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  • 301.
    Berman, Anne H.
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, Norra Stationsgatan 69,7th Floor, SE-11364 Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Cty Council, Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Stockholm Ctr Dependency Disorders, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindqvist, Helena
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, Norra Stationsgatan 69,7th Floor, SE-11364 Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Cty Council, MIQA Grp, Ctr Psychotherapy Educ & Res, Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Cty Council, Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kaellmen, Hakan
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, Norra Stationsgatan 69,7th Floor, SE-11364 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Durbeej, Natalie
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, Norra Stationsgatan 69,7th Floor, SE-11364 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hermansson, Ulric
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, Norra Stationsgatan 69,7th Floor, SE-11364 Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Cty Council, Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Stockholm Ctr Dependency Disorders, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Forsberg, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Counselor and Drug Detox Inpatient Verbal Behaviors in a Single Session of Motivational Interviewing and Subsequent Substance Use-Related Patient Outcomes2019In: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, ISSN 1557-1874, E-ISSN 1557-1882, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 73-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effects of counselor and client verbal behaviors, in a single motivational interviewing (MI) session during inpatient detoxification, were evaluated in relation to 17 study participants' self-reported drug use 3 months later. Also, counselor-to-client transitions in the single MI session were explored for 24 participants, using the Motivational Interviewing Sequential Code for Observing Process Exchanges (MI-SCOPE) coding instrument. Surprisingly, counselor neutral/double-sided reflections predicted lower levels of drug use (r = -0.42), higher treatment interest (r = 0.40), and self-efficacy for abstaining from drug use when experiencing positive feelings (r=0.48) and negative feelings or craving (r = 0.40). Client change talk predicted motivation to change (r = 0.42) and perceptions of negative aspects of drug use (r = 0.44), while higher levels of client sustain talk predicted lower levels of drug use (r = -0.45) and lower interest in treatment (r = -0.68). The counselor-client transition analysis showed an odds ratio (OR) of 13.84 (95% CI 9.75; 19.66) for client change talk in response to counselor reflections on change talk (RCT), and an OR of 55.98 (95% CI 26.53; 118.12) for client sustain talk in response to counselor reflections on sustain talk (RST). Future research should increase sample size and extend follow-up.

  • 302.
    Berman, Anne H.
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Liu, Bojing
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ullman, Sara
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden.;Swedish Police, Dept Invest, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Jadbäck, Isabel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Tellas Consulting AB, Malmo, Sweden..
    Engström, Karin
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Children's Quality of Life Based on the KIDSCREEN-27: Child Self-Report, Parent Ratings and Child-Parent Agreement in a Swedish Random Population Sample2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 3, article id e0150545Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The KIDSCREEN-27 is a measure of child and adolescent quality of life (QoL), with excellent psychometric properties, available in child-report and parent-rating versions in 38 languages. This study provides child-reported and parent-rated norms for the KIDSCREEN-27 among Swedish 11-16 year-olds, as well as child-parent agreement. Sociodemographic correlates of self-reported wellbeing and parent-rated wellbeing were also measured. Methods A random population sample consisting of 600 children aged 11-16, 100 per age group and one of their parents (N = 1200), were approached for response to self-reported and parentrated versions of the KIDSCREEN-27. Parents were also asked about their education, employment status and their own QoL based on the 26-item WHOQOL-Bref. Based on the final sampling pool of 1158 persons, a 34.8% response rate of 403 individuals was obtained, including 175 child-parent pairs, 27 child singleton responders and 26 parent singletons. Gender and age differences for parent ratings and child-reported data were analyzed using t-tests and the Mann-Whitney U-test. Post-hoc Dunn tests were conducted for pairwise comparisons when the p-value for specific subscales was 0.05 or lower. Child-parent agreement was tested item-by-item, using the Prevalence-and Bias-Adjusted Kappa (PABAK) coefficient for ordinal data (PABAK-OS); dimensional and total score agreement was evaluated based on dichotomous cut-offs for lower well-being, using the PABAK and total, continuous scores were evaluated using Bland-Altman plots. Results Compared to European norms, Swedish children in this sample scored lower on Physical wellbeing (48.8 SE/49.94 EU) but higher on the other KIDSCREEN-27 dimensions: Psychological wellbeing (53.4/49.77), Parent relations and autonomy (55.1/49.99), Social Support and peers (54.1/49.94) and School (55.8/50.01). Older children self-reported lower wellbeing than younger children. No significant self-reported gender differences occurred and parent ratings showed no gender or age differences. Item-by-item child-parent agreement was slight for 14 items (51.9%), fair for 12 items (44.4%), and less than chance for one item (3.7%), but agreement on all dimensions as well as the total score was substantial according to the PABAK-OS. Visual interpretation of the Bland-Altman plot suggested that when children's average wellbeing score was lower parents seemed to rate their children as having relatively higher total wellbeing, but as children's average wellbeing score increased, parents tended to rate their children as having relatively lower total wellbeing. Children living with both parents had higher wellbeing than those who lived with only one parent. Conclusions Results agreed with European findings that adolescent wellbeing decreases with age but contrasted with some prior Swedish research identifying better wellbeing for boys on all dimensions but Social support and peers. The study suggests the importance of considering children's own reports and not only parental or other informant ratings. Future research should be conducted at regular intervals and encompass larger samples.

  • 303. Berman, Anne H.
    et al.
    Palmstierna, Tom
    Källmén, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bergman, Hans
    The self-report drug use disorders identification test-extended (DUDIT-E): Reliability, validity, and motivational index2007In: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, ISSN 0740-5472, E-ISSN 1873-6483, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 357-369Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Among clients who have been screened already for drug-related problems, the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test - Extended (DUDIT-E) maps the frequency of illicit drug use (D), the positive (P) and negative (N) aspects of drug use, and treatment readiness (T). D scores correlated with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition diagnoses among 154 heavy drug users from criminal justice and drug detoxification settings, as well as with urine test results in drug detoxification units. One-week test/retest intraclass correlation coefficients among 92 male prison inmates were .90, .78, .75, and .84 for D, P, N, and T scores, respectively. Cronbach's alpha were .88-.95 for P score, .88-.93 for N score, and .72-.81 for T score. Principal components analysis supported construct validity for P, N, and T scores. T scores were higher in prison treatment units than in motivational and regular units without treatment emphasis. Motivational index scores differentiated between three categories of heavy drug users; they did not differentiate between prisons and unit types, but this corresponded to unclear structural differentiation between units.

  • 304.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Eib, Constanze
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Griep, Yannick
    University of Calgary, Canada; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    How do job insecurity and organizational justice relate to depressive symptoms and sleep difficulties: a multilevel study on immediate and prolonged effects in swedish workers2019In: Psychologie Appliquee: Revue Internationale, ISSN 0269-994X, E-ISSN 1464-0597Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on stress and justice literature, we argue that perceptions of job insecurity induce feelings of low procedural justice, which has immediate and prolonged negative effects on health (depressive symptoms, sleep difficulties). Moreover, we explore whether the strength of the job insecurity–justice relationship differs between individuals as a function of their average level of job insecurity over time. Finally, we explore whether the procedural justice–health relationship differs between individuals as a function of variability in justice perceptions over time. We analyzed Swedish panel data from permanent workers over four consecutive waves (with a two‐year time lag between waves) using multilevel analysis, separating within‐ and between‐person variance. Results showed that job insecurity associated negatively with procedural justice at the same time point for all waves. Prolonged effects were less stable. We found immediate (but not prolonged) indirect effects of job insecurity on health outcomes via procedural justice. Average levels in job insecurity over time moderated the within‐person job insecurity–justice relationship. However, variability in procedural justice over time did not moderate the within‐person justice–health relationship. In conclusion, disentangling within‐ and between‐person variability of job insecurity and justice perceptions contributes to the understanding of health effects.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-09-10 00:00
  • 305. Bertenthal, B.
    et al.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Boyer, T. W.
    Differential Contributions of Development and Learning to Infants’ Knowledge of Object Continuity and Discontinuity2013In: Child Development, ISSN 0009-3920, E-ISSN 1467-8624, Vol. 84, no 2, p. 413-421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sixty infants divided evenly between 5 and 7months of age were tested for their knowledge of object continuity versus discontinuity with a predictive tracking task. The stimulus event consisted of a moving ball that was briefly occluded for 20 trials. Both age groups predictively tracked the ball when it disappeared and reappeared via occlusion, but not when it disappeared and reappeared via implosion. Infants displayed high levels of predictive tracking from the first trial in the occlusion condition, and showed significant improvement across trials in the implosion condition. These results suggest that infants possess embodied knowledge to support differential tracking of continuously and discontinuously moving objects, but this tracking can be modified by visual experience.

  • 306. Bertenthal, B.
    et al.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Boyer, T.W.
    Infants´ knowledge of object continuity and discontinuity2013In: Child Development, ISSN 0009-3920, E-ISSN 1467-8624, Vol. 84, no 2, p. 413-421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sixty infants divided evenly between 5 and 7 months of age were tested for their knowledge of object continuity versus discontinuity with a predictive tracking task. The stimulus event consisted of a moving ball that was briefly occluded for 20 trials. Both age groups predictively tracked the ball when it disappeared and reappeared via occlusion, but not when it disappeared and reappeared via implosion. Infants displayed high levels of predictive tracking from the first trial in the occlusion condition, and showed significant improvement across trials in the implosion condition. These results suggest that infants possess embodied knowledge to support differential tracking of continuously and discontinuously moving objects, but this tracking can be modified by visual experience.

  • 307.
    Bertenthal, B.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Eye, head and trunk control: The foundation for manual development.1998In: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, Vol. 22, p. 515-520Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 308.
    Bhardwaj, Manisha
    et al.
    University of Houston.
    Van den Berg, Ronald
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ma, Wei Ji
    New York University.
    Josić, Krešimir
    University of Houston.
    Do people take stimulus correlations into account in visual search?2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 3, article id e0149402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In laboratory visual search experiments, distractors are often statistically independent of each other. However, stimuli in more naturalistic settings are often correlated and rarely independent. Here, we examine whether human observers take stimulus correlations into account in orientation target detection. We find that they do, although probably not optimally. In particular, it seems that low distractor correlations are overestimated. Our results might contribute to bridging the gap between artificial and natural visual search tasks.

  • 309.
    Birgegard, A
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sohlberg, S
    Long term effects of Subliminal Psychodynamic Activation: anomalous results explained and replicated2000In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY, Vol. 35, no 3-4, p. 65-65Other (Other scientific)
  • 310.
    Birgegard, A
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sohlberg, S
    Methodology in subliminal psychodynamic activation: The next step in the debate2001In: PERCEPTUAL AND MOTOR SKILLS, ISSN 0031-5125, Vol. 92, no 2, p. 504-506Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Subliminal psychodynamic activation methodology has recently been the subject of an exchange of views between Birgegard and Sohlberg (1999) and Fudin (2000). The agreements and some remaining points of contention are summarized here. The main difference o

  • 311.
    Birgegard, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A theoretical account of persistent effects of subliminal stimuli: Unattributable automatic salience of motivationally relevant cues2003Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 312.
    Birgegard, Andreas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    The correspondence between attachment to parents and God: Three experiments using subliminal separation cues2004In: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Vol. 30, p. 1122-1135Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 313.
    Birgegard, Andreas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sohlberg, Staffan
    Debriefing after subliminal stimulation: Does information to participants prevent persistent effects?2003Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 314.
    Birgegard, Andreas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sohlberg, Staffan
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Debriefing after subliminal stimulation: Does information to participants prevent persistent effects?2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 315. Birgegard, Andreas
    et al.
    Sohlberg, Staffan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Persistent effects of subliminal stimulation: sex differences and the effectiveness of debriefing2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 19-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Persistent and non-trivial effects of unconscious stimuli have been reported (Sohlberg & Birgegard, 2003). This raises the ethical question of whether informing participants about such stimuli effectively returns them to a normal state. Two experiments (sex-mixed, N = 70 and 118) tested two kinds of debriefing to participants following subliminal (tachistoscopic) attachment-related or control stimulation. Measures were the Beck Depression Inventory, Structural Analysis of Social Behavior, and Retrospective Attachment. Results showed persistent effects. Simple debriefing about the stimulus was effective in preventing these, while more elaborate debriefing also describing the effects and mechanisms for them was less effective. Persistent effects were also strongly related to participant sex, but debriefing effects were similar in men and women with regard to the purpose of debriefing. The findings have implications for ethical recommendations for subliminal research, and suggest that this unexplored area requires more attention.

  • 316.
    Birgegård, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Producing, Preventing, and Explaining Persistent Complex Subliminal Stimulation Effects2003Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Strong recent focus on unconscious processes has increased interest in subliminal stimulation and similar experimental technologies. Assumptions about the persistence of effects of unconscious stimulation are generally conservative, referring to seconds or minutes (Silverman, 1977; Velmans, 1991). In Study I, five experiments (N = 365) showed complex effects of unconscious stimulation ten days after subliminal exposure, implying that persistence estimates need reevaluation. Experimental stimuli were "mommy and I are one" (MIO) and "mommy and I are dissimilar" (MIDIS), and neutral control stimuli. Effects consisted of higher correlations between measures pertaining to the self-mother relationship and measures of psychological adjustment.

    These ethically problematic findings prompted investigation in Study II of whether debriefing information to participants could prevent persistent effects of subliminal stimuli, an issue not previously investigated. Two experiments (N=188) tested two kinds of information to participants following subliminal MIDIS or control stimulation. Results showed different persistent effects depending on participant sex. Simple information about the stimulus was effective in preventing these, but elaborate information describing the effects and mechanisms for them was not. The findings have implications for ethical recommendations for subliminal research, and suggest that this unexplored area requires more attention.

    In Study III, a theoretical account for the persistent effects is presented, based on unconscious activation of a relational schema containing goal motivation. Unless the goal is fulfilled or activation dissipates due to attributability or irrelevance of the goal, the activation will be maintained (motivated maintenance). Being unconscious, the influence results in automatic schematic processing of environmental cues, including perceptual, judgment, and behavioral biases. These in turn interactively maintain the activation of the schema (interactive maintenance).

    The discussion includes the conclusion that previous estimates of the persistence of unconscious stimulation effects need revision. Theoretical and empirical questions concerning the studies are discussed and ethical research implications are considered.

  • 317. Birgegård, Andreas
    et al.
    Björck, Caroline
    Norring, Claes
    Sohlberg, Staffan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Clinton, David
    Anorexic self-control and bulimic self-hate: differential outcome prediction from initial self-image2009In: International Journal of Eating Disorders, ISSN 0276-3478, E-ISSN 1098-108X, Vol. 42, no 6, p. 522-530Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE:: The study investigated initial self-image (structural analysis of social behavior) and its relation to 36-month outcome, among patients with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Hypotheses were that degree of different aspects of self-image would predict outcome in the groups. METHOD:: Participants were 52 patients with anorexia and 91 with bulimia from a longitudinal naturalistic database, and outcome measures included eating disorder and psychiatric symptoms and a general outcome index. Stepwise regression was used to investigate which self-image variables were related to outcome, and multiple regression contrasted the groups directly on each obtained predictor. RESULTS:: Consistent with hypotheses, in bulimia degree of self-hate/self-love moderately predicted outcome, whereas self-control-related variables powerfully predicted outcome in anorexia. CONCLUSION:: It is important to focus on self-image in the treatment of both diagnostic groups, but especially in anorexia nervosa, where control-submission interactions between patient and therapist should be handled with care.

  • 318. Birgegård, Andreas
    et al.
    Björck, Caroline
    Norring, Claes
    Sohlberg, Staffan
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Clinton, David
    Anorexic self-control and bulimic self-hate: Differential outcome prediction from initial self-image.: Poster presented at International Conference on Eating Disorders -07, Academy for Eating Disorders i Baltimore Maryland May 2-5 20072007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 319.
    Birgegård, Andreas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sohlberg, Staffan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    New methodological advice for research in subliminal psychodynamic activation1999In: Perceptual and Motor Skills, ISSN 0031-5125, E-ISSN 1558-688X, Vol. 88, no 3, p. 747-755Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent integration among approaches to perception without awareness has brought the usefulness of Subliminal Psychodynamic Activation into renewed locus. Several authors have discussed the possible detrimental impact on interpretation when control phrase

  • 320. Björck, Caroline
    et al.
    Björk, Tabita
    Clinton, David
    Sohlberg, Staffan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Norring, Claes
    Self-image and treatment drop-out in eating disorders2008In: Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, ISSN 1476-0835, E-ISSN 2044-8341, Vol. 81, no 1, p. 95-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Drop-out from treatment is a serious problem in eating disorders which remains poorly understood. The present study investigated whether self-image and interpersonal theory could help to explain why eating disorder patients drop out of treatment. METHOD: Intake data on eating disorder patients who terminated treatment prematurely (N=54) were compared with patients who had completed treatment (N=54) and those who were still in treatment after 12 months (N=54). Self-image was assessed using the structural analysis of social behaviour (SASB), and comparisons were made on demographic and clinical variables. RESULTS: Patients who dropped out had initially presented with less negative self-image and fewer psychological problems compared with remainers. Low levels of SASB self-blame discriminated drop-outs from completers and remainers and significantly predicted treatment drop-out. DISCUSSION: Drop-out in eating disorders appears to be a complex phenomenon, not necessarily as pathological as often assumed. There may be important differences in the treatment goals of drop-outs and therapists; patients who drop out may be choosing to disengage at a time when symptom improvement creates space for closer examination of interpersonal issues.

  • 321. Björck, C.T.
    et al.
    Clinton, D.
    Sohlberg, S.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hällström, T.
    Norring, C.
    Interpersonal Profiles in Eating Disorders: Ratings of SASB Self-Image2003In: Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, Vol. 76, p. 337-349Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 322. Björk, Tabita
    et al.
    Björck, Caroline
    Clinton, David
    Sohlberg, Staffan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Norring, Claes
    What happened to the ones who dropped out? Outcome in eating disorder patients who complete or prematurely terminate treatment2009In: European eating disorders review, ISSN 1072-4133, E-ISSN 1099-0968, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 109-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: There is a lack of knowledge about the outcome of eating disorder patients who terminate treatment prematurely. The present study followed-up eating disorder patients who had previously dropped out of treatment and examined clinical status 36 months after intake. METHOD: Dropouts (n = 30) were compared with treatment completers (n = 52) on diagnostic status, clinical symptoms, psychosocial adjustment and treatment satisfaction at follow-up. Patterns of change from intake to follow-up within groups, as well as between groups, were explored. RESULTS: No significant differences were found between groups at follow-up, except for more treatment dissatisfaction reported among dropouts. When patterns of change were examined between groups, patients who completed treatment were found to have made significantly greater changes (less eating disorder symptoms, less psychological problems and more positive self-image) compared to dropouts. DISCUSSION: Although no significant differences in outcome were found between dropouts and completers, greater clinical improvement was found among those who completed treatment. The dropouts examined in this study did well despite premature termination of treatment. Clinical and research implications are discussed.

  • 323. Björklund, Fredrik
    et al.
    Hursti, Timo
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A swedish translation and validation of the Disgust Scale: A measure of disgust sensitivity2004In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, Vol. 45, p. 279-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The psychometric properties of a Swedish version of Haidt, McCauley and Rozin’s (1994) Disgust Scalewere studied. Confirmatory factor analysis of the original model with eight factors (food, animals, body products, sex, body envelope violations, death, hygiene, and magic) provided satisfactory fit to the data (N=280), significantly better than to the alternative one-factor and five-factor models. As in the US version

    women scored significantly higher than men. Positive correlations with measures of food neophobia (r=0.30,p<0.0001) and nausea frequency (rs=0.28,p<0.001) indicate convergent validity. In a separate study (N=30) a behavioral measure of the willingness to touch, hold, and taste disgusting food objects correlated negatively with the Disgust Scale (r=−0.46, p< 0.01), indicating criterion-related validity.

  • 324.
    Björklund, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Driver Interaction: Informal Rules, Irritation and Aggressive Behaviour2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    On a daily basis drivers have to share the roads with a great number of other road users. To make the driving task possible every driver has to take the intentions and behaviours of other road users into account. In other words, the road users have to interact with each other. The general aim of this thesis was to examine factors that regulate and influence the interaction between road users. To do so, three studies, applying a social psychological approach to driving, were conducted. In the first study it was investigated how the rules of priority, the design of the intersection, and the behaviour of other drivers influence yielding behaviour in intersections. The second study examined driver irritation and its relationship with aggressive behaviours. Finally, in the third study drivers’ attributions of their own and other drivers’ behaviour were investigated in relation to driver irritation. The thesis also includes a minor field study, aiming at examining to what extent informal traffic rules are used in intersections and in roundabouts, as well as measuring the validity of self-reports. The results indicate that, in addition to the formal rules, drivers rely on informal rules based on road design and on other drivers’ behaviour. Drivers also differ with respect to strategies of yielding behaviour. Irritability and aggressive behaviour on the roads appear largely to depend on drivers’ interactions and drivers’ interpretation of the behaviour of others. Some aggressive behaviour is an expression of irritation and may provoke irritation of other drivers. This means that an irritated driver might start a chain reaction, spreading irritation and aggressive behaviour from driver to driver. To diminish irritation and aggressive behaviour on the roads it is necessary to change drivers’ behaviour either by changing the road design or, which is probably a more possible remedy, by changing their general attitudes about driving. By providing drivers with insight into the cognitive biases they are subject to when judging other road users’ behaviour, both driver irritation and aggressive behaviours on the roads probably would decrease.

  • 325.
    Björklund, Gunilla M.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Driver attribution and irritationArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 326.
    Björklund, Gunilla M.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Driver irritation and aggressive behaviourArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 327.
    Björklund, Gunilla M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Åberg, Lars
    Driver behaviour in intersections: Formal and informal traffic rules2005In: Transportation Research Part F, Vol. 8, p. 239-253Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 328.
    BJÖRKMAN, M
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    JUSLIN, P
    WINMAN, A
    A MODEL FOR REALISM OF CONFIDENCE JUDGMENTS - IMPLICATIONS FOR UNDERCONFIDENCE IN SENSORY DISCRIMINATION - REPLY1995In: PERCEPTION & PSYCHOPHYSICS, ISSN 0031-5117, Vol. 57, no 2, p. 255-259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ferrell's decision-variable partition model and our subjective distance model belong to the same family of Thurstonial models. The subjective distance model is limited to sensory discrimination with the method of constant stimuli and rooted in such notio

  • 329.
    Björkman, M
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Juslin, P
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Winman, A
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A reply to William R Farell's paper "A model of realism of confidence judgments: Implications for underconfidence in sensory discrimination"1994In: Perception and Psychophysics, Vol. 57, p. 255-259Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 330.
    Björkman, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Juslin, Peter
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Winman, Anders
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Realism of confidence in sensory discrimination: The underconfidence phenomenon.1993In: Perception & Psychophysics, ISSN 0031-5117, Vol. 54, no 1, p. 75-81Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 331.
    Björkstrand, Johannes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The Amygdala, Fear and Reconsolidation: Neural and Behavioral Effects of Retrieval-Extinction in Fear Conditioning and Spider Phobia2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The amygdala is crucially involved in the acquisition and retention of fear memories. Experimental research on fear conditioning has shown that memory retrieval shortly followed by pharmacological manipulations or extinction, thereby interfering with memory reconsolidation, decreases later fear expression. Fear memory reconsolidation depends on synaptic plasticity in the amygdala, which has been demonstrated in rodents using both pharmacological manipulations and retrieval-extinction procedures. The retrieval-extinction procedure decreases fear expression also in humans, but the underlying neural mechanism have not been studied. Interfering with reconsolidation is held to alter the original fear memory representation, resulting in long-term reductions in fear responses, and might therefore be used in the treatment of anxiety disorders, but few studies have directly investigated this question.

    The aim of this thesis was to examine the effects of the retrieval-extinction procedure on amygdala activity and behavioral fear expression in humans. The work presented here also investigated whether findings from studies on recent fear memories, established through fear conditioning, extends to naturally occurring long-term phobic fears.

    Study I, combining fear conditioning and a retrieval-extinction procedure with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), demonstrated that memory retrieval shortly followed by extinction reduces later amygdala activity and fear expression in healthy subjects. In Study II, these subjects were re-tested 18 months later. The results showed that the effects on fear expression were still present and that initial amygdala activity predicted long-term fear expression. Using an adapted version of the retrieval-extinction procedure, Study III showed that memory retrieval shortly followed by exposure to spider pictures, attenuates subsequent amygdala activity and increases approach behavior in subjects with life-long fear of spiders. In Study IV, these subjects were re-tested 6 months later, and the results showed that effects on amygdala activity as well as approach behavior were maintained.

    In summation, retrieval-extinction leads to long-lasting reductions in amygdala activity and fear expression. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that retrieval-extinction alters an amygdala dependent fear memory. Retrieval-extinction can also attenuate long-term phobic fears, indicating that this manipulation could be used to enhance exposure-based treatments for anxiety disorders. 

  • 332.
    Björkstrand, Johannes
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ågren, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Frick, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Engman, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Larsson, Elna-Marie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Disruption of Memory Reconsolidation Erases a Fear Memory Trace in the Human Amygdala: An 18-Month Follow-Up.2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 7, p. e0129393-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fear memories can be attenuated by reactivation followed by disrupted reconsolidation. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging we recently showed that reactivation and reconsolidation of a conditioned fear memory trace in the basolateral amygdala predicts subsequent fear expression over two days, while reactivation followed by disrupted reconsolidation abolishes the memory trace and suppresses fear. In this follow-up study we demonstrate that the behavioral effect persists over 18 months reflected in superior reacquisition after undisrupted, as compared to disrupted reconsolidation, and that neural activity in the basolateral amygdala representing the initial fear memory predicts return of fear. We conclude that disrupting reconsolidation have long lasting behavioral effects and may permanently erase the fear component of an amygdala-dependent memory.

  • 333.
    Björkstrand, Johannes
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ågren, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eriksson, Elias
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Disruption of Fear Reconsolidation by Extinction and the G-703T Gene Polymorphism2013In: Biological Psychiatry, ISSN 0006-3223, E-ISSN 1873-2402, Vol. 73, no 9, p. 67S-67SArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 334.
    Björkstrand, Johannes
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ågren, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, S-17176 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Frick, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Larsson, Elna-Marie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Hjorth, Olof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, S-17176 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Disrupting Reconsolidation Attenuates Long-Term Fear Memory in the Human Amygdala and Facilitates Approach Behavior2016In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 26, no 19, p. 2690-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Memories become labile and malleable to modification when recalled [1]. Fear-conditioning experiments in both rodents and humans indicate that amygdala-localized short-term fear memories can be attenuated by disruption of their reconsolidation with extinction training soon after memory activation [2-7]. However, this may not be true for natural long-term fears. Studies in rodents indicate that although it is possible to disrupt the reconsolidation of older memories [8-11], they appear to be more resistant [1, 3, 9, 12, 13]. In humans, 1-week-old conditioned fear memories have been attenuated by behaviorally induced disruption of reconsolidation [14], but it remains to be seen whether this is possible for naturally occurring long-term fears and whether the underlying neural mechanisms are similar to those found in experimental fear-conditioning paradigms. Using functional brain imaging in individuals with a lifelong fear of spiders, we show that fear memory activation followed by repeated exposure to feared cues after 10 min, which disrupts reconsolidation, attenuates activity in the basolateral amygdala at re-exposure 24 hr later. In contrast, repeated exposure 6 hr after fear memory activation, which allows for reconsolidation, did not attenuate amygdala activity. Disrupted, but not undisrupted, reconsolidation facilitated approach behavior to feared cues, and approach behavior was inversely related to amygdala activity during re-exposure. We conclude that memory activation immediately preceding exposure attenuates the neural and behavioral expression of decades-old fear memories and that, similar to experimentally induced fear memories, the basolateral amygdala is crucially involved in this process.

  • 335.
    Björkstrand, Johannes
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ågren, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Tomtebodavägen 18A, 171 77, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Frick, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Tomtebodavägen 18A, 171 77, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Larsson, Elna-Marie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Hjorth, Olof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Tomtebodavägen 18A, 171 77, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Think twice, it's all right: Long lasting effects of disrupted reconsolidation on brain and behavior in human long-term fear2017In: Behavioural Brain Research, ISSN 0166-4328, E-ISSN 1872-7549, Vol. 324, p. 125-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Memories can be modified when recalled. Experimental fear conditioning studies support that amygdala-localized fear memories are attenuated when reconsolidation is disrupted through extinction training immediately following memory activation. Recently, using functional brain imaging in individuals with lifelong spider fears, we demonstrated that fear memory activation followed by repeated exposure to feared cues after 10 min, thereby disrupting reconsolidation, attenuated activity in the amygdala during later re-exposure, and also facilitated approach behavior to feared cues. In contrast, repeated exposure 6 h after fear memory activation, allowing for reconsolidation, did not attenuate amygdala activity and resulted in less approach behavior as compared to the group that received disrupted reconsolidation. We here evaluated if these effects are stable after 6 months and found that amygdala activity was further reduced in both groups, with a tendency towards greater reductions in the 10 min than the 6 h group. Hence, disrupted reconsolidation results in long lasting attenuation of amygdala activity. The behavioral effect, with more approach towards previously feared cues, in the 10 min than the 6 h group also persisted. Thus, the brain effect of disrupted reconsolidation is stable over 6 months and the behavioral effect also remained. We therefore conclude that disrupted reconsolidation result in a long-lasting diminished fear memory representation in the amygdala which may have clinical importance.

  • 336.
    Björnsdotter, Annika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Evaluation of Family Check-Up and iComet: Effectiveness as well as Psychometrics and Norms for Parent Rating Scales2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis compromise four studies, three regarding psychometrics and norms of parent rating scales, and one study regarding effectiveness of two different interventions. A normative sample consisting of 1443 parents with children aged 10 to 13 years old, was used in the Study I, II and III. In Study IV, 231 self-referred parents with children aged 10-13 years old with externalizing behavior problem (EBP) were randomized to either Family Check-Up (FCU) or iComet.

    The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) used in Study I proved to be a reliable and valid instrument with high internal consistency, clear factor structure and high correlation with other similar instruments. In addition, the results support the online use of SDQ as well as using norms obtained through traditional administration even when the SDQ has been administrated online. The Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ) investigated in Study II was shown to have adequate reliability and construct validity. The specific use of expressive suppression or cognitive reappraisal as a parental emotion regulation strategy was correlated as expected to the couple’s satisfaction, family warmth, and the employment of adequate discipline strategies. Swedish norms for self-rated ERQs are also presented. Study III investigated the Parental Knowledge and Monitoring Scale (PKMS), which was shown to be a useful instrument for assessing parental knowledge and its sources. Family climate appears to moderate important relationships between parental knowledge and conduct problems with implications for such things as family interventions. Finally, a person-oriented analysis was used in Study IV to subtype the children according to combinations of prosocial behavior and EBP, such as different levels of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and/or oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) behaviors. Despite being a heterogeneous group of children with EBP, they were meaningfully grouped into significantly different profiles. Both FCU and iComet resulted in post-treatment measurement within non-clinical range for three of the five profiles. The two profiles that included high levels of ADHD behaviors at baseline assessment continued to have residual symptoms post intervention. 

  • 337.
    Björnsdotter, Annika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Enebrink, Pia
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ghaderi, Ata
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Family Check-Up and iComet: a Randomized Controlled Trial in Sweden2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 338.
    Björnsdotter, Annika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Enebrink, Pia
    Karolinska Inst, Div Psychol, Dept Clin Neurosci, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ghaderi, Ata
    Karolinska Inst, Div Psychol, Dept Clin Neurosci, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Psychometric properties of online administered parental Strengths and Difficulties Questionnarie (SDQ), and normative data based on combined online and paper-and-pencil administration2013In: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, ISSN 1753-2000, E-ISSN 1753-2000, Vol. 7, article id 40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    To examine the psychometric properties of the online administered parental version of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and to provide parental norms from a nationwide Swedish sample.

    Methods

    A total of 1443 parents from of a national probability sample of 2800 children aged 10-13 years completed the SDQ online or as usual (i.e., using paper-and-pencil).

    Results

    The SDQ subscales obtained from the online administration showed high internal consistency (polychoric ordinal alpha), and confirmatory factor analysis of the SDQ five factor model resulted in excellent fit. The Total Difficulties score of the SDQ and its other subscales were significantly related to the Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD) rating scale. Norms for the parent version of SDQ obtained from the Internet were identical to those collected using paper-and-pencil. They were thus combined and are presented sorted by child gender and age.

    Conclusions

    The SDQ seems to be a reliable and valid instrument given its high internal consistency, clear factor structure and high correlation with other instruments capturing the intended constructs. Findings in the present study support its use for online data collection, as well as using norms obtained through paper-and-pencil-administration even when SDQ has been administrated online.

  • 339.
    Björnsdotter, Annika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Enebrink, Pia
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ghaderi, Ata
    Karolinska Institutet.
    The Importance of Parental Knowledge2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Poor parenting is an important risk factor for development of conduct problems in children and adolescents. Inadequate parental monitoring is an example of a negative parenting behavior that has been shown to predict child conduct problems Findings from previous research on parental monitoring has been mixed due to the use of inconsistent and vague definitions. However, later research suggests that it is "parental knowledge" rather than "parental monitoring" that is associated with child and adolescent conduct problems. In the present study, we used an existing questionnaire that measures three possible sources of parental knowledge: child disclosure, parental solicitation and parental control. Our aims were to 1) examine the factor structure of a parenting monitoring/knowledge scale, 2) analyze if a high level of child disclosure and parental control as well as a low level of parental solicitation were associated to low conduct problems, 3) examine if a measure of family warmth correlates with child disclosure, and 4) whether parental knowledge mediates the relation between parental warmth and conduct problems. Parents of a national probability sample of 2800 children aged 10-13 years old were asked to complete a survey including these different scales. A total of 1446 parents completed the questionnaires. Brief description Analysis of the importance of parental knowledge regarding child disruptive behavior using an existing questionnaire that measures parental knowledge through three possible sources: child disclosure, parental solicitation and parental control.

  • 340.
    Björnsdotter, Annika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Enebrink, Pia
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ghaderi, Ata
    Karolinska Institutet.
    The Parental Knowledge and Monitoring Scale: Psychometrics and relations to conduct problemsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated psychometrics (internal consistency, factor structure) of the Parental Knowledge and Monitoring Scale (PKMS) when used for parents of children aged 10-13 years. We also evaluated PKMS associations to child conduct problems and potential moderators (family warmth, and conflict). Totally 1442 parents participated. The internal consistencies ranged from alpha .70 to .90. A confirmatory factor analysis of the sources of parental knowledge resulted in a fairly acceptable fit for a 4-factor model (Parental Solicitation, Parental Control, Child Disclosure, and Secrecy: RMSEA=.076, CFI=.99, GFI=.94). The subscales correlated positively (Secrecy negatively) with Parental Knowledge. Secrecy was associated with conduct problems in a hierarchical regression analysis. Family warmth and conflict significantly moderated the association of parental knowledge to conduct problems. 

  • 341.
    Björnsdotter, Annika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ghaderi, A.
    Kadesjö, C.
    Enebrink, P.
    Evaluation of the Family Check-Up and iCometfor families with children aged 10-13 years with externalizing behavior problemsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 342.
    Blåvarg, Christina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The alluring nature of episodic odor memory: Sensory and cognitive correlates across age and sex2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Episodic memory for olfactory information is still relatively uncharted. The overall purpose of this thesis is to investigate the sensory and cognitive causes of the well-established age-related decline in olfactory episodic odor memory and of the age-independent sex difference in olfactory episodic memory. The purpose of Study I was to investigate the causes of the sex difference in olfactory episodic memory. The results show that the female advantage in episodic recognition memory seems to be explained by women´s higher aptitude in odor identification for familiar odors. With this background, the purpose of Study II was to investigate the age-related decline in olfactory episodic memory, with a particular eye to the role of odor identification. When controlling for the sensory variables olfactory threshold and odor quality discrimination, and the cognitive factor mental speed, the age-related deterioration in odor identification was eliminated. This suggests that changes in basic sensory and cognitive abilities underlie the age-related impairment in odor identification. The purpose of Study III was to investigate the role of recollective experience and intention to memorize for age-related and sex-related differences in episodic odor memory. Younger adults reported more experiences of remembering, and the elderly adults more experiences of feeling of knowing. The participants benefited from intentionality at encoding when the odors were unfamiliar, but intentionality did not affect memory for the familiar odors. The purpose of Study IV was to investigate the role of subjectively perceived qualities of the encoded odors for episodic memory across age and sex. Odors perceived as unpleasant, intense, and irritable were more easily remembered throughout the adult life span. The oldest adults selectively recognized the odors they rated as highly irritable indicating compensatory use of trigeminal activation. Overall, the result suggests that episodic odor memory rely heavily on both sensory and cognitive abilities, but in a different manner depending on demographic factors. The age-related decline appears to be driven by a sensory flattening disabling adequate cognitive processing. The age-independent sex difference on the other hand, is mainly cognitively mediated and driven by cognitive factors such as the ability to verbalize olfactory information.

  • 343.
    Boettcher, Johanna
    et al.
    Free Univ Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Magnusson, Kristoffer
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Marklund, Arvid
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Berglund, Ellinor
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Blomdahl, Rikard
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Braun, Ulrike
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Delin, Lovisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lunden, Charlotte
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sjöblom, Katja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sommer, Daniel
    Free Univ Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    von Weber, Kaspar
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linkoping Univ, Linkoping, Sweden;Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm, Sweden;Univ Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Adding a smartphone app to internet-based self-help for social anxiety: A randomized controlled trial2018In: Computers in human behavior, ISSN 0747-5632, E-ISSN 1873-7692, Vol. 87, p. 98-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Increasing access to treatment via smartphone apps is an important topic in Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). 'Challenger' is an app promoting exposure exercises in daily life. The present study evaluated the additional benefit of using the app as adjunct to Internet-based unguided self-help for SAD. In a second step, we also tested how the app and the self-help programme (SH) should best be combined. Method: 209 patients diagnosed with SAD were randomly allocated to three groups. Group 1 received the app and the self-help programme for six weeks (parallel treatment), group 2 first received SH for six weeks and then the app for six weeks (sequential treatment). Group 3 was a wait-list group. Comparisons were made at week 7 evaluating the potential add-on effect of the app (SH plus app versus SH only) and at week 14 comparing the parallel to the sequential treatment. Participants filled in questionnaires prior, during, and post treatment, and at 4- and 12- months follow-up. Results: Intention-to-treat analyses showed no significant effect of adding the app to Internet-based self-help. However, among participants actively using the app, adding Challenger to self-help resulted in significantly less social anxiety (d = 0.30). At week 14, decreases in social anxiety were large for both the parallel and the sequential group with no differences between the active groups (d(within) = 1.12-1.19). Changes were maintained throughout the follow-up period. Conclusion: Results of the current study cautiously support the notion of adding a smartphone app to unguided self-help for SAD. Future studies should investigate how patients can be motivated to use the app more frequently.

  • 344.
    Bohlin, G
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bengtsgard, K
    Andersson, K
    Social inhibition and overfriendliness as related to socioemotional functioning in 7-and 8-year-old children2000In: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL CHILD PSYCHOLOGY, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 414-423Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Examined high, medium, and low social inhibition groups in a Swedish sample (N = 815) of 7- and 8-year-old children on the basis of parental reports about their children's reaction to novel social situations. High social inhibition was associated with inc

  • 345.
    Bohlin, G
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hagekull, B
    Rydell, AM
    Attachment and social functioning: A longitudinal study from infancy to middle childhood2000In: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 24-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A longitudinal sample of 96 children was followed from 15 months of age to 8-9 years. Attachment relationships were studied in infancy with the Strange Situation and at school age with the separation anxiety Test. Social functioning was studied at school

  • 346.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    ADHD, EF deficits and socio-emotional functions: Developmental perspectives2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 347.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    ESO-seminarium om tidig hjälp till barn som har det svårt i skolan: Några kommentarer2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 348.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Issues in understanding the role of EF in children’s behavior problems2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 349.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eninger, Lilianne
    Brocki, Karin Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Thorell, Lisa B.
    Disorganized Attachment and Inhibitory Capacity: Predicting Externalizing Problem Behaviors2012In: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, ISSN 0091-0627, E-ISSN 1573-2835, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 449-458Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether attachment insecurity, focusing on disorganized attachment, and the executive function (EF) component of inhibition, assessed at age 5, were longitudinally related to general externalizing problem behaviors as well as to specific symptoms of ADHD and Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and callous-unemotional (CU) traits. General externalizing problem behaviors were also measured at age 5 to allow for a developmental analysis. Outcome variables were rated by parents and teachers. The sample consisted of 65 children with an oversampling of children with high levels of externalizing behaviors. Attachment was evaluated using a story stem attachment doll play procedure. Inhibition was measured using four different tasks. The results showed that both disorganized attachment and poor inhibition were longitudinally related to all outcome variables. Controlling for initial level of externalizing problem behavior, poor inhibition predicted ADHD symptoms and externalizing problem behaviors, independent of disorganized attachment, whereas for ASD symptoms no predictive relations remained. Disorganized attachment independently predicted CU traits.

  • 350.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hagekull, Berit
    Behavior problems in Swedish 4-year-olds: The importance of maternal sensitivity and social context2000In: The organization of attachment relationships: Maturation, culture, and context, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press , 2000, p. 75-96Chapter in book (Other scientific)
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