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  • 301.
    Beukes, Eldre W
    et al.
    Anglia Ruskin University, UK.
    Vlaescu, George
    Linköping University.
    Manchaiah, Vinaya
    Linköping University;Lamar University, USA;Audiology India, India.
    Baguley, David M
    Anglia Ruskin University, UK;Cambridge University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, UK.
    Allen, Peter M
    Anglia Ruskin University, UK.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University;Karolinska Institutet.
    Development and technical functionality of an Internet-based intervention for tinnitus in the UK2016In: Internet Interventions, ISSN 2214-7829, Vol. 6, p. 6-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Creative approaches to improve access to evidence-based tinnitus treatments are required. The purpose of this study was to develop an Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) intervention, for those experiencing tinnitus in the United Kingdom (UK). Furthermore, it aimed, through technical functionality testing, to identify specific aspects of the iCBT that require improving.

    Method

    An innovative iCBT intervention for treating tinnitus in the UK has been developed using a cognitive-behavioural theoretical framework. This iCBT was evaluated by two user groups during this developmental phase. Initially, five expert reviews evaluated the intervention, prior to evaluation by a group of 29 adults experiencing significant levels of tinnitus distress. Both groups evaluated iCBT in an independent measures design, using a specifically designed satisfaction outcome measure.

    Results

    Overall, similar ratings were given by the expert reviewers and adults with tinnitus, showing a high level of satisfaction regarding the content, suitability, presentation, usability and exercises provided in the intervention. The iCBT intervention has been refined following technical functionality testing.

    Conclusions

    Rigorous testing of the developed iCBT intervention has been undertaken. These evaluations provide confidence that further clinical trials can commence in the UK, to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of this iCBT intervention for tinnitus.

  • 302.
    Beukes, Eldré W.
    et al.
    Department of Vision and Hearing Sciences, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge CB1 1PT, United Kingdom.
    Vlaescu, George
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Manchaiah, Vinaya K. C.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences, Lamar University, Beaumont, TX 77710, USA.
    Baguley, David M.
    Department of Vision and Hearing Sciences, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge CB1 1PT, United Kingdom Audiology Department, Cambridge University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, United Kingdom.
    Allen, Peter M.
    Department of Vision and Hearing Sciences, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge CB1 1PT, United Kingdom Vision and Eye Research Unit, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge CB1 1PT, United Kingdom.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Division of Psychiatry, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Center for Psychiatry Research, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Development and technical functionality of an Internet-based intervention for tinnitus in the UK2016In: Internet Interventions, ISSN 2214-7829, Vol. 6, p. 6-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Creative approaches to improve access to evidence-based tinnitus treatments are required. The purpose of this study was to develop an Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) intervention, for those experiencing tinnitus in the United Kingdom (UK). Furthermore, it aimed, through technical functionality testing, to identify specific aspects of the iCBT that require improving.

    Method

    An innovative iCBT intervention for treating tinnitus in the UK has been developed using a cognitive-behavioural theoretical framework. This iCBT was evaluated by two user groups during this developmental phase. Initially, five expert reviews evaluated the intervention, prior to evaluation by a group of 29 adults experiencing significant levels of tinnitus distress. Both groups evaluated iCBT in an independent measures design, using a specifically designed satisfaction outcome measure.

    Results

    Overall, similar ratings were given by the expert reviewers and adults with tinnitus, showing a high level of satisfaction regarding the content, suitability, presentation, usability and exercises provided in the intervention. The iCBT intervention has been refined following technical functionality testing.

    Conclusions

    Rigorous testing of the developed iCBT intervention has been undertaken. These evaluations provide confidence that further clinical trials can commence in the UK, to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of this iCBT intervention for tinnitus.

  • 303. Biedenbach, Thomas
    et al.
    Svensson, Martin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    Hällgren, Markus
    Blissful ignorance: The transfer of responsibility in response to lack of competence2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 304.
    Birkfeldt, Elin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    Haglund, David
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    Psykosocial arbetsmiljö i en svensk fordonsindustri: En kvantitativ studie av upplevelser och individuella skillnader2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att studera huruvida upplevelsen av psykosocial arbetsmiljö skiljer sig mellan medarbetare i en svensk fordonsindustri beroende på individuella faktorer. De individuella faktorerna som studerades var kön, ålder, anställningsform och född i Sverige /inte född i Sverige. Totalt bestod studiens deltagare av 1412 medarbetare (1065 män och 347 kvinnor). Deltagarnas ålder sträckte sig från 18–65 år (M = 40.2 år, SD = 12.47). Studien var av kvantitativ art och var en tvärsnittsstudie. Ett webbaserat frågeformulär användes som forskningsinstrument, vilket konstruerades genom mjukvaruprogrammet esMaker. Enkäten baserades på den korta versionen av Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire II (Pejtersen, Kristensen, Borg & Bjorner, 2010). I studien inkluderades dimensionerna krav, kontroll, socialt stöd, konflikt mellan arbete och privatliv, värderingar samt hälsa och välbefinnande. Kvantitativa data analyserades med hjälp av t-test med oberoende mätningar och one-way ANOVA med Tukey post hoc test. Resultatet visade att upplevelsen av psykosocial arbetsmiljö skiljde sig bland annat i det avseendet att kvinnor upplevde sämre hälsa och välbefinnande än män, medarbetare i åldern 18–29 år upplevde lägre krav och högre socialt stöd än äldre samt att tjänstemän upplevde högre konflikt mellan arbete och privatliv än kollektivanställda. Däremot påvisades inga signifikanta skillnader mellan medarbetare födda i Sverige och medarbetare födda utomlands. Således konstaterades att upplevelsen av psykosocial arbetsmiljö skiljer sig beroende på de individuella faktorerna kön, ålder och anställningsform.

  • 305. Bjaastad, Jon Fauskanger
    et al.
    Haugland, Bente Storm Mowatt
    Fjermestad, Krister W.
    Torsheim, Torbjorn
    Havik, Odd E.
    Heiervang, Einar R.
    Öst, Lars-Goran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Competence and Adherence Scale for Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CAS-CBT) for Anxiety Disorders in Youth: Psychometric Properties2016In: Psychological Assessment, ISSN 1040-3590, E-ISSN 1939-134X, Vol. 28, no 8, p. 908-916Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Competence and Adherence Scale for Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CAS-CBT). The CAS-CBT is an 11-item scale developed to measure adherence and competence in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders in youth. A total of 181 videotapes from the treatment sessions in a randomized controlled effectiveness trial (Wergeland et al., 2014) comprising youth (N = 182, M age = 11.5 years, SD = 2.1, range 8-15 years, 53% girls, 90.7% Caucasian) with mixed anxiety disorders were assessed with the CAS-CBT to investigate interitem correlations, internal consistency, and factor structure. Internal consistency was good (Cronbach's alpha = .87). Factor analysis suggested a 2-factor solution with Factor 1 representing CBT structure and session goals (explaining 46.9% of the variance) and Factor 2 representing process and relational skills (explaining 19.7% of the variance). The sum-score for adherence and competence was strongly intercorrelated, r = .79, p < .001. Novice raters (graduate psychology students) obtained satisfactory accuracy (ICC > .40, n = 10 videotapes) and also good to excellent interrater reliability when compared to expert raters (ICC = .83 for adherence and .64 for competence, n = 26 videotapes). High rater stability was also found (n = 15 videotapes). The findings suggest that the CAS-CBT is a reliable measure of adherence and competence in manualized CBT for anxiety disorders in youth. Further research is needed to investigate the validity of the scale and psychometric properties when used with other treatment programs, disorders and treatment formats.

  • 306.
    Bjerger, Christine
    Ersta Sköndal University College, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Det psykoterapeutiska rummet: Psykoterapeuters tankar om betydelsen av arbetsrummets funktion och utformning2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Primarily psychodynamic trained psychotherapists relate to and use the workroom in various ways in their profession. The aim of the study was to highlight some psychotherapists thoughts about the importance of function and design in a workroom. The questions are focused on how the room’s interior design is of significance to the individual therapist and the psychotherapeutic process. Method: The study is based on a qualitative approach and five certified psychotherapists with a psychodynamic orientation were interviewed. The result shows that the interviewed psychotherapists have much knowledge on the importance of the therapeutic space and its’ design. They adapt the architecture and try to arrange the interior of the room in the best way for themselves and the patient. Making sure the patient is comfortable. The furniture and especially the armchairs are important in the process. They use textiles, art, lighting and the natural light and different views provided by windows. To be undisturbed is considered most important and they are reluctant to change rooms. The psychotherapists see themselves as part of the room they work in and the room as part of the whole. The room thus affects the psychotherapeutic process. Discussion: The individual psychotherapist uses a lot of time to figure out what works best in an office before meeting the patient and he or she requires a flexibility to meet different patient groups and different types of activities. Nevertheless, it is something that one does not talk so much about or highlight in psychotherapeutic work. It has become common to share rooms with other therapists as well as other activities, leading to a need for temporarily changing rooms. There is research on environmental health and care room influence on the healing process, but no current research on the psychotherapeutic workroom design. There may be a risk that the workroom is forgotten or is not prioritized when establishing various health care-businesses in the county and municipalities.

  • 307.
    Bjurling, Oscar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Weilandt, Jacob
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Implementing the Endeavor Space Dimensions: Towards an understanding of perceived complexity in C2 operations2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The challenge of operating and managing complex and dynamic environments, known as complex endeavors, has become a central issue in the C2 research community. NATO research groups have studied how to combat the negative effects of endeavor complexity on performance. Essential to these efforts is the study of C2 Agility, which is the ability of an entity to cope with change and employ different C2 approaches based on the requirements imposed by—and changes in—the current operational environment. An important aspect in accomplishing this research goal is to study how operational environments are constituted, as this would enable research into how the effectiveness of different C2 approaches is affected by different endeavors. The Endeavor Space model, which represents endeavor complexity in three dimensions, was developed for this purpose. In an effort to continue research on the Endeavor Space, the current study set out to implement the dimensions in a C2 research platform called ELICIT. Three ELICIT scenarios were created to represent different regions of the Endeavor Space. Additionally, the study designed, developed, and tested a prototype self-assessment instrument—the ESSAI—to capture how the Endeavor Space dimensions—Tractability, Dynamics, and Dependencies—were experienced by operators. Eight teams completed the scenarios and rated their complexity using the ESSAI. No significant differences in perceived complexity could be found between the scenarios. However, all Endeavor Space dimensions indicated correlational relationships with perceived difficulty, and most of them correlated with ELICIT performance. This is indicative of underlying patterns that were not thoroughly revealed in the current study. Implications and improvements for future research are discussed.

  • 308.
    Björk, Lisa
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Sociol & Work Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bejerot, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jacobshagen, Nicola
    Univ Bern, Inst Psychol, Bern, Switzerland.
    Harenstam, Annika
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Sociol & Work Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    I shouldn't have to do this: Illegitimate tasks as a stressor in relation to organizational control and resource deficits2013In: Work & Stress, ISSN 0267-8373, E-ISSN 1464-5335, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 262-277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of tasks that are perceived as unnecessary or unreasonable - illegitimate tasks - represents a new stressor concept that refers to assignments that violate the norms associated with the role requirements of professional work. Research has shown that illegitimate tasks are associated with stress and counterproductive work behaviour. The purpose of this study was to provide insight into the contribution of characteristics of the organization on the prevalence of illegitimate tasks in the work of frontline and middle managers. Using the Bern Illegitimate Task Scale (BITS) in a sample of 440 local government operations managers in 28 different organizations in Sweden, this study supports the theoretical assumptions that illegitimate tasks are positively related to stress and negatively related to satisfaction with work performance. Results further show that 10% of the variance in illegitimate tasks can be attributed to the organization where the managers work. Multilevel referential analysis showed that the more the organization was characterized by competition for resources between units, unfair and arbitrary resource allocation and obscure decisional structure, the more illegitimate tasks managers reported. These results should be valuable for strategic-level management since they indicate that illegitimate tasks can be counteracted by means of the organization of work.

  • 309.
    Björk, Lisa
    et al.
    Department of Sociology and Work Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bejerot, Eva
    Department of Psychology, University of Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jacobshagen, Nicola
    Institut für Psychologie, Universität Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Härenstam, Annika
    Department of Sociology and Work Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    I shouldn't have to do this: Illegitimate tasks as a stressor in relation to organizational control and resource deficits2013In: Work & Stress, ISSN 0267-8373, E-ISSN 1464-5335, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 262-277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of tasks that are perceived as unnecessary or unreasonable - illegitimate tasks - represents a new stressor concept that refers to assignments that violate the norms associated with the role requirements of professional work. Research has shown that illegitimate tasks are associated with stress and counterproductive work behaviour. The purpose of this study was to provide insight into the contribution of characteristics of the organization on the prevalence of illegitimate tasks in the work of frontline and middle managers. Using the Bern Illegitimate Task Scale (BITS) in a sample of 440 local government operations managers in 28 different organizations in Sweden, this study supports the theoretical assumptions that illegitimate tasks are positively related to stress and negatively related to satisfaction with work performance. Results further show that 10% of the variance in illegitimate tasks can be attributed to the organization where the managers work. Multilevel referential analysis showed that the more the organization was characterized by competition for resources between units, unfair and arbitrary resource allocation and obscure decisional structure, the more illegitimate tasks managers reported. These results should be valuable for strategic-level management since they indicate that illegitimate tasks can be counteracted by means of the organization of work.

  • 310.
    Björklund, Gunilla
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Stave, Christina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Samspel i trafiken: formella och informella regler bland cyklister2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Our understanding of cyclists’ behaviour in relation to rules and regulations are rather poor and the same applies to cyclists’ interaction with other road users. The purpose of this project was therefore to explore cyclists’ knowledge of traffic rules but also what determine their own compliance or noncompliance. Participants in the study were 612 people between 18 and 74 years from Gothenburg, Linköping and Stockholm and were recruited through a web panel. A survey was used which asked them about their background, view of themselves as cyclists, own self-compliance, view of others’ compliance, knowledge of rules and various factors that determine their intention to break the rules.

    The results from the study showed that the participants’ regular knowledge was relatively good, at least in terms of behaviours that are prohibited. The participants who thought that a certain behaviour was forbidden also replied that they did this to a lesser extent. Cyclists who stated that they would like to arrive as soon as possible tended to choose more flexible routes (e.g. bike across pedestrian crossings, pavements and roads mainly used by vehicles), whether permitted or not. To a greater extent they also stated that they did not always stop at red lights or at stop signs. Cycle crossings, junctions, pedestrian crossings and pavements were used as examples of places/situations where the rules were considered unclear. Perceived behavioural control and attitude influenced the intention to behave according to three hypothetical scenarios which described how other road users had to break or swerve in order to avoid an accident with the cyclist. This meant that those who intended to behave in the manner indicated believed that it was easy and rather harmless, but also that it was both right and good. However, the most important factor was if they had performed the behaviour in the past, which in turn may have reinforced this view, that is if nothing serious had happened.

  • 311.
    Björnsdotter, Annika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Enebrink, Pia
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ghaderi, Ata
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Family Check-Up and iComet: a Randomized Controlled Trial in Sweden2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 312.
    Björnsdotter, Annika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Enebrink, Pia
    Karolinska Inst, Div Psychol, Dept Clin Neurosci, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ghaderi, Ata
    Karolinska Inst, Div Psychol, Dept Clin Neurosci, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Psychometric properties of online administered parental Strengths and Difficulties Questionnarie (SDQ), and normative data based on combined online and paper-and-pencil administration2013In: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, ISSN 1753-2000, E-ISSN 1753-2000, Vol. 7, article id 40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    To examine the psychometric properties of the online administered parental version of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and to provide parental norms from a nationwide Swedish sample.

    Methods

    A total of 1443 parents from of a national probability sample of 2800 children aged 10-13 years completed the SDQ online or as usual (i.e., using paper-and-pencil).

    Results

    The SDQ subscales obtained from the online administration showed high internal consistency (polychoric ordinal alpha), and confirmatory factor analysis of the SDQ five factor model resulted in excellent fit. The Total Difficulties score of the SDQ and its other subscales were significantly related to the Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD) rating scale. Norms for the parent version of SDQ obtained from the Internet were identical to those collected using paper-and-pencil. They were thus combined and are presented sorted by child gender and age.

    Conclusions

    The SDQ seems to be a reliable and valid instrument given its high internal consistency, clear factor structure and high correlation with other instruments capturing the intended constructs. Findings in the present study support its use for online data collection, as well as using norms obtained through paper-and-pencil-administration even when SDQ has been administrated online.

  • 313.
    Björnsdotter, Annika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Enebrink, Pia
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ghaderi, Ata
    Karolinska Institutet.
    The Importance of Parental Knowledge2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Poor parenting is an important risk factor for development of conduct problems in children and adolescents. Inadequate parental monitoring is an example of a negative parenting behavior that has been shown to predict child conduct problems Findings from previous research on parental monitoring has been mixed due to the use of inconsistent and vague definitions. However, later research suggests that it is "parental knowledge" rather than "parental monitoring" that is associated with child and adolescent conduct problems. In the present study, we used an existing questionnaire that measures three possible sources of parental knowledge: child disclosure, parental solicitation and parental control. Our aims were to 1) examine the factor structure of a parenting monitoring/knowledge scale, 2) analyze if a high level of child disclosure and parental control as well as a low level of parental solicitation were associated to low conduct problems, 3) examine if a measure of family warmth correlates with child disclosure, and 4) whether parental knowledge mediates the relation between parental warmth and conduct problems. Parents of a national probability sample of 2800 children aged 10-13 years old were asked to complete a survey including these different scales. A total of 1446 parents completed the questionnaires. Brief description Analysis of the importance of parental knowledge regarding child disruptive behavior using an existing questionnaire that measures parental knowledge through three possible sources: child disclosure, parental solicitation and parental control.

  • 314.
    Bladh, Ulrika
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Informationsteknologi som terapeutiskt hjälpmedel: Den terapeutiska relationen via Skype2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today's information society, is offering new ways to interact, to establish relationships and maintain contact between people.Technology and therapy is a way to maintain a therapeutic relationship with the help of Skype as an information technology tools. The purpose of the study is to examine psychotherapist’s experiences of the therapeutic relationship in psychodynamic psychotherapy via videocommunication. Research questions focuses on the psychotherapists' use of psychodynamic theories, the description of the therapeutic relationship and how the therapeutic alliance is being built in videocommunications. The study was a qualitative research approach with a hermeneutic method. Six therapists who pursued therapy via Skype were interviewed. The results show that therapists felt that there was a distance in the relationship which could be used positively to investigate deeper into the therapy. The therapies became wordier as transferense and countertrancferences could not be identified as easily as in a physical meeting. The therapeutic alliance felt more fragile on Skype. Discussions from the study shows in order to pursue a psychodynamic psychotherapy on Skype the therapists needed to adapt the theory to the technology. The distance in the relationship was used as a means of therapy to be developed into insight therapy but could also seem to strengthen the defenses.

  • 315.
    Blane, Alison
    et al.
    Curtin University.
    Lee, Hoe C.
    Curtin University.
    Falkmer, Torbjorn
    Curtin University.
    Dukic Willstrand, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Assessing Cognitive Ability and Simulator-Based Driving Performance in Poststroke Adults2017In: Behavioural Neurology, ISSN 0953-4180, E-ISSN 1875-8584, article id 1378308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Driving is an important activity of daily living, which is increasingly relied upon as the population ages. It has been well-established that cognitive processes decline following a stroke and these processes may influence driving performance. There is much debate on the use of off-road neurological assessments and driving simulators as tools to predict driving performance; however, the majority of research uses unlicensed poststroke drivers, making the comparability of poststroke adults to that of a control group difficult. It stands to reason that in order to determine whether simulators and cognitive assessments can accurately assess driving performance, the baseline should be set by licenced drivers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess differences in cognitive ability and driving simulator performance in licensed community-dwelling poststroke drivers and controls. Two groups of licensed drivers (37 poststroke and 43 controls) were assessed using several cognitive tasks and using a driving simulator. The poststroke adults exhibited poorer cognitive ability; however, there were no differences in simulator performance between groups except that the poststroke drivers demonstrated less variability in driver headway. The application of these results as a prescreening toolbox for poststroke drivers is discussed.

  • 316.
    Blane, Alison
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Lee, Hoe C.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Willstrand, Tania Dukic
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Human Factors, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Assessing Cognitive Ability and Simulator-Based Driving Performance in Poststroke Adults2017In: Behavioural Neurology, ISSN 0953-4180, E-ISSN 1875-8584, article id 1378308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Driving is an important activity of daily living, which is increasingly relied upon as the population ages. It has been well-established that cognitive processes decline following a stroke and these processes may influence driving performance. There is much debate on the use of off-road neurological assessments and driving simulators as tools to predict driving performance; however, the majority of research uses unlicensed poststroke drivers, making the comparability of poststroke adults to that of a control group difficult. It stands to reason that in order to determine whether simulators and cognitive assessments can accurately assess driving performance, the baseline should be set by licenced drivers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess differences in cognitive ability and driving simulator performance in licensed community-dwelling poststroke drivers and controls. Two groups of licensed drivers (37 poststroke and 43 controls) were assessed using several cognitive tasks and using a driving simulator. The poststroke adults exhibited poorer cognitive ability; however, there were no differences in simulator performance between groups except that the poststroke drivers demonstrated less variability in driver headway. The application of these results as a prescreening toolbox for poststroke drivers is discussed.

  • 317.
    Blissing, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Bruzelius, Fredrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Driver behavior in mixed and virtual reality: A comparative study2017In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a comparative study of driving behavior when using different virtual reality modes. Test subjects were exposed to mixed, virtual, and real reality using a head mounted display capable of video see-through, while performing a simple driving task. The driving behavior was quantified in steering and acceleration/deceleration activities, divided into local and global components. There was a distinct effect of wearing a head mounted display, which affected all measured variables. Results show that average speed was the most significant difference between mixed and virtual reality, while the steering behavior was consistent between modes. All subjects but one were able to successfully complete the driving task, suggesting that virtual driving could be a potential complement to driving simulators.

  • 318. Blom, Eva Henje
    et al.
    Serlachius, Eva
    Chesney, Margaret A
    Olsson, Erik M G
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Psychosocial oncology and supportive care.
    Adolescent girls with emotional disorders have a lower end-tidal CO2 and increased respiratory rate compared with healthy controls2014In: Psychophysiology, ISSN 0048-5772, E-ISSN 1469-8986, Vol. 51, no 5, p. 412-418Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hyperventilation has been linked to emotional distress in adults. This study investigates end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2 ), respiratory rate (RR), and heart rate variability (HRV) in adolescent girls with emotional disorders and healthy controls. ETCO2 , RR, HRV, and ratings of emotional symptom severity were collected in adolescent female psychiatric patients with emotional disorders (n = 63) and healthy controls (n = 62). ETCO2 and RR differed significantly between patients and controls. ETCO2 , HR, and HRV were significant independent predictors of group status, that is, clinical or healthy, while RR was not. ETCO2 and RR were significantly related to emotional symptom severity and to HRV in the total group. ETCO2 and RR were not affected by use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. It is concluded that emotional dysregulation is related to hyperventilation in adolescent girls. Respiratory-based treatments may be relevant to investigate in future research.

  • 319.
    Blom, Kerstin
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Jernelov, Susanna
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ruck, Christian
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lindefors, Nils
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Three-Year Follow-Up Comparing Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Depression to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia, for Patients With Both Diagnoses2017In: Sleep, ISSN 0161-8105, E-ISSN 1550-9109, Vol. 40, no 8, article id UNSP zsx108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This 3-year follow-up compared insomnia treatment to depression treatment for patients with both diagnoses. Forty-three participants were randomized to either treatment, in the form of Internet-delivered therapist-guided cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), and 37 (86%) participants provided primary outcome data at the 3-year follow-up. After 3 years, reductions on depression severity were similar in both groups (between-group effect size, d = 0.33, p =.45), while the insomnia treatment had superior effects on insomnia severity (d = 0.66, p <.05). Overall, insomnia treatment was thus more beneficial than depression treatment. The implication for practitioners, supported by previous research, is that patients with co-occurring depression and insomnia should be offered CBT for insomnia, in addition to medication or psychological treatment for depression.

  • 320.
    Blom, Kerstin
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Jernelov, Susanna
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ruck, Christian
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lindefors, Nils
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Three-Year Follow-Up of Insomnia and Hypnotics after Controlled Internet Treatment for Insomnia2016In: Sleep, ISSN 0161-8105, E-ISSN 1550-9109, Vol. 39, no 6, p. 1267-1274, article id PII sp-00663-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Study Objectives: To investigate the long-term effects of therapist-guided Internet-based insomnia treatment on insomnia severity and sleep medication use, compared with active control. Methods: This study was an 8 week randomized controlled trial with follow-up posttreatment and at 6, 12, and 36 months, set at the Internet Psychiatry Clinic, Stockholm, Sweden. Participants were 148 media-recruited nondepressed adults with insomnia. Interventions were Guided Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (ICBT-i) or active control treatment (ICBT-ctrl). Primary outcome was insomnia severity, measured with the Insomnia Severity Index. Secondary outcomes were sleep medication use and use of other treatments. Results: The large pretreatment to posttreatment improvements in insomnia severity of the ICBT-i group were maintained during follow-up. ICBT-ctrl exhibited significantly less improvement posttreatment (between-Cohen d = 0.85), but after 12 and 36 months, there was no longer a significant difference. The within-group effect sizes from pretreatment to the 36-months follow-up were 1.6 (ICBT-i) and 1.7 (ICBT-ctrl), and 74% of the interviewed participants no longer had insomnia diagnosis after 36 mo. ICBT-ctrl used significantly more sleep medication (P = 0.017) and underwent significantly more other insomnia treatments (P < 0.001) during the follow-up period. Conclusions: The large improvements in the ICBT-i group were maintained after 36 months, corroborating that CBT for insomnia has long-term effects. After 36 months, the groups did not differ in insomnia severity, but ICBT-ctrl had used more sleep medication and undergone more other additional insomnia treatments during the follow-up period.

  • 321.
    Blom, Kerstin
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Jernelöv, Susanna
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lindefors, Nils
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Facilitating and hindering factors in Internet-delivered treatment for insomnia and depression2016In: Internet Interventions, ISSN 2214-7829, Vol. 4, p. 51-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Insomnia and depression is a common and debilitating comorbidity, and treatment is usually given mainly for depression. Guided Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (ICBT-i) was, in a recent study on which this report is based, found superior to a treatment for depression (ICBT-d) for this patient group, but many patients did not reach remission.

  • 322.
    Blom, Kerstin
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Jerneov, Susanna
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Kraepelien, Martin
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Bergdahl, Malin Olseni
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Jungmarker, Kristina
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ankartjärn, Linda
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lindefors, Nils
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Internet Treatment Addressing either Insomnia or Depression, for Patients with both Diagnoses: A Randomized Trial2015In: Sleep, ISSN 0161-8105, E-ISSN 1550-9109, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 267-277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Study Objectives: To compare treatment effects when patients with insomnia and depression receive treatment for either insomnia or depression. Design: A 9-w randomized controlled trial with 6- and 12-mo follow-up. Setting: Internet Psychiatry Clinic, Stockholm, Sweden. Participants: Forty-three adults in whom comorbid insomnia and depression were diagnosed, recruited via media and assessed by psychiatrists. Interventions: Guided Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) for either insomnia or depression. Measurements and Results: Primary outcome measures were symptom self-rating scales (Insomnia Severity Index [ISI] and the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale [MADRS-S]), assessed before and after treatment with follow-up after 6 and 12 mo. The participants' use of sleep medication and need for further treatment after completion of ICBT was also investigated. The insomnia treatment was more effective than the depression treatment in reducing insomnia severity during treatment (P = 0.05), and equally effective in reducing depression severity. Group differences in insomnia severity were maintained during the 12-mo follow-up period. Post treatment, participants receiving treatment for insomnia had significantly less self-rated need for further insomnia treatment (P < 0.001) and used less sleep medication (P < 0.05) than participants receiving treatment for depression. The need for depression treatment was similar in both groups. Conclusions: In this study, Internet-delivered treatment with cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) for insomnia was more effective than ICBT for depression for patients with both diagnoses. This indicates, in line with previous research, that insomnia when comorbid with depression is not merely a symptom of depression, but needs specific treatment.

  • 323.
    Blom, Kerstin
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Tillgren, Hanna Tarkian
    Linköping University.
    Wiklund, Tobias
    Dept PaLinköping University.
    Danlycke, Ewa
    Linköping University.
    Forssen, Mattias
    Linköping University.
    Söderström, Alexandra
    Linköping University.
    Johansson, Robert
    Linköping University.
    Hesser, Hugo
    Linköping University.
    Jernelov, Susanna
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lindefors, Nils
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Karolinska Institutet;Linköping University.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Internet-vs. group-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia: A randomized controlled non-inferiority trial2015In: Behaviour Research and Therapy, ISSN 0005-7967, E-ISSN 1873-622X, Vol. 70, p. 47-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to compare guided Internet-delivered to group-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for insomnia. We conducted an 8-week randomized controlled non-inferiority trial with 6-months follow-up. Participants were forty-eight adults with insomnia, recruited via media. Interventions were guided Internet-delivered CBT (ICBT) and group-delivered CBT (GCBT) for insomnia. Primary outcome measure was the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), secondary outcome measures were sleep diary data, depressive symptoms, response- and remission rates. Both treatment groups showed significant improvements and large effect sizes for ISI (Within Cohen's d: ICBT post = 1.8, 6-months follow-up = 2.1; GCBT post = 2.1, 6-months follow-up = 2.2). Confidence interval of the difference between groups posttreatment and at FU6 indicated non-inferiority of ICBT compared to GCBT. At post-treatment, two thirds of patients in both groups were considered responders (ISI-reduction > 7p). Using diagnostic criteria, 63% (ICBT) and 75% (GCBT) were in remission. Sleep diary data showed moderate to large effect sizes. We conclude that both guided Internet-CBT and group-CBT in this study were efficacious with regard to insomnia severity, sleep parameters and depressive symptoms. The results are in line with previous research, and strengthen the evidence for guided Internet-CBT for insomnia. Trial registration: The study protocol was approved by, and registered with, the regional ethics review board in Linkoping, Sweden, registration number 2010/385-31. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • 324.
    Blom, Tina
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Abdali, Hanin
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Relationen mellan användandet av Instagram och självkänsla2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ökningen av sociala nätverk medför enorm mängd information från olika källor. Att alltid vara uppkopplad på nätverken kan påverka individen negativt. En anledning till den ökade användningen kan tänkas vara en låg självkänsla. Det nya och snabbväxande nätverket Instagram i relation till individers självkänsla och hälsa är ännu outforskat. Studiens syfte är att undersöka relationen mellan självkänsla och användandet av Instagram. Skillnaden mellan mäns och kvinnors användande och självkänsla studeras också. 121 enkäter delades ut till svenska högskolestudenter. Självkänsla och hur Instagram integrerats i individens vardag mättes med en skala vardera. T-test visade att män rapporterar en högre självkänsla och att Instagram integrerat sig mindre i männens vardag jämfört med kvinnorna. ANOVA-analyser och post hoc-test visade tendenser på att exempelvis självkänslan var högre bland de som gjorde få uppdateringar jämfört med de som gjorde många uppdateringar. Riktningen på relationen mellan självkänsla och användande av Instagram skulle vara intressant att undersöka i framtida studier.

  • 325.
    Blom, Victoria
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Bodin, Lennart
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Svedberg, Pia
    Applying the demand-control-support model on burnout in managers and non-managers.2016In: International Journal of Workplace Health Management, ISSN 1753-8351, E-ISSN 1753-836X, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 110-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to study the demand-control-support (DCS) model on burnout in male and female managers and non-managers, taking into account genetic and shared family environmental factors, contributing to the understanding of mechanisms of how and when work stress is related to burnout. Design/methodology/approach – A total of 5,510 individuals in complete same-sex twin pairs from the Swedish Twin Registry were included in the analyses. Co-twin control analyses were performed using linear mixed modeling, comparing between-pairs and within-pair effects, stratified by zygosity and sex. Findings – Managers scored higher on demands and control in their work than non-managers, and female managers seem to be particularly at risk for burnout facing more demands which are not reduced by a higher control as in their male counterparts. Co-twin analyses showed that associations between control and burnout as well as between demands and burnout seem to be affected by shared family environmental factors in male non-managers but not in male managers in which instead the associations between social support and burnout seem to be influenced by shared family environment. Practical implications – Taken together, the study offers knowledge that shared environment as well as sex and managerial status are important factors to consider in how DCS is associated to exhaustion. Originality/value – Using twin data with possibilities to control for genetics, shared environment, sex and age, this study offers unique insight into the DCS research, which focusses primarily on the workplace environment rather than individual factors.

  • 326.
    Blom, Victoria
    et al.
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bodin, Lennart
    Division of Intervention and Implementation Research, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Division of Intervention and Implementation Research, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Svedberg, Pia
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Applying the demand-control-support model on burnout in managers and non-managers2016In: International Journal of Workplace Health Management, ISSN 1753-8351, E-ISSN 1753-836X, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 110-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the demand-control-support (DCS) model on burnout in male and female managers and non-managers, taking into account genetic and shared family environmental factors, contributing to the understanding of mechanisms of how and when work stress is related to burnout.

    Design/methodology/approach: A total of 5,510 individuals in complete same-sex twin pairs from the Swedish Twin Registry were included in the analyses. Co-twin control analyses were performed using linear mixed modeling, comparing between-pairs and within-pair effects, stratified by zygosity and sex.

    Findings: Managers scored higher on demands and control in their work than non-managers, and female managers seem to be particularly at risk for burnout facing more demands which are not reduced by a higher control as in their male counterparts. Co-twin analyses showed that associations between control and burnout as well as between demands and burnout seem to be affected by shared family environmental factors in male non-managers but not in male managers in which instead the associations between social support and burnout seem to be influenced by shared family environment.

    Practical implications: Taken together, the study offers knowledge that shared environment as well as sex and managerial status are important factors to consider in how DCS is associated to exhaustion.

    Originality/value: Using twin data with possibilities to control for genetics, shared environment, sex and age, this study offers unique insight into the DCS research, which focusses primarily on the workplace environment rather than individual factors.

  • 327.
    Blomberg, Stefan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology.
    Rosander, Michael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Relationships between organizational factors, bullying occurrence, health factors, and people’s experience of work2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 328.
    Blomqvist, Albin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    Svensson, Jonatan
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    Socialsekreterares intentioner till egen uppsägning: En tvärsnittsstudie av psykisk ohälsa och psykosocial arbetsmiljö2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte var att undersöka det eventuella, prediktiva förhållandet mellan de psykosociala arbetsmiljöfaktorerna krav, kontroll och stöd, psykisk ohälsa och intentioner till egen uppsägning (IEU) bland socialsekreterare anställda i en medelstor kommun i södra Sverige. Studien är av kvantitativ art och har utgått från en tvärsnittsdesign. Genom en webbaserad enkät som skickades till samtliga socialsekreterare i kommunen samlades data in angående de aktuella variablerna. Efter bortfallsanalys uppgick den totala svarsfrekvensen till 37% vilket innebar att 102 respondenters besvarade enkäter inkluderades i studien. Insamlade data analyserades genom en hierarkisk multipel regressionsanalys vars resultat visade att krav positivt predicerade IEU medan kontroll, stöd och högre ålder predicerade IEU negativt, samt att psykisk ohälsa inte predicerade IEU. Noterbart var att stödet hade ett avgörande, prediktivt förhållande till IEU. För vidare forskning föreslogs longitudinella studier för att bekräfta den aktuella studiens prediktiva förhållanden.

  • 329.
    Boalt Boethius, Siv
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Handledningens utformning i relation till mål och ramvillkor.: Några likheter och skillnader mellan psykoterapihandledning och forskarhandledning.2005In: Matrix, Vol. 22, p. 420-437Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    In research as well as psychotherapy and psychoanalysis there is a long tradition of supervision. Both types of supervision involve acquiring a new professional identity. The aim of the article is to describe and discuss similarities and differences related to the different aims of the two training programmes. One starting point is that the frames for the training as a doctoral student has recently been changed in Sweden. When a doctoral student is accepted to a doctoral programme, the university department has a responsibility for that the students they accept have a financially secure situation, according to certain criteria. This has involved a sometimes radical change in the frames of the doctoral programs and the importance of the supervision as one of the most important parts has become evident. It could therefore be of interest to compare the conditions for supervision in relation to research training with the conditions for supervision in another field such as in a psychotherapy training program. Maybe the two training programmes could learn from each other. The article is based on litterature and on experiences of my own from both areas of work.

  • 330.
    Boalt Boethius, Siv
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Innehållsrikt om ledarskap.2008In: Psykologtidningen, Vol. 14Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 331.
    Boalt Boethius, Siv
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Sundin, Eva
    Department of Psychology.
    Ögren, Marie-Louise
    Department of Psychology.
    Group Supervision from a Small Group Perspective.2006In: Nordic Psychology, ISSN 1901-2276, Vol. 58, p. 22-42Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this study was to examine a set of independent group variables (group size, gender composition, and supervisory style) in group supervision, and their interrelation with supervisees’ and supervisors’ view on group interactions, group climate, and attained skill. The study also examined changes over time in supervisees’ and supervisors’ ratings. Results from hierarchical regression analysis indicate that the group variables measured in this study are interrelated to perceived psychotherapeutic knowledge and skills attainment, group interaction, and group climate. The participants experienced a positive change over time with regard to attainment of knowledge and skills, group interaction, and group climate. Supervisors were more likely to experience a positive change whereas supervisees, and especially supervisees on the basic level, tended to present more stable ratings over time. These data underline the utility and importance of studying group supervision in psychotherapy from a small group perspective.

  • 332.
    Boalt Boëthius, Siv
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Ögren, Marie-Louise
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Grupphandledning: ramar, kärninnehåll och samspel2011In: Veiledning i psykoterapeutisk arbeid / [ed] Michael Helge Rønnestad och Sissel Reichelt, Oslo: Universitetsforlaget, 2011Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [no]

    Beskrivning: Førsteutgaven av boka kom i 1999 med tittelen "Psykoterapiveiledning." Forfatterne ønsker å formidle teoretisk og empirisk kunnskap og praktiske erfaringer om klinisk veiledning, det vil si veiledning innen psykologisk behandling og psykososialt arbeid. Boka henvender seg til fagpersoner som gir eller mottar veiledning, eller som er i en videre- og etterutdanning der kunnskap om veiledning inngår. Boka er redigert av professor Michael Helge Rønnestad og professor Sissel Reichelt. Øvrige bidragsytere er: Tom Andersen, Siv BoaltBoëthius, Siri E. Gullestad, Asle Hoffart, Geir Høstmark Nielsen, Anne-Lise Løvlie Schibbye, Jan Skjerve, Thomas M. Skovholt, Odd Arne Tjersland, Gjermund Tveito, Oddbjørg Skjerve Ulvik og Marie-Louise Ögren.

  • 333.
    Boalt Boëthius, Siv
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Ögren, Marie-Louise
    Department of Psychology.
    Om grupphandledning och vägen från klinisk erfarenhet till systematisk forskning.2008In: Mellanrummet: Tidskrift om barn- och ungdomspsykoterapi, ISSN 1404-5559, Vol. 19, p. 45-60Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna artikel beskrivs vad som väckte vårt intresse för att på ett mer systematiskt sätt utforska grupphandledning som en specifik form för lärande. Som kliniker får man sällan en bild av vad som ligger bakom de forskningsfrågor som ställs. I allmänhet redovisas teoretisk bakgrund, frågeställningar, metoder och resultat som mer eller mindre givna. I verkligheten är det dock sällan så, särskilt inte när det gäller kliniknära forskning, som drivs av en önskan om en fördjupad förståelse, ofta personligt förankrad, av problemområden som gett upphov till specifika frågor.

  • 334.
    Boersma, Katja
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Linton, Steven J.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Editorial comment on Nina Kreddig's and Monika Hasenbring's study on pain anxiety and fear of (re) injury in patients with chronic back pain: Sex as a moderator2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Pain, ISSN 1877-8860, E-ISSN 1877-8879, Vol. 16, p. 89-90, article id S1877-8860(17)30050-2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 335.
    Boersma, Katja
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Center for Health and Medical Psychology.
    Södermark, Martin
    Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Pain and Rehabilitation Centre, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Hesser, Hugo
    Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Division of Psychology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Flink, Ida
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Gerdle, Björn
    Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Pain and Rehabilitation Centre, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Linton, Steven J.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Center for Health and Medical Psychology.
    Efficacy of a transdiagnostic emotion-focused exposure treatment for chronic pain patients with comorbid anxiety and depression: a randomized controlled trial2019In: Pain, ISSN 0304-3959, E-ISSN 1872-6623, Vol. 160, no 8, p. 1708-1718Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The comorbidity between chronic pain and emotional problems has proven difficult to address with current treatment options. This study addresses the efficacy of a transdiagnostic emotion-focused exposure treatment ("hybrid") for chronic pain patients with comorbid emotional problems. Adults (n = 115) with chronic musculoskeletal pain and functional and emotional problems were included in a 2-centre, parallel randomized controlled, open-label trial comparing this treatment to an active control condition receiving a guided Internet-delivered pain management treatment based on CBT principles (iCBT). The hybrid treatment (n = 58, 10-16 sessions) integrates exposure in vivo for chronic pain based on the fear-avoidance model with an emotion-regulation approach informed by procedures in Dialectical Behavior Therapy. The iCBT (n = 57; 8 treatment modules) addresses topics such as pain education, coping strategies, relaxation, problem solving, stress, and sleep management using standard CBT techniques. Patient-reported outcomes were assessed before and after treatment as well as at a 9-month primary end point. Across conditions, 78% participants completed post-treatment and 81% follow-up assessment. Intent-to-treat analyses showed that the hybrid had a significantly better post-treatment outcome on pain catastrophizing (d = 0.39) and pain interference (d = 0.63) and significantly better follow-up outcomes on depression (d = 0.43) and pain interference (d = 0.51). There were no differences on anxiety and pain intensity. Observed proportions of clinically significant improvement favoured the hybrid on all but one comparison, but no statistically significant differences were observed. We conclude that the hybrid emotion-focused treatment may be considered an acceptable, credible, and efficacious treatment option for chronic pain patients with comorbid emotional problems.

  • 336.
    Boettcher, Johanna
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden Department of Clinical Psychology, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Germany.
    Rozental, Alexander
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Center for Psychiatry Research, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Carlbring, Per
    Division of Clinical Psychology, Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Side effects in Internet-based interventions for Social Anxiety Disorder2014In: Internet Interventions, ISSN 2214-7829, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 3-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet-based interventions are effective in the treatment of various mental disorders and have already been integrated in routine health care in some countries. Empirical data on potential negative effects of these interventions is lacking. This study investigated side effects in an Internet-based treatment for Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD).

    A total of 133 individuals diagnosed with SAD took part in an 11-week guided treatment. Side effects were assessed as open formatted questions after week 2 and at post-treatment after week 11. Answers were independently rated by two coders. In addition, rates of deterioration and non-response were calculated for primary social anxiety and secondary outcome measures (depression and quality of life).

    In total, 19 participants (14%) described unwanted negative events that they related to treatment. The emergence of new symptoms was the most commonly experienced side effect, followed by the deterioration of social anxiety symptoms and negative well-being. The large majority of the described side effects had a temporary but no enduring negative effect on participants' well-being. At post-treatment, none of the participants reported deterioration on social anxiety measures and 0–7% deteriorated on secondary outcome measures. Non-response was frequent with 32–50% for social anxiety measures and 57–90% for secondary outcomes at post-assessment.

    Results suggest that a small proportion of participants in Internet-based interventions experiences negative effects during treatment. Information about potential side effects should be integrated in patient education in the practice of Internet-based treatments.

  • 337.
    Boettcher, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm, Sweden and Free Univ Berlin, D-14195 Berlin, Germany.
    Åström, Viktor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Påhlsson, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Schenstrom, Ola
    Mindfulness Ctr, Bethesda, MD USA.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Karolinska Inst, S-10401 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Internet-Based Mindfulness Treatment for Anxiety Disorders: A Randomized Controlled Trial2014In: Behavior Therapy, ISSN 0005-7894, E-ISSN 1878-1888, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 241-253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mindfulness-based interventions have proven effective for the trans diagnostic treatment of heterogeneous anxiety disorders. So far, no study has investigated the potential of mindfulness-based treatments when delivered remotely via the Internet. The current trial aims at evaluating the efficacy of a stand-alone, unguided, Internet-based mindfulness treatment program for anxiety. Ninety-one participants diagnosed with social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, or anxiety disorder not otherwise specified were randomly assigned to a mindfulness treatment group (MTG) or to an online discussion forum control group (CG). Mindfulness treatment consisted of 96 audio files with instructions for various mindfulness meditation exercises. Primary and secondary outcome measures were assessed at pre-, post-treatment, and at 6-months follow-up. Participants of the MTG showed a larger decrease of symptoms of anxiety, depression, and insomnia from pre- to postassessment than participants of the CG (Cohen's d(between) = 0.36-0.99). Within effect sizes were large in the MTG (d = 0.82-1.58) and small to moderate in the CG (d = 0.45-0.76). In contrast to participants of the CG, participants of the MTG also achieved a moderate improvement in their quality of life. The study provided encouraging results for an Internet-based mindfulness protocol in the treatment of primary anxiety disorders. Future replications of these results will show whether Web-based mindfulness meditation can constitute a valid alternative to existing, evidence-based cognitive-behavioural Internet treatments.

  • 338.
    Bohlin, Margareta
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    "Häng med på fest vid Sipperödssjön om en kvart"2012In: Barnbladet : SHSTF:s rikssektion för sjuksköterskor i öppen och sluten barnavård och barnsjukvård, ISSN 0349-1994, Vol. 37, no 5, p. 6-9Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 339.
    Bohman, Benjamin
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Health Care Services, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Santi, Alberto
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Psykologpartners Private Practice, Linköping, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Health Care Services, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Cognitive behavioral therapy in practice: therapist perceptions of techniques, outcome measures, practitioner qualifications, and relation to research.2017In: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, ISSN 1650-6073, E-ISSN 1651-2316, Vol. 46, no 5, p. 391-403Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has a strong evidence base for several psychiatric disorders, however, it may be argued that currently there is no overall agreement on what counts as 'CBT'. One reason is that CBT is commonly perceived as encompassing a broad range of treatments, from purely cognitive to purely behavioral, making it difficult to arrive at a clear definition. The purpose of the present study was to explore practicing therapists' perceptions of CBT. Three hundred fifty members of two multi-disciplinary interest groups for CBT in Sweden participated. Mean age was 46 years, 68% were females, 63% psychologists and mean number of years of professional experience was 12 years. Participants completed a web-based survey including items covering various aspects of CBT practice. Overall, therapist perceptions of the extent to which different treatment techniques and procedures were consistent with CBT were in line with current evidence-based CBT protocols and practice guidelines, as were therapists' application of the techniques and procedures in their own practice. A majority of participants (78%) agreed that quality of life or level of functioning were the most important outcome measures for evaluating treatment success. Eighty percent of therapists believed that training in CBT at a basic level was a requirement for practicing CBT. There was a medium size Spearman correlation of rs=.46 between the perceived importance of research to practice and the extent to which participants kept themselves updated on research. Implications for training, quality assurance, and the effectiveness of CBT in clinical practice are discussed.

  • 340.
    Bojner Horwitz, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences. Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Norra Stationsgatan 69,V 7, S-11364 Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Inst, Inst Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Ctr Social Sustainabil, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stenfors, Cecilia
    Univ Chicago, Dept Psychol, Chicago, IL 60637 USA;Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Osika, Walter
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Norra Stationsgatan 69,V 7, S-11364 Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Inst, Inst Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Ctr Social Sustainabil, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Writer's Block Revisited Micro-Phenomenological Case Study on the Blocking Influence of an Internalized Voice2018In: Journal of consciousness studies, ISSN 1355-8250, E-ISSN 2051-2201, Vol. 25, no 3-4, p. 9-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Writer's block, a common form of procrastination, can have a serious negative impact on an individual's academic performance. In this case study, a student with writer's block was interviewed and asked to perform body movements that represented the process of writing a master's thesis. A micro-phenomenological method was used to investigate the student's experience of writer's block and the role of an inner voice. The analysis unveiled the process by which the inner voice impeded the student, i.e. how the student perceived a set of mental images, movements, and sensations in relation to the 'inner voice'. The findings suggest that non-verbal modes of learning - through movement - may be applied productively to overcome writer's block and other forms of procrastination in broader areas such as research writing. Moreover, the micro-phenomenological method, together with the interpretation of video recordings, can reveal valuable information regarding this learning process in higher education.

  • 341.
    Bok, Bengt
    Stockholm University of the Arts, The Film and Media Department.
    Encounter with the Other: some reflections in interviewing2015 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    he interview is an art form. Two people meet to talk to each other. They meet to talk about something important, or to talk about the life of the person being interviewed. Reaching deep down inside a person is a process. Being part of this process can make you dizzy, giddy. Interviewing is a job where listening and inquiry often give us someone’s life story. It’s about deciphering a person’s thoughts and testimonies; what he or she says or does not say. The interview is an art form that can be likened to understanding poetry… it’s about interpreting, cracking codes, working things out. An interview must not turn into a polite conversation or discussion, but should be a form of concentrated and honest communication. The interviewer must not be out to please or impress, but should be relatively confident in him/herself without being some kind of emotional superman (übermensch). On the contrary, perhaps the interviewer’s own weaknesses and faults often result in a sensitivity and a capacity to be able to hone in on what is really important in the encounter that is ‘the interview’.The interviewer must be equipped with a certain capacity for empathy with “the Other”. To be able to identify with trong enough to understand that these experiences are not one’s own, but those of the Other. It’s important to learn how to step into an interview with full concentration and presence, then step back and regard and analyse what is happening, and then step back in again. This allows for what is generally a necessary (and healthy) distancing of oneself, as well as some pause for reflection and repose in order to then recharge for the next ‘entry’.If it so happens that I, as the interviewer, have a capacity for empathy and a sensitivity, it’s important that I don’t lose myself in the Other’s situation, but maintain a professional attitude in the interview – a brotherly, professional, attitude. I have had this sensitivity myself since childhood, and in many instances, it has been a curse. However, in recent years I have understood and consoled myself with the fact that it has also been the foundation of my work and my way of approaching people. Without it, I might not have the ‘radar’ that has assisted me in my quest for the Other’s inner self. A journey that I never cease to be fascinated by, as my curiosity is continuously piqued anew.During a walk with a colleague and similarly sensitive soul, it became apparent that we both held a common belief that we had done our best interviews when we were heavily hung over. This was when our senses were at their most open and our own defences completely crushed. There exists a freedom in this parlous state – a freedom in which feelings and intuition have free rein. Where we can detect very subtle signals and undertones from interviewees. Any question can be asked – prestige and our own inner fears do not exist in this state.That said, to subject oneself to a heavy hangover as a working method is a highly unhealthy and just plain crazy idea! For this reason, we must try to achieve this same sense of freedom by other means.And that is what this book deals with. It is based on the encounters I have had and what occurred in these encounters. How can I make use of this experience to achieve… honesty? (not the truth)… and some meaning with it all… How can I prepare myself?

  • 342.
    Bonanno, George A.
    et al.
    Department of Counseling and Clinical Psychology, Teachers College, Columbia University .
    Kennedy, Paul
    Oxford Doctoral Course in Clinical Psychology, Oxford University and Stoke Mandeville Hospital, The National Spinal Injuries Centre, Department of Clinical Psychology.
    Galatzer-Levy, Isaac R.
    Department of Psychiatry, New York University School of Medicine .
    Lude, Peter
    Swiss Paraplegic Research and Swiss Paraplegic Center, Notwil.
    Elfström, Magnus
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Trajectories of resilience, depression and anxiety following spinal cord injury2012In: Rehabilitation Psychology, ISSN 0090-5550, E-ISSN 1939-1544, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 236-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose/Objective: To investigate longitudinal trajectories of depression and anxiety symptoms following spinal cord injury (SCI) as well as the predictors of those trajectories. Research Method/Design: A longitudinal study of 233 participants assessed at 4 time points: within 6 weeks, 3 months, I year, and 2 years from the point of injury. Data were analyzed using latent growth mixture modeling to determine the best-fitting model of depression and anxiety trajectories. Covariates assessed during hospitalization were explored as predictors of the trajectories. Results: Analyses for depression and anxiety symptoms revealed 3 similar latent classes: a resilient pattern of stable low symptoms, a pattern of high symptoms followed by improvement (recovery), and delayed symptom elevations. A chronic high depression pattern also emerged but not a chronic high anxiety pattern. Analyses of predictors indicated that compared with other groups, resilient patients had fewer SCI-related quality of life problems, more challenge appraisals and fewer threat appraisals, greater acceptance and fighting spirit, and less coping through social reliance and behavioral disengagement. Conclusion/Implications: Overall, the majority of SCI patients demonstrated considerable psychological resilience. Models for depression and anxiety evidenced a pattern of elevated symptoms followed by improvement and a pattern of delayed symptoms. Chronic high depression was also observed but not chronic high anxiety. Analyses of predictors were consistent with the hypothesis that resilient individuals view major stressors as challenges to be accepted and met with active coping efforts. These results are comparable to other recent studies of major health stressors.

  • 343.
    Bonhomme, Justin
    et al.
    School of Human Kinetics, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Canada.
    Seanor, Michelle
    Human Studies Program, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Canada.
    Schinke, Robert J.
    School of Human Kinetics, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Canada.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    The career trajectories of two world champion boxers: interpretive thematic analysis of media stories2018In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Athlete development can be described through transitions that mark turning phases throughout athletes’ careers. Our authors explored media data to unpack the career developments of two prominent world champion boxers from their early lives to world championship status. Employing thematic analysis, five themes were identified: (1) weathering hardships of early life (subthemes: the rough life of an innercity kid; abject poverty in war-torn Philippines), (2) entry into sport (subthemes: groomed to fight; boxing to escape poverty), (3) amateur experience (subthemes: Olympic medallist en route to the pros; struggling amateur with dreams of greatness), (4) launching a professional career (impressive American prospect; a charismatic unpolished slugger) and (5) capturing a world title (subthemes: the much-anticipated world champion; the unexpected world champion). This exploration augments our understanding of how two worldrenowned boxers’ career developments were represented through sport media and interpreted by the researchers, suggesting parallel pathways for future career boxers and those who work with them. © 2018 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

  • 344.
    Bood, Sven-Åke
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Sundequist, Ulf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Kjellgren, Anette
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Nordström, Gun
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Effects of Flotation REST (Restricted Environmental Stimulation Technique) on Stress Related Muscle Pain: Are 33 flotation sessions more effective as compared to 12 sessions?2007In: Social behavior and personality, ISSN 0301-2212, E-ISSN 1179-6391, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 143-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether or not 33 flotation sessions were more effective for stress-related ailments than 12 sessions. Participants were 37 patients, 29 women and 8 men, all diagnosed as having stress-related pain of a muscle tension type. The patients were randomized to one of two conditions: 12 flotation-REST treatments or 33 flotation-REST treatments. Analyses for subjective pain typically indicated that 12 sessions were enough to get considerable improvements and no further improvements were noticed after 33 sessions. A similar pattern was observed concerning the stress-related psychological variables: experienced stress, anxiety, depression, negative affectivity, dispositional optimism, and sleep quality. For blood pressure no effects were observed after 12 sessions, but there was a significant lower level for diastolic blood pressure after 33 sessions. The present study highlighted the importance of finding suitable complementary treatments in order to make further progress after the initial 12 sessions.

  • 345.
    Boon, Edward
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    A Qualitative Study of Consumer-Generated Videos about Daily Deal Web sites2013In: Psychology & Marketing, ISSN 0742-6046, E-ISSN 1520-6793, Vol. 30, no 10, p. 843-849Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deal of the day, also known as social couponing, is an e-commerce business model that offers consumers heavily discounted deals on a regular (daily) basis, and gives merchants access to a mailing list of potential new customers in exchange for a commission. There are thousands of deal Web sites worldwide, offering deals from industries as diverse as hospitality, consumer electronics, fashion, and medical services. This study was performed to learn more about consumers' attitude toward deal of the day, and their motivations for purchasing (or not purchasing) daily deals. A systematic qualitative methodology called BASIC IDS was used to analyze 30 consumer-generated YouTube videos about deal Web sites. The analysis showed that many deal-prone consumers can be considered deal mavens; they take effort to learn about different sites and offerings and are eager to share their knowledge with others. Although many of these mavens show hedonistic shopping tendencies, others appear to focus mainly on utility, that is, monetary savings. Consumers with a negative attitude toward deal of the day are often worried about receiving poor service, and some believe that redeeming a deal voucher makes them look cheap.

  • 346.
    Borbely, Danielle
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Abusive Parenting Behavior and its Relation to Adolescent Violence and Violence Victimization.2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 347.
    Borbely, Danielle
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Are all Children affected by Abusive Parenting in the same Way? The Role of Shyness and Coping in Understanding the Effects of Abusive Home Context.2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 348.
    Borgebäck, Tom
    et al.
    Halmstad University.
    Sundell, Christoffer
    Halmstad University.
    Visualiseringsanvändandet hos styrketränande män2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study has qualitatively examined the following purpose: (1) to examine voluntary- and spontaneous imagery use in strength training men based on the factors where/when the imagery is done, what the imagery contains, why imagery is used, how the imagery is used and the perceived effect of the imagery. Ten strength training men participated, they were between 19-26 years old. The Individual profile of imagery experiences in sport (IPIES; Weibull, 2008) was modified and used to achieve the purpose of the study. There were both similarities and differences in when, what, why, how and the effect of the imagery use. The results showed that the voluntary imagery use was highest before training, it was found in context, during and after also but not to the same degree. The spontaneous imagery was difficult for participants to make conscious and therefore difficult to draw conclusions from. Before training was mainly focused on motivation but also technique and these were combined. During training, the main focus seemed to be on main technique. After training was the main focus on analyzing the training has been. Before and during exercise were the individuals' perceived effect positive and they experienced primarily increased motivation. After training experienced technical improvement effect. The spontaneous imagery proved to give no special effects. The results have been discussed in relation to former research.

     

  • 349.
    Borgström, Juliana
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Cyclical Women: Menstrual Cycle Effects on Mood and Neuro-Cognitive Performance2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During roughly forty years of a woman’s life-span, the fertile female human body prepares itself monthly for the possibility of pregnancy. Science has shown that the fluctuation of the sex steroids progesterone and estrogen have a crucial role in the female body's physiology, determining the menstrual cycle and its general phases. This biological dance of hormones governing the cycle influences a lot of physical, mental and cognitive aspects of life for a fertile ovulating woman. Although the question of whether these changes also affect women's cognitive performance is still unclear, some evidence has been gathered that could bring us closer to answers. Recent research findings show that this hormonal interplay might have a significant role in cognitive and psychological development - modulating brain activity, cognitive performance, higher cognition, emotional status, sensory processing, appetite and more. This thesis aims to uncover to what extent the menstrual cycle affects brain functions, neurobiology, mood, well-being and cognitive performance in menstruating cisgender women.

  • 350. Botha, C
    et al.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    South African correctional official occupational stress: The role of psychological strengths.2006In: Journal of Criminal Justice, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 73-84Article in journal (Refereed)
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