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  • 301.
    Ekberg, Martin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Granqvist, Marcus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Maskinhantering: Köpa kontra hyra maskiner och hjälpmedel2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The following report investigates when it is economically most profitable to buy or rent machines or other equipment, the survey takes place on two of Skanska Sweden AB’s project around Stenungsund. To find out when a machine or other equipment becomes more viable to invest in, the authors designed a calculating spreadsheet in Excel. The calculation computes the total price for both rent and investment, but also after how many days a particular machine or equipment will be more viable to buy. By using the calculating spreadsheet, the projects most common machines and equipment have been studied to find out which machines and equipment that is economically viable to invest in or to rent.

     

    The aim of the project is that through interviews and comparisons between different machines and equipment provide suggestions for the economically most profitable option for investment and/or rental in machinery.

     

    The goal of the project is to educe the economically most profitable option for Skanska site manager concerning to purchase or rent different machines or other equipment. Moreover, the aim of the thesis and for Skanska district manager Malin Dahlstedt, which is the external supervisor for the thesis, to create a calculating spreadsheet which compare the cost of investment and renting different machines and equipment as well as calculating how many days it takes before an investment is economically viable.

     

    The calculator takes the base price of rent, number of days of rental, number of machines, discount rates and a surcharge, in percent, in regards for the calculations. The discount rates are taken from “Skanska Maskin” rental template and the surcharge, which are added to the investment price, includes repair-, maintenance- and storage costs.

     

    An example of the results is screwdrivers that costs 20 Swedish crowns a day to rent by “Skanska Maskin” and has an investment cost of 2 372 Swedish crowns. This leads to that after 279 days, it is economically viable to invest in a screwdriver according to the calculation compute. In Per-Olof’s project in Spekeröd a screwdriver were used in 245 days, which in throughout the project, this means that it is more viable to rent that screwdriver during this project. Per-Olof has, however, invested in screwdrivers because he knows that they will be used in his upcoming projects, which also means that he always has screwdrivers on site whenever they are needed.

     

    The machines and equipment that earliest becomes viable to invest in are the machines and equipment used daily out on the sites, such as nailers and screwdrivers. The remaining machines and equipment are more viable to rent by “Skanska Maskin” since the occupancy rate is not high enough.

     

    To investigate the cost and profitability of machines and other equipment in project are important because it is a relative large expenditure of each project. It is interesting when Skanska wants to win the offers and should therefore have the lowest expenses possible in every project. The study is also interesting for the authors because they will probably have great use of the results in their future engineering professions.

  • 302.
    Ekblad, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering (closed 20110301).
    Isacsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering (closed 20110301).
    Water in coarse granular materials: Resilient and retentive properties2008In: Adv. Transp. Geotech. - Proc. Int. Conf. Transp. Geotech., 2008, p. 117-123Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Granular material is, perhaps the most common construction material used in civil engineering, being an important constituent in road constructions, railways, embankments, foundations, buildings etc. This paper presents results from triaxial testing, at various water contents using constant confining pressure, of two different continuously graded granular materials with maximum particle size 90 mm and 63 mm, respectively. Furthermore, water retention properties of the unbound materials are presented and examples of water distributions in a common construction are shown. From the results presented, it can be concluded that increased water contents cause a reduction in resilient modulus and an increase in strain ratio. The distribution of water content in the vertical direction is highly nonlinear and the degree of saturation in the unbound layers of a road construction depends to a large degree on the level of the water table.

  • 303.
    Ekenståhl, Robert
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Medén, Oskar
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Vilken hållfasthet har ett trädymlingsförband?2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One way to increase the amount of wood in buildings is to replace framing tie with timber dowel joints. It has to be investigated if timber dowel joints strength value is high enough.

    This study investigates the strength of timber joints anchored with a dowel. The dowels have three different dimensions and were anchored in the joint by swelling. Theoretical calculations were made with formulas from Eurokod 5 (2004) for steel screws. The formulas were modified to be applied to wood instead of steel. Pressure tests wereperformed on ten double shear models per dowel dimension. The tests are considered tobe statistically and compiled in a normal distribution curve. Characteristic strength with thesafety margin of 95 % was calculated from the data from the tests. Characteristic strength for the timber dowel joints were 2100 N for 8 mm, 2300 N for 10mm and 4400 N for 12 mm.

  • 304.
    Ekeskär, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Exploring Third-Party Logistics and Partnering in Construction: A Supply Chain Management Perspective2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry is associated with problems such as low productivity and high costs. This has been highlighted in several government-funded reports in both Sweden and in the UK during the course of over two decades. The construction industry is a large industry sector employing hundreds of thousands and a large contributor to a country’s GDP. The problems therefore have a large impact on society. Some of the problems are rooted in the organizational structure of the construction industry. Compared to other manufacturing industries, the construction industry is organized in temporary organizations. The temporary organizations cause temporary supply chains, fragmentation among construction industry actors and adversarial relationships between those actors. Partnering has been but forward as a solution to overcome the temporariness and the adversarial relationships in the construction. Another solution to mitigate the problems suggested in the reports is supply chain management (SCM). Both concepts have been taken from the manufacturing industries and partnering has been more successful compared to SCM in the construction industry. In the construction industry the progress towards SCM has focused on logistics. In recent years dedicated third-party logistics (TPL) solutions have emerged in the Swedish construction industry, where a company is hired to manage the logistics in a construction project.

    The purpose with the research presented in this licentiate thesis is to explore how client initiated TPL solutions and partnering can be facilitators for SCM in the construction industry. Being a new phenomenon in the construction industry TPL solutions provide a logistical competence not necessarily included in a traditional construction project. Therefore, TPL solutions are of particular interest when studying the realization of SCM in the construction industry. In the process of realizing SCM in the construction industry, the construction clients have been put forward as having a crucial and important role. The clients are the initiator and funder of construction projects and as such the client can influence the course of a construction project. Therefore, it is of interest to study how the client can take an active role in this process. Initiating a TPL solution in a construction project is one way for a client to take an active part in the realization of SCM in construction.

    However, in order to study how clients can take an active role towards the realization of SCM in the construction industry, there have to be an understanding of how SCM is to be adopted to the construction industry context. SCM that derives from the manufacturing industry is designed to be used in long-term relationships with permanent organizational structures. The construction industry on the other hand is associated with short-term relationships and a temporary organizational structure. Partnering that is designed to mitigate the temporariness and establish long-term relationships have been quite successful in the construction industry, and could therefore be used as a facilitator for SCM in construction.

    To study the use of client initiated TPL-solutions in construction and the realization of SCM in the construction industry the following research questions have been addressed:

    • RQ1: To what extent can a third-party logistics solution be a facilitator for client driven SCM in the construction industry?
    • RQ2: How will upstream and downstream tiers be affected when a thirdparty logistics provider is used in a construction project?
    • RQ3: How can partnering be used a mean to facilitate the realization of SCM in the construction industry?

    To answer the research questions two main methodologies have been used; case study for the empirically grounded research and conceptual studies for the analysis of the case studies as well as for comparing the two concepts of partnering and SCM. All questions have been grounded in literature and previous research. The findings of this research is therefore grounded in both theory and in practice. The main findings of this research is that TPL solutions are not a quick fix for realizing SCM in the construction industry. However, if used right a TPL solution can be an effective tool to address logistical issues in a construction project and to establish an interface between the supply chain and the construction site. By initiating a TPL solution the client addresses the importance of logistical competence in a construction project. A TPL solution does not have a purpose of its own; a TPL solution is a service function to the construction project, providing expertise on logistics management. There are also a number of driving forces and concerns that have been identified, if they are addressed prior to a TPL solution is implemented, the likelihood of its success will increase.

    Furthermore, both partnering and SCM rely on high trust and share several key components and issues that have to be addressed. Partnering on strategic level with several suppliers included can even be hard to distinguish from SCM. Wherefore, partnering is considered a facilitator for the realization of SCM in construction. By addressing the necessary issues in both concepts a good foundation for SCM is established.

  • 305.
    Ekeskär, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Partnering as a mean towards the use of supply chain management in temporary construction organizationsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry is a complex industry typically working in temporary

    organizations. The temporary organizational structure of the construction industry affects

    the outcome of construction projects. In recent years the construction industry has been

    associated with problems such as low productivity, high costs, high waste and poorly

    managed supply chains. To overcome these problems, several government funded reports

    and research reports have addressed the problems. Two concepts have gained a lot of

    interest in these reports: partnering and supply chain management (SCM). However,

    partnering, that have been introduced to overcome the temporariness in the construction

    industry has been more successful than SCM. A reason behind this could be that SCM

    derives from the manufacturing industry and is directed towards long-term relationships

    and permanent organizational structures. By a conceptual literature review it is

    investigated if the realization of SCM in construction could be facilitated by the use of

    partnering. Both concepts share many components and partnering has been a successful

    approach to overcome the boundaries temporary organizations imply. The two concepts

    are in fact so similar that it can be argued that partnering is a subset of SCM focusing

    relationships. The question would then be what type of partnering approach is most

    suitable when realizing SCM in construction.

  • 306.
    Ekeskär, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rudberg, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Third-party logistics in construction: Perspectives from suppliers and transport providers2015In: Proceedings of the 22nd EurOMA Conference: Operations Management for Sustainable Comeptitivness, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Suppliers and transport providers are key parties in the construction supply chain, and their respective roles when employing third-party logistics (3PL) is investigated. The purpose is to analyze how they are affected by the 3PL solution in terms of their attitudes towards the use of 3PL, the experienced defects from the 3PL solution, and their level of supply chain management (SCM) maturity. This is done by a literature review and an explorative case study at a large construction project employing a 3PL solution. Results show a positive attitude and that they actively address SCM issues, whereas actual effects are inconclusive.

  • 307.
    Ekeskär, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rudberg, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Third-party logistics in construction: Perspectives from suppliers and transport providersManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Suppliers and transport providers are key parties in the construction supply chain, and

    their respective roles when employing third-party logistics (TPL) is investigated. The

    purpose is to analyze how they are affected by the TPL solution in terms of their

    attitudes towards the use of TPL, the experienced effects from the TPL solution, and

    their level of supply chain management (SCM) maturity. This is done by a literature

    review and an explorative case study at a large construction project employing a TPL

    solution. Results show a positive attitude and that they actively address SCM issues,

    whereas actual effects are inconclusive.

  • 308.
    Ekeskär, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rudberg, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Third-party logistics in construction: the case of a large hospital project2016In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 174-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The construction supply chain is of temporary nature and complex, with many interactions between multiple actors in different construction projects. This challenging context typically leads to relatively higher costs and lower productivity, compared to other industries. Supply chain management (SCM) has been put forward as a mean to better handle this challenging context. As a part of SCM initiatives some construction industry stakeholders have turned to third-party logistics (TPL) providers, especially in large construction projects. The use of TPL providers is a new, and under-investigated, phenomenon in the construction industry. The main purpose of this study is thus to explore the use of a TPL provider in a large construction project and to analyse its resulting effects. Driving forces and possible concerns for implementing TPL are identified and the possibility for TPL to be a facilitator for implementing SCM in construction is investigated. The research is based on a literature review and an explorative case study of a large hospital project in Sweden, where the client and the main contractor have initiated the use of a TPL provider to coordinate sourcing and materials handling activities on site. The results show positive effects on establishing an effective interface between the construction site and the supply chain. The results also show that a TPL solution facilitates an increase in productive work at the construction site itself, a reduction of costs and an increased utilisation of site assets. On the downside, the study also shows a lack of SCM knowledge amongst the involved actors in the project, hindering them to reap the full potential of TPL.

  • 309.
    Ekeskär, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rudberg, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Vennström, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Third-party logistics in large construction projects: A SCM perspective2014In: Proceedings of the 21st EurOMA Conference: Operations Management in an innovative economy, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the use of 3PL providers in large construction projects, and to identify main drivers and barriers, as well as the resulting effects, when implementing SCM by the use of 3PL providers. This is done by the means of a literature review and an explorative case study, the latter being a large hospital construction project. The results show positive performance effects in terms of increased productivity, resources utilization, and delivery performance, but also that there are challenges when it comes to organizational setting, policy adherence and supply chain coordination.

  • 310.
    Ekman, Viktor
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Moen, Jesper
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Exteriör och interiör visualisering av ett bostadshus i 3ds max2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Denna rapport beskriver och drar jämförelser mellan olika visualiseringstekniker i 3D Studio Max och Adobe Photoshop CS3. Syftet med studien är att undersöka olika visualiserings- och renderingstekniker för att se vilka tekniker som ger ett smidigast och mest verklighetstroget resultat utifrån olika förutsättningar. Studien grundar sig på en huvudfråga och två stycken underfrågor. Hur skapar man ett effektivt och verklighetstroget visualiseringsresultat av ett bostadskvarter för intressenter? • Vilka fördelar och nackdelar finns det med olika visualiseringstekniker? • Vilka metoder ger ett verklighetstroget visualiseringsresultat vid interiör respektive exteriör visualisering? Slutsatsen med studien är att varje situation är unik och att det finns fördelar och nackdelar med varje teknik och metod i de olika programmen. För att nå ett önskat slutresultat så gäller det att lära sig hur varje metod fungerar och sedan anpassa den utifrån varje enskild situation.

  • 311.
    Elf, Adam
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Cederth, Kevin
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Brandskydd av stålkonstruktioner: Lathund för brandskyddsdimensionering av stålprofiler2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor thesis covers fire protection methods of structural steel and the aim is to develop an information tool designed for inexperienced structural engineers. The information tool covers basic fire protection methods and the general way to produce a fire resistance for structural steel. The layout of this information tool is a simple folder that contains information about the most important steps when producing fire protection for a steel structure.

    The thesis starts with a general overview of the fire protection needed in buildings to fulfill national legislative and regulatory requirements. To get an understanding of how steel components behave during the influence of fire, a brief overview is presented of the material properties of steel. This chapter also contains a review of previous research in the area. Furthermore, some of the most common fire protection materials are introduced and the general way of producing a safe fire protection for steel components is explained. For example, the chapter handles topics such as critical steel temperature, section factor and degree of utilization, which are key factors for designing fire protection for structural steel components.

    To evaluate the information tool, experienced structural engineers have been interviewed with a given interview guide to assist the making of this tool. The results from the interviews provided an insight into the needs for information regarding fire protection for structural engineers.

     

  • 312.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Apleberger, Lennart
    High performance concrete structures: design examples & properties2000Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 313.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Apleberger, Lennart
    High performance concrete structures: design handbook2000Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 314. Elfgren, Lennart
    et al.
    Emborg, Mats
    Gabrielsson, Henrik
    Groth, Patrik
    Hedlund, Hans
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Jonasson, Jan-Erik
    Noghabai, Keivan
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Westman, Gustaf
    Design of high performance concrete structures in Sweden1998In: International Symposium on High-Performance and Reactive Powder Concretes: organized by Université de Sherbrooke / [ed] Pierre-Claude Aïtcin; Yves Delagrave, Sherbrooke, Que: University of Sherbrooke , 1998, p. 139-156Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 315.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Karlsson, Inge
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Losberg, Anders
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Torsion-Bending-Shear Interaction for Concrete Beams: Closure of discussion1976In: Journal of the Structural Division, Proceedings of tha American Society of civil Engineers, ASCE, ISSN 0733-9445, Vol. 102, no ST1, p. 289-291, article id Proc. Paper 11819Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Closure to discussion by Solanki, Pandit and Helmy of paper in J of the Structural Division, ASCE, Vol 100, ST8, August 1974, pp 1657-1676

  • 316.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Noghabai, Keivan
    Ohlsson, Ulf
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Applications of fracture mechanics to anchors and bond1995In: Fracture mechanics of concrete structures: proceedings / [ed] Folker H. Wittmann, AEDIFICATIO Publishers , 1995, p. 1685-1694Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 317.
    Elgerud, Freja
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Sandström, Isabel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Infästningar för korslimmat trä: Tänkbara infästningar för ett 22-våningshus i KL-trä samt deras styvheters betydelse för de horisontella deformationerna2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The interest for multi storey buildings with timber is growing. Timber is a material that is light and ductile, characteristics that make timber a challenging material in terms of horizontal stabilization and horizontal displacements. The purpose was to examine connectors for CLT and the main question was how the horizontal displacement of the frame is affected by the connectors and their stiffness. A parametric study for self-tapping screws and calculation of their slip modulus was carried out. A model of a 22-storey building with a CLT frame was modelled in RFEM. Analyses were run for different values of the slip modulus for comparison of the horizontal displacements connected to each slip modulus. The results show that the deformations were small and that the differences in slip modulus only caused small differences in horizontal deformations even though the variation in slip modulus was wide. The reason for this could be due to the modelling; the model in itself is very stiff, possibly as a result of the façade panels’ vertical adjustment and height. Other factors contributing were the lack of openings for doors and windows in the model, the thickness of the CLT panels as well as the concrete decks on all floors.

  • 318.
    Eliasson, Tina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olsson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Social sustainability in the construction industry2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Byggbranschen står nu inför ett utmanande kliv i hållbarhetens riktning - att ta sig an och arbeta för en socialt hållbar samhällsutveckling. Intresset att arbeta med detta är stort hos både entreprenörer, beställare och samhället i stort. Detta bidrar till att offentliga beställare formulerar krav på socialt arbete i offentliga upphandlingar, då offentlig upphandling är ett verktyg med stor genomslagskraft som kan användas för att föra detta arbete framåt. Syftet med studien är att ta reda på vad begreppet sociala hänsyn innebär, att sammanställa vilka krav på sociala hänsyn som ställs och kommer att ställas i upphandlingar som offentliga beställare i Östergötland annonserar samt identifiera de områden som beställarna avser utveckla inom ämnet. Detta för att entreprenörföretagen ska kunna satsa på en utveckling av det område inom sociala hänsyn som kommer att vara mest aktuellt i regionen, nu och i kommande upphandlingar. Detta mynnar ut i frågeställningarna: Vad innebär begreppet sociala hänsyn? Vilka krav på sociala hänsyn ställer offentliga beställare vid upphandling? Vilka åtgärder bör entreprenörerna vidta för att leva upp till kraven på sociala hänsyn som offentliga beställare prioriterar? Genom intervjuer med beställare och entreprenörer i byggbranschen har en grund skapats för att kunna definiera begreppet sociala hänsyn som "en inkludering av alla individer i samhället oavsett kön, ålder, fysisk förmåga eller etnisk tillhörighet". Insamling av publicerade förfrågningsunderlag visar på att det fokusområde inom social hållbarhet som prioriteras idag är krav på sysselsättningsåtgärder, där fokus ligger på att inkludera individer som står utanför arbetsmarknaden. Slutsatsen är att entreprenörerna bör arbeta för att skapa fler platser i driftentreprenader och produktion, för att öka antalet sysselsatta, samt komplettera detta med bra utbildningar, handledning och stöttning. Det har även visat sig finnas förbättringsmöjligheter i beställarorganisationernas arbete med att ställa krav på sociala hänsyn, vilka, utöver svaren på frågeställningarna, presenteras i slutsatsen.

  • 319.
    Elisasson, Tina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Olsson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sociala hänsyn i byggbranschen2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry is facing a challenging step in the direction of sustainability - to embrace and work for socially sustainable development. The construction companies, public clients and society have a great interest working with this. This means that public clients formulate social work requirements in public procurement, as public procurement is a powerful tool that can be used to advance this development.

    The purpose of the study is to identify the concept of social sustainability, to compile what requirements regarding social sustainability are made and will be made by public purchasers in Östergötland, and identify the areas that the public purchasers intend to develop. This enables construction companies to focus on developing the area of social sustainability that will be most relevant in the region, now and in future procurements. Through interviews with clients and contractors in the construction industry, the overall perception of the concept of social sustainability can be described as "an inclusian af all individuals in saciety, regardless af sex, age, physical ability ar ethnicity."

    Through the collection of published inquiries, it was found that the priority focus on social sustainability today is a requirement for employment measures, focusing on including individuals outside the labor market. The conclusion is that the construction companies need to create more jobs in production, to increase the number of employed and supply them with good education, introduction and support. It has also been shown that there can be a couple of improvements in the work of the public purchasers claiming social sustainability.

  • 320.
    Elwing, Charlotta
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Sjögren, Kristin
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Prefabricerade hus - en fråga om kvalitet, ekonomi och byggtid2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose with this diplomawork is to compare the two production methods,

    premanufacturing and on-site construction. We want to investigate if one of the methods is more advantageous than the other and why premanufactured elements are used more often. The comparisons mostly consider aspects of building time, economy and quality. We gathered the material we needed through a literature study and by interviewing active persons in the building industry.

    Building as much as possible in a production hall increases the quality since it’s not being exposed to moisture and cold before assembly. The house is built much faster when the building site becomes a montage place with different finished elements. There is no material storage at the building site since the elements are delivered when it’s time to assemble the specific element. If the elements are delivered when needed, building time will decrease which means reduced costs for the whole project.

  • 321.
    Emborg, Emma
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Miljöbetong för hållbart byggande: En analys av betongblandningar med mer miljövänliga tillsatsmaterial2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to study how concrete can be made more environmentally friendly with as well as without fly ash and how this can then be evaluated using a new computer program for the Environmental Product Declarations (EPD). This work also includes studies using a simulation tool, Production Planning Concrete (PPB) on the temperature and strength development of concrete.

    Concrete is an important construction material that has been used for thousands of years. The concrete ingredients are mostly natural materials that have a low environmental impact: stone, gravel, sand and water. The cement is, however, a material that still requires high energy consumption during manufacturing and produces large carbon emissions, at present about 2-3% of Sweden's total amount of carbon emissions.

    Environmental impact is an important topic and building industry operators today are keen to develop building materials that make as little environmental impact as possible. The materials must also be evaluated in a fair and timely manner in order to be compared with each other. There are new rules for the admixtures used in concrete, which means that it is now possible to add, for example, fly ash or slag in the mix at the concrete factory to produce concrete with less environmental impact. Cement and Concrete Research Institute (Cement- och Betonginstitutet), together with the trade association Swedish Concrete (Svensk Betong) also developed a tool to make declarations for these more environmentally friendly concrete mixes. These declarations are called Environmental Product Declarations (EPDs). At the same time, there is now on the market a new program that calculates early strength growth in various production scenarios. The program is called Production Planning Concrete (PPB).

    The work has involved a literature review and preparation of background data to insert in the two calculation programs used. The theory addresses the environmental impact of the various constituent materials of the concrete, how the concrete's properties are determined and what these mean, and what EPDs are and how they are made. After the literature review, calculations and simulations have been done in computer programs, which have resulted in a variety of charts and tables presented in the report.

    One of the conclusions of the work is that the production of cement is the part of the concrete that has the largest impact on the environment, and by replacing a portion of the cement with fly ash reduces the environmental impact evidently. Another conclusion from the work is that concrete with fly ash has a slower rate of strength development and are more likely to freeze in the early stages, which should be taken into consideration in the planning and design of the building process.

    The work also shows that the results of the EPD calculations and strength simulations can be useful for concrete manufacturers developing new products, while they also can be used by clients and contractors to get information about a concrete's environmental impact and characteristics.

  • 322.
    Emborg, Mats
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Apleberger, Lennart
    Massiva betongkonstruktioner i varmt klimat: sprickriskbedömningar i nygjutna väggsektioner1990Report (Other academic)
  • 323.
    Emborg, Mats
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Jongeling, Rogier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Produktmodeller för platsgjuten betong2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Applikation av IT-baserade produktmodeller på byggande med platsgjuten betong för att medge optimerad och industrialiserad byggprocess. Två delområden har studerats: a) utvecklande av ett erfarenhetsbibliotek och b) konstruktions- och planeringsstöd för entreprenör och materialleverantör. Rapporten är en sammanfattning av utförlig rapport av Jongeling R: Product Models för Cast in Place Concrete, Avdelningen för Konstruktionsteknik, Teknisk Rapport 2003:01, 104 sid

  • 324.
    Emborg, Mats
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Jongeling, Rogier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Dorbell, Thorbjörn
    Innovative construction with cast in place concrete using product models2004In: Concrete Structures: The Challenge of Creativity. Proceedings of FIB symposium on Concrete Structures, 2004, p. 220-221Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 325.
    Emelie, Vållberg
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Emelie, Wilhelmsson
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Arbetsmiljö - Utredning av efterlevnad avordnings- och skyddsregler påbyggarbetsplatsen2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A construction site is an unsafe work environment where incidents and accidentshappens frequently even when the working environment is controlled by thegovernments regulation to prevent a poor working situation. To prevent accidentsand incidents to occur the rules of regulation and safety is an important tool in thestruggle to achieve an acceptable level.

    The purpose of the examination report is to examine the construction companyPeab in general due to compliance rate with the rules of regulation and safety onthe construction site to reduce accidents and incidents.

    By breaking down the objective into an achievable goals three questions werecreated and they are about the compliance with the rules of regulation and safety,the use of facilities and physical fitness, and improvement opportunities toenhance compliance with rules of regulation and safety.

    The used methods are literature review, case study, questionnaire survey andinterviews. The largest part of the report is the survey and the other methods arecomplementary investigation.

    The report shows that a low compliance level of the rules of regulation and safetyis mostly depending on the lack of communication between supervisors andcraftsmen but there are other reason such as attitudes, managerial and leadershipthat affects compliance. Both craftsmen and supervisors have admitted that theyare not always complying with the regulations that exist in the workplace. Toimprove the situation some solutions are proposed which are improving themanagement and leadership that can motivate and communicate information in aclear manner, which means a communication improvement. In order to changeindividual behavior and group cultures, companies can use social models thatgradually change an incorrect behavior.

    At every workplace there should exist means to facilitate certain steps but they arenot used as much as they could be. The survey shows that this is mainly due totime pressure that encourage creation of short cuts to save time and that thedevice is not available at the moment when its needed. Peab offers its employees’health care benefits to protect the physical health when it is required a certainphysique to cope with steps in the production. The results show that this is notutilized to the extent which is required even though the survey shows that mostemployees are aware of the benefits that are offered.

    It is important that all employees understand the meaning with the rules ofregulation and safety in order to influence their working environment to become asafer workplace.

  • 326.
    Enckell, Merit
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Egede Andersen, Jacob
    Glisic, Branko
    Silfwerbrand, Johan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    New and Emerging Technologies in Structural Health Monitoring2013In: Handbook of Measurement in Science and Engineering: Volume 1 / [ed] Myer Kutz, Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley , 2013, p. 3-78Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 327. Eneroth-Ädel, Joel
    et al.
    Bäsén, Sebastian
    Ett fall för fall A - En studie över hantering av schaktmassor vid anläggningsarbeten2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 328.
    Engström, Johan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Badhusrenovering och underhåll: Inventerings- och utredningsmodeller2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 329.
    Engström, Niklas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Mechanics, Byggteknik.
    Professionell garantihantering: Ett arbete inom byggnadsbranschen2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A business is always dependent on its customers. It is therefore important to ensurethat customers are satisfied with the product and the warranty included.The study was conducted in cooperation with the building contacting companySkanska Sweden. The aim is to use interviews to collect and process experiences in order to answer the question: How should the recovery process in the construction industry be performed to ensure a professional handling of warranty? The results have shaped my conclusions and I have turned them into a proposal that companies in the industry can benefit from. The study indicates that the industry is not geared for a five year warranty, which was introduced in 2004 and 2006. This is manifested by difficulties to prioritize the management of guarantees, with long lead times and customer-, and employee dissatisfaction as a result. Achieving a professional management means to adapt the company to a longer warranty. It means taking responsibility, prioritizing and investing in the organization and effective computer systems. The investment will help to create a stronger brand and increase the profitability for the company. The results suggest that companies should set aside time for staff and implement an aftermarket organization that supports and relieves the staff. An important aspect is that a financial liability for the guarantees should be anchored in the production staff. Otherwise it can result in a reduced quality due to lack of responsibility during the construction process, leading to increased warranty costs. The industry is also in great need of accessible craftsmen that quickly can fix errors. The problem is that most craftsmen today are occupied in the new construction projects, it creates longer lead times for the process. The craftsmen must also be suitable for a job in the aftermarket. The way of handling the issues in the industry are not uniform and are often outdated. Therefore a need exists for a modern and computerized case management system, it would improve the situation for both staff and customers. Companies can also use an evaluation system to rate their partners on how they acted during the warranty period. The information can be valuable for future collaborations. Knowing that a classification is performed can also increase the corporate accountability. Contracts in the future can be added a clause to encourage responsibility for the work during the warranty period. The clause requires a meeting where the contractors, among other things, can agree on a case management system to use. But most important is to pay attention to the work during the warranty period, which must be improved.

  • 330.
    Engström, Susanne
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Sardén, Ylva
    Stehn, Lars
    Towards improving client-contractor communication in industrialised building2009In: Twenty-Fifth Annual Conference, 2009, September 7-9, Albert Hall, Nottingham / [ed] Andrew Dainty, Reading: Association of Researchers in Construction Management , 2009, p. 21-30Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Criticism of the building sector in Sweden, concerning for example high cost and poor quality, has lead to a growing interest in industrialised building. However, the effect on the sector and the overall building market is still quite insignificant. One business challenge for industrialised building companies to face in order to become more competitive is to further improve client/market interaction, improve mutual understanding and to reduce uncertainties in client relations. In this ongoing work the communication between industrialised building companies and building clients is examined. The aim is to identify important points of client-contractor communication that affect project outcome and present barriers to effective communication. In addition to a literature review, with the aim to define effective communication , the client-contractor communication in different building projects has been studied. Empirical data was collected through interviews and workshops, observations and project-specific documentation, addressing both clients and contractors. The results indicate that, in order to improve client-contractor communication, it seems important to assess if a barrier to effective communication is client uncertainty, and concerned with lack of information, or if it is client equivocality, which requires richer information rather than more information. The barrier must then be addressed accordingly. In the industrialised building context, client-contractor communication is probably distorted by lack of market/client knowledge concerning the industrialised building process, but also by previous experiences from traditional building.

  • 331.
    Engström, Susanne
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Sardén, Ylva
    Competitive impact of industrialised building: in search for explanations to the current state2009In: Twenty-Fifth Annual Conference, 2009, September 7-9, Albert Hall, Nottingham / [ed] Andrew Dainty, Reading: Association of Researchers in Construction Management , 2009, p. 413-424Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrialised building has been proposed as a means of satisfying changes needed in the Swedish building sector. Over the last decade industrialised building has also developed as a niche within this sector. Given its potential, however, some stakeholders think that industrialised building has not yet had the impact they expected, and that the building sector is still in need of change to meet demands for cost reduction, quality improvement and longer managerial time-spans. Consequently, questions arise regarding the competitive position of industrialised building today, and the underlying causes for its present state. This study is based on a literature review, assessing industrialised building over recent decades, and on complementary interviews with researchers and practitioners. The findings are summarised in a conceptual model that outlines the sought effects of industrialised building, as well as the forces that drive and restrain change towards industrialised building. The demands on the building sector are the main drivers of change for the industry. However, the market itself is not actively driving change towards industrialised building, and the information and understanding required to support clients' decision on whether to enforce market power in one or the other direction is not readily available. How building clients value different building possibilities is also unclear. Suggested future challenges are to reduce client uncertainty, to improve client power and to facilitate the comparison of performance between traditional and industrialised building alternatives.

  • 332.
    Engwall, Åsa
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Dynamics in refurbishment: a study of production processes and human interactions in a commercial environment2001Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The client-contractor relationship has long been a concern in the Swedish construction industry and in constraction management research. This concern has, to great extent, been directed at the need to improve productivity. The result of the industry´s approach to increasing productivity in the 1960s is reflected in functional diversity and the industrial paradigm of a linear and sequential model of planning, design, construction and handing over of a completed building. The approach accentuates the need for effective communication and interaction between the parties, especially those engaged in refurbishment projects. This thesis concludes that the client and contractor do, in fact, share an understanding of the ideal production model for refurbishment. However, this shared production philosophy reveals different production drivers and these can have correspondingly different implications for project success. Another conclusion is that new forms of administrative procedures, with respect to environmental considerations and CAD, can facilitate better communication between actors. Empirical studies of interpersonal emotion support the view that function diversity, motivation diversity, and social character affect performance in refurbishment projects.

  • 333.
    Enochsson, Ola
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Bro över Luossajokk: övervakning för trafikering med 30 tons axellast2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I samband med projektet "30 ton på Malmbanan", Paulson-Töyrä (1996), konstaterades att bron över Luossajokk i Kiruna inte klarade de nya förhöjda lasterna. Bron har två spann och en utkragande konsol 10,25 + 6,3 + 3,4 m. Överbyggnaden utgörs av ett slak-armerat betongtråg med ett nytt mellanstöd som uppfördes 1965 då en äldre överbyggnad byttes ut. En klassningsberäkning och en utredning av förstärkningsbehov utfördes. Efter en förnyad översyn av brons bärförmåga utfördes töjningsmätningar vintern och sommaren 2001. Töjningsmätningarna indikerade förvånansvärt små påkänningar i bron. En närmare utredning av brons säkerhet att bära uppträdande laster utfördes 2002 genom en nyanserad säkerhetsberäkning med säkerhetsindexmetod. Bron bedömdes utifrån utredningen och mätresultat ha erforderlig bärförmåga om hastigheten begränsades så att eventuella dynamiska tillskott blir låga och/eller inverkan av ojämn temperatur försummas. Ett program med mätningar varje halvår igångsattes för att kontrollera brons fortsatta uppförande. Kontrollen bestod i en övervakning av aktuella töjningsnivåer i armeringen.I denna rapport redovisas resultat från mätningar mellan år 2001-2006. Resultaten visar ingen ökning av töjningsnivåerna fram till brons avlägsnande hösten 2006.

  • 334.
    Enochsson, Ola
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Kronborg, Anders
    Töyrä, B.
    Condition assessment of a concrete railway bridge in northern Sweden2006In: Condition Monitoring and Diagnostic Engineering Management: COMADEM 2006 / [ed] Uday Kumar; Aditya Parida; Raj B. K. N. Rao, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2006, p. 711-719Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 335. Enochsson, Ola
    et al.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Täljsten, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Töyrä, Björn
    Banverket, Luleå.
    Kronborg, Anders
    Banverket, Luleå.
    Paulsson, Björn
    Banverket, Luleå.
    Assessment and condition monitoring of a concrete railway bridge in Kiruna, Sweden2006In: Bridge maintenance, safety, management, life-cycle performance and cost: Proceedings of the third International Conference on Bridge Maintenance, Safety and Management. IABMAS'06 / [ed] Paulo J. da Sousa Cruz; Dan M Frangopol; Luis C Canhoto Neves, London: Taylor and Francis Group , 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A two-span railway concrete trough bridge over Luossajokk in Kiruna in northern Sweden has been studied. The owner wanted to increase the axle loads from 250 to 300 kN in order to reduce freight costs for iron ore. Examples are given of methods used and results obtained from the assessment where bending, shear and fatigue were studied. Material properties, loads and load carrying capacity were evaluated using deterministic and probabilistic methods. It was shown that the bridge could carry the higher loads with a safety index β > 4.7 for reasonable assumptions of the load distributions. A measurement system was installed to check the actual level of critical strains and the worst positions of the train. Results are also given from a condition monitoring program 2001-2006, launched to periodically check the development of strains with time

  • 336.
    Enochsson, Ola
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Hejll, Arvid
    Nilsson, Martin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Thun, Håkan
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Bro över Luossajokk: beräkning med säkerhetsindexmetod, böjdragkapacitet i överkant i mittsnittet i korta spannet2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I samband med projektet "30 ton på Malmbanan", Paulson-Töyrä (1996), konstaterades att bron över Luossajokk i Kiruna inte klarade de nya förhöjda lasterna. Bron har två spann och en utkragande konsol 10,25 + 6,3 + 3,4 m. Överbyggnaden utgörs av ett slakarmerat betongtråg med ett nytt mellanstöd som uppfördes 1965 då en äldre överbyggnad byttes ut. En klassningsberäkning och en utredning av förstärkningsbehov utfördes. Efter en förnyad översyn av brons bärförmåga utfördes töjningsmätningar vintern och sommaren 2001. Töjningsmätningarna indikerade förvånansvärt små påkänningar i bron. En närmare utredning av brons säkerhet att bära uppträdande laster genomförs därför i denna rapport. Detta sker med hjälp av en nyanserad säkerhetsberäkning med säkerhetsindexmetod. Den nya genomgången visar att medelvärdet för bärförmågan för moment är 2,89 MNm med standardavvikelsen 0,19 MNm i det mest utsatta snittet med dragpåkänningar i överkant i korta spannet. Detta kan jämföras med det formella dimensioneringsvärdet 1,99 MNm som erhölls i klassningsberäkningen med beaktande av aktuella partialkoefficienter. I det nya medelvärdet har en lägre uppmätt effektiv höjd beaktats, att ett av tolv armeringsjärn borrats av samt att betong- och armeringshållfastheterna är högre än de nominella dimensioneringsvärdena. På lastsidan gav klassningsberäkningen i motsvarande snitt att det formella dimensioneringsvärdet för momentet är 2,79 MNm. En analys av verkliga uppträdande laster ger att medelvärdet maximalt uppgår till 2,05 MNm. Detta lastfall utgörs av ett lok placerat med tre axlar i längsta spannet och tre axlar placerade på konsolen, om såväl bromslast som ojämn temperaturlast och dynamiskt tillskott uppträder samtidigt. Enligt BV Bärighet (1996) behöver ojämn temperatur inte beaktas, vilket är rimligt med tanke på att detta är ett statiskt obestämt lastfall som försvinner vid uppsprickning i brottstadiet. Det har heller inte medräknats i tidigare klassningsberäkningar. I så fall fås att lasten har medelvärdet 1,66 MNm och att säkerhetsindex β varierar mellan 3,8 och 6,0 beroende på vilka antaganden som görs om lasternas statistiska fördelning. För en rimlig fördelning innehålls kravet i säkerhetsklass 3 att säkerhetsindex β 4,75. Bron visar sig därför, enligt vår bedömning och med beaktande av erhållna mätresultat, ha erforderlig bärförmåga om hastigheten begränsas på bron så att eventuella dynamiska tillskott blir låga och/eller inverkan av ojämn temperatur försummas. Brons fortsatta uppförande bör kontrolleras genom ett mätprogram. Detta bör förutom armeringstöjningar med befintliga givare även inkludera mätningar av nedböjningar för att säkerställa att använda beräkningsmodeller och randvillkor på ett korrekt sätt återger brons beteende. Storleken på den dynamiska förstoringsfaktorn D bör även mätas liksom inverkan av bromskrafter och ojämn temperaturfördelning. På så sätt kan ett säkrare underlag erhållas för bedömning av frekvensfunktionerna för dessa vanliga lasteffekter. Dessa värden borde även vara av intresse vid säkerhetsbedömning av likartade järnvägsbroar.

  • 337.
    Enochsson, Ola
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Lundqvist, Joakim
    Täljsten, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Rusinowski, Piotr
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    CFRP strengthened openings in two-way concrete slabs: an experimental and numerical study2007In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 810-826Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rehabilitation and strengthening of concrete structures with externally bonded fibre reinforced polymers (FRPs) has been a viable technique for at least a decade. An interesting and useful application is strengthening of slabs or walls where openings are introduced. In these situations, FRP sheets are very suitable; not only because of their strength, but also due to that they are easy to apply in comparison to traditional steel girders or other lintel systems. Even though many benefits have been shown by strengthening openings with FRPs not much research have been presented in the literature. In this paper, laboratory tests on 11 slabs with openings, loaded with a distributed load are presented together with analytical and numerical evaluations. Six slabs with openings have been strengthened with carbon fibre reinforced polymers (CFRPs) sheets. These slabs are compared with traditionally steel reinforced slabs, both with (four slabs) and without openings (one slab). The slabs are quadratic with a side length of 2.6 m and a thickness of 100 mm. Two different sizes of openings are used, 0.85 × 0.85 m and 1.2 × 1.2 m. The results from the tests show that slabs with openings can be strengthened with externally bonded CFRP sheets. The performance is even better than for traditionally steel reinforced slabs. The numerical and analytical evaluations show good agreement with the experimental results.

  • 338. Enochsson, Ola
    et al.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Täljsten, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    CFRP Strengthened openings in two-way concrete slabs2005In: FRP composites in civil engineering - CICE 2004: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on FRP Composites in Civil Engineering / [ed] Rudolf Seracino, Leiden: Balkema Publishers, A.A. / Taylor & Francis The Netherlands , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 339. Enochsson, Ola
    et al.
    Puurula, Arto
    Stenlund, Anders
    Thun, Håkan
    Nilsson, Martin
    Täljsten, Björn
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Condition assessment of concrete bridges in Sweden2005In: Concrete repair, rehabilitation and retrofitting / [ed] Mark G. Alexander; Hans-Dieter Beushausen; Frank Dehn; Pilate Moyo, London: Taylor and Francis Group , 2005, p. 257-259Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Examples are given of methods used and results obtained from two bridges assessed in Sweden. The following sectional forces were critical: (a) Bending, shear and fatigue in a two-span railway trough bridge and (b) Shear and torsion in a three-span prestressed cantilever box girder road bridge. In the assessments we evaluated material properties, loads and load carrying capacity using deterministic and probabilistic methods

  • 340. Enochsson, Ola
    et al.
    Täljsten, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Structural health monitoring of a concrete bridge in Sweden2006In: Proceedings of SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering, ISSN 0277-786X, E-ISSN 1996-756X, Vol. 6176, no 18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past decade the interests in upgrading, assessment and maintenance of our ageing infrastructure has grown avalanche-like. The main reason is economical aspects but also reasons due to accessibility environmental consideration play a vital role. Recently the Swedish and Norwegian Railway Association decided to upgrade the Iron Ore Line "Malmbanan", a railway line for transportation of iron from northern Sweden to the coasts of Norway and Sweden. Here the owner wanted to increase the axle loads from 25 to 30 tons to reduce the transportation costs. In one of the cases, the Luossajokk Bridge, a recalculation according to design codes showed that the increased axle loads would exceed the yield limit in the reinforcement. Before any decision was taken regarding strengthening or replacing the bridge an assessment with probabilistic methods was used. It appeared that the bridge could carry the higher load with a safety index β ≥ 4.7 for reasonable assumptions of the load distributions. A measurement system was installed to check the real worst placement of the new iron ore locomotive (IORE), and the actually level of strains in the reinforcement for the worst load case1. It was shown that the strain level was far from critical and that the evaluated worst placement of the locomotive was almost correct2. To assure a reliable transportation a long term monitoring program was arranged to check the development of strains with time. Examples from the probabilistic evaluation and the monitoring of the bridge are given and discussed.

  • 341.
    Enocsson, Marcus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Mechanics, Byggteknik.
    Kommunikationsstruktur: En undersökning av kommunikation- och organisationsstruktur i en utförandeentreprenad inom anläggningssektorn2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the essay is to investigate a road- and civil engineering company that operates in Stockholm. The investigation will focus on communicative and organizational structure of Birka Markbyggnad AB and especially the main project for this essay, Bro Galopp. The study has been made by polls and by interviews in order to create a reliable result in the end. The essay will end up in some conclusions and suggestions for Birka Markbyggnad AB so that they can improve their organization. 

  • 342. Ericson, T.
    et al.
    Oskarsson, O.
    Apleberger, Lennart
    Informationsteknik1989In: Teknik och standard, ISSN 0281-5915, no 3, p. 2-16Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 343.
    Erikshammar, Jarkko
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Alestig, Erik
    Prolog AB.
    Lu, Weizhuo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Parametric Value Stream Mapping Framework: A Case Study of a Small Swedish Industrialized House-Building Supplier2014In: Proceedings of IGLC22: 22nd Annual Conference of the International Group for Lean Consruction : understanding and improving project based production / [ed] Bo Terje Kalsaas; Lauri Koskela; Tarcisio Abreu Saurin, Oslo, Norway: Akademika forlag, 2014, Vol. 1, p. 425-436Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrialized house-building is based on repetitive processes used in the supply, design, manufacturing and erection of pre-configured houses. Industrialized house-building contractors are dependent on many small suppliers and sub-contractors in their supply chain. These small suppliers, with limited resources and capabilities, need to be able to develop products and processes in order to deliver future customer value without wasting development resources on non-viable products. Our question is whether product development by small and medium-sized (SME) industrialized house-building suppliers could be supported by parametric Value Stream Mapping.The objective is to explore a process design framework in which Value stream Mapping (VSM) is used to identify improvements and to generate product development suggestions, based on a set of parameters defined as P1, P2..., Pn.The testing was carried out at a Swedish SME supplier to the industrialized house-building sector, using a newly-developed roofing board with an integrated membrane, with the parameters (P1) customer needs, (P2) waste on construction site and (P3) construction worker safety. Data were collected using interviews and video-recorded participant observations on two construction sites. Findings indicate that VSM cannot describe attributes of a product other than those associated with production flow. However, parametric VSM helped the case study company to stop current development and instead suggest valuable product attributes. The implications are that parametric VSM enhances the application of VSM. Parametric VSM can be used by SME suppliers as an input to product development in order to validate product attributes before launch. However, this is based on a single case study and further research is needed.

  • 344.
    Erikshammar, Jarkko
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Lu, Weizhuo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Discrete event simulation enhanced value stream mapping: an industrialized construction case study2013In: Lean Construction Journal, ISSN 1555-1369, E-ISSN 1555-1369, Vol. 10, p. 47-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research Question/Hypothesis: Can a production process design framework created by integrating Value Stream Mapping (VSM) and Discrete Event Simulation (DES) be used to assess the production system performance, as predicted by a future state design of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) working in industrialized construction?Purpose: To explore a production process design framework in which VSM is used to identify doable improvements and DES provides analytical evaluation of them.Research Method: The demonstration was carried out at a Swedish SME industrialized construction component manufacturerFindings: VSM is unable to evaluate analytically the performance of the future state design. This inability leads to unnecessary implementation iterations. VSM assumes a deterministic model and cannot describe the dynamic behaviors of a system. The dynamic behavior of the construction processes will result in the future state design not performing as expected. However, by analytically evaluating the future state with DES helped the case company to implement a new production process design.Limitations: DES modeling is still time-consuming and needs skilled professionals, the cost of whom can be prohibitive for SMEs and demonstrated in one case study.Implications: The integration of DES and VSM provides a framework to evaluate and communicate the outcome, hence enhancing the application of VSM.Value for practitioners: A lean framework, which can be used, for industrialized construction processes especially by SMEs with very limited resources, to validate changes before implementing them.

  • 345.
    Erikshammar, Jarkko
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Meiling, John
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Jansson, Gustav
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Levander, Erika
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Industriellt träbyggande förenar ekonomi och byggbarhet2010In: Samhällsbyggaren, ISSN 2000-2408, no 2, p. 32-35Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Industrialized Timber Housing is based on repetition of the predefined building processes compared with traditional building where the business transaction and the customer are arranged into unique projects. Since the construction process consists of recurring activities, the industrial methods do not only improve the design and production phase, but the positive impact stretches well into the management phase. The market today can be offered cost-effective housing, with higher flexibility and better quality if the client, contractor and supplier takes control of the construction process.

  • 346.
    Eriksson, Björn
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Mechanics, Byggteknik.
    Nylund, Oscar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Mechanics, Byggteknik.
    HANTERING AV JORDMASSOR VID ANLÄGGNINGSARBETEN: En ekonomi- och miljöanalys2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study was carried out on behalf of Peab Construction, a contractor in Uppsala. Peab’s, and hence the authors’ intention was to investigate the handling of excavated material during construction work. A construction site was investigated as a case study, in order to find better ways to minimise the use of uneconomical procedures and environmental impact. The given project was a water and drainage pipe in an area around Uppsala. This study was carried out mainly by using documentation from the project specifications. In addition, considerable information was also acquired from experts at Peab by means of several interviews.

    The investigation was carried out by analyzing and studying the working time and fuel consumption of different machines used in the project. The total cost of the management and the total fuel consumption were calculated for each soil type handling method. The conclusion is that an optimal solution would be to spread the excavated material in the surroundings of the construction site in order to lower costs and attain the smallest possible environmental impact. This conclusion also gives Peab Construction, and other contactors, an estimated value of what they could save financially on similar projects. In addition, they will also be able to supervise in a better way, and limit their environmental impact.

  • 347.
    Eriksson, Christoffer
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Orakhel, Farhad
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Låglutande tak och takterrasser: En jämförelsestudie mellan olika byggtekniska system, material och metoder med fokus på poblem, lösningar och hjälpmedel.2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 348.
    Eriksson, Elin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Hansson, Emelie
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Minskning av energiförbrukningen: I ett flerbostadshus från miljonprogrammet2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 349.
    Eriksson, Emilia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Produktionsstyrning: Tillämpning av NCC Projektplanering i praktiken2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to investigate which elements of the design process in production that have key features for successful progress of production and how these are regulated in the developed production model, the NCC Project planning, NCC Construction Sweden AB. A study of NCC Project planning used in construction output in the department of Mälardalen has been carried out and proposals for implementation of the model has been proposed. The work is carried out through interviews and archival analysis of NCC's business system.  NCC Project planning is a production model based on LEAN Construction's governance model pull-planning and 5S principle. By means of the production model desired involvement in the work and control over the work process increase. In the current situation is not production model to the extent that the company wishes and therefore the reasons why mapped and solutions to the problem have been proposed.  One of the biggest reasons that the NCC Project planning is not used in practice is the lack of commitment from supervisors, managers and production managers. As a solution to the problem suggested mentors, field trips and custom training for production management model.

  • 350.
    Eriksson, Fredrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Mechanics, Byggteknik.
    Att bygga ett socialt hållbart samhälle på ett ekonomiskt och hållbart sätt: Vad använder sig byggherrar i Malmö stad, Göteborgs stad, Skanska och föreningen Byggemenskap av för att skapa social hållbarhet2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report gives a picture of different things a developer in Sweden can use to

    increase the social sustainability. The studied parts are Bygga om Dialogen in Malmö,

    Älvstaden in Gothenburg, Vivalla in Örebro and association Byggemenskap.

    By interviewing one person from each area similarities and differences were studied

    to compare their work with social sustainability. In Malmö and Örebro their work is

    to increase the social sustainability for restoration objects and how to get whole

    areas that have long had a bad reputation to become socially sustainable with the

    main focus being on hiring long-term unemployed people, in Gothenburg and within

    the association Byggemeskap, the focus is to increase the social sustainability at new

    housing estates and how we can build new tenancies with a lower rent then

    apartments have today.

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