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  • 301.
    Dusseau, Foster
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies. ABE department; exchange student from ESTP Paris.
    Oslo- Stockholm High Speed Railway: An up in the air project2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to shed a light on a High-speed Railway (HSR) study project in the corridor Stockholm-Oslo, and investigate the global context in which it has grown. Priority Project 12 (PP12), commonly named “The Nordic Triangle”, is a project within the Trans-European Transport Network (TEN-T) program, a European program aiming at establishing an efficient transport network, for competitiveness and employment in Europe. The Nordic Triangle aims at linking the Nordic countries, Sweden, Norway, Denmark and Finland and their capitals to each other and improving passenger and freight transport, both rail and road, between the central Europe, the Baltic countries and Russia. The cornerstone of this program in Sweden is the development of three main axes: Stockholm–Katrineholm–Laxa–Swedish–Norwegian boarder; Katrineholm/Jarna–Norrköping–Malmö; and Malmö–Gothenburg–Swedish–Norwegian border. Of course, this extension to the Swedish-Norwegian boarder targets to reach Oslo, the Norwegian capital.

    What was expected in theory mismatches with the current situation and the future expectations on this project. It proves that Sweden, throughout the PP12, has concentrated its railway upgrades to the two other axes and has made few efforts to improve the Oslo–Stockholm line. Political decisions in terms of railway network development are more focused on the North-South axes, which represent an undeniable opening to Central Europe.

    At the same time the Norwegian Ministry of Transport has launched in 2010 an overall High Speed Rail Assessment to study different route alternatives for the creation of a first new HSR system. Among them is the Stockholm-Oslo route. It is curious to see that Norway focuses on a project that is not on the agenda of the European Commission and it is important to try to understand why and to know if such a project is economically viable.

    The conclusion is that this current implementation reflects the Swedish willingness to develop its railway network, and especially its high-speed network, to the South, which embodies a front door to Central Europe. Thus, since the beginning of the development of the Nordic Triangle, it seems probable Sweden had in mind not to upgrade all the line to Oslo, but only half the way.

    As regards the viability of the HSR line, it could not be economically viable because the revenue generated could not offset these former costs. An insufficient demand would be the main problem. Investing in a HSR on this corridor is certainly not the most reasonable decision, neither for Norway nor for Sweden.

  • 302.
    Dzafic, Amir
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Stölder och inbrott på byggarbetsplatser: En studie om risker och konsekvenser inom NCC:s produktion2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Theft and brake-ins at Swedish construction sites is a very common problem that mainly occurs during the production phase of building. The fractures that occur are not limited to a specific area but they also occur throughout the entire country. However, the areas around the major cities and larger national and European roads are most affected. Many companies are not prepared for the costs of a theft or burglary and there are no clear procedures for dealing with the situation that occurs. Stolen gods and burglaries is a waste of production that the companies should work harder to remove or at least reduce. The waste is so big that about 7000 burglaries and robberies from Swedish workplaces are reported annually. According to other studies, these 7000 burglars render a cost of 1.4 billion SEK annually for the Swedish construction industry.

    The work has been carried out and with the help of NCC Sverige AB section Värmland. The main purpose and goal of this work is to make NCC workplaces safer and more efficient by reducing the risk of a theft or burglary. The goal is also to give an increased understanding of what it means and what happens in the production phase after thefts and burglaries at construction sites.

    The method used to obtain the right information is primarily interviews and questionnaire surveys, but discussions have also been held with most supervisors, site managers and several other workers. In addition, site visits have been carried out at construction sites where routines have been investigated, placement of containers and security in and around the site offices as well as preventive measures and the risks involved on the site.

    The subject is quite unexplored, but there are some studies that have been done over the years. Svenska Byggbranschens Utveklingsfond, SBUF, has done several information papers and implemented a number of projects that deal with theft and burglaries on Swedish construction sites. Another major study that has been carried out is "Stölder och inbrott på byggarbetsplatser – omfattning, skadeverkan och risk", a study conducted at Malmö University on behalf of FoU Väst. These studies form the basis of my work and this is where knowledge and information about the subject has been retrieved.

    The investigations showed that a workplace that is close to major roads or which is located in a way that makes the insight poor, is at the highest risk of being affected by burglaries. Furthermore, it is possible to say that bad lighting, badly marked alarm signs and a workplace that is not properly protected in the form of proper fences and locks lies in a high-risk zone in case of a theft. There is a lot to work to do with the companies when it comes to routines and preventive measures. For example, one would be able to invest in a much more burglary fence which would make work difficult for any thieves.

    Given the pressure on building homes and other buildings in Sweden today, the risks will increase to be exposed by a burglary or a theft. This is an important factor that makes the topic interesting for companies in the industry so that they can get well prepared for each construction site in terms of prevention measures.

  • 303.
    Dzamalija, Zada
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Den fysiska arbetsmiljön på väg- och anläggningsprojekt: Hur styrs säkerhetsarbetet på Skanska för att uppnå bättre arbetsmiljö2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 304.
    Döse, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Silfwerbrand, J.
    Jelinek, C.
    Trägårdh, Jan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Hållbara byggnadsverk.
    Isaksson, M.
    Naturally occurring radioactivity in some Swedish concretes and their constituents - Assessment by using I-index and dose-model2016In: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, ISSN 0265-931X, E-ISSN 1879-1700, Vol. 155-156, p. 105-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The reference level for effective dose due to gamma radiation from building materials and construction products used for dwellings is set to 1 mSv per year (EC, 1996, 1999), (CE, 2014). Given the specific conditions presented by the EC in report 112 (1999) considering building and construction materials, an I-index of 1 may generate an effective dose of 1 mSv per year. This paper presents a comparison of the activity concentrations of 4 0K, 226Ra and 232Th of aggregates and when these aggregates constitute a part of concrete. The activity concentration assessment tool for building and construction materials, the I-index, introduced by the EC in 1996, is used in the comparison. A comparison of the I-indices values are also made with a recently presented dose model by Hoffman (2014), where density variations of the construction material and thickness of the construction walls within the building are considered. There was a ~16-19% lower activity index in concretes than in the corresponding aggregates. The model by Hoffman further implies that the differences between the I-indices of aggregates and the concretes' final effective doses are even larger. The difference is due, mainly to a dilution effect of the added cement with low levels of natural radioisotopes, but also to a different and slightly higher subtracted background value (terrestrial value) used in the modeled calculation of the revised I-index by Hoffman (2014). Only very minimal contributions to the annual dose could be related to the water and additives used, due to their very low content of radionuclides reported.

  • 305.
    Edlund, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences.
    Optimerad Samgranskning: En studie om samverkan mellan ArchiCAD och Solibri2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadaysis it commonin the construction industrythat oncea decisionis made that a building willbe constructed, it should be done as soonas possible.Thisrequiresthatthe planningshould be performedin the shortest possible timewithoutany fault,so that the actual constructioncan begin.Coordinationeffectivenessis testedby the author who examineshow a modelmustbe designedin a CAD-programin order to be exported to a coordination program, wherethe buildingplanswill be examined.

              The thesiswas conducted on behalf of the companyMETOD arkitekterin Uppsalaas the final part ofthe three-yearbachelorprogramin construction engineering.

              The purpose ofthis project was toanalyzethe interaction ofCAD softwareArchiCAD andcoordinationprogramSolibri. Therefore,investigate themodel incoordinatingthe program andachieve an optimal3-D coordination. To perform this study the author made a literature study, an observational study, interviews with various disciplines, training and a test process in the programs. Thistesting processmeans thatthe authordrewupmodelsin ArchiCADand exportedthemtoSolibri, in order to checkwhether the modelswere consistentbetween the programs.

              The resultof the thesisshows that there areopportunities to improveplanningand coordinationin 3D toobtainan optimal and efficientcoordination model. Mostdisciplines usesoftware thatsupports theIFC format, which means that the modelscan be opened inother CAD programs. This would meanthat the modelwould betoensurequalitybefore it getsto thedrawings, and by that reducethe number of errorsat the construction site.

  • 306.
    Edrees, Tarek
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Structural Control and Identification of Civil Engineering Structures2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In general, the main purpose of a structural control system is to apply powerful control techniques that improve the behaviour of civil structures under various kinds of dynamic loading. The first part of this thesis presents novel applications of posicast and input shaping control schemes that have never previously been applied in the field of structural control. Numerical simulations of a benchmark three-story building with an MR damper are used to verify the efficiency of the proposed control theories. The superiority and effectiveness of the suggested schemes at reducing the structure’s responses were demonstrated using six evaluation criteria and by comparison to results achieved with well-established classical control schemes. Moreover, a comprehensive procedure for generating scaled real ground motion records appropriate for a seismic analysis and design of structures using the linear spectrum matching technique is presented based on a seismic hazard study.To efficiently control a structure, it is necessary to estimate its real-life dynamical behaviour. This is usually done using the Structural Identification approach, which is also addressed in this thesis. Structural Identification is commonly utilized to bridge the gap between the real structure and its modeled behaviour. It can also be used to evaluate the structure’s health, detect damage, and assess efficiency. Despite the extensive development of parametric time domain identification methods, their relative merits and the accuracy with which they predict the behaviour of vibrating structures are largely unknown because there have been few comparative studies on their performance under diverse test conditions, and they have not been verified against real-life data gathered over extended periods of time.Thus, the second part of this thesis focuses on applications of parametric and non-parametric models based on the Structural Identification approach in order to clarify their potential and applicability. In addition, a new strategy is proposed that combines this approach with techniques based on Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and Complex Mode Indicator Function (CMIF) curves to detect structural damage.The methods developed in this work are used to predict the vertical frequencies of the top storey in a multi-storey building prefabricated from reinforced concrete in Stockholm, and to detect and locate damage in a benchmark steel frame. In addition, the non-parametric structural identification approach is used to investigate variation in the modal characteristics (frequency, damping, and mode shapes) of a steel railway bridge.

  • 307.
    Edstrand, Gustav
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Engberg, Jacob
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Analys av centralt beslutad extern tredjepartslogistik i Vallastaden: En fallstudie gällande värdeskapande för byggentreprenörens logistikverksamhet2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: External logistics coordination was decided after a long procurement process while parts of the project Vallastaden already started construction. The external logistics company creates and implements a logistics solution in a short time. The municipality has no formal connection requirements on developers, but has transferred to the third-party logistics to contract with the developers.

    The goal is to examine how the implementation of the external solution contract affects residential building and how an external third-party logistics solution works value creation for the building contractor.

    Method: For data collection observation and interviews have been used as methods of work.

    Findings: In order to create favourable condition for a builder and/or contractor in the implementation of a centrally decided external third party logistics solution requires: 

    • Early involvement of third-party logistics contractor in the planning stage with the motto "first and last on site"
    • Clear and well-developed conditions for procurement of connectivity requirements, and the possibility of adaptation of the technical solution according to the customer identified needs.
    • Open and continuous dialogue at all levels within the organizational structure.

    Implications: The complexity of how building projects should plan their logistics allows a handling of the issue at an early stage in the project is crucial. If the potential of the third party logistics for construction projects should be used needs to be early dialogue between the parties involved which the project's conditions have to control how the service should be designed.

    Limitations: The problem area and the number of actors involved in the external third-partylogistics make it difficult to pinpoint exact events that contributed to the situation has become in Vallastaden. The authors have not found the source of why it has been difficult to implement third-party logistics solution at an early stage in Vallastaden. What emerged during the process is that it needs to be sought answers higher up in the organizational structure of Vallastaden, but there is work boundaries made this a priority away and therefore not addressed in this report.

    Selected methods aimed solely at Skanska role in Vallastaden. Alternative viewpoints from different developers and construction contractors in Vallastaden has partly been highlighted in logistics meetings. It is important to point out that the work contains only a limited number of viewpoints on centrally approved third party logistics based on the many actors who are part of the project Vallastaden.

  • 308.
    Edström, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Erfarenhetsåterföring mellan olika aktörer inom byggbranschen2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Experience feedback is an important tool to save time, money and to develop the construction industry. Many companies knows this, but despites these important advantages, experience feedback is rarely used. Former studies has shown that it, among others, can be explained by narrow time constraints and bad commitment. This study is made in cooperation with a company who is specialized in industrial building construction, this company as well other entrepreneurs is the case study in this bachelor thesis. 

     

    The purpose with this study is to illustrate the importance of the subject and the various earnings a company can make when they practice good experience feedback. As well as analyze how experience feedback works in collaboration between different actors, and with the help of the manufacturing industry apply different techniques to reduce waste and mistakes. 

     

    The study use four methods to collect data. These are questionnaires, interviews, observations and a literature study. All these methods has co-operated with a result that shows that different entrepreneurs agrees that experience feedback should be used. All the participants in the study believes that there are gains in time and money when it´s used. An explanation to why it´s not applied is because of narrow time constraint, which in turn is somewhat paradoxal because you can save time by using it. It also turned out in collaboration with other entrepreneurs that they don’t always share experiences because there may be financial profits in keeping the information for themselves, where the effects of modification and supplementary work also can counteract so that it´s not applied. 

     

    Experience is expensive, nor is it cheaper in a conservative industry. But there is hope, the people in it want change. There are already existing tools available and these are Lean Production, quality systems and working towards a processoriented organization. 

  • 309.
    Edvardsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Hallbyggnadsteknik - en effektivisering av småhusproduktion2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim with this diploma work is to see if it is possible to transfer the technology used for industrial buildings to the production of small houses to lower the production costs. In the report, we show that the industrial building technology is possible to transfer to a small house. It also becomes more efficient to build the climate shell with our construction system compared with a traditional prefabricated small house. The total construction cost can with our system be reduced with 3-10 % depending on which facade material that is chosen.

  • 310.
    Edvardsson, Karin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering (closed 20110301).
    Ekblad, Jonas
    NCC Roads AB.
    Magnusson, Rolf
    Dalarna Högskolan.
    Methods for Quantification of Lignosulphonate and Chloride in Gravel Wearing Courses2010In: International Journal on Road Materials and Pavement Design, ISSN 1468-0629, E-ISSN 2164-7402, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 171-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to oxidation, breakdown, and leaching, dust suppressants will be lost from the gravel road surface. Methods for residual dust suppressant concentration supervision are a valuable tool for estimating life-length and optimal application rates, and, hence, efficiency of different products. The objective of this study was to identify methods for quantitative analyses of lignosulphonate and chloride, develop and adapt the methods for application on a gravel matrix, and validate the methods using samples collected in-situ. Results strongly suggest that the reliability and repeatability of the developed methods (23% for lignosulphonate and 30% for chloride, respectively) are acceptable for determination of relative variations in residual concentrations of dust suppressed gravel wearing courses.

  • 311.
    Edwards, Ylva
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Hållbara byggnadsverk.
    Emilsson, T.
    Malmberg, J.
    Skog, A. P.
    Capener, C.-M.
    Quality-assured solutions for green roof gardens on concrete deck with zero tolerance for leaks2016In: The Sustainable City XI / [ed] A. Galiano-Garrigos, C.A. Brebbia, WIT Press, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eco-neighborhoods with gardens on concrete decks are for several reasons increasingly being prescribed today in major Swedish cities. However, there is a lack of knowledge, experience, standards and guidelines as well as collaboration between parties and stakeholders when installing such systems. It is incredibly important to avoid any leakage during the lifetime of a green roof garden but this cannot be completely guaranteed with today’s installation practice and project management. At Sustainable City 2014 in Siena, we presented a paper about a new project aiming at bringing together researchers, government and industry to collaborative development of new and attractive solutions for green roof gardens with consideration to the environment and high requirements for durability, materials, construction and energy efficiency. This paper is a continuation of the paper presented in Siena and reports on the most recent results from the collaborative project which will finalize in November 2016. After that, the project will be further evaluated in a proposed continuation project for another couple of years.

  • 312.
    Egerup, Felix
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Tränck, Jesper
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Resursslöseri i byggbranschen: Slöseri förenat med intern förflyttning av personal2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 313.
    Egerö, Mattias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Östberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Kartläggning av orsaker till varierande sorteringsgrad av byggavfall: förslag till åtgärder för att möta målbilden2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2008, the European Commission presented a directive which, among other things, addresses how priority is given to preventing and managing waste in the Member States. Based on this directive, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency has developed a national plan for how these issues will be dealt with in Sweden and how the goals set in the EU directive will be achieved. This plan deals with five priority sectors in which the construction industry is one of them.

    Peab AB is a large construction company and has most of its operations in Sweden. Because of this they are affected by the national waste management plan that has been drawn up and they take their part in the change work seriously. Their mindset is that all residues will be handled in an environmentally sustainable manner and have set the goal of achieving 100 percent source sorting of the construction waste.

    By the year 2017, Peab has set up a number of targets for source sorting in the business area Bygg. The targets state that at least 87% of waste should be sorted when leaving the workplace and no more than 8% to landfill (Peab, 2017). To achieve this, a solid sorting work is needed and Peab requested a survey of today's sorting work to further work on improvement measures.

    This work has been carried out with an exploratory survey to identify problem areas in waste management and then a method triangulation to collect data. A literature study has then been conducted to be able to analyze the results with evidence in already established research in the subjects concerned.

    The work has resulted in a report showing four aspects of sorting work and their impact on lack of sorting in projects. The four problem areas discovered are communication, third parties, signage and irresponsibility, and two of them have emerged in a common conclusion.

    Following the completion of the work, the conclusion could be drawn that the lack of use of signs has the greatest impact on the degree of grading and the risk that the target will not be achieved. Through increased use of signs, sorting work can be streamlined and several problem areas discovered are counteracted.

    The two problem areas that lead to a recommendation for continued work are lack of interest and the impact of third parties. The reason that it did not give rise to a conclusion is a lack of results. A more in-depth study of these two aspects would be needed.

  • 314.
    Eggers, Patrick
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Parallelization of ray casting for solar irradiance calculations in urban environments2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The growing amount of photovoltaic systems in urban environments creates peaks of energy generation in local energy grids. These peaks can lead to unwanted instability in the electrical grid. By aligning solar panels differently, spikes could be avoided. Planning locations for solar panels in urban environments is very time-intense as they require a high spatial and temporal resolution. The aim of this thesis is to investigate the decrease in runtime of planning applications by parallelizing ray-casting algorithms. This thesis includes a software tool for professionals and laymen, which has been developed in a user centered design process and shows ways to perform those calculations on a graphics processing unit.After creating a computational concept and a concept of the software design, those concepts have been implemented starting with an implementation of the Möller-Trumbore ray-casting algorithm which has been run with Python on the central processing unit (CPU). Further the same test with the same algorithm and the same data has been performed on the graphics processing unit (GPU) by using PyCUDA, a Python wrapper for NVIDIAs Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA). Both results were compared resulting in, that parallelizing, transferring and performing those calculations on the graphics processing unit can decrease the runtime of a software significantly. In the used system setup, the same calculations were 42 times faster on the Graphics Processing Unit than on the Central Processing Unit. It was also found, that other factors such as the time of the year, the location of the tested points in the data model, the test interval length and the algorithm design of the ray-casting algorithm have a major impact on the performance of such. In the test scenario the processing time for the same case, but just during another time of the year, increases by factor 4.The findings of this thesis can be used in a wide range of software as it shows, that computationally intensive calculations can easily be sourced out from the Python code and executed on another platform. By doing so, the runtime can be significantly decreased and the whole software package can get an enormous speed boost.

  • 315.
    Egli, Josephine
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Rosendahl, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Från gult till grönt: En studie för JM om smidigare utbyte till miljövänliga alternativ2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to the UN the building sector uses 40 % of the global resources (UNEP - Buildings, 2017).The construction industry has a major impact on the society and on building sites there are manychemical substances in circulation. Like the rest of the sector JM uses a lot of construction materials.The used material may contain chemicals that are harmful to humans and the environment which issomething that JM wants to change. JM strives to eliminate the use of materials with hazardouscharacteristics but the communication with suppliers and subcontracts complicates the work, in somecases.The purpose of the report is to investigate what options JM has in order to find flexible solutions formaterial replacement and to investigate how the communication is between JM and the manufacturers.The aim of the report is to achieve a solution for how to JM faster and more simply should exchangematerials with more environmentally friendly alternativesTo achieve a result the researchers of this report have conducted interviews, literature studies andinvestigations in JMs environmental product database. The result of the study is that communicationbetween JM and the suppliers could improve from both sides. It was also found that an effective wayto switch products to more environmentally friendly alternatives is to keep a regularly contact with thesuppliers. Another way to develop an environmentally friendly product is through the cooperation ofseveral industry-leading companies.

  • 316.
    Egnell, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Standardized Technical Building Requirement2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Denna rapport behandlar tekniska beskrivningar. Främst med fokus på problematiken för att skapa dessa på national men även global nivå samt utvecklingspotentialen med att standardisera dessa. Rapporten inriktar sig på stora industriella aktörer med en repetitiv hantering av byggprojekt för att på minsta möjliga sätt hindra sin kärnverksamhet men även underlätta utveckling och utökning av sin produktion. Rapporten tar upp fördelar men även potentiella nackdelar med ett standardiserat förfarande, därigenom vad företag måste tänka på och säkerställa för att få en fungerande och utvecklande process. I syfte att motivera företagens arbete med standardiserade beskrivningar visar rapporten vilka riktvärden som kan påverkas. Riktvärden som baseras på kompetenta personers erfarenhet inom branschen. Med detta förklaras även vikten i att sätta upp mål för utvecklingen och samtidigt processer för att följa upp så att uppsatta mål uppnås men även återkopplas genom erfarenhetsåterföring och revidering. Tre större industriella aktörer har medverkat i arbetet med rapporten, alla tre med ett stort fokus på vad en standardisering kan innebära för deras verksamhet. Där av har rapportens kärndelar anpassats efter att stämma överens med företagens frågeställningar. Då tekniska beskrivningar inom branschen inte är något nytt fenomen men att standardisera dessa ännu ej är i bruk, konstateras att ämnet måste undersökas mer samt testas i praktiken för att helt kunna följa upp att företagen mål uppnås. Dock kan av rapportens slutsatser dras att det finns stora besparingar och effektiviseringar som potentiellt kan påverkas. Detta med utgångspunkt av digniteten för de projekt företagen kommer i kontakt med.

  • 317.
    Eidner, Albin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Engman, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    En studie i energieffektivisering av miljonprogrammet2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Vi står idag inför stora utmaningar för att minska miljöpåverkan. Fastigheter och främst flerbostadshus står för en stor del av energiåtgången i världen. Det krävs därför åtgärder för att effektivisera deras energianvändning. I Sverige byggdes en miljon bostäder mellan åren 1965 och 1974, en stor del av dessa bostäder var flerbostadshus. Dessa bostäder har med dagens mått mätt dålig energiprestanda och en stor del av beståndet kommer även att behöva omfattande renoveringar under de kommande åren. I denna studie undersöker vi hur renoveringar har gjorts när energieffektivisering dessa bostäder har skett. Vi har studerat olika projekt där man har energioptimerat på olika sätt. Vi har också studerat olika tänkbara lösningar för att energioptimera ett lamellhus i två våningar uppfört 1973. Rapporten presenterar tre olika förslag på tänkbara lösningar för att energioptimera fastigheten. De åtgärder som undersökts är fönsterbyte, tilläggsisolering av väggar både invändigt och utvändigt, tilläggsisolering av plattan invändigt samt tilläggsisolering av sockeln utvändigt.

  • 318.
    Eivindson, Espen
    et al.
    Oslo and Akershus University College, Norway.
    Innvær, Berner E.
    Oslo and Akershus University College, Norway.
    Kolberg, Elisabeth
    Oslo and Akershus University College, Norway.
    Merschbrock, Christoph
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science. Oslo and Akershus University College, Norway.
    Rolfsen, Christian Nordahl
    Oslo and Akershus University College, Norway.
    Inefficiencies in Norwegian small-scale construction, or the problem of too long trucks?2017In: Procedia Engineering, Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 196, p. 543-549Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    “When the truck arrived at the construction site it could not unload the material because it [the truck] was too long, we had to send it away […], this happens all the time in Oslo where we have to build on very small plots.” (Carpenter, Oslo). As the quote illustrates, inefficiencies and resulting low productivity remain a challenge for today’s small construction businesses. While the reasons for inefficiencies are not completely understood, various techniques for project planning and control have proven their practical value in mitigating them. Lean construction has been articulated as one of the concepts that can solve inefficiency problems. The national initiative “Lean construction Norway” initiated by government, academia, and industry, seeks to diffuse lean production principles in the construction industry. However, small to medium sized contractors remain largely excluded from the innovative practices. This article sets out to study what a small Norwegian contractor enforcing lean concepts in addressing construction inefficienciesmay gain. Ingrained in the concept of muda we exemplify waste related to waiting, overproduction, defects, inventory, motion, over processing, and transporting. We ran a case study in a small industry standard type of residential project executed by a small contractor. Data were collected based on a series of qualitative interviews conducted with the on-site personnel. The findings illustrate a variety of inefficiencies resulting in low productivity. We expect that management inspired by lean principles in conjunction with modern planning methods such as building information modelling may improve project delivery in Norwegian small-scale construction.

  • 319.
    Ekberg, Martin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Granqvist, Marcus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Maskinhantering: Köpa kontra hyra maskiner och hjälpmedel2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The following report investigates when it is economically most profitable to buy or rent machines or other equipment, the survey takes place on two of Skanska Sweden AB’s project around Stenungsund. To find out when a machine or other equipment becomes more viable to invest in, the authors designed a calculating spreadsheet in Excel. The calculation computes the total price for both rent and investment, but also after how many days a particular machine or equipment will be more viable to buy. By using the calculating spreadsheet, the projects most common machines and equipment have been studied to find out which machines and equipment that is economically viable to invest in or to rent.

     

    The aim of the project is that through interviews and comparisons between different machines and equipment provide suggestions for the economically most profitable option for investment and/or rental in machinery.

     

    The goal of the project is to educe the economically most profitable option for Skanska site manager concerning to purchase or rent different machines or other equipment. Moreover, the aim of the thesis and for Skanska district manager Malin Dahlstedt, which is the external supervisor for the thesis, to create a calculating spreadsheet which compare the cost of investment and renting different machines and equipment as well as calculating how many days it takes before an investment is economically viable.

     

    The calculator takes the base price of rent, number of days of rental, number of machines, discount rates and a surcharge, in percent, in regards for the calculations. The discount rates are taken from “Skanska Maskin” rental template and the surcharge, which are added to the investment price, includes repair-, maintenance- and storage costs.

     

    An example of the results is screwdrivers that costs 20 Swedish crowns a day to rent by “Skanska Maskin” and has an investment cost of 2 372 Swedish crowns. This leads to that after 279 days, it is economically viable to invest in a screwdriver according to the calculation compute. In Per-Olof’s project in Spekeröd a screwdriver were used in 245 days, which in throughout the project, this means that it is more viable to rent that screwdriver during this project. Per-Olof has, however, invested in screwdrivers because he knows that they will be used in his upcoming projects, which also means that he always has screwdrivers on site whenever they are needed.

     

    The machines and equipment that earliest becomes viable to invest in are the machines and equipment used daily out on the sites, such as nailers and screwdrivers. The remaining machines and equipment are more viable to rent by “Skanska Maskin” since the occupancy rate is not high enough.

     

    To investigate the cost and profitability of machines and other equipment in project are important because it is a relative large expenditure of each project. It is interesting when Skanska wants to win the offers and should therefore have the lowest expenses possible in every project. The study is also interesting for the authors because they will probably have great use of the results in their future engineering professions.

  • 320.
    Ekblad, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering (closed 20110301).
    Isacsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering (closed 20110301).
    Water in coarse granular materials: Resilient and retentive properties2008In: Adv. Transp. Geotech. - Proc. Int. Conf. Transp. Geotech., 2008, p. 117-123Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Granular material is, perhaps the most common construction material used in civil engineering, being an important constituent in road constructions, railways, embankments, foundations, buildings etc. This paper presents results from triaxial testing, at various water contents using constant confining pressure, of two different continuously graded granular materials with maximum particle size 90 mm and 63 mm, respectively. Furthermore, water retention properties of the unbound materials are presented and examples of water distributions in a common construction are shown. From the results presented, it can be concluded that increased water contents cause a reduction in resilient modulus and an increase in strain ratio. The distribution of water content in the vertical direction is highly nonlinear and the degree of saturation in the unbound layers of a road construction depends to a large degree on the level of the water table.

  • 321.
    Ekenståhl, Robert
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Medén, Oskar
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Vilken hållfasthet har ett trädymlingsförband?2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One way to increase the amount of wood in buildings is to replace framing tie with timber dowel joints. It has to be investigated if timber dowel joints strength value is high enough.

    This study investigates the strength of timber joints anchored with a dowel. The dowels have three different dimensions and were anchored in the joint by swelling. Theoretical calculations were made with formulas from Eurokod 5 (2004) for steel screws. The formulas were modified to be applied to wood instead of steel. Pressure tests wereperformed on ten double shear models per dowel dimension. The tests are considered tobe statistically and compiled in a normal distribution curve. Characteristic strength with thesafety margin of 95 % was calculated from the data from the tests. Characteristic strength for the timber dowel joints were 2100 N for 8 mm, 2300 N for 10mm and 4400 N for 12 mm.

  • 322.
    Ekeskär, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Exploring Third-Party Logistics and Partnering in Construction: A Supply Chain Management Perspective2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry is associated with problems such as low productivity and high costs. This has been highlighted in several government-funded reports in both Sweden and in the UK during the course of over two decades. The construction industry is a large industry sector employing hundreds of thousands and a large contributor to a country’s GDP. The problems therefore have a large impact on society. Some of the problems are rooted in the organizational structure of the construction industry. Compared to other manufacturing industries, the construction industry is organized in temporary organizations. The temporary organizations cause temporary supply chains, fragmentation among construction industry actors and adversarial relationships between those actors. Partnering has been but forward as a solution to overcome the temporariness and the adversarial relationships in the construction. Another solution to mitigate the problems suggested in the reports is supply chain management (SCM). Both concepts have been taken from the manufacturing industries and partnering has been more successful compared to SCM in the construction industry. In the construction industry the progress towards SCM has focused on logistics. In recent years dedicated third-party logistics (TPL) solutions have emerged in the Swedish construction industry, where a company is hired to manage the logistics in a construction project.

    The purpose with the research presented in this licentiate thesis is to explore how client initiated TPL solutions and partnering can be facilitators for SCM in the construction industry. Being a new phenomenon in the construction industry TPL solutions provide a logistical competence not necessarily included in a traditional construction project. Therefore, TPL solutions are of particular interest when studying the realization of SCM in the construction industry. In the process of realizing SCM in the construction industry, the construction clients have been put forward as having a crucial and important role. The clients are the initiator and funder of construction projects and as such the client can influence the course of a construction project. Therefore, it is of interest to study how the client can take an active role in this process. Initiating a TPL solution in a construction project is one way for a client to take an active part in the realization of SCM in construction.

    However, in order to study how clients can take an active role towards the realization of SCM in the construction industry, there have to be an understanding of how SCM is to be adopted to the construction industry context. SCM that derives from the manufacturing industry is designed to be used in long-term relationships with permanent organizational structures. The construction industry on the other hand is associated with short-term relationships and a temporary organizational structure. Partnering that is designed to mitigate the temporariness and establish long-term relationships have been quite successful in the construction industry, and could therefore be used as a facilitator for SCM in construction.

    To study the use of client initiated TPL-solutions in construction and the realization of SCM in the construction industry the following research questions have been addressed:

    • RQ1: To what extent can a third-party logistics solution be a facilitator for client driven SCM in the construction industry?
    • RQ2: How will upstream and downstream tiers be affected when a thirdparty logistics provider is used in a construction project?
    • RQ3: How can partnering be used a mean to facilitate the realization of SCM in the construction industry?

    To answer the research questions two main methodologies have been used; case study for the empirically grounded research and conceptual studies for the analysis of the case studies as well as for comparing the two concepts of partnering and SCM. All questions have been grounded in literature and previous research. The findings of this research is therefore grounded in both theory and in practice. The main findings of this research is that TPL solutions are not a quick fix for realizing SCM in the construction industry. However, if used right a TPL solution can be an effective tool to address logistical issues in a construction project and to establish an interface between the supply chain and the construction site. By initiating a TPL solution the client addresses the importance of logistical competence in a construction project. A TPL solution does not have a purpose of its own; a TPL solution is a service function to the construction project, providing expertise on logistics management. There are also a number of driving forces and concerns that have been identified, if they are addressed prior to a TPL solution is implemented, the likelihood of its success will increase.

    Furthermore, both partnering and SCM rely on high trust and share several key components and issues that have to be addressed. Partnering on strategic level with several suppliers included can even be hard to distinguish from SCM. Wherefore, partnering is considered a facilitator for the realization of SCM in construction. By addressing the necessary issues in both concepts a good foundation for SCM is established.

  • 323.
    Ekeskär, Andreas
    Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Exploring Third-Party Logistics and Partnering in Construction: A Supply Chain Management Perspective2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry is associated with problems such as low productivity and high costs. This has been highlighted in several government-funded reports in both Sweden and in the UK during the course of over two decades. The construction industry is a large industry sector employing hundreds of thousands and a large contributor to a country’s GDP. The problems therefore have a large impact on society. Some of the problems are rooted in the organizational structure of the construction industry. Compared to other manufacturing industries, the construction industry is organized in temporary organizations. The temporary organizations cause temporary supply chains, fragmentation among construction industry actors and adversarial relationships between those actors. Partnering has been but forward as a solution to overcome the temporariness and the adversarial relationships in the construction. Another solution to mitigate the problems suggested in the reports is supply chain management (SCM). Both concepts have been taken from the manufacturing industries and partnering has been more successful compared to SCM in the construction industry. In the construction industry the progress towards SCM has focused on logistics. In recent years dedicated third-party logistics (TPL) solutions have emerged in the Swedish construction industry, where a company is hired to manage the logistics in a construction project.

    The purpose with the research presented in this licentiate thesis is to explore how client initiated TPL solutions and partnering can be facilitators for SCM in the construction industry. Being a new phenomenon in the construction industry TPL solutions provide a logistical competence not necessarily included in a traditional construction project. Therefore, TPL solutions are of particular interest when studying the realization of SCM in the construction industry. In the process of realizing SCM in the construction industry, the construction clients have been put forward as having a crucial and important role. The clients are the initiator and funder of construction projects and as such the client can influence the course of a construction project. Therefore, it is of interest to study how the client can take an active role in this process. Initiating a TPL solution in a construction project is one way for a client to take an active part in the realization of SCM in construction.

    However, in order to study how clients can take an active role towards the realization of SCM in the construction industry, there have to be an understanding of how SCM is to be adopted to the construction industry context. SCM that derives from the manufacturing industry is designed to be used in long-term relationships with permanent organizational structures. The construction industry on the other hand is associated with short-term relationships and a temporary organizational structure. Partnering that is designed to mitigate the temporariness and establish long-term relationships have been quite successful in the construction industry, and could therefore be used as a facilitator for SCM in construction.

    To study the use of client initiated TPL-solutions in construction and the realization of SCM in the construction industry the following research questions have been addressed:

    • RQ1: To what extent can a third-party logistics solution be a facilitator for client driven SCM in the construction industry?
    • RQ2: How will upstream and downstream tiers be affected when a thirdparty logistics provider is used in a construction project?
    • RQ3: How can partnering be used a mean to facilitate the realization of SCM in the construction industry?

    To answer the research questions two main methodologies have been used; case study for the empirically grounded research and conceptual studies for the analysis of the case studies as well as for comparing the two concepts of partnering and SCM. All questions have been grounded in literature and previous research. The findings of this research is therefore grounded in both theory and in practice. The main findings of this research is that TPL solutions are not a quick fix for realizing SCM in the construction industry. However, if used right a TPL solution can be an effective tool to address logistical issues in a construction project and to establish an interface between the supply chain and the construction site. By initiating a TPL solution the client addresses the importance of logistical competence in a construction project. A TPL solution does not have a purpose of its own; a TPL solution is a service function to the construction project, providing expertise on logistics management. There are also a number of driving forces and concerns that have been identified, if they are addressed prior to a TPL solution is implemented, the likelihood of its success will increase.

    Furthermore, both partnering and SCM rely on high trust and share several key components and issues that have to be addressed. Partnering on strategic level with several suppliers included can even be hard to distinguish from SCM. Wherefore, partnering is considered a facilitator for the realization of SCM in construction. By addressing the necessary issues in both concepts a good foundation for SCM is established.

  • 324.
    Ekeskär, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Partnering as a mean towards the use of supply chain management in temporary construction organizationsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry is a complex industry typically working in temporary

    organizations. The temporary organizational structure of the construction industry affects

    the outcome of construction projects. In recent years the construction industry has been

    associated with problems such as low productivity, high costs, high waste and poorly

    managed supply chains. To overcome these problems, several government funded reports

    and research reports have addressed the problems. Two concepts have gained a lot of

    interest in these reports: partnering and supply chain management (SCM). However,

    partnering, that have been introduced to overcome the temporariness in the construction

    industry has been more successful than SCM. A reason behind this could be that SCM

    derives from the manufacturing industry and is directed towards long-term relationships

    and permanent organizational structures. By a conceptual literature review it is

    investigated if the realization of SCM in construction could be facilitated by the use of

    partnering. Both concepts share many components and partnering has been a successful

    approach to overcome the boundaries temporary organizations imply. The two concepts

    are in fact so similar that it can be argued that partnering is a subset of SCM focusing

    relationships. The question would then be what type of partnering approach is most

    suitable when realizing SCM in construction.

  • 325.
    Ekeskär, Andreas
    Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Partnering as a mean towards the use of supply chain management in temporary construction organizationsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry is a complex industry typically working in temporary

    organizations. The temporary organizational structure of the construction industry affects

    the outcome of construction projects. In recent years the construction industry has been

    associated with problems such as low productivity, high costs, high waste and poorly

    managed supply chains. To overcome these problems, several government funded reports

    and research reports have addressed the problems. Two concepts have gained a lot of

    interest in these reports: partnering and supply chain management (SCM). However,

    partnering, that have been introduced to overcome the temporariness in the construction

    industry has been more successful than SCM. A reason behind this could be that SCM

    derives from the manufacturing industry and is directed towards long-term relationships

    and permanent organizational structures. By a conceptual literature review it is

    investigated if the realization of SCM in construction could be facilitated by the use of

    partnering. Both concepts share many components and partnering has been a successful

    approach to overcome the boundaries temporary organizations imply. The two concepts

    are in fact so similar that it can be argued that partnering is a subset of SCM focusing

    relationships. The question would then be what type of partnering approach is most

    suitable when realizing SCM in construction.

  • 326.
    Ekeskär, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rudberg, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Third-party logistics in construction: Perspectives from suppliers and transport providers2015In: Proceedings of the 22nd EurOMA Conference: Operations Management for Sustainable Comeptitivness, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Suppliers and transport providers are key parties in the construction supply chain, and their respective roles when employing third-party logistics (3PL) is investigated. The purpose is to analyze how they are affected by the 3PL solution in terms of their attitudes towards the use of 3PL, the experienced defects from the 3PL solution, and their level of supply chain management (SCM) maturity. This is done by a literature review and an explorative case study at a large construction project employing a 3PL solution. Results show a positive attitude and that they actively address SCM issues, whereas actual effects are inconclusive.

  • 327.
    Ekeskär, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rudberg, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Third-party logistics in construction: Perspectives from suppliers and transport providersManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Suppliers and transport providers are key parties in the construction supply chain, and

    their respective roles when employing third-party logistics (TPL) is investigated. The

    purpose is to analyze how they are affected by the TPL solution in terms of their

    attitudes towards the use of TPL, the experienced effects from the TPL solution, and

    their level of supply chain management (SCM) maturity. This is done by a literature

    review and an explorative case study at a large construction project employing a TPL

    solution. Results show a positive attitude and that they actively address SCM issues,

    whereas actual effects are inconclusive.

  • 328.
    Ekeskär, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Rudberg, Martin
    Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Third-party logistics in construction: Perspectives from suppliers and transport providers2015In: Proceedings of the 22nd EurOMA Conference: Operations Management for Sustainable Comeptitivness, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Suppliers and transport providers are key parties in the construction supply chain, and their respective roles when employing third-party logistics (3PL) is investigated. The purpose is to analyze how they are affected by the 3PL solution in terms of their attitudes towards the use of 3PL, the experienced defects from the 3PL solution, and their level of supply chain management (SCM) maturity. This is done by a literature review and an explorative case study at a large construction project employing a 3PL solution. Results show a positive attitude and that they actively address SCM issues, whereas actual effects are inconclusive.

  • 329.
    Ekeskär, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Rudberg, Martin
    Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Third-party logistics in construction: Perspectives from suppliers and transport providersManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Suppliers and transport providers are key parties in the construction supply chain, and

    their respective roles when employing third-party logistics (TPL) is investigated. The

    purpose is to analyze how they are affected by the TPL solution in terms of their

    attitudes towards the use of TPL, the experienced effects from the TPL solution, and

    their level of supply chain management (SCM) maturity. This is done by a literature

    review and an explorative case study at a large construction project employing a TPL

    solution. Results show a positive attitude and that they actively address SCM issues,

    whereas actual effects are inconclusive.

  • 330.
    Ekeskär, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rudberg, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Third-party logistics in construction: the case of a large hospital project2016In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 174-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The construction supply chain is of temporary nature and complex, with many interactions between multiple actors in different construction projects. This challenging context typically leads to relatively higher costs and lower productivity, compared to other industries. Supply chain management (SCM) has been put forward as a mean to better handle this challenging context. As a part of SCM initiatives some construction industry stakeholders have turned to third-party logistics (TPL) providers, especially in large construction projects. The use of TPL providers is a new, and under-investigated, phenomenon in the construction industry. The main purpose of this study is thus to explore the use of a TPL provider in a large construction project and to analyse its resulting effects. Driving forces and possible concerns for implementing TPL are identified and the possibility for TPL to be a facilitator for implementing SCM in construction is investigated. The research is based on a literature review and an explorative case study of a large hospital project in Sweden, where the client and the main contractor have initiated the use of a TPL provider to coordinate sourcing and materials handling activities on site. The results show positive effects on establishing an effective interface between the construction site and the supply chain. The results also show that a TPL solution facilitates an increase in productive work at the construction site itself, a reduction of costs and an increased utilisation of site assets. On the downside, the study also shows a lack of SCM knowledge amongst the involved actors in the project, hindering them to reap the full potential of TPL.

  • 331.
    Ekeskär, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Rudberg, Martin
    Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Third-party logistics in construction: the case of a large hospital project2016In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 174-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The construction supply chain is of temporary nature and complex, with many interactions between multiple actors in different construction projects. This challenging context typically leads to relatively higher costs and lower productivity, compared to other industries. Supply chain management (SCM) has been put forward as a mean to better handle this challenging context. As a part of SCM initiatives some construction industry stakeholders have turned to third-party logistics (TPL) providers, especially in large construction projects. The use of TPL providers is a new, and under-investigated, phenomenon in the construction industry. The main purpose of this study is thus to explore the use of a TPL provider in a large construction project and to analyse its resulting effects. Driving forces and possible concerns for implementing TPL are identified and the possibility for TPL to be a facilitator for implementing SCM in construction is investigated. The research is based on a literature review and an explorative case study of a large hospital project in Sweden, where the client and the main contractor have initiated the use of a TPL provider to coordinate sourcing and materials handling activities on site. The results show positive effects on establishing an effective interface between the construction site and the supply chain. The results also show that a TPL solution facilitates an increase in productive work at the construction site itself, a reduction of costs and an increased utilisation of site assets. On the downside, the study also shows a lack of SCM knowledge amongst the involved actors in the project, hindering them to reap the full potential of TPL.

  • 332.
    Ekeskär, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rudberg, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Vennström, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Third-party logistics in large construction projects: A SCM perspective2014In: Proceedings of the 21st EurOMA Conference: Operations Management in an innovative economy, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the use of 3PL providers in large construction projects, and to identify main drivers and barriers, as well as the resulting effects, when implementing SCM by the use of 3PL providers. This is done by the means of a literature review and an explorative case study, the latter being a large hospital construction project. The results show positive performance effects in terms of increased productivity, resources utilization, and delivery performance, but also that there are challenges when it comes to organizational setting, policy adherence and supply chain coordination.

  • 333.
    Ekeskär, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Rudberg, Martin
    Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Vennström, Anders
    Linköpings universitet, Medie- och Informationsteknik.
    Third-party logistics in large construction projects: A SCM perspective2014In: Proceedings of the 21st EurOMA Conference: Operations Management in an innovative economy, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the use of 3PL providers in large construction projects, and to identify main drivers and barriers, as well as the resulting effects, when implementing SCM by the use of 3PL providers. This is done by the means of a literature review and an explorative case study, the latter being a large hospital construction project. The results show positive performance effects in terms of increased productivity, resources utilization, and delivery performance, but also that there are challenges when it comes to organizational setting, policy adherence and supply chain coordination.

  • 334.
    Ekman, Viktor
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Moen, Jesper
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Exteriör och interiör visualisering av ett bostadshus i 3ds max2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Denna rapport beskriver och drar jämförelser mellan olika visualiseringstekniker i 3D Studio Max och Adobe Photoshop CS3. Syftet med studien är att undersöka olika visualiserings- och renderingstekniker för att se vilka tekniker som ger ett smidigast och mest verklighetstroget resultat utifrån olika förutsättningar. Studien grundar sig på en huvudfråga och två stycken underfrågor. Hur skapar man ett effektivt och verklighetstroget visualiseringsresultat av ett bostadskvarter för intressenter? • Vilka fördelar och nackdelar finns det med olika visualiseringstekniker? • Vilka metoder ger ett verklighetstroget visualiseringsresultat vid interiör respektive exteriör visualisering? Slutsatsen med studien är att varje situation är unik och att det finns fördelar och nackdelar med varje teknik och metod i de olika programmen. För att nå ett önskat slutresultat så gäller det att lära sig hur varje metod fungerar och sedan anpassa den utifrån varje enskild situation.

  • 335.
    Elf, Adam
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Cederth, Kevin
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Brandskydd av stålkonstruktioner: Lathund för brandskyddsdimensionering av stålprofiler2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor thesis covers fire protection methods of structural steel and the aim is to develop an information tool designed for inexperienced structural engineers. The information tool covers basic fire protection methods and the general way to produce a fire resistance for structural steel. The layout of this information tool is a simple folder that contains information about the most important steps when producing fire protection for a steel structure.

    The thesis starts with a general overview of the fire protection needed in buildings to fulfill national legislative and regulatory requirements. To get an understanding of how steel components behave during the influence of fire, a brief overview is presented of the material properties of steel. This chapter also contains a review of previous research in the area. Furthermore, some of the most common fire protection materials are introduced and the general way of producing a safe fire protection for steel components is explained. For example, the chapter handles topics such as critical steel temperature, section factor and degree of utilization, which are key factors for designing fire protection for structural steel components.

    To evaluate the information tool, experienced structural engineers have been interviewed with a given interview guide to assist the making of this tool. The results from the interviews provided an insight into the needs for information regarding fire protection for structural engineers.

     

  • 336.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Apleberger, Lennart
    High performance concrete structures: design examples & properties2000Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 337.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Apleberger, Lennart
    High performance concrete structures: design handbook2000Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 338. Elfgren, Lennart
    et al.
    Emborg, Mats
    Gabrielsson, Henrik
    Groth, Patrik
    Hedlund, Hans
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Jonasson, Jan-Erik
    Noghabai, Keivan
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Westman, Gustaf
    Design of high performance concrete structures in Sweden1998In: International Symposium on High-Performance and Reactive Powder Concretes: organized by Université de Sherbrooke / [ed] Pierre-Claude Aïtcin; Yves Delagrave, Sherbrooke, Que: University of Sherbrooke , 1998, p. 139-156Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 339.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Karlsson, Inge
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Losberg, Anders
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Torsion-Bending-Shear Interaction for Concrete Beams: Closure of discussion1976In: Journal of the Structural Division, Proceedings of tha American Society of civil Engineers, ASCE, ISSN 0733-9445, Vol. 102, no ST1, p. 289-291, article id Proc. Paper 11819Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Closure to discussion by Solanki, Pandit and Helmy of paper in J of the Structural Division, ASCE, Vol 100, ST8, August 1974, pp 1657-1676

  • 340.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Noghabai, Keivan
    Ohlsson, Ulf
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Applications of fracture mechanics to anchors and bond1995In: Fracture mechanics of concrete structures: proceedings / [ed] Folker H. Wittmann, AEDIFICATIO Publishers , 1995, p. 1685-1694Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 341.
    Elgerud, Freja
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Sandström, Isabel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Infästningar för korslimmat trä: Tänkbara infästningar för ett 22-våningshus i KL-trä samt deras styvheters betydelse för de horisontella deformationerna2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The interest for multi storey buildings with timber is growing. Timber is a material that is light and ductile, characteristics that make timber a challenging material in terms of horizontal stabilization and horizontal displacements. The purpose was to examine connectors for CLT and the main question was how the horizontal displacement of the frame is affected by the connectors and their stiffness. A parametric study for self-tapping screws and calculation of their slip modulus was carried out. A model of a 22-storey building with a CLT frame was modelled in RFEM. Analyses were run for different values of the slip modulus for comparison of the horizontal displacements connected to each slip modulus. The results show that the deformations were small and that the differences in slip modulus only caused small differences in horizontal deformations even though the variation in slip modulus was wide. The reason for this could be due to the modelling; the model in itself is very stiff, possibly as a result of the façade panels’ vertical adjustment and height. Other factors contributing were the lack of openings for doors and windows in the model, the thickness of the CLT panels as well as the concrete decks on all floors.

  • 342.
    Eliasson, Tina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olsson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Social sustainability in the construction industry2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Byggbranschen står nu inför ett utmanande kliv i hållbarhetens riktning - att ta sig an och arbeta för en socialt hållbar samhällsutveckling. Intresset att arbeta med detta är stort hos både entreprenörer, beställare och samhället i stort. Detta bidrar till att offentliga beställare formulerar krav på socialt arbete i offentliga upphandlingar, då offentlig upphandling är ett verktyg med stor genomslagskraft som kan användas för att föra detta arbete framåt. Syftet med studien är att ta reda på vad begreppet sociala hänsyn innebär, att sammanställa vilka krav på sociala hänsyn som ställs och kommer att ställas i upphandlingar som offentliga beställare i Östergötland annonserar samt identifiera de områden som beställarna avser utveckla inom ämnet. Detta för att entreprenörföretagen ska kunna satsa på en utveckling av det område inom sociala hänsyn som kommer att vara mest aktuellt i regionen, nu och i kommande upphandlingar. Detta mynnar ut i frågeställningarna: Vad innebär begreppet sociala hänsyn? Vilka krav på sociala hänsyn ställer offentliga beställare vid upphandling? Vilka åtgärder bör entreprenörerna vidta för att leva upp till kraven på sociala hänsyn som offentliga beställare prioriterar? Genom intervjuer med beställare och entreprenörer i byggbranschen har en grund skapats för att kunna definiera begreppet sociala hänsyn som "en inkludering av alla individer i samhället oavsett kön, ålder, fysisk förmåga eller etnisk tillhörighet". Insamling av publicerade förfrågningsunderlag visar på att det fokusområde inom social hållbarhet som prioriteras idag är krav på sysselsättningsåtgärder, där fokus ligger på att inkludera individer som står utanför arbetsmarknaden. Slutsatsen är att entreprenörerna bör arbeta för att skapa fler platser i driftentreprenader och produktion, för att öka antalet sysselsatta, samt komplettera detta med bra utbildningar, handledning och stöttning. Det har även visat sig finnas förbättringsmöjligheter i beställarorganisationernas arbete med att ställa krav på sociala hänsyn, vilka, utöver svaren på frågeställningarna, presenteras i slutsatsen.

  • 343.
    Elisasson, Tina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Olsson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sociala hänsyn i byggbranschen2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry is facing a challenging step in the direction of sustainability - to embrace and work for socially sustainable development. The construction companies, public clients and society have a great interest working with this. This means that public clients formulate social work requirements in public procurement, as public procurement is a powerful tool that can be used to advance this development.

    The purpose of the study is to identify the concept of social sustainability, to compile what requirements regarding social sustainability are made and will be made by public purchasers in Östergötland, and identify the areas that the public purchasers intend to develop. This enables construction companies to focus on developing the area of social sustainability that will be most relevant in the region, now and in future procurements. Through interviews with clients and contractors in the construction industry, the overall perception of the concept of social sustainability can be described as "an inclusian af all individuals in saciety, regardless af sex, age, physical ability ar ethnicity."

    Through the collection of published inquiries, it was found that the priority focus on social sustainability today is a requirement for employment measures, focusing on including individuals outside the labor market. The conclusion is that the construction companies need to create more jobs in production, to increase the number of employed and supply them with good education, introduction and support. It has also been shown that there can be a couple of improvements in the work of the public purchasers claiming social sustainability.

  • 344.
    Elwing, Charlotta
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Sjögren, Kristin
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Prefabricerade hus - en fråga om kvalitet, ekonomi och byggtid2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose with this diplomawork is to compare the two production methods,

    premanufacturing and on-site construction. We want to investigate if one of the methods is more advantageous than the other and why premanufactured elements are used more often. The comparisons mostly consider aspects of building time, economy and quality. We gathered the material we needed through a literature study and by interviewing active persons in the building industry.

    Building as much as possible in a production hall increases the quality since it’s not being exposed to moisture and cold before assembly. The house is built much faster when the building site becomes a montage place with different finished elements. There is no material storage at the building site since the elements are delivered when it’s time to assemble the specific element. If the elements are delivered when needed, building time will decrease which means reduced costs for the whole project.

  • 345.
    Emborg, Emma
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Miljöbetong för hållbart byggande: En analys av betongblandningar med mer miljövänliga tillsatsmaterial2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to study how concrete can be made more environmentally friendly with as well as without fly ash and how this can then be evaluated using a new computer program for the Environmental Product Declarations (EPD). This work also includes studies using a simulation tool, Production Planning Concrete (PPB) on the temperature and strength development of concrete.

    Concrete is an important construction material that has been used for thousands of years. The concrete ingredients are mostly natural materials that have a low environmental impact: stone, gravel, sand and water. The cement is, however, a material that still requires high energy consumption during manufacturing and produces large carbon emissions, at present about 2-3% of Sweden's total amount of carbon emissions.

    Environmental impact is an important topic and building industry operators today are keen to develop building materials that make as little environmental impact as possible. The materials must also be evaluated in a fair and timely manner in order to be compared with each other. There are new rules for the admixtures used in concrete, which means that it is now possible to add, for example, fly ash or slag in the mix at the concrete factory to produce concrete with less environmental impact. Cement and Concrete Research Institute (Cement- och Betonginstitutet), together with the trade association Swedish Concrete (Svensk Betong) also developed a tool to make declarations for these more environmentally friendly concrete mixes. These declarations are called Environmental Product Declarations (EPDs). At the same time, there is now on the market a new program that calculates early strength growth in various production scenarios. The program is called Production Planning Concrete (PPB).

    The work has involved a literature review and preparation of background data to insert in the two calculation programs used. The theory addresses the environmental impact of the various constituent materials of the concrete, how the concrete's properties are determined and what these mean, and what EPDs are and how they are made. After the literature review, calculations and simulations have been done in computer programs, which have resulted in a variety of charts and tables presented in the report.

    One of the conclusions of the work is that the production of cement is the part of the concrete that has the largest impact on the environment, and by replacing a portion of the cement with fly ash reduces the environmental impact evidently. Another conclusion from the work is that concrete with fly ash has a slower rate of strength development and are more likely to freeze in the early stages, which should be taken into consideration in the planning and design of the building process.

    The work also shows that the results of the EPD calculations and strength simulations can be useful for concrete manufacturers developing new products, while they also can be used by clients and contractors to get information about a concrete's environmental impact and characteristics.

  • 346.
    Emborg, Mats
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Apleberger, Lennart
    Massiva betongkonstruktioner i varmt klimat: sprickriskbedömningar i nygjutna väggsektioner1990Report (Other academic)
  • 347.
    Emborg, Mats
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Jongeling, Rogier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Produktmodeller för platsgjuten betong2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Applikation av IT-baserade produktmodeller på byggande med platsgjuten betong för att medge optimerad och industrialiserad byggprocess. Två delområden har studerats: a) utvecklande av ett erfarenhetsbibliotek och b) konstruktions- och planeringsstöd för entreprenör och materialleverantör. Rapporten är en sammanfattning av utförlig rapport av Jongeling R: Product Models för Cast in Place Concrete, Avdelningen för Konstruktionsteknik, Teknisk Rapport 2003:01, 104 sid

  • 348.
    Emborg, Mats
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Jongeling, Rogier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Dorbell, Thorbjörn
    Innovative construction with cast in place concrete using product models2004In: Concrete Structures: The Challenge of Creativity. Proceedings of FIB symposium on Concrete Structures, 2004, p. 220-221Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 349.
    Embretsen, Erik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Häggström, Joel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Slitlager på broar: En kunskapssammanställning om slitlager på broar med fokus på slitbetong2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report is the result of a study conducted to try to identify the most important factors affecting the choice of surface course on bridges. The study also aimed to clarify the reasons for which surface course were previously chosen and should be chosen in the future. The result of the study is that the surface course are likely to be chosen on unclear grounds without a clear motivation and unclear guidelines. It is often that private opinions have a big influence on the choice of the surface course. Economics, type of contract or aesthetics are other crucial factors in choosing of the surface course. The study has been conducted using in-depth interviews with people having knowledge in the field.

  • 350.
    Emelie, Vållberg
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Emelie, Wilhelmsson
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Arbetsmiljö - Utredning av efterlevnad avordnings- och skyddsregler påbyggarbetsplatsen2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A construction site is an unsafe work environment where incidents and accidentshappens frequently even when the working environment is controlled by thegovernments regulation to prevent a poor working situation. To prevent accidentsand incidents to occur the rules of regulation and safety is an important tool in thestruggle to achieve an acceptable level.

    The purpose of the examination report is to examine the construction companyPeab in general due to compliance rate with the rules of regulation and safety onthe construction site to reduce accidents and incidents.

    By breaking down the objective into an achievable goals three questions werecreated and they are about the compliance with the rules of regulation and safety,the use of facilities and physical fitness, and improvement opportunities toenhance compliance with rules of regulation and safety.

    The used methods are literature review, case study, questionnaire survey andinterviews. The largest part of the report is the survey and the other methods arecomplementary investigation.

    The report shows that a low compliance level of the rules of regulation and safetyis mostly depending on the lack of communication between supervisors andcraftsmen but there are other reason such as attitudes, managerial and leadershipthat affects compliance. Both craftsmen and supervisors have admitted that theyare not always complying with the regulations that exist in the workplace. Toimprove the situation some solutions are proposed which are improving themanagement and leadership that can motivate and communicate information in aclear manner, which means a communication improvement. In order to changeindividual behavior and group cultures, companies can use social models thatgradually change an incorrect behavior.

    At every workplace there should exist means to facilitate certain steps but they arenot used as much as they could be. The survey shows that this is mainly due totime pressure that encourage creation of short cuts to save time and that thedevice is not available at the moment when its needed. Peab offers its employees’health care benefits to protect the physical health when it is required a certainphysique to cope with steps in the production. The results show that this is notutilized to the extent which is required even though the survey shows that mostemployees are aware of the benefits that are offered.

    It is important that all employees understand the meaning with the rules ofregulation and safety in order to influence their working environment to become asafer workplace.

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