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  • 301.
    Elgerud, Freja
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Sandström, Isabel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Infästningar för korslimmat trä: Tänkbara infästningar för ett 22-våningshus i KL-trä samt deras styvheters betydelse för de horisontella deformationerna2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The interest for multi storey buildings with timber is growing. Timber is a material that is light and ductile, characteristics that make timber a challenging material in terms of horizontal stabilization and horizontal displacements. The purpose was to examine connectors for CLT and the main question was how the horizontal displacement of the frame is affected by the connectors and their stiffness. A parametric study for self-tapping screws and calculation of their slip modulus was carried out. A model of a 22-storey building with a CLT frame was modelled in RFEM. Analyses were run for different values of the slip modulus for comparison of the horizontal displacements connected to each slip modulus. The results show that the deformations were small and that the differences in slip modulus only caused small differences in horizontal deformations even though the variation in slip modulus was wide. The reason for this could be due to the modelling; the model in itself is very stiff, possibly as a result of the façade panels’ vertical adjustment and height. Other factors contributing were the lack of openings for doors and windows in the model, the thickness of the CLT panels as well as the concrete decks on all floors.

  • 302.
    Eliasson, Tina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olsson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Social sustainability in the construction industry2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Byggbranschen står nu inför ett utmanande kliv i hållbarhetens riktning - att ta sig an och arbeta för en socialt hållbar samhällsutveckling. Intresset att arbeta med detta är stort hos både entreprenörer, beställare och samhället i stort. Detta bidrar till att offentliga beställare formulerar krav på socialt arbete i offentliga upphandlingar, då offentlig upphandling är ett verktyg med stor genomslagskraft som kan användas för att föra detta arbete framåt. Syftet med studien är att ta reda på vad begreppet sociala hänsyn innebär, att sammanställa vilka krav på sociala hänsyn som ställs och kommer att ställas i upphandlingar som offentliga beställare i Östergötland annonserar samt identifiera de områden som beställarna avser utveckla inom ämnet. Detta för att entreprenörföretagen ska kunna satsa på en utveckling av det område inom sociala hänsyn som kommer att vara mest aktuellt i regionen, nu och i kommande upphandlingar. Detta mynnar ut i frågeställningarna: Vad innebär begreppet sociala hänsyn? Vilka krav på sociala hänsyn ställer offentliga beställare vid upphandling? Vilka åtgärder bör entreprenörerna vidta för att leva upp till kraven på sociala hänsyn som offentliga beställare prioriterar? Genom intervjuer med beställare och entreprenörer i byggbranschen har en grund skapats för att kunna definiera begreppet sociala hänsyn som "en inkludering av alla individer i samhället oavsett kön, ålder, fysisk förmåga eller etnisk tillhörighet". Insamling av publicerade förfrågningsunderlag visar på att det fokusområde inom social hållbarhet som prioriteras idag är krav på sysselsättningsåtgärder, där fokus ligger på att inkludera individer som står utanför arbetsmarknaden. Slutsatsen är att entreprenörerna bör arbeta för att skapa fler platser i driftentreprenader och produktion, för att öka antalet sysselsatta, samt komplettera detta med bra utbildningar, handledning och stöttning. Det har även visat sig finnas förbättringsmöjligheter i beställarorganisationernas arbete med att ställa krav på sociala hänsyn, vilka, utöver svaren på frågeställningarna, presenteras i slutsatsen.

  • 303.
    Elisasson, Tina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Olsson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sociala hänsyn i byggbranschen2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry is facing a challenging step in the direction of sustainability - to embrace and work for socially sustainable development. The construction companies, public clients and society have a great interest working with this. This means that public clients formulate social work requirements in public procurement, as public procurement is a powerful tool that can be used to advance this development.

    The purpose of the study is to identify the concept of social sustainability, to compile what requirements regarding social sustainability are made and will be made by public purchasers in Östergötland, and identify the areas that the public purchasers intend to develop. This enables construction companies to focus on developing the area of social sustainability that will be most relevant in the region, now and in future procurements. Through interviews with clients and contractors in the construction industry, the overall perception of the concept of social sustainability can be described as "an inclusian af all individuals in saciety, regardless af sex, age, physical ability ar ethnicity."

    Through the collection of published inquiries, it was found that the priority focus on social sustainability today is a requirement for employment measures, focusing on including individuals outside the labor market. The conclusion is that the construction companies need to create more jobs in production, to increase the number of employed and supply them with good education, introduction and support. It has also been shown that there can be a couple of improvements in the work of the public purchasers claiming social sustainability.

  • 304.
    Elwing, Charlotta
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Sjögren, Kristin
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Prefabricerade hus - en fråga om kvalitet, ekonomi och byggtid2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose with this diplomawork is to compare the two production methods,

    premanufacturing and on-site construction. We want to investigate if one of the methods is more advantageous than the other and why premanufactured elements are used more often. The comparisons mostly consider aspects of building time, economy and quality. We gathered the material we needed through a literature study and by interviewing active persons in the building industry.

    Building as much as possible in a production hall increases the quality since it’s not being exposed to moisture and cold before assembly. The house is built much faster when the building site becomes a montage place with different finished elements. There is no material storage at the building site since the elements are delivered when it’s time to assemble the specific element. If the elements are delivered when needed, building time will decrease which means reduced costs for the whole project.

  • 305.
    Emborg, Emma
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Miljöbetong för hållbart byggande: En analys av betongblandningar med mer miljövänliga tillsatsmaterial2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to study how concrete can be made more environmentally friendly with as well as without fly ash and how this can then be evaluated using a new computer program for the Environmental Product Declarations (EPD). This work also includes studies using a simulation tool, Production Planning Concrete (PPB) on the temperature and strength development of concrete.

    Concrete is an important construction material that has been used for thousands of years. The concrete ingredients are mostly natural materials that have a low environmental impact: stone, gravel, sand and water. The cement is, however, a material that still requires high energy consumption during manufacturing and produces large carbon emissions, at present about 2-3% of Sweden's total amount of carbon emissions.

    Environmental impact is an important topic and building industry operators today are keen to develop building materials that make as little environmental impact as possible. The materials must also be evaluated in a fair and timely manner in order to be compared with each other. There are new rules for the admixtures used in concrete, which means that it is now possible to add, for example, fly ash or slag in the mix at the concrete factory to produce concrete with less environmental impact. Cement and Concrete Research Institute (Cement- och Betonginstitutet), together with the trade association Swedish Concrete (Svensk Betong) also developed a tool to make declarations for these more environmentally friendly concrete mixes. These declarations are called Environmental Product Declarations (EPDs). At the same time, there is now on the market a new program that calculates early strength growth in various production scenarios. The program is called Production Planning Concrete (PPB).

    The work has involved a literature review and preparation of background data to insert in the two calculation programs used. The theory addresses the environmental impact of the various constituent materials of the concrete, how the concrete's properties are determined and what these mean, and what EPDs are and how they are made. After the literature review, calculations and simulations have been done in computer programs, which have resulted in a variety of charts and tables presented in the report.

    One of the conclusions of the work is that the production of cement is the part of the concrete that has the largest impact on the environment, and by replacing a portion of the cement with fly ash reduces the environmental impact evidently. Another conclusion from the work is that concrete with fly ash has a slower rate of strength development and are more likely to freeze in the early stages, which should be taken into consideration in the planning and design of the building process.

    The work also shows that the results of the EPD calculations and strength simulations can be useful for concrete manufacturers developing new products, while they also can be used by clients and contractors to get information about a concrete's environmental impact and characteristics.

  • 306.
    Emborg, Mats
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Apleberger, Lennart
    Massiva betongkonstruktioner i varmt klimat: sprickriskbedömningar i nygjutna väggsektioner1990Report (Other academic)
  • 307.
    Emborg, Mats
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Jongeling, Rogier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Produktmodeller för platsgjuten betong2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Applikation av IT-baserade produktmodeller på byggande med platsgjuten betong för att medge optimerad och industrialiserad byggprocess. Två delområden har studerats: a) utvecklande av ett erfarenhetsbibliotek och b) konstruktions- och planeringsstöd för entreprenör och materialleverantör. Rapporten är en sammanfattning av utförlig rapport av Jongeling R: Product Models för Cast in Place Concrete, Avdelningen för Konstruktionsteknik, Teknisk Rapport 2003:01, 104 sid

  • 308.
    Emborg, Mats
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Jongeling, Rogier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Dorbell, Thorbjörn
    Innovative construction with cast in place concrete using product models2004In: Concrete Structures: The Challenge of Creativity. Proceedings of FIB symposium on Concrete Structures, 2004, p. 220-221Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 309.
    Emelie, Vållberg
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Emelie, Wilhelmsson
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Arbetsmiljö - Utredning av efterlevnad avordnings- och skyddsregler påbyggarbetsplatsen2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A construction site is an unsafe work environment where incidents and accidentshappens frequently even when the working environment is controlled by thegovernments regulation to prevent a poor working situation. To prevent accidentsand incidents to occur the rules of regulation and safety is an important tool in thestruggle to achieve an acceptable level.

    The purpose of the examination report is to examine the construction companyPeab in general due to compliance rate with the rules of regulation and safety onthe construction site to reduce accidents and incidents.

    By breaking down the objective into an achievable goals three questions werecreated and they are about the compliance with the rules of regulation and safety,the use of facilities and physical fitness, and improvement opportunities toenhance compliance with rules of regulation and safety.

    The used methods are literature review, case study, questionnaire survey andinterviews. The largest part of the report is the survey and the other methods arecomplementary investigation.

    The report shows that a low compliance level of the rules of regulation and safetyis mostly depending on the lack of communication between supervisors andcraftsmen but there are other reason such as attitudes, managerial and leadershipthat affects compliance. Both craftsmen and supervisors have admitted that theyare not always complying with the regulations that exist in the workplace. Toimprove the situation some solutions are proposed which are improving themanagement and leadership that can motivate and communicate information in aclear manner, which means a communication improvement. In order to changeindividual behavior and group cultures, companies can use social models thatgradually change an incorrect behavior.

    At every workplace there should exist means to facilitate certain steps but they arenot used as much as they could be. The survey shows that this is mainly due totime pressure that encourage creation of short cuts to save time and that thedevice is not available at the moment when its needed. Peab offers its employees’health care benefits to protect the physical health when it is required a certainphysique to cope with steps in the production. The results show that this is notutilized to the extent which is required even though the survey shows that mostemployees are aware of the benefits that are offered.

    It is important that all employees understand the meaning with the rules ofregulation and safety in order to influence their working environment to become asafer workplace.

  • 310.
    Enckell, Merit
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Egede Andersen, Jacob
    Glisic, Branko
    Silfwerbrand, Johan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    New and Emerging Technologies in Structural Health Monitoring2013In: Handbook of Measurement in Science and Engineering: Volume 1 / [ed] Myer Kutz, Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley , 2013, p. 3-78Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 311. Eneroth-Ädel, Joel
    et al.
    Bäsén, Sebastian
    Ett fall för fall A - En studie över hantering av schaktmassor vid anläggningsarbeten2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 312.
    Engström, Johan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Badhusrenovering och underhåll: Inventerings- och utredningsmodeller2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 313.
    Engström, Niklas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Mechanics, Byggteknik.
    Professionell garantihantering: Ett arbete inom byggnadsbranschen2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A business is always dependent on its customers. It is therefore important to ensurethat customers are satisfied with the product and the warranty included.The study was conducted in cooperation with the building contacting companySkanska Sweden. The aim is to use interviews to collect and process experiences in order to answer the question: How should the recovery process in the construction industry be performed to ensure a professional handling of warranty? The results have shaped my conclusions and I have turned them into a proposal that companies in the industry can benefit from. The study indicates that the industry is not geared for a five year warranty, which was introduced in 2004 and 2006. This is manifested by difficulties to prioritize the management of guarantees, with long lead times and customer-, and employee dissatisfaction as a result. Achieving a professional management means to adapt the company to a longer warranty. It means taking responsibility, prioritizing and investing in the organization and effective computer systems. The investment will help to create a stronger brand and increase the profitability for the company. The results suggest that companies should set aside time for staff and implement an aftermarket organization that supports and relieves the staff. An important aspect is that a financial liability for the guarantees should be anchored in the production staff. Otherwise it can result in a reduced quality due to lack of responsibility during the construction process, leading to increased warranty costs. The industry is also in great need of accessible craftsmen that quickly can fix errors. The problem is that most craftsmen today are occupied in the new construction projects, it creates longer lead times for the process. The craftsmen must also be suitable for a job in the aftermarket. The way of handling the issues in the industry are not uniform and are often outdated. Therefore a need exists for a modern and computerized case management system, it would improve the situation for both staff and customers. Companies can also use an evaluation system to rate their partners on how they acted during the warranty period. The information can be valuable for future collaborations. Knowing that a classification is performed can also increase the corporate accountability. Contracts in the future can be added a clause to encourage responsibility for the work during the warranty period. The clause requires a meeting where the contractors, among other things, can agree on a case management system to use. But most important is to pay attention to the work during the warranty period, which must be improved.

  • 314.
    Engström, Susanne
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Sardén, Ylva
    Stehn, Lars
    Towards improving client-contractor communication in industrialised building2009In: Twenty-Fifth Annual Conference, 2009, September 7-9, Albert Hall, Nottingham / [ed] Andrew Dainty, Reading: Association of Researchers in Construction Management , 2009, p. 21-30Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Criticism of the building sector in Sweden, concerning for example high cost and poor quality, has lead to a growing interest in industrialised building. However, the effect on the sector and the overall building market is still quite insignificant. One business challenge for industrialised building companies to face in order to become more competitive is to further improve client/market interaction, improve mutual understanding and to reduce uncertainties in client relations. In this ongoing work the communication between industrialised building companies and building clients is examined. The aim is to identify important points of client-contractor communication that affect project outcome and present barriers to effective communication. In addition to a literature review, with the aim to define effective communication , the client-contractor communication in different building projects has been studied. Empirical data was collected through interviews and workshops, observations and project-specific documentation, addressing both clients and contractors. The results indicate that, in order to improve client-contractor communication, it seems important to assess if a barrier to effective communication is client uncertainty, and concerned with lack of information, or if it is client equivocality, which requires richer information rather than more information. The barrier must then be addressed accordingly. In the industrialised building context, client-contractor communication is probably distorted by lack of market/client knowledge concerning the industrialised building process, but also by previous experiences from traditional building.

  • 315.
    Engström, Susanne
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Sardén, Ylva
    Competitive impact of industrialised building: in search for explanations to the current state2009In: Twenty-Fifth Annual Conference, 2009, September 7-9, Albert Hall, Nottingham / [ed] Andrew Dainty, Reading: Association of Researchers in Construction Management , 2009, p. 413-424Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrialised building has been proposed as a means of satisfying changes needed in the Swedish building sector. Over the last decade industrialised building has also developed as a niche within this sector. Given its potential, however, some stakeholders think that industrialised building has not yet had the impact they expected, and that the building sector is still in need of change to meet demands for cost reduction, quality improvement and longer managerial time-spans. Consequently, questions arise regarding the competitive position of industrialised building today, and the underlying causes for its present state. This study is based on a literature review, assessing industrialised building over recent decades, and on complementary interviews with researchers and practitioners. The findings are summarised in a conceptual model that outlines the sought effects of industrialised building, as well as the forces that drive and restrain change towards industrialised building. The demands on the building sector are the main drivers of change for the industry. However, the market itself is not actively driving change towards industrialised building, and the information and understanding required to support clients' decision on whether to enforce market power in one or the other direction is not readily available. How building clients value different building possibilities is also unclear. Suggested future challenges are to reduce client uncertainty, to improve client power and to facilitate the comparison of performance between traditional and industrialised building alternatives.

  • 316.
    Engwall, Åsa
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Dynamics in refurbishment: a study of production processes and human interactions in a commercial environment2001Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The client-contractor relationship has long been a concern in the Swedish construction industry and in constraction management research. This concern has, to great extent, been directed at the need to improve productivity. The result of the industry´s approach to increasing productivity in the 1960s is reflected in functional diversity and the industrial paradigm of a linear and sequential model of planning, design, construction and handing over of a completed building. The approach accentuates the need for effective communication and interaction between the parties, especially those engaged in refurbishment projects. This thesis concludes that the client and contractor do, in fact, share an understanding of the ideal production model for refurbishment. However, this shared production philosophy reveals different production drivers and these can have correspondingly different implications for project success. Another conclusion is that new forms of administrative procedures, with respect to environmental considerations and CAD, can facilitate better communication between actors. Empirical studies of interpersonal emotion support the view that function diversity, motivation diversity, and social character affect performance in refurbishment projects.

  • 317.
    Enochsson, Ola
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Bro över Luossajokk: övervakning för trafikering med 30 tons axellast2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I samband med projektet "30 ton på Malmbanan", Paulson-Töyrä (1996), konstaterades att bron över Luossajokk i Kiruna inte klarade de nya förhöjda lasterna. Bron har två spann och en utkragande konsol 10,25 + 6,3 + 3,4 m. Överbyggnaden utgörs av ett slak-armerat betongtråg med ett nytt mellanstöd som uppfördes 1965 då en äldre överbyggnad byttes ut. En klassningsberäkning och en utredning av förstärkningsbehov utfördes. Efter en förnyad översyn av brons bärförmåga utfördes töjningsmätningar vintern och sommaren 2001. Töjningsmätningarna indikerade förvånansvärt små påkänningar i bron. En närmare utredning av brons säkerhet att bära uppträdande laster utfördes 2002 genom en nyanserad säkerhetsberäkning med säkerhetsindexmetod. Bron bedömdes utifrån utredningen och mätresultat ha erforderlig bärförmåga om hastigheten begränsades så att eventuella dynamiska tillskott blir låga och/eller inverkan av ojämn temperatur försummas. Ett program med mätningar varje halvår igångsattes för att kontrollera brons fortsatta uppförande. Kontrollen bestod i en övervakning av aktuella töjningsnivåer i armeringen.I denna rapport redovisas resultat från mätningar mellan år 2001-2006. Resultaten visar ingen ökning av töjningsnivåerna fram till brons avlägsnande hösten 2006.

  • 318.
    Enochsson, Ola
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Kronborg, Anders
    Töyrä, B.
    Condition assessment of a concrete railway bridge in northern Sweden2006In: Condition Monitoring and Diagnostic Engineering Management: COMADEM 2006 / [ed] Uday Kumar; Aditya Parida; Raj B. K. N. Rao, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2006, p. 711-719Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 319. Enochsson, Ola
    et al.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Täljsten, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Töyrä, Björn
    Banverket, Luleå.
    Kronborg, Anders
    Banverket, Luleå.
    Paulsson, Björn
    Banverket, Luleå.
    Assessment and condition monitoring of a concrete railway bridge in Kiruna, Sweden2006In: Bridge maintenance, safety, management, life-cycle performance and cost: Proceedings of the third International Conference on Bridge Maintenance, Safety and Management. IABMAS'06 / [ed] Paulo J. da Sousa Cruz; Dan M Frangopol; Luis C Canhoto Neves, London: Taylor and Francis Group , 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A two-span railway concrete trough bridge over Luossajokk in Kiruna in northern Sweden has been studied. The owner wanted to increase the axle loads from 250 to 300 kN in order to reduce freight costs for iron ore. Examples are given of methods used and results obtained from the assessment where bending, shear and fatigue were studied. Material properties, loads and load carrying capacity were evaluated using deterministic and probabilistic methods. It was shown that the bridge could carry the higher loads with a safety index β > 4.7 for reasonable assumptions of the load distributions. A measurement system was installed to check the actual level of critical strains and the worst positions of the train. Results are also given from a condition monitoring program 2001-2006, launched to periodically check the development of strains with time

  • 320.
    Enochsson, Ola
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Hejll, Arvid
    Nilsson, Martin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Thun, Håkan
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Bro över Luossajokk: beräkning med säkerhetsindexmetod, böjdragkapacitet i överkant i mittsnittet i korta spannet2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I samband med projektet "30 ton på Malmbanan", Paulson-Töyrä (1996), konstaterades att bron över Luossajokk i Kiruna inte klarade de nya förhöjda lasterna. Bron har två spann och en utkragande konsol 10,25 + 6,3 + 3,4 m. Överbyggnaden utgörs av ett slakarmerat betongtråg med ett nytt mellanstöd som uppfördes 1965 då en äldre överbyggnad byttes ut. En klassningsberäkning och en utredning av förstärkningsbehov utfördes. Efter en förnyad översyn av brons bärförmåga utfördes töjningsmätningar vintern och sommaren 2001. Töjningsmätningarna indikerade förvånansvärt små påkänningar i bron. En närmare utredning av brons säkerhet att bära uppträdande laster genomförs därför i denna rapport. Detta sker med hjälp av en nyanserad säkerhetsberäkning med säkerhetsindexmetod. Den nya genomgången visar att medelvärdet för bärförmågan för moment är 2,89 MNm med standardavvikelsen 0,19 MNm i det mest utsatta snittet med dragpåkänningar i överkant i korta spannet. Detta kan jämföras med det formella dimensioneringsvärdet 1,99 MNm som erhölls i klassningsberäkningen med beaktande av aktuella partialkoefficienter. I det nya medelvärdet har en lägre uppmätt effektiv höjd beaktats, att ett av tolv armeringsjärn borrats av samt att betong- och armeringshållfastheterna är högre än de nominella dimensioneringsvärdena. På lastsidan gav klassningsberäkningen i motsvarande snitt att det formella dimensioneringsvärdet för momentet är 2,79 MNm. En analys av verkliga uppträdande laster ger att medelvärdet maximalt uppgår till 2,05 MNm. Detta lastfall utgörs av ett lok placerat med tre axlar i längsta spannet och tre axlar placerade på konsolen, om såväl bromslast som ojämn temperaturlast och dynamiskt tillskott uppträder samtidigt. Enligt BV Bärighet (1996) behöver ojämn temperatur inte beaktas, vilket är rimligt med tanke på att detta är ett statiskt obestämt lastfall som försvinner vid uppsprickning i brottstadiet. Det har heller inte medräknats i tidigare klassningsberäkningar. I så fall fås att lasten har medelvärdet 1,66 MNm och att säkerhetsindex β varierar mellan 3,8 och 6,0 beroende på vilka antaganden som görs om lasternas statistiska fördelning. För en rimlig fördelning innehålls kravet i säkerhetsklass 3 att säkerhetsindex β 4,75. Bron visar sig därför, enligt vår bedömning och med beaktande av erhållna mätresultat, ha erforderlig bärförmåga om hastigheten begränsas på bron så att eventuella dynamiska tillskott blir låga och/eller inverkan av ojämn temperatur försummas. Brons fortsatta uppförande bör kontrolleras genom ett mätprogram. Detta bör förutom armeringstöjningar med befintliga givare även inkludera mätningar av nedböjningar för att säkerställa att använda beräkningsmodeller och randvillkor på ett korrekt sätt återger brons beteende. Storleken på den dynamiska förstoringsfaktorn D bör även mätas liksom inverkan av bromskrafter och ojämn temperaturfördelning. På så sätt kan ett säkrare underlag erhållas för bedömning av frekvensfunktionerna för dessa vanliga lasteffekter. Dessa värden borde även vara av intresse vid säkerhetsbedömning av likartade järnvägsbroar.

  • 321.
    Enochsson, Ola
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Lundqvist, Joakim
    Täljsten, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Rusinowski, Piotr
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    CFRP strengthened openings in two-way concrete slabs: an experimental and numerical study2007In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 810-826Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rehabilitation and strengthening of concrete structures with externally bonded fibre reinforced polymers (FRPs) has been a viable technique for at least a decade. An interesting and useful application is strengthening of slabs or walls where openings are introduced. In these situations, FRP sheets are very suitable; not only because of their strength, but also due to that they are easy to apply in comparison to traditional steel girders or other lintel systems. Even though many benefits have been shown by strengthening openings with FRPs not much research have been presented in the literature. In this paper, laboratory tests on 11 slabs with openings, loaded with a distributed load are presented together with analytical and numerical evaluations. Six slabs with openings have been strengthened with carbon fibre reinforced polymers (CFRPs) sheets. These slabs are compared with traditionally steel reinforced slabs, both with (four slabs) and without openings (one slab). The slabs are quadratic with a side length of 2.6 m and a thickness of 100 mm. Two different sizes of openings are used, 0.85 × 0.85 m and 1.2 × 1.2 m. The results from the tests show that slabs with openings can be strengthened with externally bonded CFRP sheets. The performance is even better than for traditionally steel reinforced slabs. The numerical and analytical evaluations show good agreement with the experimental results.

  • 322. Enochsson, Ola
    et al.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Täljsten, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    CFRP Strengthened openings in two-way concrete slabs2005In: FRP composites in civil engineering - CICE 2004: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on FRP Composites in Civil Engineering / [ed] Rudolf Seracino, Leiden: Balkema Publishers, A.A. / Taylor & Francis The Netherlands , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 323. Enochsson, Ola
    et al.
    Puurula, Arto
    Stenlund, Anders
    Thun, Håkan
    Nilsson, Martin
    Täljsten, Björn
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Condition assessment of concrete bridges in Sweden2005In: Concrete repair, rehabilitation and retrofitting / [ed] Mark G. Alexander; Hans-Dieter Beushausen; Frank Dehn; Pilate Moyo, London: Taylor and Francis Group , 2005, p. 257-259Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Examples are given of methods used and results obtained from two bridges assessed in Sweden. The following sectional forces were critical: (a) Bending, shear and fatigue in a two-span railway trough bridge and (b) Shear and torsion in a three-span prestressed cantilever box girder road bridge. In the assessments we evaluated material properties, loads and load carrying capacity using deterministic and probabilistic methods

  • 324. Enochsson, Ola
    et al.
    Täljsten, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Structural health monitoring of a concrete bridge in Sweden2006In: Proceedings of SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering, ISSN 0277-786X, E-ISSN 1996-756X, Vol. 6176, no 18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past decade the interests in upgrading, assessment and maintenance of our ageing infrastructure has grown avalanche-like. The main reason is economical aspects but also reasons due to accessibility environmental consideration play a vital role. Recently the Swedish and Norwegian Railway Association decided to upgrade the Iron Ore Line "Malmbanan", a railway line for transportation of iron from northern Sweden to the coasts of Norway and Sweden. Here the owner wanted to increase the axle loads from 25 to 30 tons to reduce the transportation costs. In one of the cases, the Luossajokk Bridge, a recalculation according to design codes showed that the increased axle loads would exceed the yield limit in the reinforcement. Before any decision was taken regarding strengthening or replacing the bridge an assessment with probabilistic methods was used. It appeared that the bridge could carry the higher load with a safety index β ≥ 4.7 for reasonable assumptions of the load distributions. A measurement system was installed to check the real worst placement of the new iron ore locomotive (IORE), and the actually level of strains in the reinforcement for the worst load case1. It was shown that the strain level was far from critical and that the evaluated worst placement of the locomotive was almost correct2. To assure a reliable transportation a long term monitoring program was arranged to check the development of strains with time. Examples from the probabilistic evaluation and the monitoring of the bridge are given and discussed.

  • 325.
    Enocsson, Marcus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Mechanics, Byggteknik.
    Kommunikationsstruktur: En undersökning av kommunikation- och organisationsstruktur i en utförandeentreprenad inom anläggningssektorn2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the essay is to investigate a road- and civil engineering company that operates in Stockholm. The investigation will focus on communicative and organizational structure of Birka Markbyggnad AB and especially the main project for this essay, Bro Galopp. The study has been made by polls and by interviews in order to create a reliable result in the end. The essay will end up in some conclusions and suggestions for Birka Markbyggnad AB so that they can improve their organization. 

  • 326. Ericson, T.
    et al.
    Oskarsson, O.
    Apleberger, Lennart
    Informationsteknik1989In: Teknik och standard, ISSN 0281-5915, no 3, p. 2-16Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 327.
    Erikshammar, Jarkko
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Alestig, Erik
    Prolog AB.
    Lu, Weizhuo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Parametric Value Stream Mapping Framework: A Case Study of a Small Swedish Industrialized House-Building Supplier2014In: Proceedings of IGLC22: 22nd Annual Conference of the International Group for Lean Consruction : understanding and improving project based production / [ed] Bo Terje Kalsaas; Lauri Koskela; Tarcisio Abreu Saurin, Oslo, Norway: Akademika forlag, 2014, Vol. 1, p. 425-436Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrialized house-building is based on repetitive processes used in the supply, design, manufacturing and erection of pre-configured houses. Industrialized house-building contractors are dependent on many small suppliers and sub-contractors in their supply chain. These small suppliers, with limited resources and capabilities, need to be able to develop products and processes in order to deliver future customer value without wasting development resources on non-viable products. Our question is whether product development by small and medium-sized (SME) industrialized house-building suppliers could be supported by parametric Value Stream Mapping.The objective is to explore a process design framework in which Value stream Mapping (VSM) is used to identify improvements and to generate product development suggestions, based on a set of parameters defined as P1, P2..., Pn.The testing was carried out at a Swedish SME supplier to the industrialized house-building sector, using a newly-developed roofing board with an integrated membrane, with the parameters (P1) customer needs, (P2) waste on construction site and (P3) construction worker safety. Data were collected using interviews and video-recorded participant observations on two construction sites. Findings indicate that VSM cannot describe attributes of a product other than those associated with production flow. However, parametric VSM helped the case study company to stop current development and instead suggest valuable product attributes. The implications are that parametric VSM enhances the application of VSM. Parametric VSM can be used by SME suppliers as an input to product development in order to validate product attributes before launch. However, this is based on a single case study and further research is needed.

  • 328.
    Erikshammar, Jarkko
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Lu, Weizhuo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Discrete event simulation enhanced value stream mapping: an industrialized construction case study2013In: Lean Construction Journal, ISSN 1555-1369, E-ISSN 1555-1369, Vol. 10, p. 47-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research Question/Hypothesis: Can a production process design framework created by integrating Value Stream Mapping (VSM) and Discrete Event Simulation (DES) be used to assess the production system performance, as predicted by a future state design of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) working in industrialized construction?Purpose: To explore a production process design framework in which VSM is used to identify doable improvements and DES provides analytical evaluation of them.Research Method: The demonstration was carried out at a Swedish SME industrialized construction component manufacturerFindings: VSM is unable to evaluate analytically the performance of the future state design. This inability leads to unnecessary implementation iterations. VSM assumes a deterministic model and cannot describe the dynamic behaviors of a system. The dynamic behavior of the construction processes will result in the future state design not performing as expected. However, by analytically evaluating the future state with DES helped the case company to implement a new production process design.Limitations: DES modeling is still time-consuming and needs skilled professionals, the cost of whom can be prohibitive for SMEs and demonstrated in one case study.Implications: The integration of DES and VSM provides a framework to evaluate and communicate the outcome, hence enhancing the application of VSM.Value for practitioners: A lean framework, which can be used, for industrialized construction processes especially by SMEs with very limited resources, to validate changes before implementing them.

  • 329.
    Erikshammar, Jarkko
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Meiling, John
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Jansson, Gustav
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Levander, Erika
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Industriellt träbyggande förenar ekonomi och byggbarhet2010In: Samhällsbyggaren, ISSN 2000-2408, no 2, p. 32-35Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Industrialized Timber Housing is based on repetition of the predefined building processes compared with traditional building where the business transaction and the customer are arranged into unique projects. Since the construction process consists of recurring activities, the industrial methods do not only improve the design and production phase, but the positive impact stretches well into the management phase. The market today can be offered cost-effective housing, with higher flexibility and better quality if the client, contractor and supplier takes control of the construction process.

  • 330.
    Eriksson, Björn
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Mechanics, Byggteknik.
    Nylund, Oscar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Mechanics, Byggteknik.
    HANTERING AV JORDMASSOR VID ANLÄGGNINGSARBETEN: En ekonomi- och miljöanalys2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study was carried out on behalf of Peab Construction, a contractor in Uppsala. Peab’s, and hence the authors’ intention was to investigate the handling of excavated material during construction work. A construction site was investigated as a case study, in order to find better ways to minimise the use of uneconomical procedures and environmental impact. The given project was a water and drainage pipe in an area around Uppsala. This study was carried out mainly by using documentation from the project specifications. In addition, considerable information was also acquired from experts at Peab by means of several interviews.

    The investigation was carried out by analyzing and studying the working time and fuel consumption of different machines used in the project. The total cost of the management and the total fuel consumption were calculated for each soil type handling method. The conclusion is that an optimal solution would be to spread the excavated material in the surroundings of the construction site in order to lower costs and attain the smallest possible environmental impact. This conclusion also gives Peab Construction, and other contactors, an estimated value of what they could save financially on similar projects. In addition, they will also be able to supervise in a better way, and limit their environmental impact.

  • 331.
    Eriksson, Christoffer
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Orakhel, Farhad
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Låglutande tak och takterrasser: En jämförelsestudie mellan olika byggtekniska system, material och metoder med fokus på poblem, lösningar och hjälpmedel.2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 332.
    Eriksson, Elin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Hansson, Emelie
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Minskning av energiförbrukningen: I ett flerbostadshus från miljonprogrammet2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 333.
    Eriksson, Emilia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Produktionsstyrning: Tillämpning av NCC Projektplanering i praktiken2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to investigate which elements of the design process in production that have key features for successful progress of production and how these are regulated in the developed production model, the NCC Project planning, NCC Construction Sweden AB. A study of NCC Project planning used in construction output in the department of Mälardalen has been carried out and proposals for implementation of the model has been proposed. The work is carried out through interviews and archival analysis of NCC's business system.  NCC Project planning is a production model based on LEAN Construction's governance model pull-planning and 5S principle. By means of the production model desired involvement in the work and control over the work process increase. In the current situation is not production model to the extent that the company wishes and therefore the reasons why mapped and solutions to the problem have been proposed.  One of the biggest reasons that the NCC Project planning is not used in practice is the lack of commitment from supervisors, managers and production managers. As a solution to the problem suggested mentors, field trips and custom training for production management model.

  • 334.
    Eriksson, Fredrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Mechanics, Byggteknik.
    Att bygga ett socialt hållbart samhälle på ett ekonomiskt och hållbart sätt: Vad använder sig byggherrar i Malmö stad, Göteborgs stad, Skanska och föreningen Byggemenskap av för att skapa social hållbarhet2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report gives a picture of different things a developer in Sweden can use to

    increase the social sustainability. The studied parts are Bygga om Dialogen in Malmö,

    Älvstaden in Gothenburg, Vivalla in Örebro and association Byggemenskap.

    By interviewing one person from each area similarities and differences were studied

    to compare their work with social sustainability. In Malmö and Örebro their work is

    to increase the social sustainability for restoration objects and how to get whole

    areas that have long had a bad reputation to become socially sustainable with the

    main focus being on hiring long-term unemployed people, in Gothenburg and within

    the association Byggemeskap, the focus is to increase the social sustainability at new

    housing estates and how we can build new tenancies with a lower rent then

    apartments have today.

  • 335.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    LEED Commissioning: Hur man i Sverige kan uppfylla dess krav2010Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det här examensarbetet visar hur den svenska byggprocessen stämmer överens med Commissioningprocessen i det amerikanska miljöcertifieringssystemet för byggnader kallat LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design). Examensarbetet går igenom de 12 stegen som LEED Commissioning är uppbyggt efter och förklarar varje steg i detalj.

    Commissioning är en kvalitetskontroll av byggnadens installerade system. LEED Commissioning fokuserar på energisystem och de system som är relaterade till dessa.

    LEED Commissioning tillför inga nya processer till den svenska byggprocessen men det skapas en ny roll, ett antal nya dokument och det måste även genomföras ändringar i existerande dokument.

    Varje steg av LEED Commissioning har blivit analyserade. Detta har resulterat i en beskrivning avde dokument som ska skapas vid varje tillfälle, länkat till den svenska byggprocessens motsvarighet. Denna analys förklarar även den uppgift som den nya rollen Commissioning Authority (CxA) skall/kan utföra.

  • 336.
    Eriksson, Martin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Eriksson - Karlsson, Jimmie
    Optimering av betong med Byggcement (CEM II) till håldäcksproduktion2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis has been developed inassociation with Strängbetong AB, Sweden.

    A few years backCementa AB introduced a new type of cement on the Swedish market: Byggcement,which is a Portland Limestone Cement. This type of cement is better for theenvironment and cheaper than Rapid Hardening Cement which is used today at SträngbetongAB.

    Strängbetong AB isvery interested in a change of cement in the factory and wants to know what ittakes to make a transition from Rapid Hardening Cement to Byggcement.

    This final projectaims at investigating how the workability and strength development are affectedby a transition from the existing cement to Byggcement and how we can change theproperties of the concrete by adding different types of superplasticizers. 

    Laboratory and factoryexperiments were made, to investigate the transition.

  • 337.
    Eriksson Nygren, Karl
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Energianvändande i bostadshus: En studie i byggnaders energibalans2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 338. Eriksson, Per Erik
    et al.
    Lingegård, Sofia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Borg, Lena
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Nyström, Johan
    Procurement of Railway Infrastructure Projects - A European Benchmarking Study2017In: Civil engineering journal -Tehran, ISSN 2476-3055, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 199-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This benchmarking study compares how railway investments are procured in five European countries: Sweden, Norway, Germany, the Netherlands, and the UK. In total, 19 procurement managers and project managers were interviewed. This study compares the national rail clients' procurement strategies regarding: delivery system, reward system, contractor selection, and collaboration model. Historically, these clients have used in-house production. The first step towards a gradually increased usage of the market was to outsource the construction activities while keeping the design and development competence in-house. All five countries have mainly used Design-Bid-Build contracts in their initial outsourcing. However, the last few years there is a discernible trend in Sweden, Norway, the Netherlands and the UK towards allocating more design and development responsibilities to contractors (i.e. Design-Build contracts) and increasing the strategic focus on cooperation. The UK and the Netherlands are forerunners in this trend that can be viewed as a third step in the transition towards a market oriented railway sector. Norway and Sweden is in the middle of this transition, whereas Germany has not initiated this change. The transition towards a gradually increased usage of the market has two main dimensions; degree of cooperation and degree of contractor freedom, which differs among the countries. The UK and Sweden focus on increasing both these dimensions, while The Netherlands and Norway mostly focus on increasing the degree of contractor freedom. Germany still limits both dimensions by performing design and development in-house and letting contractors compete for construction work in Design-Bid-Build contracts. Due to historical and cultural reasons, Deutsche Bahn in Germany is very hesitant to engage in collaboration with external suppliers; focusing on competition is considered more appropriate and less controversial.

  • 339.
    Eriksson, Per Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology (LTU), Luleå, Sweden.
    Olander, Stefan
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Szentes, Henrik
    Luleå University of Technology (LTU), Luleå, Sweden.
    Widén, Kristian
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Managing short-term efficiency and long-term development through industrialized construction2014In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 32, no 1-2, p. 97-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a strong need for a productive and innovative infrastructure sector because of its monetary value and importance for the development of a sustainable society. An increased level of industrialization is often proposed as a way to improve efficiency and productivity in construction projects. In prior literature on industrialized construction, there are however neither many studies addressing more long-term aspects of innovation and sustainability nor studies within the infrastructure context. Organizational theory suggests that firms need to be ambidextrous and focus on both long-term exploration of new knowledge and Technologies and short-term exploitation of current knowledge and technologies, in order to achieve sustainable development. Therefore, an investigation of how both short-term exploitative performance objectives and long-term explorative development can be addressed when implementing industrialized construction in infrastructure projects was conducted. A case study consisting of four infrastructure projects shows that the main drivers for increased industrialization are of an exploitative nature, focusing on cost savings and increased productivity through more efficient processes. The main barriers to increased industrialization are however related to both explorative and exploitative activities. Hence, by managing the identified barriers and explicitly addressing both exploitation and exploration, industrialized construction can improve both short-term efficiency and long-term innovation and sustainability. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

  • 340.
    Eriksson, Per
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Mehmedovic, Nijaz
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Produktivitetsstudie Brobyggnad2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The development of productivity in the construction industry has long been at a steady state compared to the manufacturing industry. Studies have shown that, amongst other things, waste on construction sites can reach up to one third of the total production cost. This has been observed from different aspects, and change is forthcoming.

    This thesis aims to provide a foundation for an increased productivity at production sites of building bridges. It is primarily based on a field study at Skanska, at a bridge construction site near Grängesberg. Via continuous interviews with the whole production crew, construction workers and management, information on interference and possibilities of improvement at the work site has been documented. Moreover, Lean has been studied and attention has been brought to simple methods and approaches that can contribute to an increase of productivity. The purpose of this thesis was to inform Skanska and its team of recurring disruptions and improvement prospects, and to suggest simple methods so that future projects can be run more profitably.

    During the field study approximately ten disruptions have been documented, which directly interfered with the production. Most of these were due to different forms of communication failures. Late deliveries and reinforcement problems were the most common disorders. Furthermore, we have found room for improvement within the visual management, where resources and technology are available, but are not utilized to its fullest potential. In conclusion we analyzed and gave suggestions of simple methods for improvement using Lean as support, were tools like Five Why’s and SMART goals were used.

  • 341.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Larsson, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Managing complex projects in the infrastructure sector: A structural equation model for flexibility-focused project management2017In: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, E-ISSN 1873-4634, Vol. 35, no 8, p. 1512-1523Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Complex construction projects in the infrastructure sector are often beset with delays, which cause benefit shortfalls and increased costs. Prior project management literature and practice have mostly adopted a traditional control-focused approach, but recent research suggests that complex projects need more flexible practices to manage inevitable project change. Thus, the objectives of this study were to develop and empirically test a model for flexibility-focused project management practices to improve time performance in complex projects in the infrastructure sector. Based on empirical data from 138 construction projects procured and managed by the Swedish Transport Administration, the structural equation model shows that complexity and collaboration drive explorative learning, which improves adaptation and thereby improves time performance. Hence, the empirical test verifies that flexibility-focused project management practices based on collaboration, explorative learning, and adaptation enhance time performance in complex projects in the infrastructure sector.

  • 342.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Leiringer, Roine
    University of Hong Kong, Department of Real Estate & Construction.
    Szentes, Henrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    The Role of Co-creation in Enhancing Explorative and Exploitative Learning in Project-Based Settings2017In: Project Management Journal, ISSN 8756-9728, E-ISSN 1938-9507, Vol. 48, no 4, p. 22-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study how co-creation practices influence explorative and exploitative learning in five collaborative construction projects with partnering arrangements. Drawing on a longitudinal case study, our findings reveal two different types of explorative learning processes (i.e., adaptation and radical development) and three different exploitative learning processes (i.e., incremental development, knowledge sharing, and innovation diffusion). Furthermore, co-creation practices enhance adaptation, radical development, and incremental development, which are typical intra-project learning processes. Co-creation practices do not, however, enhance knowledge sharing and innovation diffusion across projects. These findings concur with previous insights that the temporary and one-off nature of projects makes inter-project learning problematic.

  • 343.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Olander, Stefan
    Department of Construction Management, Lund University.
    Szentes, Henrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Widén, Kristian
    Department of Construction Management, Lund University.
    Managing short-term efficiency and long-term development through industrialized construction2014In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 32, no 1-2, p. 97-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a strong need for a productive and innovative infrastructure sector because of its monetary value and importance for the development of a sustainable society. An increased level of industrialization is often proposed as a way to improve efficiency and productivity in construction projects. In prior literature on industrialized construction, there are however neither many studies addressing more long-term aspects of innovation and sustainability nor studies within the infrastructure context. Organizational theory suggests that firms need to be ambidextrous and focus on both long-term exploration of new knowledge and technologies and short-term exploitation of current knowledge and technologies, in order to achieve sustainable development. Therefore, an investigation of how both short-term exploitative performance objectives and long-term explorative development can be addressed when implementing industrialized construction in infrastructure projects was conducted. A case study consisting of four infrastructure projects shows that the main drivers for increased industrialization are of an exploitative nature, focusing on cost savings and increased productivity through more efficient processes. The main barriers to increased industrialization are however related to both explorative and exploitative activities. Hence, by managing the identified barriers and explicitly addressing both exploitation and exploration, industrialized construction can improve both short-term efficiency and long-term innovation and sustainability.

  • 344.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Szentes, Henrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Managing exploration and exploitation in construction projects2013In: Proceedings for 7th Nordic Conference on Construction Economics and Organisation / [ed] Ole Jonny Klakegg, Trondheim: Akademika forlag, 2013, p. 451-460Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior research has shown that companies in various industrial contexts need to achieve both exploitation of current knowledge and technologies to make profits today, and exploration of new knowledge and technologies to adapt to changing conditions and prepare for tomorrow’s demands. The capacity to achieve both exploration and exploitation is especially problematic in project based organizations due to projects’ discontinuous nature. In spite of its theoretical and practical importance, research on exploration and exploitation in projects and project-based organizations is scarce. The purpose of this study is to investigate how exploration and exploitation is managed in construction projects. Empirical data was collected through a multiple case study involving interviews with the client’s project manager, the contractor’s project manager, and the design manager in seven construction projects. Tentative findings show that the project actors often focus more on exploitation than on exploration although they acknowledge the importance of exploration too. However, exploitation often involves adopting conventional methods and solutions based on existing knowledge without any development efforts. Time constraints in tight schedules are hindering both radical innovations and continuous developments. The findings also reveal that explorative solutions must be possible to exploit in the same project. Sufficient project size and/or long-term contracts over a series of projects therefore enhance both investments in explorative activities and exploitation through continuous developments from project to project. Exploration activities are mostly performed in early stages while the focus on exploitation strengthens as the project proceeds. Exploration is often conducted by the contractor or by the client, consultant and contractor together. Hence, in design-bid-build contracts the client and consultant often miss opportunities to explore new technical solutions. Early contractor involvement, (e.g. in Design-build contracts) thereby enable the achievement of both exploration and exploitation

  • 345.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Szentes, Henrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Managing the tensions between exploration and exploitation in large construction projects2017In: Construction Innovation, ISSN 1471-4175, E-ISSN 1477-0857, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 492-510Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Prior studies highlight the importance of building ambidextrous capabilities to achieve both exploitation of current knowledge and technologies to make profits today, and exploration of new knowledge and technologies to adapt to and prepare for tomorrow's demands. In spite of its theoretical and practical importance, research on organizational ambidexterity in project-based organizations is scarce. Thus, the purpose of the paper is to study how ambidexterity may be managed and how exploration and exploitation may be achieved in construction projects. The research identifies some drivers and barriers to exploration and exploitation and also sheds light on how various management approaches interact and affect exploration and exploitation activities. Design/methodology/approach – The empirical material is drawn from 40 semi-structured interviews with managers representing the client, the contractor and the designer involved in each of the seven large construction projects in the sample. Findings – In contrast to prior literature in high-tech industries where exploitation focuses on continuous development, exploitation in construction projects often involves adopting conventional methods and solutions based on existing knowledge without any development efforts at all. This may enhance short-term efficiency and lower risk at the project level but increase risk at the firm level. Tight time schedules hinder both radical innovations and incremental developments, and the findings also reveal that to invest in efforts on explorative solutions, it must be possible to exploit the solutions in the same project. Research limitations/implications – In this empirical context, the traditional structural and sequential ambidexterity solutions are not sufficient. In construction projects, contextual ambidexterity solutions in which key project actors collaborate in developing systemic innovations and fine-tuning solutions across projects are more effective. Practical implications – Sufficient project size and/or long-term contracts over a series of projects enhance both investments in explorative activities and exploitation through continuous developments from project to project. In design-bid-build contracts, the client and consultant often miss opportunities to explore new technical solutions that rely on contractor competencies. Early procurement of contractors (e.g. in collaborative design-build contracts) thereby enables the achievement of both exploration and exploitation. Originality/value – This study provides important input to the authors' understanding of how exploration and exploitation may be managed in project-based industries, which has been scarcely studied in previous ambidexterity literature.

  • 346.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Szentes, Henrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Organizational ambidexterity in construction projects2014In: 2014 IEEE International Conference on Management of Innovation and Technology: ICMIT 2014, Singapore; 23 - 25 September 2014, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2014, p. 81-86, article id 6942405Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most organizations need to be ambidextrous by exploiting current knowledge to make profits today as well as exploring new knowledge to prepare for tomorrow's demands. The capacity to achieve both exploration and exploitation is especially problematic in project based organizations due to projects' discontinuous nature. In this study we investigate how exploration and exploitation is managed in inter-organizational projects, through a multiple case study of seven construction projects. Tentative findings show that project actors focus more on exploitation than on exploration and that exploitation often involves adopting conventional methods and solutions without any development efforts. The findings also reveal that investment in explorative innovations must be possible to exploit in the current project, since exploitation in future projects is uncertain.

  • 347.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Szentes, Henrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Lagerqvist, Ove
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Hinder och drivkrafter för industriellt anläggningsbyggande: Underlagsrapport till Produktivitetskommittén, Näringsdepartementet2012Report (Other academic)
  • 348.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Vennström, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Effects of procurement on project performance: a survey of Swedish construction clients2009In: Proceedings of CIB Joint International Symposium, Construction Facing Worldwide Challenges / [ed] Anita Ceric; Radujkovic Mladen, ArCiBel Editores, 2009, p. 19-28Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to increase the efficiency of the construction industry development and improvement of procurement procedures is vital. The purpose of this investigation is to increase the understanding of how procurement procedures affect project performance. A procurement model including eight hypotheses is first developed on the basis of a literature review and then tested through multivariate statistical techniques based on empirical data collected through a survey investigation of 106 Swedish construction clients. The results of hierarchical regression analyses show that cooperative procurement procedures positively affect collaboration among project actors and that collaboration in turn have positive effects on project performance. In general, however, cooperative procurement procedures do not have direct effects on project performance.

  • 349.
    Eriksson, Rebecca
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Esberg, Renee
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Massberäkning med hjälp av mätning: Projekt Snöpiggen, Riksgränsen2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att spränga berg är ett väldigt kostsam projekt och det är då viktigt att rätt mängd sprängs bort direkt samt att man kan sammanställa hur mycket berg som sprängts bort för att entreprenören ska få betalt för sitt arbete.

    Då Riksgränsen ligger i fjällen så är det väldigt kuperad terräng och de hus som byggdes är av typen suterränghus. För att bygga väg, lägga ner VA-ledningar samt förbereda inför gjutning av grunden så behövdes en hel del berg sprängas bort.

    Detta arbete fördjupar sig på hur man går tillväga för att mäta in och mängda berg vid sprängning.

  • 350.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Levén Svensson, Hampus
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Informations- och kunskapsflöde i byggbranschen: En studie av informations- och kunskapsflöde till och från produktionsledare2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report that is written in cooperation with Peab Sverige AB, studies the information and knowledge management from the production support to the production management.

     

    The conclusion of this report is that to have a good and functional information and knowledge management it is necessary that the company has a good way of regain and handling experiences from its projects. The way to do this is to develop the managing system on the production management’s terms. It is also critical to find an easy way for the production management to use the system.

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