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  • 301.
    Falkenhall, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish Agency for Growth Policy Analysis.
    Månsson, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. The Swedish National Audit Office.
    Tano, Sofia
    Swedish Agency for Growth Policy Analysis.
    Rätt lagat? Effekter av sänkt moms på restaurang och cateringtjänster i Sverige2016In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 44, no 5, p. 40-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vår analys av den sänkta restaurangmomsen visar på relativt kraftiga effekter på de undersökta variablerna omsättning, anställningar, lönesumma, rörelsemarginal och nettotillskott av företag i branschen. Den kortsiktiga effekten på sysselsättningen motsvarar 11 300 heltidstjänster över tre år. Vi bedömer att den sänkta restaurangmomsen även kommer att ha en långsiktigt positiv effekt på den varaktiga sysselsättningen. För analysen har vi vidareutvecklat en metodansats benämnd matchning med syntetiska kontrollgrupper, vilket enligt oss ökar möjligheterna att kunna uppskatta effekter av reformer som påverkar alla företag i en bransch.

  • 302.
    Falkenhall, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish Agency for Growth Policy Analysis, Sweden.
    Tano, Sofia
    Swedish Agency for Growth Policy Analysis, Sweden.
    Månsson, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Impact of the VAT reform on Swedish restaurants: a synthetic control group approach2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Our analysis of the reduction in VAT for restaurant and catering services shows positive effects on turnover, employments, total wages, gross profit margins and net entry of firms. It is clear that the firms have used the VAT reduction in more ways than lowering prices.

    In this study we investigate the impact of the VAT reform for restaurant and catering services that took place in Sweden on January 1, 2012. The aim of this reform was to increase long-term employment in Sweden. Growth Analysis was commissioned to evaluate the effects of this reform from the perspective of firms. This PM serves as a foundation for this commission’s final report Reduced VAT on restaurant and catering services – final report.

    Evaluating the effects of a VAT reduction that includes all firms in an industry is a challenge and difficult methodologically due to the lack of a counterfactual outcome. In this study, we constructed our counterfactual using a synthetic control group (SCG) approach, which is a data-driven approach that only relies to a small extent on subjective choices. Unlike previous studies we assume that the VAT reform can affect each part in the profit function and also influence entry and exit in the market. We do the analysis on industry level by aggregating firm level data.

    The VAT reduction had a positive and significant effect on turnover, profit margins and net entry of firms. The average yearly effect is estimated to be 5.6, 1.25 and 1.6 percentage points respectively. These results are significant at the 5 % level. The average yearly effect on total wages and employment lies at 4.9 and 5.0 percentage points respectively and is significant at the 10 % level. The effects tend to decline over time, with exception for net entry of firms.

    Although estimating the exact effects of a reform remains difficult, our results are robust to sensitivity analyses. Overall, our results point to better performance for the restaurant industry compared to what it would have been in the absence of the reform.

  • 303.
    Falkenhall, Björn
    et al.
    Tillväxtanalys.
    Tano, Sofia
    Tillväxtanalys.
    Månsson, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Quoreshi, Shahid
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Sänkt moms på restaurang- och cateringtjänster: slutrapport2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Our analysis of the effects of the reduction in VAT for restaurants and catering services indicates a positive outcome for employment, total wages and turnover. It is clear that firms have not only used the VAT reduction in order to lower prices since effects on gross profit and the net surplus of new firms can also be seen. Growth Analysis concludes that the lower VAT rate will have a long-term positive effect on employment.

  • 304.
    Faraon, Sadid
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    How has the gender wage gap in Germany developed since the 1990s, and what factors can explain the gap?: A look at gender wage differentials in Germany across time2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Germany has a rich history being a conservative welfare state with a strong male breadwinner model. Yet, numerous changes have been made to its welfare structure since the reunification of both sides in 1990. One would then expect to see wage inequality decrease in the country during this period and in fact, it has. Having used data for the country as a whole during this period, along with two econometric approaches: OLS estimates and Oaxaca decomposition, I have been able to demonstrate that the gender wage gap in Germany has narrowed since the 1990s. Factors such as ‘years of work experience’, ‘weeks worked’ and ‘relation to household head’ are the most influential ones that have affected the gender wage gap from 1990 to 2016. In addition, it has also been observed that women have accrued less human capital compared to men during this period, which could have increased the gender wage gap. Further, discrimination experienced by women as well as other unobservable differences has significantly decreased during this period, which could point to a large decrease in the gender wage gap. With the aid of an interaction term, it has been possible to remove the increasing amount of irrelevant effects that have emerged in both of the aforementioned terms over time, thus providing us with more accurate results.

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  • 305.
    FASHINA, OMOTOLA KEHINDE
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics. Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    FINANCIAL DEVELOPMENT, INSTITUTIONS AND POVERTY REDUCTION: AN EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the relationship between financial development and poverty fora sample of SSA countries while taking into account an interaction effect between thefinancial sector and the institutional framework, which is thought to be causing someomitted variable bias in previous studies. The study covers the period 2000–2019.These relationships are investigated using fixed effects. The results show thatfinancial development had a statistically significant and positive impact on povertyreduction. Also, the estimates reveal that institutional quality has a significant andpositive impact on poverty reduction. However, it was discovered that whereinstitutions perform better, the pro-poor impact of financial development is alsobetter. These findings support the theory that finance, and institutions have acomplementary effect. The study recommends, amongst others, that a judiciousallocation of resources between financial development and strengthening the qualityof institutions will be critical to reducing poverty and boosting economic growth inthe region. 

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  • 306.
    Filipiak, Katarzyna
    et al.
    Poznan University of Technology, Poland.
    John, Mateusz
    Poznan University of Technology, Poland.
    Liang, Yuli
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS).
    Testing covariance structures belonging to a quadratic subspace under a doubly multivariate model2024In: Test (Madrid), ISSN 1133-0686, E-ISSN 1863-8260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A hypothesis related to the block structure of a covariance matrix under the doubly multivariate normal model is studied. It is assumed that the block structure of the covariance matrix belongs to a quadratic subspace, and under the null hypothesis, each block of the covariance matrix also has a structure belonging to some quadratic subspace. The Rao score and the likelihood ratio test statistics are derived, and the exact distribution of the likelihood ratio test is determined. Simulation studies show the advantage of the Rao score test over the likelihood ratio test in terms of speed of convergence to the limiting chi-square distribution, while both proposed tests are competitive in terms of their power. The results are applied to both simulated and real-life example data.

  • 307.
    Fischer, Doris
    et al.
    University of Würzburg, Germany.
    Fromlet, Hubert
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    China's strive for quality of growth and growth data: challenges for economic analyses and the European/global corporate sector2015In: Paper presented at the 17th Annual Conference on European Integration - Swedish Network for European Studies in Economics and Business (SNEE), Mölle, Sweden, May 19-22, 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Economists – particularly foreign financial analysts, also in Europe – focus mainly on the Purchasing Manager Indices (PMIs) and quarterly GDP changes when analyzing Chinese growth. This is understandable since these data are easily available. More recently these data did not produce an optimistic picture for China’s economy. But does this information really provide reliable information on China’s growth performance and outlook? Does this analytical approach capture the strategy and policy changes announced during the Third Plenum in November 2013?

    Certainly not. Consequently, foreign and even domestic investors run the risk that portfolio and particularly more long-term investments are too heavily based on short-term indicators that do not reflect ongoing structural improvement measures or policy changes.

    The paper will summarize past and current discussion on Chinese GDP data and deal with the alternatives for assessing economic growth and its quality. Merely relying on an improved and widened analysis of Chinese reform policy since November 2013 is difficult and has its limits. But better analysis can be created by economists themselves even under current conditions. Transparency is still by far too poor. Improvements should not be that difficult to achieve all the same. Some ideas are given in this paper – and also hints how and where to find information on structural improvements that have taken place or are planned concretely for the nearer future.

    Better insight into Chinese reform policy and underlying GDP-growth conditions could give a sounder input for decision-making by domestic, European and global investors, Swedish and German companies included. The ambition of the paper is to contribute to a move from too much short-term to more medium- and long-term analysis of China’s development - an approach that should be promising also from a European corporate perspective.

  • 308.
    Fornander, Jenni
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Telkert, Emelie
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Vin i var mans portfölj?: En studie om vinets möjlighet till riskreduktion2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Titel: Vin i var mans portfölj? En studie om vinets möjlighet till riskreduktion

    Bakgrund: En portföljs totala risk kan härledas från både individuella tillgångars ackumulerade standardavvikelser och korrelationerna dem emellan. Genom att inkludera tillgångar med låg eller ingen samvarians kan portföljens risk sänkas utöver vad en diversifiering mellan ett stort antal tillgångar åstadkommer. Det uppstår således ett behov av att diversifiera mellan tillgångar med skiftande respons till marknadshändelser. Dock har olika marknader och tillgångsslag börjat korrelera allt mer vilket resulterat i att fördelarna med diversifiering har minskat. Den ökade samvariansen visar inga tecken på att avta och det föreligger därmed ett intresse i att söka andra marknader. Vin är en relativt ny investeringsmarknad med låga korrelationer till aktie- och obligationsmarknaden vilket gör vin tänkvärt ur ett diversifieringsperspektiv.

    Syfte: Syftet med studien är att undersöka om vin som investering är en bra källa till diversifiering med hänsyn till begränsade korrelationer, och om makroekonomiska faktorer kan förklara vinmarknadens prisrörelser samt dess korrelationsstruktur med andra marknader.

    Metod: Studien tar sin utgångspunkt i modern portföljvalsteori som förespråkar låga eller frånvarande korrelationer som ett medel för diversifiering. Hypoteser skapas utifrån en sammanlänkning mellan teori och uppmärksammat problem. De omfattar korrelation, orsakssamband och påverkan mellan valda variabler och vin och testas empiriskt genom olika statistiska tester. Korrelationerna undersöks genom en korrelationsmatris, både gällande utvecklingen och den övergripande för studerad tidsperiod. Orsakssambandet undersöks genom ett Granger Causality test och påverkan genom modellering av multipla regressioner som korrigeras för ARCH-effekter.

    Resultat: Erhållna resultat visar att vin har en begränsad korrelation med både råvaror och finansiella marknader. Studien finner inte att någon av de finansiella marknaderna eller de makroekonomiska variablerna orsakar förändringar i vinpriset på kort sikt men att ett antal påverkar vinets prisrörelser. Dessa samband kan förklara de korrelationer som föreligger men också avsaknaden av dem som uppkommit ur vinmarknadens brist på nära kopplingar till andra marknader. Inkluderingen av vin i en portfölj blir följaktligen gynnsam eftersom vinet har möjlighet att sänka den totala risken och därmed skifta den effektiva fronten. Vin kan ses som en alternativ investeringstillgång för att erhålla en bättre riskreducering.  

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    Vin i var mans portfölj? - Fornander & Telkert
  • 309.
    Fridsén, Ellen
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Sjölander, Victoria
    A comparative study of the glass ceiling effect in Sweden, Great Britain and France: Is there a difference in the glass ceiling effect for women in these three countries and do the level of education and type of workplace matter?2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The inequality of the labour market has long been a discussed and studied topic and today we know that women earn less than their comparable male colleagues. Many studies have been conducted to find out if there is a glass ceiling effect for women in the labour market but most of these have used wages as their outcome variable. We wanted to see if women in the labour market face a glass ceiling when looking at the probability of holding a managerial position. We also wanted to see if there was any difference in the glass ceiling when comparing different countries so we studied the glass ceiling in Sweden, France and Great Britain. In order to study the glass ceiling, we use two separate probit regressions. The variable of interest in the first regression is the gender variable while in the other it is also an interaction term that shows the difference in the gender gaps between the private and public sector. The results show that there seems to be a glass ceiling effect in both France and Great Britain since the gender gap increases further up in the workplace hierarchy while the results for Sweden show that there is a gender gap throughout the workplace hierarchy. We also find that the gaps differ in the public and the private sector indicating that where you work can affect the probability of holding a managerial position.

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  • 310.
    Fridsén, Ellen
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Sjölander, Victoria
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    The double disadvantage effect for immigrant women: Is there an earnings differential between native women and immigrant women with similar education and human capital in the Swedish labour market?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The migration has increased substantially during the last years and most countries struggle to integrate immigrants into the labour market. Since we also know from previous research that women are discriminated against due to their gender we want to investigate if immigrant women are facing an additional earnings differential because of their ethnicity. We study women with similar human capital and occupation in order to see if the initial earnings differential can be explained by these variables. Results indicate that there is no earnings differential remaining after controlling for human capital and occupation. However, there are differences in the results from the different fields of education and occupations. In some fields part of the earnings gap remain even after controlling for the explanatory variables.

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    FridsénSjölander
  • 311.
    Friedrichsen, Jana
    et al.
    Humboldt University of Berlin, Germany;German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin), Germany.
    König, Tobias
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. WZB Berlin Social Science Center, Germany.
    Lausen, Tobias
    University of Hannover, Germany.
    Social status concerns and the political economy of publicly provided private goods2021In: Economic Journal, ISSN 0013-0133, E-ISSN 1468-0297, Vol. 131, no 633, p. 220-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyse the political economy of the public provision of private goods when individuals care about their social status. Status concerns motivate richer individuals to vote for the public provision of goods they themselves buy in markets: a higher provision level attracts more individuals to the public sector, enhancing the social exclusivity of market purchases. Majority voting may lead to a public provision that only a minority of citizens use. Users in the public sector may enjoy better provision than users in the private system. We characterise the coalitions that can prevail in a political equilibrium.

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  • 312.
    Fritzson, Sofia
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    The discrimination against transgender in the rental housing market in Sweden: An experimental study performed on the Internet2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigated the discrimination against transgender people in the Swedish rental housing market, and is one of the first correspondence studies to examine this question at hand. A total of 800 applications were sent to various landlords advertising rental vacancies on Blocket.se. In total, the cisgender applicants attained a call back rate of 60.7 %, while the transgender applicants attained a rate of 59.0 %. Furthermore, no unequal treatment was found in positive employer responses for being transgender, when compared to the cisgender group. In the case, where the cisgender and transgender groups were evaluated separately, a favoring of having a woman as a tenant over a man was prominent when comparing the testers within the cisgender  group.  A penalty of 12.6 % in positive landlord responses was found for the trans man, in terms of likelihood of getting an invitation to additional contact or to showing, when compared to the cis woman. Similarly, the trans woman had a 7.4 % lesser likelihood in getting an invitation to showing than the cis woman. With regards to these results, one can conclude that there exists both discrimination based on gender and gender identity in the rental housing market in Sweden. 

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  • 313. From, Nora
    et al.
    Chamoun, Elin
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Skin in the game: Finns prestationsskillnader när amerikanska fondförvaltare är investerade i sin fond och inte?2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates whether “skin in the game” has an impact on the actively managed funds’ performance. Based on the agency theory where an agent and a principal in different scenarios might have access to different information etc., can result in differences in financial decisions. In this case it could be whether to invest in the fund they manage or not. We examine the time period from 2018 to 2020, where each year has been analyzed as well as the three-year period. To perform the tests, information on the actively managed funds’ managers has been collected from 160 funds, along with the returns of each year and fund. Both funds with skin in the game and without have been found in Large Value Funds at Morningstar, where all of them are actively managed value or equity funds. We have analyzed 80 funds with skin in the game and 80 funds without. After comparisons to the index Russel 1000 Value Total Return USD, we tested whether there are significant differences in performance between the two groups. What the results indicate is that differences are significant which might be due to the fact that managers have skin in the game, but also that these funds tend to perform better.

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  • 314.
    Fromlet, Hubert
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Avregleringar på finansmarknaden: kan Kina lära sig något av det svenska exemplet?2014In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 72-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Avregleringar på finansmarknaden utgör en väsentlig del av Kinas påbörjade, omfattande reformprogram efter det s k Tredje Plenumet i november 2013. I artikeln undersöks i vad mån Kina kan dra nytta av en del negativa erfarenheter från den svenska finansiella avregleringsprocessen.

  • 315.
    Fromlet, Hubert
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    China's New Economic Policy: Changing Analytical Conditions for Financial Markets and Corporations2017In: Economic and Financial Review, ISSN 1351-3621, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 3-48Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    China is now undergoing changes, often backed up by well-known Western research. The author attempts to find modified or new analytical factors which corporations should focus on.

  • 316.
    Fromlet, Hubert
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Kinas nya ekonomiska politik: hur kan den integreras i en modern landanalys?2016In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 44, no 5, p. 12-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kina befinner sig för närvarande i en långtgående ekonomisk och social omdaningsprocess. Många strukturella förändringar är på väg – åtminstone om de politiska makthavarnas planer ungefärligen kan genomföras under de kommande åren. Den uppnådda och kvantitativa BNP-tillväxten har styrt många Kina-analyser. Framöver måste kineserna dock lägga mer fokus på bättre kvalitet i tillväxten. En sådan förändringsprocess kräver bl a förbättringar avseende teknologi, produktivitet och miljö – och detta i en omvärld, där marknadsekonomin tänks spela en ”avgörande roll” (Third Plenum 2013, kap I, 2, s 1). Av dessa nya trender följer att forskare, företag och finansmarknadsanalytiker i sin tur måste modernisera analysen av Kina på både makro- och mikronivå.

  • 317.
    Fromlet, Hubert
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Schwedens Neustart nach Corona: In Ordnung - es sollte aber mehr folgen2021In: Ifo-Schnelldienst, ISSN 0018-974X, Vol. 74, no 12, p. 18-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden and economic policy during corona  

    Sweden managed corona probably somewhat better than most other European countrues in 2020-2021 but could have applied supply side and fiscal policy more actively.

  • 318.
    Fromlet, Hubert
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    The Chinese Government Debt: What do we Know and What should be Done?2013In: Finance India. The Quarterly Journal of Indian Institute of Finance, ISSN 0970-3772, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 761-775Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 319.
    Fromlet, Hubert
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    The Chinese Government Debt: What Do We Know and What Should be Done?2013In: BOFIT Online, ISSN 1456-811X, no 4, p. 18-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A review of the economic press and literature reveals that there is little research and analysis on the important issue of the Chinese governmental debt and budget deficits. This is astonishing since the Chinese economy has by now climbed to the second position in global GDP ranking. Thus, China’s government debt matters increasingly to the rest of the world as well, both in a corporate and a macroeconomic perspective.Furthermore, not enough is known about the real size of the total Chinese government debt. Insufficient statistical transparency is an important reason for this shortcoming, but this should not serve as an excuse. Increasing efforts are needed to provide China and the rest of the world with better information on the real state of Chinese government debt. In this paper, an attempt is made to explain and discuss the real situation when it comes to the Chinese government debt. The current Greek/Southern European debt misery clearly shows that opaque statistics cannot be hidden away forever without sooner or later puzzling and/or frightening the financial markets. On the other hand, China cannot be analyzed completely with Western eyes. The sooner Chinese decision-makers decide on greater transparency in the government debt situation, and decisive steps towards more efficient fiscal policy are taken, the better the consequences for China itself and the global economy. The alternative - continuous opaqueness and a possible future fiscal explosion - could certainly do a lot of harm to China, but also to the global economy. There is no reason to underestimate this medium and long-term risk. The short-term perspective looks safer.There should be room for a greater exchange of views and co-operation between EU and China, too. The EU’s own bad experience from the past few years could be a realistic starting point.

  • 320.
    Fromlet, Hubert
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    The Chinese reform process in a European perspective2014In: Revue Bancaire et Financière, ISSN 1376-7720, Vol. 78, no 4, p. 311-323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is every reason for Europe, the U.S. and many other countries, organizations, and corporations to optimize to optimize their co-operation with China in line with with its necessary and implemented reforms - and to consider all the conflicts of goals that are part of the far-reaching Chinese reform program. Major Chinese reform disappointments would be scary since the European and Anerican economies would not be prepared for such a reversal. This is a mostly forgotten risk.

  • 321.
    Fumarco, Luca
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Disability discrimination in the rental housing market: a field experiment on blind tenants2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Although discrimination against disabled people has been investigated in the labor market, the housing market has received less attention in this regard. This paper focuses on the latter market and investigates whether blind tenants assisted by guide dogs are discriminated against in the rental housing market. The data are collected through a field experiment in which written applications were sent in response to online advertisements posted by different types of advertisers. I find statistically significant evidence that one type of online advertiser, that is, the apartment owner (i.e., a person who advertises and rents out his/her own apartment(s) on his/her own), discriminates against blind tenants, because of the presence of the guide dog, not because of the disability. According to the legislation, this behavior qualifies as illegal discrimination.

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  • 322.
    Fumarco, Luca
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS).
    Essays on discrimination in the marketplace2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is composed of four self-contained papers and focuses on discrimination in themarket place.

    Essay 1: “Disability Discrimination in the Rental Housing Market – A Field Experiment onBlind Tenants.” Although discrimination against disabled people has been investigated inthe labor market, the housing market has received less attention in this regard. This paperfocuses on the latter market and investigates whether blind tenants assisted by guide dogsare discriminated against in the rental housing market. The data are collected through afield experiment in which written applications were sent in response to onlineadvertisements posted by different types of advertisers. I find statistically significantevidence that one type of online advertiser, that is, the apartment owner (i.e., a person whoadvertises and rents out his/her own apartment(s) on his/her own), discriminates againstblind tenants, because of the presence of the guide dog, not because of the disability.According to the legislation, this behavior qualifies as illegal discrimination.

    Essay 2: “Does the design of correspondence studies influence the measurement of discrimination?”(co-authored with Carlsson and Rooth). Correspondence studies can identify the extent ofdiscrimination in hiring as typically defined by the law, which includes discriminationagainst ethnic minorities and females. However, as Heckman and Siegelman (1993) show,if employers act upon a group difference in the variance of unobserved variables, thismeasure of discrimination may not be very informative. This issue has essentially beenignored in the empirical literature until the recent methodological development byNeumark (2012). We apply Neumark’s method to a number of already publishedcorrespondence studies. We find the Heckman and Siegelman critique relevant forempirical work and give suggestions on how future correspondence studies may address thiscritique.

    Essay 3: “Does Labor Market Tightness Affect Ethnic Discrimination in Hiring?” (co-authoredwith Carlsson and Rooth). In this study, we investigate whether ethnic discriminationdepends on labor market tightness. While ranking models predict a negative relationship,the prediction of screening models is ambiguous about the direction of the relationship.Thus, the direction of the relationship is purely an empirical issue. We utilize three (butcombine into two) correspondence studies of the Swedish labor market and two distinctlydifferent measures of labor market tightness. These different measures produce very similarresults, showing that a one percent increase in labor market tightness increases ethnicdiscrimination in hiring by 0.5-0.7 percent, which is consistent with a screening model.This result stands in sharp contrast to the only previous study on this matter, Baert et al.(forthcoming), which finds evidence that supports a ranking model.

    Essay 4: “Relative Age Effect on Labor Market Outcomes for High Skilled Workers – Evidencefrom Soccer.” In sports and education contexts, children are divided into age groups that arearbitrary constructions based on admission dates. This age-group system is thought todetermine differences in maturity between pupils within the same group, that is, relative904627 Luca Furmaco_inl.indd 5 2015-02-24 16:58age (RA). In turn, these within-age-group maturity differences produce performance gaps,that is, relative age effects (RAEs), which might persist and affect labor market outcomes. Ianalyze the RAE on labor market outcomes using a unique dataset of a particular group ofhigh-skilled workers: soccer players in the Italian major soccer league. In line with previousstudies, evidence on the existence of an RAE in terms of representativeness is found,meaning that players born relatively early in an age group are over-represented, whileplayers born relatively late are under-represented, even accounting for specific populationtrends. Moreover, players born relatively late in an age group receive lower gross wages thanplayers born relatively early. This wage gap seems to increase with age and in the quantileof the wage distribution.

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  • 323.
    Fumarco, Luca
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Relative age effect on labor market outcomes for high-skilled workers: evidence from soccer2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In sports and education contexts, children are divided into age groups that are arbitrary constructions based on admission dates. This age-group system is thought to determine differences in maturity between pupils within the same group, that is, relative age (RA). In turn, these within-age-group maturity differences produce performance gaps, that is, relative age effects (RAEs), which might persist and affect labor market outcomes. I analyze the RAE on labor market outcomes using a unique dataset of a particular group of highskilled workers: soccer players in the Italian major soccer league. In line with previous studies, evidence on the existence of an RAE in terms of representativeness is found, meaning that players born relatively early in an age group are over-represented, while players born relatively late are under-represented, even accounting for specific population trends. Moreover, players born relatively late in an age group receive lower gross wages than players born relatively early. This wage gap seems to increase with age and in the quantile of the wage distribution.

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  • 324.
    Fumarco, Luca
    et al.
    Tulane University, USA.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS).
    Gibbs, Benjamin G.
    Brigham Young University, USA.
    Erasmus exchange program: a matter of (relatively) older students2020In: The B.E. Journals in Economic Analysis & Policy, ISSN 2194-6108, E-ISSN 1935-1682, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 1-14, article id 20200055Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    This study contributes to the literature on long-term effects of relative age (i.e. age differences between classmates in compulsory school) by examining tertiary education outcomes. We investigate whether there is evidence of relative age effects on university students enrolled in the Erasmus exchange program. We use administrative data on all exchange students who visited the Linnaeus University, in Sweden, in the four years since its founding. We find long-term evidence of RAEs—the youngest cohort students participate less often to the Erasmus exchange program than older cohort members.

  • 325.
    Gallet, Pauline
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    The impact of COVID-19 on gender inequality in the labor market: Unemployment rate between men and women in France2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on gender inequality in France. The recent covid pandemic has given rise to the concern that women may have been more strongly affected by this pandemic. We will focus the research question on the differences in unemployment rates between men and women in France. We find that the covid pandemic had limited effects on women’s unemployment (compared to men) using a difference-in-difference approach on two datasets with one using quarterly data divided into age groups and gender and one which uses annual, regional data, and gender.

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  • 326.
    Ganten, Jacob
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Jacob Ganten.
    The effect of ethnic segregation on teacher mobility2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the applicability of segregation and tipping points on the labor market of teachers to reconcile if higher levels of ethnic segregation in schools are responded to with labor movement. The main results derived from the research is that overall, there is no statistical significance that affects the sorting of teachers across schools. While the raw data show that higher levels of ethnic segregation yield significant results that give meaning to the idea that qualified teachers move out at different ethnic tipping points in schools, there is no significant effect of ethnic segregation on the number of teachers or the composition of teachers using a fixed effects model. The addition of size and parents' education as variables further emphasizes that negative effects in Malmö municipality cannot be found alongside different tipping points. The result of the study speaks to the number of foreign students in a school being largely irrelevant for teacher mobility across schools in a municipality. 

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    The effect of ethnic segregation on teacher mobility
  • 327.
    Gary, Kathryn
    et al.
    Lund University , Sweden.
    Sandholt Jensen, Peter
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Olsson, Mats
    Lund University , Sweden.
    Radu, Cristina Victoria
    University of Southern Denmark , Denmark.
    Severgnini, Battista
    Copenhagen Business School , Denmark.
    Sharp, Paul
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark;CAGE, UK;CEPR, UK.
    Monopsony Power and Wages: Evidence from the Introduction of Serfdom in Denmark2022In: Economic Journal, ISSN 0013-0133, E-ISSN 1468-0297, Vol. 132, no 648, p. 2835-2872Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We exploit a large historical shock to the Danish labour market to provide evidence of how restrictions on labour mobility increase monopsony power and thereby reduce wages. By severely limiting the possibility of the rural population to work beyond their place of birth, the reintroduction of serfdom in 1733 aimed to increase monopsony power and secure cheaper labour in the countryside. Using a unique data source based on the archives of estates from the eighteenth century, we test whether serfdom affected the wages of farmhands more strongly than other groups in the labour market, and results based on a difference-in-differences approach reveal evidence consistent with a strong negative effect following its introduction. This is confirmed when we use a different control group from the Swedish province of Scania. We also investigate whether one mechanism was that boys with rural backgrounds were prevented from taking up apprenticeships in towns and find suggestive evidence that this was indeed the case.

  • 328.
    Ghorbani Chenari, Behnam
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Political Attitudes and Growth: An Empirical Analysis on OECD Countries2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This research is an empirical effort to uncover the causal effect of political attitudes on economic growth.

    The case of study is a sample of OECD countries. Using identification strategy borrowed from Cahuc (2010), the hypothesis of the effect of political attitudes on economic growth is tested in two cross-sectional and fixed effect regression analysis. The result of OLS regression in cross sectional analysis shows a positive significant correlation between inherited political attitudes and economic growth. This means that countries with more social tendencies towards Right (versus Left in political context) are associated with higher economic growth rates. The result of OLS regression in fixed-effect analysis does not show a significant correlation between political attitudes and growth.

    As a result of weak first-stage, the 2SLS regression cannot provide statistically acceptable conclusion about the causal effect in neither of cross-sectional and fixed-effect frameworks. Thus, the question of causal effect of political attitudes on growth remains open at the end.

    Moreover, a strong correlations between political attitudes of individuals and their characteristics like gender, age, income, religion and country is detected.

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  • 329.
    Giebe, Thomas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS).
    Gürtler, Oliver
    University of Cologne, Germany.
    Player strength and effort in contestsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In competitive settings, disparities in player strength are common. It is intuitively unclear whether a stronger player would opt for larger or smaller effort compared to weaker players. Larger effort could leverage their strength, while lower effort might be justified by their higher probability of winning regardless of effort. We analyze contests with three or more players, exploring when stronger players exert larger or lower effort. To rank efforts, it suffices to compare marginal utilities in situations where efforts are equal. Effort ranking depends on differences in hazard rates (which are smaller for stronger players) and reversed hazard rates (which are larger for stronger players). Compared to weaker players, stronger players choose larger effort in winner-takes-all contests and lower effort in loser-gets-nothing contests. Effort rankings can be non-monotonic in contests with several identical prizes, and they depend on the slopes of players' pdfs in contests with linear prize structure. 

  • 330.
    Giebe, Thomas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS).
    Gürtler, Oliver
    University of Cologne, Germany.
    Player strength and effort in contests2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In competitive settings, disparities in player strength are common. It is intuitively unclear whether a stronger player would opt for larger or smaller effort compared to weaker players. Larger effort could leverage their strength, while lower effort might be justified by their higher probability of winning regardless of effort. We analyze contests with three or more players, exploring when stronger players exert larger or lower effort. To rank efforts, it suffices to compare marginal utilities insituations where efforts are equal. Effort ranking depends on differences in hazardrates (which are smaller for stronger players) and reversed hazard rates (which are larger for stronger players). Compared to weaker players, stronger players choose larger effort in winner-takes-all contests and lower effort in loser-gets-nothing contests. Effort rankings can be non-monotonic in contests with several identical prizes, and they depend on the slopes of players’ pdfs in contests with linear prize structure.

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  • 331.
    Giebe, Thomas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS).
    Ivanova-Stenzel, Radosveta
    Technische Universität Berlin, Germany.
    Kocher, Martin G.
    University of Vienna, Austria;CESifo Munich, Germany;University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Schudy, Simeon
    CESifo Munich, Germany;University of Munich, Germany.
    Cross-game learning and cognitive ability in auctions2024In: Experimental Economics, ISSN 1386-4157, E-ISSN 1573-6938, Vol. 27, p. 80-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Overbidding in sealed-bid second-price auctions (SPAs) has been shown to be persistent and associated with cognitive ability. We study experimentally to what extent cross-game learning can reduce overbidding in SPAs, taking into account cognitive skills. Employing an order-balanced design, we use first-price auctions (FPAs) to expose participants to an auction format in which losses from high bids are more salient than in SPAs. Experience in FPAs causes substantial cross-game learning for cognitively less able participants but does not affect overbidding for the cognitively more able. Vice versa, experiencing SPAs before bidding in an FPA does not substantially affect bidding behavior by the cognitively less able but, somewhat surprisingly, reduces bid shading by cognitively more able participants, resulting in lower profits in FPAs. Thus, ‘cross-game learning’ may rather be understood as ‘cross-game transfer’, as it has the potential to benefit bidders with lower cognitive ability whereas it has little or even adverse effects for higher-ability bidders.

  • 332.
    Giebe, Thomas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Ivanova-Stenzel, Radosveta
    Technische Universität Berlin, Germany.
    Kocher, Martin
    University of Vienna, Austria;CESifo Munich, Germany;University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Schudy, Simeon
    University of Munich, LMU, Germany;CESifo Munich, Germany.
    Cross-game Learning and Cognitive Ability in AuctionsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Overbidding in second-price auctions (SPAs) has been shown to be persistent and associated with cognitive ability. We study experimentally to what extent cross-game learning can reduce overbidding in SPAs, taking into account cognitive skills. Employing an order-balanced design, we use first-price auctions (FPAs) to expose participants to an auction format in which losses from high bids are more salient than in SPAs. Experience in FPAs causes substantial cross-game learning for cognitively less able participants but does not affect overbidding for the cognitively more able. Vice versa, experiencing SPAs before bidding in an FPA does not affect bidding behavior by the cognitively less able but, somewhat surprisingly, reduces bid shading by cognitively more able participants, resulting in lower profits in FPAs. Thus, cross-game learning has the potential to benefit bidders with lower cognitive ability whereas it has little or even adverse effects for higher ability bidders.

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  • 333.
    Giebe, Thomas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Lee, Miyu
    Humboldt University of Berlin, Germany.
    Competitors in merger control: shall they be merely heard or also listened to?2019Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There are legal grounds to hear competitors in merger control proceedings, and competitor involvement has gained significance. To what extent this is economically sensible is our question. The competition authority applies some welfare standard while the competitor cares about its own profit. In expectation, there is neither a pure conflict  nor a complete alignment of interest. We distinguish hard and soft information and ask whether hearing the competitor might convey valuable but non-verifiable information to the authority. We find that the authority will mostly have to ignore the competitor's cheap talk but, depending on the authority's own prior information, strictly following the competitor's selfish recommendation can improve the authority's decision. Under a consumer welfare standard, non-verifiable information should be ignored. Complementary to our analysis, we provide empirical data of competitor involvement in EU merger cases and give an overview of the legal discussion in the EU and US.

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    Online supplementary material
  • 334.
    Giebe, Thomas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Lee, Miyu
    Klarna Bank AB, Sweden.
    Competitors in merger control: shall they be merely heard or also listened to?2020In: European Journal of Law and Economics, ISSN 0929-1261, E-ISSN 1572-9990, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 431-453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are legal grounds to hear competitors in merger control proceedings, and competitor involvement has gained significance. To what extent this is economically sensible is the focus of our game-theoretic analysis. The competition authority applies some welfare standard while the competitor cares about its own profit. In expectation, there is neither a pure conflict nor a complete alignment of interest. We distinguish hard and soft information and ask whether hearing the competitor might convey valuable but non-verifiable information to the authority. We identify a case where, based on the authority’s verifiable information, the authority’s decision is improved by following the competitor’s selfish but non-verifiable communication. We argue that the practical relevance of this constellation is very limited, especially so under a consumer welfare standard. Thus, non-verifiable information should mostly be ignored. Complementary to our analysis, we provide empirical data of competitor involvement in EU merger cases and give an overview of the legal discussion in the EU and US.

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  • 335.
    Giraud, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Economic impacts of hosting a major sporting event: Did the 1998 FIFA World Cup have positive impacts on employment?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the effects on employment due to a mega-sport event and more precisely this study demonstrates that the 1998 Football World cup in France had a significant positive effect on employment in the host regions. Moreover, it shows the impact differences between the host regions where some have been more affected than other. This work is the first to analyze the effect on employment in the host regions using a Difference in Difference approach. The basic DID model is then improved to add new parameters in the regression. It is one of the rare studies to find a significant positive impact on the economy owing of the World cup or the Olympic Games.

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  • 336.
    Goerg, Sebastian J.
    et al.
    Technical University Munich, Germany.
    Himmler, Oliver
    University of Erfurt, Germany.
    König, Tobias
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS). WZB Social Science Center Berlin, Germany.
    Norm Violations and Behavioral Spillovers: Evidence From the Lab and The Field2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the contagion effects of norm-violating behavior across decision situations.Through a series of laboratory and field experiments, we empirically establish the conditions under which norm-breaking behavior in one decision situation leads individuals who observe this to violatennorms in other, distinct decision situations. Our laboratory findings show that these spillover effects are more pronounced when the norms underlying the decision situations are perceived to be similar. However, spillovers can also affect decision situations governed by relatively dissimilar norms if the observers of norm violations have had the opportunity to first violate the same norm as the observed violator themselves. In an accompanying field experiment, we underscore the economic importance of norm similarity for spillover effects. When workers are exposed to information about celebrities evading taxes, they exhibit significantly higher rates of workplace theft than those in the control group, yet this exposure does not negatively affect work morale.

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  • 337.
    Goerg, Sebastian J.
    et al.
    Technical University Munich, Germany.
    Himmler, Oliver
    University of Erfurt, Germany.
    König, Tobias
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS). WZB Social Science Center Berlin, Germany.
    Norm violations and behavioral spillovers: Evidence from the lab and the field2024In: European Economic Review, ISSN 0014-2921, E-ISSN 1873-572X, Vol. 166, article id 104776Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the contagion effects of norm-violating behavior across decision situations. Through a series of laboratory and field experiments, we empirically establish the conditions under which norm-breaking behavior in one decision situation leads individuals who observe this to violate norms in other, distinct decision situations. Our laboratory findings show that these spillover effects are more pronounced when the norms underlying the decision situations are perceived to be similar. However, spillovers can also affect decision situations governed by relatively dissimilar norms if the observers of norm violations have had the opportunity to first violate the same norm as the observed violator themselves. In an accompanying field experiment, we underscore the economic importance of norm similarity for spillover effects. When workers are exposed to information about celebrities evading taxes, they exhibit significantly higher rates of workplace theft than those in the control group, yet this exposure does not negatively affect work morale.

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  • 338.
    Golsteyn, Bart H. H.
    et al.
    Maastricht University, Netherlands ; IZA (Institute of Labor Economics), Germany ; Stockholm University.
    Stenberg, Anders
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Stockholm University ; IZA (Institute of Labor Economics), Germany.
    Earnings over the Life Course: General versus Vocational Education2017In: Journal of Human Capital, ISSN 1932-8575, E-ISSN 1932-8664, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 167-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two common hypotheses regarding the relative benefits of vocational versus general education are (1) that vocational skills enhance relative short-term earnings and (2) that general skills enhance relative long-term earnings. Empirical evidence for these hypotheses has remained limited. Based on Swedish registry data of individuals in short (2-year) upper secondary school programs, this study provides a first exploration of individuals' earnings across nearly complete careers. The descriptive earnings patterns indicate support for both hypotheses 1 and 2. The support holds when grade point average and family fixed effects are controlled for and also when enrollment in further education and fertility decisions are taken into account.

  • 339.
    Grenet, Julien
    et al.
    Paris Sch Econ, France;CNRS, France.
    Grönqvist, Hans
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS). IFAU, Sweden.
    Niknami, Susan
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    The effects of electronic monitoring on offenders and their families2024In: Journal of Public Economics, ISSN 0047-2727, E-ISSN 1879-2316, Vol. 230, article id 105051Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic monitoring (EM) has emerged as a popular tool for curbing the growth of large prison populations. Evidence on the causal effects of EM on criminal recidivism is, however, limited and it is unclear how this alternative to incarceration affects the labor supply of offenders and the outcomes of their family members. We study the countrywide expansion of EM in Sweden in 1997 wherein offenders sentenced to up to three months in prison were granted the option to substitute incarceration with EM. Our difference-in-differences estimates, which compare the change in the prison inflow rate of treated offenders to that of non-treated offenders with slightly longer sentences, show that the reform significantly decreased the number of incarcerations. Our main finding is that EM not only lowers criminal recidivism but also increases labor supply. Additionally, EM improves the educational attainment and early-life earnings of the children whose parents were exposed to the reform. The primary mechanisms through which EM operates appear to involve the preservation of offenders' ties to the labor market, by reducing the barriers to both finding a job and changing employers. Our calculations suggest that the social benefits stemming from EM are about seven times larger than the fiscal savings associated with reduced prison expenditures, implying that the welfare gains from EM could be much greater than previously acknowledged.

  • 340.
    Grenet, Julien
    et al.
    Paris School of Economics, France.
    Grönqvist, Hans
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS). IFAU, Sweden.
    Niknami, Susan
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    The Effects of Electronic Monitoring on Offenders and their Families2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic monitoring (EM) has emerged as a popular tool for curbing the growth of large prison populations. Evidence on the causal effects of EM on criminal recidivism is, however, limited and it is unclear how this alternative to incarceration affects the labor supply of offenders and the outcomes of their family members. We study the country wide expansion of EM in Sweden in 1997 where in offenders sentenced to up to three months in prison were granted the option to substitute incarceration with EM. Our difference-in-differences estimates, which compare the change in the prison inflow rate of treated offenders to that of non-treated offenders with slightly longer sentences, show that the reform significantly decreased the number of incarcerations. Our main finding is that EM not only lowers criminal recidivism but also increases labor supply. Additionally, EM improves the educational attainment and early-life earnings of the children whose parents were exposed to the reform. The primary mechanisms through which EM operates appear to involve the preservation of offenders’ ties to the labor market, by reducing the barriers to both finding a job and changing employers. Our calculations suggest that the social benefits stemming from EM are about seven times larger than the fiscal savings associated with reduced prison expenditures, implying that the welfare gains from EM could be much greater than previously acknowledged.

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  • 341.
    Grimshaw, Damian
    et al.
    The University of Manchester, UK.
    Rubery, Jill
    The University of Manchester, UK.
    Anxo, Dominique
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Bacache-Beauvallet, Maya
    Télécom ParisTech, France.
    Neumann, László
    Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungary.
    Weinkopf, Claudia
    IAQ Duisburg, Germany.
    Outsourcing of public services in Europe and segmentation effects: The influence of labour market factors2015In: European journal of industrial relations, ISSN 0959-6801, E-ISSN 1461-7129, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 295-313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the influence of labour market factors on public authorities’ decisions to outsource public services in five countries. The dominant focus in the outsourcing literature is on a narrow range of factors: public–private gaps in pay, union membership and collective bargaining coverage. We find such differences to be variable, and develop a more encompassing perspective. This includes consideration of labour market rules that establish wage floors and employment protection (especially for outsourced workers) and the possible differentiation of  legal status between public and private employees. Our case studies from local government in five countries highlight a set of country-specific interconnections between labour market factors and outsourcing. These lead to variations in both managers’ and unions’ approaches towards outsourcing and in outcomes for pay and working conditions. We call for a strengthening of the inclusiveness of industrial relations structures to combat problems of workforce fragmentation caused by outsourcing.

  • 342.
    Gripenberg, Sophie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Björkman, Jonatan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    The role of poor rural families economic situation in the decision-making process concerning migration: A field study conducted in Kebumen Regency, Java, Indonesia2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this bachelor thesis is to analyse the dynamic and complex decision-making process that households with temporary overseas migrating family members do before migrating. The aim of this thesis is to understand why this phenomenon occurs in less developed areas, though the background of the thesis is trying to address the need of positive relationship between migration and development.

    Based on the theorectical benchmark of neoclassical microeconomic theory and new economics of labour migration theory certain factors were identified that could influence the decision to migrate. By using a mixed method with qualitative semi-structed face-to-face interviews combined with a survey of nine question relating to specific factors this study was able to create an understanding of the reality of migrant households, though a micro field study was conducted in Kebumen regency in Indonesia. The findings clearly shows that temporary overseas migration from less developed areas is a household decision that is influenced by local gender aspects and addressed by new well-functioning established markets for overseas work. Our findings also suggests that temporary migration is a way for the family to spread their risks, related to income and farming activites, and to achive further development, where other markets and institutions do not meet their needs. Policies regarding these gender aspects and the need of institutions that could improve the situation are recommended though remittances in that case might have a more long-term sustainable impact on the households. 

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  • 343.
    Grundsten, Ronja
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Immigration and Income Inequality in Sweden2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Income inequality has been on the rise in many industrialised countries since around the 1980’s. In Sweden the increase of income inequality has been particularly large. This in spite of Sweden’s extensive redistribution system and public policy that prioritize equality among its population. This paper investigates a potential factor for the rise in inequality that is yet fairly unexplored, namely immigration. As inequality has increased in Sweden, so has also immigration. Sweden experienced large refugee inflows after the 1970’s, the largest flow consisting of circa 100 000 Yugoslavs during the Bosnian war. This study provides indications on what way immigration shapes the income distribution and lays the ground for prospective studies. Results show that the inflow of new migrants during the early 1990’s in Sweden raises income inequality and it is almost entirely due to increased dispersion in the lower tail of the income distribution. 

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  • 344.
    Grönqvist, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Norén, Anna
    Uppsala University.
    Sjögren, Anna
    Uppsala University.
    Svaleryd, Helena
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Uppsala University.
    Sober mom, healthy baby?: effects of brief alcohol interventions in Swedish maternity care2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A large body of research documents the importance of early life conditions for the health and human capital formation of children. The detrimental effects of alcohol exposure in utero are well documented, and therefore identifying effective methods for preventing harmful maternal alcohol consumption is of great importance. We exploit the stepwise introduction of alcohol screening and brief interventions at Swedish antenatal clinics, to evaluate the causal effect of enhanced alcohol prevention on infant health using a difference-in-differences strategy. We find that the program improves infant health measured by prescription of pharmaceutical drugs and hospitalizations during the child’s first year of life. The results suggest that effects are likely driven by changes inmaternal behavior after the first trimester and seem to extend beyond the birth of the child.

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  • 345.
    Grönqvist, Hans
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS).
    Niknami, Susan
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Santavirta, Torsten
    University of Helsinki, Finland;Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Bostadsområdets betydelse för brottslighet och barns möjligheter2023Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    I rapporten kartläggs hur utsatta områden i Sverige skiljer sig från övriga bostadsområden sett till sådant som sysselsättningsgrad, inkomstnivå, andel utrikes födda och andel unga som bor där. Forskarna jämför också några mått på brottslighet i området, som antal anmälda brott, utsatthet för brott och otrygghet vid utevistelse under sena kvällar. Genom datamaterial som sträcker sig minst tio år tillbaka i tiden följs utvecklingen inom olika typer av bostadsområden.

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  • 346.
    Guinet, Laurette
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Sexual orienation and labour market outcomes.: How does your sexual orientation affect your labour market outcomes?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Our thesis investigates labour market outcomes differentials between gay, lesbians and heterosexuals in France. Data comes from an online anonymous survey that we made and spread by ourselves and that identifies sexual orientation by directly asking the question to respondents. We also study perceived discrimination according to sexual orientation. What we add to the previous literature is a link between quantitative results on earnings and employment differentials, and perceived discrimination. We also interested ourselves in the extent to which people disclose their sexual orientation at work, and how this can affect the labour market outcomes of individuals. The main results of our survey are in line with previous literature: there is a 23.7% negative gap on male homosexual wage, and a 26.3% negative gap on female homosexual wage. Nevertheless, when looking at perceived discrimination, it occurs that respondents in the survey are aware and against such discrimination.  Moreover, we found that on average, disclosing sexual orientation at work should have a positive impact on the wage and affects the earnings differentials between homosexuals and heterosexuals, but deepens the earnings gap among heterosexual and homosexual females.

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  • 347.
    Gulliksson, Marten
    et al.
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Oleynik, Anna
    Univ Bergen, Norway.
    Mazur, Stepan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS). Örebro University, Sweden.
    Portfolio Selection with a Rank-Deficient Covariance Matrix2023In: Computational Economics, ISSN 0927-7099, E-ISSN 1572-9974Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we consider optimal portfolio selection when the covariance matrix of the asset returns is rank-deficient. For this case, the original Markowitz' problem does not have a unique solution. The possible solutions belong to either two subspaces namely the range- or nullspace of the covariance matrix. The former case has been treated elsewhere but not the latter. We derive an analytical unique solution, assuming the solution is in the null space, that is risk-free and has minimum norm. Furthermore, we analyse the iterative method which is called the discrete functional particle method in the rank-deficient case. It is shown that the method is convergent giving a risk-free solution and we derive the initial condition that gives the smallest possible weights in the norm. Finally, simulation results on artificial problems as well as real-world applications verify that the method is both efficient and stable.

  • 348.
    Hammar, Olle
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS). Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Mohlin, Erik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Vetenskapsrådet och nationalekonomerna2024In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 52, no 1, p. 79-85Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    I den svenska forskningsvärlden spelar Vetenskapsrådet (VR) en central roll som den främsta statliga finansiären av grundforskning. Detta inlägg granskar fördelningen av Vetenskapsrådets projektbidrag inom humaniora och samhällsvetenskap under åren 2019–23, med fokus på nationalekonomi jämfört med statsvetenskap och sociologi. Nationalekonomi har konsekvent tilldelats mindre medel än statsvetenskap och sociologi. Orsaken till detta står sannolikt att finna i fördelningen av Vetenskapsrådets beredningsgrupper.

  • 349.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    De små kommunerna är flyktingkrisens förlorare2019In: Expressen, ISSN 1103-923X, no 2019-04-28Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Med rådande läge utgör flyktinginvandringen en kostnad för Sveriges kommuner flera år efter att flyktingarna invandrat. Staten bör därför ta ett ökat ansvar för de kostnader den bristande integrationen av flyktingar medför, skriver professor Mats Hammarstedt.

  • 350.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Diskriminering ingen anledning att skippa utbildning2017In: Expressen, ISSN 1103-923X, no 2017-08-14Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Det är sant att utrikes födda diskrimineras på arbetsmarknaden. Men det får inte skymma att utbildning är lönsam även för den gruppen, skriver Mats Hammarstedt, professor i nationalekonomi.

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