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  • 301.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö universitet.
    Ekberg, Jan
    Växjö universitet.
    Fältexperiment för att studera etnisk diskriminering på den svenska arbets- och bostadsmarknaden2009In: Socialvetenskaplig tidskrift, ISSN 1104-1420, E-ISSN 2003-5624, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 105-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under senare år har fältexperiment använts för att studera etnisk diskriminering på den svenska arbets- och bostadsmarknaden. I nedanstående framställning ges en presentation av fältexperiment som metod och en översikt över den forskning som genomförts med hjälp av fältexperiment i Sverige. Dessutom görs en framåtblickande diskussion.

  • 302.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Ekberg, Jan
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Fältexperiment för att studera etnisk diskriminering på den svenska arbets- och bostadsmarknaden2009In: Socialvetenskaplig tidskrift, ISSN 1104-1420, E-ISSN 2003-5624, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 105-122Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 303.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö universitet.
    Ekberg, Jan
    Växjö universitet.
    Kan diskriminering studeras med experimentella metoder?2006In: Flervetenskapliga perspektiv i migrationsforskning: årsbok 2006 från forskningsprofilen Arbetsmarknad, migration och etniska relationer (AMER) vid Växjö universitet / [ed] K. Hjelm, Växjö University Press , 2006, p. 45-58Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 304.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics. Natinalekonomi och Statistik.
    Ekberg, Jan
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics. Nationalekonomi.
    Kan diskriminering studeras med experimentella metoder?2006In: Flervetenskapliga perspektiv i migrationsforskning / [ed] Katarina Hjelm, Växjö: Växjö University Press , 2006, p. 45-56Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 305.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö universitet.
    Ekberg, Jan
    Växjö universitet.
    Kan kvinnliga personalchefer motverka diskriminering av invandrare?2005In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 33, no 8, p. 72-77Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna artikel presenteras resultaten av en experimentell studie om etnisk diskriminering.Undersökningen visar att det främst är infödda män som tenderar att ha ett diskriminerande beteende. I Sverige fi nns lagstiftning som förbjuder etnisk diskriminering. Vi har också en särskild myndighet – diskrimineringsombudsmannen – som skall motverka etnisk diskriminering. Den presenterade undersökningen kan ge en ny infallsvinkel. Ett sätt att motverka diskriminering av invandrare kan vara att se till att andelen kvinnor som är personalchefer i företag och myndigheter ökar. Frågan om etnisk diskriminering är kanske också en jämställdhetsfråga.

  • 306.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics. Natinalekonomi och Statistik.
    Ekberg, Jan
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Kan kvinnliga personalchefer motverka diskriminering av invandrare?2005In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 33, no 8, p. 72-77Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna artikel presenteras resultaten av en experimentell studie om etnisk diskriminering. Undersökningen visar att det främst är infödda män som tenderar att ha ett diskriminerande beteende. I Sverige finns lagstiftning som förbjuder etnisk diskriminering. Vi har också en särskild myndighet – diskrimineringsombudsmannen – som skall motverka etnisk diskriminering. Den presenterade undersökningen kan ge en ny infallsvinkel. Ett sätt att motverka diskriminering av invandrare kan vara att se till att andelen kvinnor som är personalchefer i företag och myndigheter ökar. Frågan om etnisk diskriminering är kanske också en jämställdhetsfråga.

  • 307.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Granberg, Mark
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Lång, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Does having ones own place to live make someone more employable?2017In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 24, no 18, p. 1327-1330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article encapsulates the findings of a randomized correspondence test field experiment investigating whether job candidates home status influences their employability. More than 2000 employers with vacancies in the Swedish labour market received a job application from a fictitious candidate. A job candidates home status (his or her own place to live or temporary housing with a friend) was randomized across employers. Results show that home status indeed affected the number of positive employer responses received by job candidates, mainly in low-skilled occupations. Not having a place to live at the time of the application proved a disadvantage when applying for positions within but an advantage when applying for positions outside the city of residence at the time of the application.

  • 308.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Customer and Worker Discrimination against Gay and Lesbian Business Owners: A Web-Based Experiment among Students in Sweden2022In: Journal of Homosexuality, ISSN 0091-8369, E-ISSN 1540-3602, Vol. 69, no 9, p. 1621-1630Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined customer and worker discrimination against gay and lesbian business owners using a web-based experiment conducted at a Swedish university campus. Participants (N = 1,406) were presented with a prospective restaurant establishment on the campus. They then stated whether they would be positive to such an establishment, whether they would be interested in working at the restaurant, and what their reservation wage would be if they were interested in the job. Owners’ sexual orientation was randomized across participants. Results showed that participants were less positive to a restaurant opening if the owners were lesbians, and they were less interested in an available job if the owners were gay. The participants had higher reservation wages if the owners were lesbians. In fact, the participants increased their wage demands when the number of women among the owners increased. Our study underlines that gay and lesbian people face various inequalities in society.

  • 309.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Customer discrimination in the fast food market?: experimental evidence from a Swedish university campus2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies customer discrimination against fictive male and female food truck owners with Arabic names on a Swedish University campus using a web-based experiment. Students at a Swedish university campus were asked to participate in a market survey and state if they think it is a good idea to have a food truck establishment on the campus. Further, they were also asked about their own beliefs, and their beliefs about others’ willingness to pay for a baguette and a kebab sold by the food truck on the campus. Four names—one male Swede, one female Swede, one male Arab, and one female Arab—were randomly assigned to the food truck. We found no evidence of customer discrimination against food truck owners with Arabic names. In fact, the respondents were slightly more positive to a food truck establishment run by an Arabic male than by a Swedish male. We conclude that our results are representative in an environment with relatively young and highly educated customers and that customer discrimination may vary across different markets. More research in this area is needed.

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  • 310.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö University, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Växjö University, Sweden.
    Detecting discrimination against homosexuals: evidence from a field experiment on the Internet2009In: Economica, ISSN 0013-0427, E-ISSN 1468-0335, Vol. 76, no 303, p. 588-597Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the first field experiment studying discrimination against homosexuals on the housing market. The study is conducted on the rental housing market in Sweden using the internet as a research platform. Two fictitious couples, one heterosexual and one male homosexual, apply for vacant rental apartments advertised by landlords on the internet. Our findings show that homosexual males are discriminated against on the Swedish housing market, since the homosexual couple gets far fewer call-backs and fewer invitations to further contacts and to showings of apartments than the heterosexual couple.

  • 311.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Detecting discrimination against homosexuals: Evidence from a field experiment on the Internet2009In: Economica, ISSN 0013-0427, E-ISSN 1468-0335, Vol. 76, no 303, p. 588-597Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the first field experiment studying discrimination against homosexuals on the housing market. The study is conducted on the rental housing market in Sweden using the internet as a research platform. Two fictitious couples, one heterosexual and one male homosexual, apply for vacant rental apartments advertised by landlords on the internet. Our findings show that homosexual males are discriminated against on the Swedish housing market, since the homosexual couple gets far fewer call-backs and fewer invitations to further contacts and to showings of apartments than the heterosexual couple.

  • 312.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Discrimination in the rental housing market: A field experiment on the Internet2008In: Journal of Urban Economics, ISSN 0094-1190, E-ISSN 1095-9068, Vol. 64, no 2, p. 362-372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a field experiment on discrimination in the housing market, using the Internet as a research platform. The procedure involved our creating three fictitious persons with distinctive sounding ethnic and gender names. These individuals applied for vacant rental apartments in Sweden that were advertised by landlords on the Internet. Our findings show that the Arabic/Muslim male received far fewer call backs, enquiries, and showings than the Swedish male. Our observations also indicate that the Swedish female met with less difficulty in terms of finding an apartment than the Swedish male. Thus, based on our findings, we conclude that ethnic, as well as gender discrimination exists in the Swedish rental housing market.

  • 313.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Diskriminerar kunder utrikes födda företagare? Resultat från ett webb-baserat experiment2018In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 46, no 7, p. 25-32Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi presenterar resultat från ett experiment utfört på ett universitetscampus.Deltagarna fick se bilder av olika food-trucks och svara på om de tyckte det varen god idé att en food-truck etablerade sig på campusområdet samt ange sinbetalningsvilja för olika varor. Deltagarna i experimentet var mer positivatill en etablering av en food-truck ägd av en man med arabiskt namn än till enetablering av en food-truck ägd av en man med svenskt namn. Resultaten är avintresse för integrationspolitiken, då de visar att egenföretagare med ursprung iMellanöstern inte diskrimineras i en bransch där de ofta är verksamma.

  • 314.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet och Växjö universitet.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Växjö universitet.
    Diskrimineras homosexuella? Några erfarenheter från svensk ekonomisk forskning2008In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 36, no 8, p. 31-40Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Diskriminering av homosexuella är förbjudet i Sverige. Trots detta är den ekonomiska forskning som finns på området begränsad. I artikeln presenteras resultat från forskningsprojekt rörande homosexuellas situation på arbets- och bostadsmarknaden i Sverige. Resultaten är i linje med resultat från internationell forskning. Homosexuella män har lägre arbetsinkomster än heterosexuella män. Diskriminering och skillnader i fördelningen av marknadsarbete och hushållarbete mellan homo- och heterosexuella hushåll framförs som förklaringar till detta. Vidare diskrimineras homosexuella män på bostadsmarknaden. Beträffande kvinnor finner vi inga statistiskt signifikanta skillnader mellan homo- och heterosexuella. Avslutningsvis presenteras några tänkbara förklaringar till varför homosexuella män diskrimineras medan detta inte är fallet för homosexuella kvinnor.

  • 315.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö universitet.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Växjö universitet.
    Diskriminering på bostadsmarknaden: effekten av att heta Mohammed2007In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 35, no 6, p. 34-41Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna artikel studeras diskriminering på svensk bostadsmarknad med hjälp av ett fältexperiment utfört på internet. I experimentet studeras såväl etnisk diskriminering som könsdiskriminering genom att tre fiktiva personer, en med ett typiskt svenskt manligt namn, en med ett typiskt svensk kvinnligt namn samt en med ett typiskt arabiskt/muslimskt manligt namn söker hyresrättslägenheter vilka utannonserats som lediga av såväl privatpersoner som företag på Blocket. se. Våra resultat visar att den arabiske/muslimske mannen möter diskriminering när han söker lägenheter. Den arabisk/muslimske mannen fick långt färre positiva svar och erbjudanden till visningar av lägenheter än den svenske mannen. Vi finner också en könsdiskriminering på bostadsmarknaden där den svenska kvinnan fick fler positiva svar och visningserbjudanden än den svenske mannen.

  • 316.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö universitet.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Växjö universitet.
    Ekonomiska perspektiv på etnisk diskriminering2010Book (Other academic)
  • 317.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Ekonomiska perspektiv på etnisk diskriminering2010 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 318.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study (SCAS). Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Ekonomiska perspektiv på etnisk diskriminering2010 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 319.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Ethnic discrimination in contacts with public authorities: a correspondence test among Swedish municipalities2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a field experiment conducted in order to explore the existence of ethnic discrimination in contact with public authorities. Two fictitious parents, one with a Swedish-sounding name and one with an Arabic-sounding name, sent email inquiries to all Swedish municipalities asking for information about preschool admission for their children. Results show that the parents were treated differently by the municipalities since the individual with the Swedish-sounding name received significantly more responses that answered the question in the inquiry than the individual with the Arabic-sounding name. Also, the individual with the Swedish-sounding name received more warm answers than the individual with the Arabic soundingname in the sense that the answer from the municipality started with a personal salutation. We conclude that ethnic discrimination is prevalent in public sector contacts and that this discrimination has implications for the integration of immigrants and their children.

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    fulltext
  • 320.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus Univ, Sweden; Res Inst Ind Econ IFN Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ethnic discrimination in contacts with public authorities: a correspondence test among swedish municipalities2020In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 27, no 17, p. 1391-1394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a field experiment conducted in order to explore the existence of ethnic discrimination in contact with public authorities. Two fictitious parents, one with a Swedish-sounding name and one with an Arabic-sounding name, sent email inquiries to all Swedish municipalities asking for information about preschool admission for their children. Results show that the parents were treated differently by the municipalities since the individual with the Swedish-sounding name received significantly more responses that answered the question in the inquiry than the individual with the Arabic-sounding name. Also, the individual with the Swedish-sounding name received more warm answers than the individual with the Arabic-sounding name in the sense that the answer from the municipality started with a personal salutation. We conclude that ethnic discrimination is prevalent in public sector contacts and that this discrimination has implications for the integration of immigrants and their children.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 321.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Research Institute of Industrial Economics, Sweden.
    Ethnic discrimination in contacts with public authorities: a correspondence test among Swedish municipalities2020In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 27, no 17, p. 1391-1394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a field experiment conducted in order to explore the existence of ethnic discrimination in contact with public authorities. Two fictitious parents, one with a Swedish-sounding name and one with an Arabic-sounding name, sent email inquiries to all Swedish municipalities asking for information about preschool admission for their children. Results show that the parents were treated differently by the municipalities since the individual with the Swedish-sounding name received significantly more responses that answered the question in the inquiry than the individual with the Arabic-sounding name. Also, the individual with the Swedish-sounding name received more warm answers than the individual with the Arabic-sounding name in the sense that the answer from the municipality started with a personal salutation. We conclude that ethnic discrimination is prevalent in public sector contacts and that this discrimination has implications for the integration of immigrants and their children.

  • 322.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden;Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Ethnic discrimination in contacts with public authorities: a correspondence test among Swedish municipalities2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a field experiment conducted in order to explore the existence of ethnic discrimination in contact with public authorities. Two fictitious parents, one with a Swedish-sounding name and one with an Arabic-sounding name, sent email inquiries to all Swedish municipalities asking for information about preschool admission for their children. Results show that the parents were treated differently by the municipalities since the individual with the Swedish-sounding name received significantly more responses that answered the question in the inquiry than the individual with the Arabic-sounding name. Also, the individual with the Swedish-sounding name received more warm answers than the individual with the Arabic soundingname in the sense that the answer from the municipality started with a personal salutation. We conclude that ethnic discrimination is prevalent in public sector contacts and that this discrimination has implications for the integration of immigrants and their children.

  • 323.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Labor market discrimination: method and measurement2023In: Elgar Encyclopedia of Labour Studies / [ed] Tor Eriksson, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2023, p. 106-109Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of methods for detecting labour market discrimination is characterized by a shift from observational data to different forms of experimental data. At the same time, there has been a shift from examining differences in treatment of groups of employees to differences in hiring.

    Observational data are associated with omitted variable problems. Field experiments in the form of audit and correspondence studies give better control of what is observed by both employers and the researcher. A limitation is that they can typically be employed only for certain types of (low-skill, early career) jobs and the initial (call-back) stage of the hiring process. Another is that employers’ beliefs cannot be controlled for. Natural and lab experiments can address some of these concerns. Most studies are not able to distinguish theories of between taste-based and statistical discrimination.

  • 324.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS).
    Labor Market Discrimination: Method and Measurement2023In: Elgar Encyclopedia of Labour Studies / [ed] Tor Eriksson, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2023, p. 106-109Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of methods for detecting labour market discrimination is characterized by a shift from observational data to different forms of experimental data. At the same time, there has been a shift from examining differences in treatment of groups of employees to differences in hiring.

    Observational data are associated with omitted variable problems. Field experiments in the form of audit and correspondence studies give better control of what is observed by both employers and the researcher. A limitation is that they can typically be employed only for certain types of (low-skill, early career) jobs and the initial (call-back) stage of the hiring process. Another is that employers’ beliefs cannot be controlled for. Natural and lab experiments can address some of these concerns. Most studies are not able to distinguish theories of between taste-based and statistical discrimination.

  • 325. Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    "Personer med arabiska namn diskrimineras av kommuner"2019In: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no 2019-03-31Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 326.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö University, Sweden .
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Växjö University, Sweden .
    Sexual orientation and earnings: a register data-based approach to identify homosexuals2010In: Journal of Population Economics, ISSN 0933-1433, E-ISSN 1432-1475, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 835-849Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines earnings differentials between homo- and heterosexual individuals by identifying sexual orientation with the help of information from register data. Register data enable us to avoid the misclassifications of sexual orientation often mentioned as a potential bias in survey-based studies. The results show that gay men are at an earnings disadvantage as compared to male heterosexuals while the earnings differential between lesbians and heterosexual women is very small. Our results are in line with results from previous research but are more reliable since we use a more reliable measure of sexual orientation than previous research.

  • 327.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Sexual orientation and earnings: A register data-based approach to identify homosexuals2010In: Journal of Population Economics, ISSN 0933-1433, E-ISSN 1432-1475, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 835-849Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [nb]

    This paper examines earnings differentials between homo- and heterosexual individuals by identifying sexual orientation with the help of information from register data. Register data enable us to avoid the misclassifications of sexual orientation often mentioned as a potential bias in survey-based studies. The results show that gay men are at an earnings disadvantage as compared to male heterosexuals while the earnings differential between lesbians and heterosexual women is very small. Our results are in line with results from previous research but are more reliable since we use a more reliable measure of sexual orientation than previous research.

  • 328.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden and Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    The effect of subtle religious representations on cooperation2011In: International Journal of Social Economics, ISSN 0306-8293, E-ISSN 1758-6712, Vol. 38, no 11, p. 900-910Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate how subtle religious representations affect prosocial behavior. The authors study the impact of religious representations on prosocial behavior in terms of cooperation in a one-shot/three-person public goods game.

    Design/methodology/approach – The authors used the scrambled sentence task to prime participants with religious words before they were asked to make a one-shot/three-person public goods game decision.

    Findings – Both in the raw data and when controlling for factors such as age, gender and religious beliefs, the authors found that priming of religious representations increased cooperation in the experiment, that is, increased contributions to the public good. The authors found no significant interaction effects between priming and self-reported measures of religiosity, suggesting that the priming effect was present among both self-reported religious and nonreligious participants. Self-reported measures of religiosity were not correlated with cooperation in this study.

    Originality/value – The paper adds to the growing body of experimental economics literature that has studied self-reported measures of religiosity alongside behavior in different economic games. This study contributes to the literature by examining the effect of subtle influences of religion on cooperation. Also, in contrast to previous economic literature, the paper examines the direct impact of religion as an independent variable on cooperation.

  • 329.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    The effect of subtle religious representations on cooperation2011In: International Journal of Social Economics, ISSN 0306-8293, E-ISSN 1758-6712, Vol. 38, no 11, p. 900-910Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 330.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Två av tre klubbar välkomnade barn med typ 1-diabetes2023In: AltingetArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 331.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden;Ratio Institute, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS). Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Två av tre klubbar välkomnade barn med typ-1 diabetes2023In: Altinget, no 2023-12-13Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi vet sedan tidigare att exempelvis barn med typ-1 diabetes och ADHD-diagnos har sämre möjlighet än andra barn att välja skola. Hur ser situationen ut för dessa barn på andra områden? Det frågar sig professorerna Ali Ahmed och Mats Hammarstedt som presenterar en ny fältstudie.

  • 332.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden;Ratio Institute, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS). Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Type 1 Diabetes and Youth Sports in Sweden: A Field Experiment on Discrimination2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluated discrimination against children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) in Swedish sports clubs through a field experiment. Two fictitious fathers sent emails to 193 top-division clubs in football, floorball, ice hockey, and handball, one disclosing his son’s T1DM condition. The investigation focused on disparities in clubs’ responses and information provided. Results indicated no significant difference in positive or comprehensive responses between emails mentioning T1DM and those that did not, suggesting minimal bias at initial contact and an inclusive approach by the clubs towards children with T1DM.

  • 333.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköpings University, Sweden;Ratio, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Utrikes födda fortsätter att diskrimineras2022In: Aftonbladet, ISSN 1103-9000, no 20 marsArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 334.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnus Univ, Sweden; Res Inst Ind Econ IFN, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Karl
    Linneus Univ, Sweden.
    Do schools discriminate against children with disabilities? A field experiment in Sweden2021In: Education Economics, ISSN 0964-5292, E-ISSN 1469-5782, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 3-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the results of a field experiment in which fictitious parents of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) sent inquiries to schools in Sweden about admission of their children to the mandatory preschool class. Results show that inquiries concerning a child with no medical condition were more likely to receive an invitation for a visit and more likely to receive a promising placement response than inquiries concerning a child with ADHD and T1DM. Discrimination was more prominent in the private sector and when the child was a boy or had ADHD.

  • 335.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Karlsson, Karl
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Do Swedish schools discriminate against children with disabilities?2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Med hjälp av ett fältexperiment studeras diskriminering mot barn med ADHD och diabetes typ-1 vars föräldrar undersöker möjligheten för dem att få plats i den obligatoriska förskoleklassen för 6-åringar. Resultaten visar att framför allt privata utförare väljer bort barn med funktionsnedsättning och att det främst är barn med ADHD som drabbas.  

  • 336.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Karlsson, Karl
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Do Swedish schools discriminate against children with disabilities?2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We present results from a field experiment in which fictitious parents to children with certain types of disabilities, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), make inquires to Swedish schools about admission for their children to the compulsory preschool class. Our results reveal that Swedish schools discriminated against children with these disabilities and that discrimination is most prevalent in private schools. Private schools discriminated against boys with ADHD and T1DM and against girls with ADHD. Furthermore, public schools discriminated against girls with ADHD. One potential effect of our results is that children with disabilities are referred to less attractive schools than children with no such medical conditions. These results may have implications for the possibilities for individuals with ADHD and T1DM to succeed in the labor market in the long run.

  • 337.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Karlsson, Karl
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    "Skolor ratar barn med adhd och diabetes"2020In: Svenska Dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, no 2020-04-26Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Barn med adhd och diabetes typ 1 väljs bort när föräldrar kontaktar svenska skolor och frågar om möjligheterna att få plats i den obligatoriska förskolan för sexåriga barn. Det skriver tre forskare.

  • 338. Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Lundahl, Mats
    Wadensjö, Eskil
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Ethnic Discrimination During the Covid-19 Pandemic2023In: Migration and Integration in a Post-Pandemic World: Socioeconomic Opportunities and Challenges / [ed] Lin Leopold; Örjan Sjöberg; Karl Wennberg, Palgrave Macmillan, 2023, p. 291-314Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethnic discrimination is common in labor and housing markets. It leads to lower wages and higher unemployment for ethnic minorities, to segregation in the labor market, and to residential segregation. Several studies show that the Covid-19 pandemic increased the extent of ethnic discrimination. The prejudice against hiring migrants may have increased because people from countries where the epidemic started or from countries with a lower vaccination coverage were blamed for the spread. It may also have increased in the cases where the Covid-19 pandemic led to higher unemployment making it less costly for employers to discriminate.

  • 339.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. The Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundahl, Mats
    Stockholm School of Economics, Department of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wadensjö, Eskil
    Swedish Institute for Social Research, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ethnic discrimination during the Covid-19 pandemic2023In: Migration and Integration in a Post-Pandemic World: Socioeconomic Opportunities and Challenges / [ed] Lin Lerpold, Örjan Sjöberg, & Karl Wennberg, Cham: Palgrave Macmillan , 2023, p. 291-314Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethnic discrimination is common in labor and housing markets. It leads to lower wages and higher unemployment for ethnic minorities, to segregation in the labor market, and to residential segregation. Several studies show that the Covid-19 pandemic increased the extent of ethnic discrimination. The prejudice against hiring migrants may have increased because people from countries where the epidemic started or from countries with a lower vaccination coverage were blamed for the spread. It may also have increased in the cases where the Covid-19 pandemic led to higher unemployment making it less costly for employers to discriminate.

  • 340.
    Ahmed, Ali M.
    Centre for Labour Market Policy Research, Växjö University, Sweden.
    Can education affect pro-social behavior?: Cops, economists and humanists in social dilemmas2008In: International Journal of Social Economics, ISSN 0306-8293, E-ISSN 1758-6712, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 298-307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine whether education and training affect pro-social behavior. Economics students are often accused of being less pro-social. The explanations given are that less pro-social people choose to study economics or that economics studies indoctrinate students to selfish behavior. The paper experimentally tests these postulations.

    Design/methodology/approach – The paper uses the prisoner's dilemma game and stag hunt game to study cooperation across different groups of students.

    Findings – The experiment supports neither of the postulations: economics students would be indoctrinated or less pro-social people choose to study economics. However, the study shows that police cadets, who go through an education where teamwork and cooperation is promoted, become more cooperative and pro-social after their completed education.

    Originality/value – In contrast to earlier studies, this paper does not simply study economics students, but also examines if students in educational programs that promote loyalty and cooperation and encourage teamwork are more pro-social than other students.

  • 341.
    Ahmed, Ali M.
    School of Management and Economics, Växjö University, Sweden.
    Decisions under unpredictable losses: An examination of the restated diversification principle2007In: Judgment and decision making, ISSN 1930-2975, E-ISSN 1930-2975, Vol. 2, no 5, p. 312-316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimental test of the descriptive adequacy of the restated diversification principle is presented. The principle postulates that risk-averse utility maximizers will pool risks for their mutual benefit, even if information is missing about the probabilities of losses. It is enough for people to assume that they face equal risks when they pool risks. The results of the experiment support the principle.

  • 342.
    Ahmed, Ali M.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Don’t be first! An empirical test of the first-mover disadvantage hypothesis in a culinary game show2019In: Social Sciences & Humanities Open, ISSN 2590-2911, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 1-4, article id 100004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study presented in this paper was to evaluate the first-mover disadvantage hypothesis. Data from a Swedish television cooking game show was used to test the hypothesis. Each week four contestants on the game show take turns hosting each other at a dinner. Contestants rate each other’s performance and compete for a considerable cash prize. The contestant receiving the highest rating wins the cash prize at the end of the week. The results show that being the first contestant to host the dinner during a week remarkably reduced the chances of winning the cash prize in the end of that week. The results imply that being the first does not always pay off in some circumstances.

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  • 343.
    Ahmed, Ali M.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics. Natinalekonomi och Statistik.
    Essays on the Behavioral Economics of Discrimination2005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 344.
    Ahmed, Ali M.
    Centre for Labour Market Policy Research (CAFO), Växjö University, Sweden.
    Group identity, social distance and intergroup bias2007In: Journal of Economic Psychology, ISSN 0167-4870, E-ISSN 1872-7719, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 324-337Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies how groupidentity, socialdistance and intergroupbias may affect economic decision-making. Two types of experimental groupings are created, and subjects are then paired with either an in-group member or an out-group member in a number of two-person games. The result of this experiment shows that out-group members face a risk of being discriminated against. The cause of the discrimination is not hostility toward out-group members; the discrimination is triggered because of higher expectations or favoritism of in-group members. This type of behavior holds, regardless of the grouping procedure.

  • 345.
    Ahmed, Ali M.
    et al.
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Andersson, Lina
    School of Management and Economics, Växjö University, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    School of Management and Economics, Växjö University, Sweden.
    Are lesbians discriminated against in the rental housing market? Evidence from a correspondence testing experiment2008In: Journal of Housing Economics, ISSN 1051-1377, E-ISSN 1096-0791, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 234-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a field experiment, conducted over the Internet, studying possible discrimination againstlesbians in the rentalhousing market in Sweden. We let two fictitious couples, one heterosexual and one lesbian, apply for vacant rental apartments advertised by landlords on the Internet. We then investigated whether there were differences between the couples in the number of received call-backs, invitations to further contact, and invitations to immediate showings. Our findings show no indication of differential treatment of lesbians by landlords. A discussion relating to earlier findings is provided

  • 346.
    Ahmed, Ali M.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Per A
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Granberg, Mark
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Transpersoner diskrimineras i rekryteringsprocessen2021In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 19-27Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 347.
    Ahmed, Ali M.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bekiros, Stelios
    European University Institute, Department of Economics, Villa La Fonte, Florence, Italy .
    Rosklint-Lindvall, Emma
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Uddin, Gazi Salah
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Salvi, Antonio
    Faculty of Economics, LUM Jean Monnet University, Casamassima, Italy.
    The influence of energy consumption and democratic institutions on output and CO2 emissions in Bangladesh: a time-frequency approach2020In: Energy Systems, ISSN 1867-8998, E-ISSN 1867-9005, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 195-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports the results of a study that investigates the causal interactions among the entities energy consumption, democracy, income, and CO2 emissions in Bangladesh. Bootstrapping causality and time–frequency domain causality methods were adopted to examine the causal co-movements between the variables, using data series for a period of more than four decades. Results show that time-scale behavior plays an important role. Democracy is an important factor for emissions and national income. The nexus of democracy and CO2 emission is bidirectional. The impact of democracy on CO2 is stronger than vice versa. This study provides new insights for policymakers: democratic practices play an important role in implementing climate change policies, at least in the case of Bangladesh.

  • 348.
    Ahmed, Ali M.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Granberg, Mark
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Per A
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Transpersoner väljs bort av arbetsgivarna2020In: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 349.
    Ahmed, Ali M.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Granberg, Mark
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Khanna, Shantanu
    Department of Economics, University of California Irvine, Irvine, California, United States of America.
    Gender discrimination in hiring: An experimental reexamination of the Swedish case2021In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 1-15, article id e0245513Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimated the degree of gender discrimination in Sweden across occupations using a correspondence study design. Our analysis of employer responses to more than 3,200 fictitious job applications across 15 occupations revealed that overall positive employer response rates were higher for women than men by almost 5 percentage points. We found that this gap was driven by employer responses in female-dominated occupations. Male applicants were about half as likely as female applicants to receive a positive employer response in female-dominated occupations. For male-dominated and mixed occupations we found no significant differences in positive employer responses between male and female applicants.

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  • 350.
    Ahmed, Ali M.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Granberg, Mark
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Troster, Victor
    Department of Applied Economics at the Universitat de les Illes Balears (UIB).
    Uddin, Gazi Salah
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Asymmetric dynamics between uncertainty and unemployment flows in the United States2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines how different uncertainty measures affect the unemployment level, inflow, and outflow in the U.S. across all states of the business cycle. We employ linear and nonlinear causality-in-quantile tests to capture a complete picture of the effect of uncertainty on U.S. unemployment. To verify whether there are any common effects across different uncertainty measures, we use monthly data on four uncertainty measures and on U.S. unemployment from January 1997 to August 2018. Our results corroborate the general predictions from a search and matching framework of how uncertainty affects unemployment and its flows. Fluctuations in uncertainty generate increases (upper-quantile changes) in the unemployment level and in the inflow. Conversely, shocks to uncertainty have a negative impact on U.S. unemployment outflow. Therefore, the effect of uncertainty is asymmetric depending on the states (quantiles) of U.S. unemployment and on the adopted unemployment measure. Our findings suggest statecontingent policies to stabilize the unemployment level when large uncertainty shocks occur.

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