were tested on a mannequin, which resulted in three selected lighting solutions. The second part was a full-scale study. 15 people evaluated a fitting room with three different lighting solutions.

    The result demonstrates the importance of natural shadows and contrasts on the face and body and that it is important to consider how light falls and avoid glare. This is done by well-placed or shielded fixtures and by using several different lighting directions. The lighting in fitting rooms should be adapted to the type of clothes and customer group.

  • 342.
    Berntsson, Hanna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Halldin, Josefin
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Ägarlägenheter på Öckerö: erfarenheter kring förvaltningsfrågor2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige har det sedan maj 2009 varit tillåtet att bilda ägarlägenheter. En ägarlägenhet är en typ av fastighet som är avgränsad både horisontellt och vertikalt och avsedd att innehålla endast en bostadslägenhet. Ägarlägenheten ägs som vilken fastighet som helst och kan därmed fritt hyras ut, pantsättas, belånas och överlåtas.Några av de första att satsa på den nya bostadsformen var det kommunala bostadsbolaget på Öckerö, Öckerö Bostads AB. Bolaget startade 2009 projekteringen av ett nytt bostadsområde som omfattades av 5 huskroppar om totalt 50 ägarlägenheter på Breviksängar. Öckerö Bostads AB styckade av 50 ägarlägenheter varav de sålde 30 av lägenheterna och behöll 20 lägenheter för uthyrning. Det är kombinationen bolagsägande och privat ägande men också hur förvaltningen har fungerat som har undersökts och analyserats. Både lekmannaperspektivet och fackmannaperspektivet har belysts.En anledning till att bolaget valde att sälja 30 av de 50 ägarlägenheterna var för att bolaget ville delfinansiera de 20 hyreslägenheterna och på så sätt hålla hyresnivån för en nyproducerad lägenhet på en rimlig nivå. Att hyresrätterna delfinansieras med försäljning av ägarlägenheter leder till att bostadsbolaget kan erbjuda hyresgästerna en lägre hyra jämfört med om hela projektet hade varit hyresrätterBlandningen av hyresrätter och ägarlägenheter upplevs av de flesta som positiv. Vissa av ägarlägenheternas ägare anser dock att hyresgästerna inte är lika rädda om området som ägarlägenhetsägarna. Ser man till de grannelagsrättsliga reglerna är det däremot mer säkert att bo bredvid en hyresgäst än att bo bredvid en ägarlägenhetsägare eftersom en hyresgäst kan avhysas om denne orsakar störningar i boendet medan en ägarlägenhetsägare inte kan avhysas även om denne orsakar störningar.Öckerö Bostads AB hade också en integrationstanke om att blanda olika typer av människor och familjekonstellationer på Breviksängar, därför blandades hyresrätter och ägarlägenheter i samtliga hus, detta är dock svårt att införliva på Öckerö på grund av att hyrorna och kostnaden för en ägarlägenhet fortfarande är relativt höga.Samfälligheter och gemensamhetsanläggningar bildades för att tillgodose ägarlägenheternas gemensamma behov. Alla ägarlägenheternas ägare, både privata ägare och bostadsbolaget, ingår i Norra Breviks samfällighetsförening som förvaltar samfälligheterna och gemensamhetsanläggningarna. Denna gemensamma förvaltning upplevs till stor del ha fungerat bra. Att Öckerö Bostads AB representeras i styrelsen är bra dels för att bolaget representerar hyresgästerna, men också för att Öckerö Bostads AB har kunskap om fastighetsförvaltning. Det finns dock ägarlägenhetsägare som anser att Öckerö Bostads AB inte skall vara med i styrelsen.Bland de som äger sina ägarlägenheter har det uppstått oklarheter från kring bolagets olika roller. En gränsdragning mellan bolagets roll som byggherre och bolagets roll som fastighetsägare bör vara tydligare för att undvika missförstånd, speciellt viktigt är det innan garantitidens utgång för att inte blanda ihop byggherrefrågor och föreningsfrågor.

  • 343.
    Bertlin, Joel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Social sustainability from the perspective of three concepts: human scale, the city at eye-level, and public life2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There has been lately a rich amount of articles highlighting the incoherent nature of theterm social sustainability and what it really means in an urban practice. Some argues for anincreased knowledge about the relation between social aspects and the physicalenvironment in order to better enhance the social dimension. The normative- and designoriented concepts human scale, the city at eye-level and public life may clarify the role ofdesign to accomplish desired social aspects.The aim of this thesis is to investigate how these concepts may provide a way to approachsocial sustainability with a focus on the public realm. Further aim is to identify problems andopportunities in the implementation phase since the often occurring gap between vision andpractice. The strategy is to create guidelines from theoretical understanding of the conceptsbased on a literature study and examine how these may relate to a created conceptualframework of social sustainability. Afterwards the guidelines are used to evaluate three caseexamples; the renewal of Rosengård, Malmö; the development of Järla Sjö, Nacka and thedevelopment of Prästviken, Botkyrka, regarding their fulfillment of the concepts. Knowledgeabout the case examples are mainly gathered from interviews by practitioners involved inabove mentioned projects and also function as an insight of general implementation issues.The results show that human scale, the city at eye-level and public life promote severaldesign inputs with effects on the functionality and experience of the public realm andargued social impact on safety & security, sense of belonging, social interaction and wellbeing. However these impacts may only be indicated and the concepts fail to acknowledgethe political dimension of social sustainability. Further the possibility to implement thedesign implications depend on geographical location, project driving forces and the nature ofthe builder

  • 344.
    Beyglou, Ali
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    On the Operational Efficiency in Open Pit Mines2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Open pit mines constitute more than half of global minerals production. Yet most of the large, high-grade, and close to the surface deposits have been depleted or are currently in production. Besides, volatility in commodity prices and stringent environmental regulations limit the up-scaling expansions in large open pits. Consequently, the mines are determined to increase their operational efficiency in order to thrive. This has recently led to major metallurgical improvements in the processing of ores; whereas the improvements in mining of the said ores are relatively overdue in terms of efficiency and technological advancement. This thesis concentrates on the mining activities and their efficiency in open pits with a focus on drilling, blasting, loading, and crushing. As all of these tasks revolve around the fragmentation of run-of-mine ore, their relationships and efficiencies are explored within the context of fragmentation.

    Fragmentation is a result of complex interactions between rockmass, blasting geometry, explosive, and timing sequence of blast holes. The influence of rockmass and timing sequence on fragmentation and efficiency are explored, as well as the target fragmentation for efficient loading and crushing. Moreover, the techniques for measuring fragmentation are evaluated as to whether they can benefit mines in terms of efficiency. As the circumstances in open pits are essentially site-specific, these issues are addressed as a case study of the Aitik mine in Sweden.

    The research comprised four elements. First, the influence of rockmass fractures on blast results and downstream efficiency was evaluated via full-scale field trials. The fractures in and around the case study mine were mapped using a photogrammetric technique and six production blasts were adapted to the major fracture sets to evaluate the effect of initiation direction on downstream efficiency. Second, the influence of the timing sequence of blast holes was explored within the theories of stress waves interaction and their consequent effect on fragmentation. Theoretical and numerical solutions were accompanied by six field trials in full-scale to evaluate the influence of short delay times on fragmentation and efficiency. Third, an empirical study was conducted to correlate fragmentation to the efficiency of loading and crushing; this was done to define a target fragmentation for the studied case. Finally, the techniques to assess fragmentation were discussed both quantitatively and qualitatively.

    The findings indicated that rockmass fractures have a significant influence on the quality of blasts and efficiency of downstream tasks. In the case study mine, adjustments to orientation of drill pattern and initiation direction of blasts suggested that careful experimentation in this regard can yield a favourable initiation direction with respect to existing discontinuities. Finer fragmentation and higher loading efficiencies can be achieved by adapting the blast designs to the existing fractures, which can lead to significant savings in the long run. On the contrary, the influence of stress waves interaction on blast results turned out to be marginal. Neither the theoretical and numerical solutions nor the field trials showed any significant improvements in blast results from short delays. In fact, it was found rather implausible to expect any noticeable improvements by using short delays.

    The empirical method to evaluate target fragmentation proved useful as well. It was shown that by incorporating different data from various sources in a mine, one can follow the ore from muckpile to loaders and then to crushers. Having a qualitative understanding of the fragmentation, and by developing tools to measure efficiency, one can estimate what fragmentation is most favourable for an efficient operation. Finally, two image-based methods to assess fragmentation were discussed in terms of repeatability and statistical significance. It was found that the scatter in both methods is rather large, introducing a certain ambiguity in representativeness of their results. Admittedly, it was found that in matters of long-term efficiency, the number, size and representativeness of assessed samples are of more importance compared to the accuracy of individual measurements.

  • 345.
    Beyglou, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Johansson, Daniel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Schunnesson, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Target fragmentation for efficient loading and crushing: The Aitik case2017In: The Southern African Journal of Mining and Metallurgy, ISSN 2225-6253, E-ISSN 1543-9518, Vol. 117, no 11, p. 1053-1062Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Blast-induced fragmentation has a significant influence on the operational efficiency of open pit mines, especially on loading and crushing, the two immediate tasks after blasting. This study presents an empirical method to determine the target fragmentation for efficient loading and crushing at the Aitik mine in Sweden. In the study, the loading efficiency of rope shovels was correlated to the energy consumption and throughput of a gyratory crusher. Two photographic techniques were utilized to assess the feed fragmentation, considering the lithological origin of the ore as an indicator of hardness. The results indicate ore hardness is most influential in mid-range fragmentation, with a marginal effect in coarser fragmentations. The influence of fragmentation is more pronounced in the coarse region, with a sudden reduction in efficiency for P80 values coarser than 800 mm. The results suggest tailoring the fragmentation to a P80 of 600-800 mm could lead to higher operational efficiency at Aitik. 

  • 346.
    Beyglou, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Schunnesson, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Johansson, Daniel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Face to Surface –Task 1: Baseline Mapping of the Mining Operation in Aitik2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    “Face to Surface” is a project within the strategic innovation program “Mining and Metals”, which is a collaboration between Vinnova, Formas and Energy Agency of Sweden with additional funding from Boliden Mineral AB and LKAB. The project is aimed to improve productivity and efficiency of mining activities through optimization of the overall production chain. The current status report corresponds to the first task of the project–Baseline Mapping.The report presents the overall process chain of mining operation in Boliden Aitik copper mine, Sweden. The production chain is initially described as a system of singular processes. Each process is then described in more details, including inter-relations and downstream effects of each process within the operation. The report provides a basis for identification of potential fields of improvement in the process. The subsequent tasks of the project will be conducted upon internal discussions based on the findings of this report.

  • 347.
    Beyglou, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Schunnesson, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Johansson, Daniel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Johansson, Nils
    Boliden Mineral AB.
    Adjusting Initiation Direction to Domains of Rock Mass Discontinuities in Aitik Open Pit Mine2015In: 11th International Symposium on Rock Fragmentation by Blasting: Fragblast11, Carlton, Vic: The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 2015, p. 385-391Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As demand for optimisation of mining processes increases, more attention is drawn to blast performance and fragmentation improvement. Fractures and discontinuities are among the most influential factors in blast results, therefore one of the initial steps towards blast optimisation is to gather information about the rock mass and integrate it in blast design. This paper presents a method for assessment of rock mass discontinuities and integrating it in production blasts in the Aitik open pit copper mine in Sweden. 3D photogrammetric techniques were utilised to map discontinuities and distinguish domains of similar geologic structures in the pit. As a pilot study for a future campaign, four different initiation directions were tested through six pilot blasts in one of the domains. The results were compared in terms of swell and loading efficiency of rope shovels to identify the correlation between blast performance and initiation direction compared to major discontinuity families. It was established that in the trial domain, blasts initiated towards north or north-west yielded larger swell and better performance of loading. Comparing these blasts with discontinuity families show that there is a correlation between blast performance and initiation direction according to the dip and strike of these discontinuities. Such knowledge can be used for future blasts in the same domain to increase long-term operational efficiency through slight modifications in drill pattern and initiation design.

  • 348.
    Biledt, E.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Condition monitoring of hydraulic system on load-hand dump machines1991In: Condition monitoring '91: proceedings of an International Conference on Condition Monitoring held at the Stadthalle, Erding, Germany, 14-16 May 1991 / [ed] Mervin H. Jones; J. Guttenberg; H. Brenneke, Swansea: Pineridge Press , 1991Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 349.
    Birk, Wolfgang
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Arvanitidis, Ioannis
    Jönsson, Pär
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, KTH.
    Medvedev, Alexander
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Physical modeling and control of dynamic foaming in an LD-converter process2001In: IEEE transactions on industry applications, ISSN 0093-9994, E-ISSN 1939-9367, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 1067-1073Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with physical modeling and control of dynamic foaming in the LD-converter process. An experimental setup consisting of a water model, digital signal processor, and PC hardware is built and shown to be useful for studying dynamic foaming. Furthermore, a foam height estimation algorithm is presented and validated through experiments. Finally, sound signals from the LD-converter and water model are compared and similarities between them are found.

  • 350.
    Birk, Wolfgang
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Arvanitidis, Ioannis
    Medvedev, Alexander
    Jönsson, Pär
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, KTH.
    Foam level control in a water model of the LD converter process2001In: Automation in mining, mineral, and metal processing 2001: a proceedings volume from the 10th IFAC symposium, Tokyo, Japan, 4 - 6 September 2001 / [ed] Mituhiko Araki, Oxford: Published for the International Federation of Automatic Control by Pergamon , 2001Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with estimation and control of foam level in dynamic foaming. An improved foam level estimation methodology from a microphone signal and its automatic calibration is presented. The dynamical reaction of the foam level on air lance movements is modelled using system identification. Based on the resulting mathematical model, a controller for foam level stabilisation is designed and applied to a water model, representing the LD converter process. It is shown that the foam level can be controlled using a microphone as the measurement device and air lance movement as the actuator.

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