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  • 301.
    Bahilo Rodríguez, Edgar
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Swedish and Spanish electricity market: Comparison, improvements, price forecasting and a global future perspective2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report aims to make a comparison between the Swedish and Spanish electricity market, the design of new improvements that could achieve a better operation for both markets as well as the price forecasting for both spot markets. These enhancements are oriented to decrease electricity prices, energy use and the system CO2 emissions.

    Also, the main organizations of the market and their roles has been characterized, clarifying the functions of the Market Operator and the System Operator. In addition, the different markets, the trading products and the price formation have been explained and the picture of the market structure has been achieved with enough depth.

    Moreover, some of the most used methods in Time Series Analysis has been enumerated to understand which techniques are needed for forecast the electricity prices and the methodology used (Box-Jenkins Method) has been explained in detail. Later, all these methods have been implemented in an own code developed in Python 3.6 (TSAFTools .py) with the help of different statistics libraries mentioned during the method chapter.

    On the other hand, the description of the market situation has been carried out for both countries. Power installed capacity, electricity generation, average prices, main renewable technologies and policies to increase the renewable energy share has been analysed and corresponding described.

    Then, to estimate the market’s future spot electricity prices, ARIMA models have been selected to analyse the evolution of the day-ahead price using the TSAFTools.py. The final models show a proper performance in the two markets, especially in the Nordpool, achieving an RMSE: 37.68 and MAPE: 7.75 for the year in 2017 in Nordpool and a RMSE: 270.08 and MAPE: 20.24 in OMIE for 2017. Nordpool spot prices from 2015 to 2016 has been analysed too but obtaining a result not as good as the year 2017 with an RMSE: 49.01 and MAPE: 21.42.

    After this analysis, the strengths and weaknesses of both markets are presented and the main problems of the Spanish electricity system (power overcapacity, fuel dependency, non-cost-efficient renewable energies policies, lack of interconnexion capacity etc.) and the Swedish electricity system (dependency for nuclear power, uncertainty for solar electricity Generation) are presented.

    Finally, due to the quick development of the energy sector in the last years and the concern of the European Committee to reach a new design for the electricity market, different kinds of recommendations for the future have been considered.

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    Swedish and Spanish electricity market: Comparison, improvements, price forecasting and a global future perspective
  • 302.
    Bahrami, Alireza
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Ameen, Arman
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Nkweto, Henry
    Energy Audit of Two Multifamily Buildings and Economic Evaluation of Possible Improvements2023In: Urban Transition: Perspectives on Urban Systems and Environments / [ed] Marita Wallhagen and Mathias Cehlin, IntechOpen , 2023Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AbstractThe energy use of buildings is gradually increasing, which is due to economic growth and an increase in population. Several studies have indicated that the implementation of energy-saving measures (ESMs) such as thermal insulation results in more energy saving; however, most ESMs are not economically viable. This chapter outlines ESMs using the IDA ICE computer software. The evaluation of the energy performance of two multifamily buildings is conducted, and possible ESMs are suggested such as thermal insulation, changing windows, installing a new air handling unit, installing a heat exchanger in showers, improving thermal bridges, replacing lighting bulbs, increasing external insulation plus temperature reduction, and changing schedules for air discharge control. The economic feasibility of these suggestions is assessed using the life cycle cost analysis to determine their economic viability. This involves the determination of the life cycle cost and life cycle cost saving to decide the best option. The most important factor in determining life cycle cost saving is the modified uniform present value. The addition of the attic insulation, installing a heat exchanger in showers, replacing lighting bulbs, and changing schedules meet the economic requirement within a feasible time frame.

  • 303.
    BAIGORRI GARCIA, ISRAEL
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    DESIGN AND VIABILITY OF A THERMAL POWER-PLANT IN SPAIN2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 304.
    Baillet, Claire
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Conception of an electric bus line simulation tool: Development of a tool allowing for the design of electric bus lines charging infrastructures at INGEROP2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    See file

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  • 305.
    Bakhiet, Omnia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Mustafa, Riham
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Biogas Production in Abu Dhabi: An Evaluation based on Energy and Economy (Comparison of two plant designs)2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abu Dhabi, which is the capital city of the United Arab Emirates, is known for its fast and advanced development in a short period of time. The city however generates a large amount of waste on a daily basis and a large amount of this is dumped or landfilled. Landfilling of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), contributes to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and circa 80 % of the OFMSW is landfilled in Abu Dhabi. However, Abu Dhabi has shown its commitment to reducing GHG emissions by aiming to generate 7% renewable energy by 2030, improving waste management, and developing a strategy for green economy. In this study the approach evaluated is the waste-to-biogas system which utilizes anaerobic digestion of the OFMSW. Modules based on the Aikan® and REnescience® plant designs were simulated using SuperPro Designer® where energy and economic values were obtained and used for the evaluations. Excel was used to make a cash-flow analysis for both modules. A SWOT analysis was conducted to compare the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats between both modules.

    Energy Returned on Investment is an approach that calculates the efficiency of a fuel by dividing the energy acquired by the energy required in a process. Both modules give an energy returned on investment (EROI) ratio for biogas of slightly below 2:1, in regards to electricity which is considered relatively low when compared to other fuels. Three methods were used for calculating the profitability of the modules, internal rate of return, pay-back period and net present value (NPV). However the net present value (NPV) was found most reliable and showed an NPV of $500 000 and $3 000 000 for module one and two respectively and calculations show that module one has more risks while module two could result in a bigger risk monetarily. The results show that implementing such a system will have a minimal contribution to the city’s aim of 7 % renewable energy generation. However, it will contribute to the city’s target of reducing GHG emission, improve waste management, and lead to a green economy. 

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  • 306. Bakhtiari, H.
    et al.
    Hesamzadeh, Mohammad Reza
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Bunn, D.
    TSO-DSO Operational Coordination Using a Look-Ahead Multi-Interval Framework2022In: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, ISSN 0885-8950, E-ISSN 1558-0679, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the rise of distributed energy resources and the increasing activation of flexibility resources by Distribution Systems Operators (DSOs), the Transmission System Operators (TSOs) need to co-ordinate their actions with those of the DSOs. This research uses a look-ahead multi-interval (LA-MI) framework for analyzing this coordination and explores two formulations. Firstly in the exogenous DSO model, a mixed-integer linear program is developed to reflect the pragmatic approach in many real situations whereby the TSO can only anticipate statistically the actions of the DSO. In the embedded DSO model, as a comparator, we propose a new organizational setup for the TSO-DSO operational coordination mechanism. In the resulting bilevel decomposition, a new method to calculate Benders cuts is developed and tested on a modified IEEE 118-bus test system as a transmission network and two modified IEEE 33-bus test systems as distribution networks. The benefits of the LA-MI coordination framework are substantial in comparison with the current Look-Ahead Single-Interval (LA-SI) coordination framework widely used in Europe. 

  • 307.
    Bakhtiari, Hamed
    et al.
    Electrical Engineering Department, Hamedan University of Technology, Mardom Street, Shahid Fahmideh Boulevard, Hamedan, Iran.
    Naghizadeh, Ramezan Ali
    Electrical Engineering Department, Hamedan University of Technology, Mardom Street, Shahid Fahmideh Boulevard, Hamedan, Iran.
    Multi-criteria optimal sizing of hybrid renewable energy systems including wind, photovoltaic, battery, and hydrogen storage with ɛ-constraint method2018In: IET Renewable Power Generation, ISSN 1752-1416, E-ISSN 1752-1424, Vol. 12, p. 883-892Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hybrid renewable energy systems (HRES) should be designed appropriately with an adequate combination of different renewable sources and various energy storage methods to overcome the problem of intermittency of renewable energy resources. A multi-criteria approach is proposed in this study to design an HRES including wind turbine, photovoltaic panels, fuel cell, electrolyser, hydrogen tank, and battery storage unit with an intermittent load. Three design criteria including loss of power supply probability, total energy loss (TEL), and the power difference between generation and storing capacity (as TELSUB) are taken into account in minimising the total cost of the system considering the interest rate and lifetime. The justifications and advantages of using these criteria are thoroughly discussed along with appropriate presentation of the results. The purpose of considering TEL and TELSUB is discussed thoroughly. The ɛ-constraint method is used to handle practical constraints of the proposed multi-criteria problem to construct a multi-objective fitness function. Shuffled frog leaping algorithm is implemented to achieve better optimal results. The proposed approach is implemented using real wind speed and solar irradiance data for a specific location with an intermittent load demand. The results verify performance of the proposed multi-criteria design procedure.

  • 308.
    Bakhtiari, Hamed
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Zhong, Jin
    University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Alvarez, Manuel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Risk-Averse Pricing Strategy for Demand ResponseManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Interruptible/curtailable demand response program (ICDRP) is a valuable ancillary service resource in electricity markets. Due to the uncertainty of customer behavior in a market, risk-based pricing for ICDRP is needed. It is also necessary to evaluate the eligibility conditions for utilizing uncertain ICDRP as an ancillary service. In this paper, we first propose a pricing strategy that allocates payoffs to the coalition of ICDRP participants considering risk management costs caused by the uncertain responsiveness of ICDRP participants while maximizing the system operator’s ability to cope with uncertainties and optimizing generation outputs and regulation price in the frequency regulation market. Then, we investigate the flexibility of predetermined reserves in the forward electricity market as an eligibility condition for risk-averse utilization of ICDRP. A risk-averse Shapley value method is developed in the proposed pricing strategy. Finally, we carry out numerical studies to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed pricing strategy to determine the incentives and penalties in a fair way. We also demonstrate the necessity of considering the uncertainties of ICDRP responsiveness in the required reserve selection process to successfully exploit the benefits of ICDRP in the frequency regulation market.

  • 309.
    Bakhtiari, Hamed
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Zhong, Jin
    The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Alvarez, Manuel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    The Utilization of Demand Response Programs In Renewable-based Microgrids: Benefits and Challenges2021In: CIRED 2021 - The 26th International Conference and Exhibition on Electricity Distribution, Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2021, p. 2999-3003, article id 0213Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 310.
    Bakhtiari, Hossein
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Evaluation of Thermal Comfort and Night Ventilation in a Historic Office Building in Nordic Climate2020Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Envelopes with low thermal performance are common characteristics in European historic buildings resulting in insufficient thermal comfort and higher energy use compared to modern buildings. There are different types of applications for the European historic buildings such as historic churches, historic museums, historic theatres, etc. In historic buildings refurbished to offices, it is vital to improve thermal comfort for the staff. Improving thermal comfort should not increase, preferably reduce, energy use in the building.

    The overall aim in this research is to explore how to improve thermal comfort in historic buildings without increasing, preferably reducing, energy use with the application of non-intrusive methods. This is done in form of a case study in Sweden. Thermal comfort issues in the case study building are determined through a field study. The methods include field measurements with thermal comfort equipment, data logging on BMS, and evaluating the occupant’s perception of a summer and a winter period indoor environment using a standardized questionnaire. According to questionnaire and thermal comfort measurements results, it is revealed that the summer period has the most dissatisfied occupants, while winter thermal comfort is satisfactory – but not exceptionally good.

    Accordingly, natural heat sinks could be used in form of NV, as a non/intrusive method, in order to improve thermal comfort in the building. For the historic building equipped with mechanical ventilation, NV strategy has the potential to both improve thermal comfort and reduce the total electricity use for cooling (i.e. electricity use in the cooling machine + the electricity use in the ventilation unit’s fans). It could decrease the percentage of exceedance hours in offices by up to 33% and reduce the total electricity use for cooling by up to 40%. The optimal (maximum) NV rate (i.e. the potential of NV strategy) is dependent on the thermal mass capacity of the building, the available NV cooling potential (dependent on the ambient air temperature), COP value of the cooling machine, the SFP model of the fans (low SFP value for high NV rate is optimal), and the offices’ door scheme (open or closed doors).

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  • 311.
    Balachandran, Arvind
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonsson, Tomas Uno
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Scania AB, Södertalje, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    DC Charging Capabilities of Battery-Integrated Modular Multilevel Converters Based on Maximum Tractive Power2023In: Electricity, E-ISSN 2673-4826, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 62-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increase in the average global temperature is a consequence of high greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, using alternative energy carriers that can replace fossil fuels, especially for automotive applications, is of high importance. Introducing more electronics into an automotive battery pack provides more precise control and increases the available energy from the pack. Battery-integrated modular multilevel converters (BI-MMCs) have high efficiency, improved controllability, and better fault isolation capability. However, integrating the battery and inverter influences the maximum DC charging power. Therefore, the DC charging capabilities of 5 3-phase BI-MMCs for a 40-ton commercial vehicle designed for a maximum tractive power of 400 kW was investigated. Two continuous DC charging scenarios are considered for two cases: the first considers the total number of submodules during traction, and the second increases the total number of submodules to ensure a maximum DC charging voltage of 1250 V. The investigation shows that both DC charging scenarios have similar maximum power between 1 and 3 MW. Altering the number of submodules increases the maximum DC charging power at the cost of increased losses.

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  • 312.
    Balciunas, Dominykas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Thermoeconomic analysis of LNG physical exergy use for electricity production in small-scale satellite regasification stations2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) cold utilization in small scale regasification stations is a novel topic in the industry, while such systems have been proven feasible in large scale LNG facilities. Cold recovery and utilization in LNG regasification facilities would increase the thermodynamic efficiency and reduce cold pollution. The aim of the study is to analyze the possibility to apply industry-proven thermodynamic cycles in small scale satellite regasification stations for electricity production, taking the characteristics of a real-world regasification station project in Druskininkai, Lithuania for which useful cold utilization is not currently planned.

    Direct Expansion (DE) and Rankine (ORC) Cycles are analyzed together with cascading using Aspen Hysys software to find the optimal solution considering thermal and exergy efficiency as well as the payback period.

    Thermoeconomically feasible retrofit solutions of approximately 13% thermal efficiency and approximately 17% exergy efficiency showing payback periods of 5 to 10 years and 3.3 to 6 thousand euro additional capital expenditure (CAPEX) per net kW of power production are found.

    Increase in complexity of thermodynamic cycles is directly proportional to both increased thermodynamic efficiencies and capital costs and the study proves that there is a limit at which increase in thermodynamic efficiency of a cycle by cascading becomes economically infeasible. Future work is suggested to improve the accuracy of the results by rigorous design to evaluate pressure drops as well as improvements in economic analysis by utilizing the discounted cash flow methodology. Sensitivity analysis of LNG physical and chemical conditions as well as ambient air could be performed whereas changes in working fluid and better engineering of the part related to intial heat exchange could improve thermodynamic efficiencies. Alternative solutions with a higher temperature heat source are also suggested.

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  • 313.
    Balderrama, Sergio
    et al.
    Univ Liege, Integrated & Sustainable Energy Syst, Liege, Belgium.;San Simon Univ, Ctr Univ Invest Energia, Cochabamba, Bolivia..
    Lombardi, Francesco
    Politecn Milan, Dept Energy, Milan, Italy.;Delft Univ Technol, Dept Engn Syst & Serv, Delft, Netherlands..
    Stevanato, Nicolo
    Politecn Milan, Dept Energy, Milan, Italy.;FEEM Fdn Eni Enrico Mattei, Milan, Italy..
    Pena Balderrama, J. Gabriela
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Colombo, Emanuela
    Politecn Milan, Dept Energy, Milan, Italy..
    Quoilin, Sylvain
    Univ Liege, Integrated & Sustainable Energy Syst, Liege, Belgium..
    Surrogate models for rural energy planning: Application to Bolivian lowlands isolated communities2021In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 232, article id 121108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thanks to their modularity and their capacity to adapt to different contexts, hybrid microgrids are a promising solution to decrease greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. To properly assess their impact in different settings at country or cross-country level, microgrids must be designed for each particular situation, which leads to computationally intractable problems. To tackle this issue, a methodology is proposed to create surrogate models using machine learning techniques and a database of microgrids. The selected regression model is based on Gaussian Processes and allows to drastically decrease the computation time relative to the optimal deployment of the technology. The results indicate that the proposed methodology can accurately predict key optimization variables for the design of the microgrid system. The regression models are especially well suited to estimate the net present cost and the levelized cost of electricity (R-2 = 0.99 and 0.98). Their accuracy is lower when predicting internal system variables such as installed capacities of PV and batteries (R-2 = 0.92 and 0.86). A least-cost path towards 100% electrification coverage for the Bolivian lowlands mid-size communities is finally computed, demonstrating the usability and computational efficiency of the proposed framework.

  • 314.
    Bales, Chris
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Betak, Jan
    Broum, Michal
    Chèze, David
    Cuvillier, Guillaume
    Haberl, Robert
    Hafner, Bernd
    Haller, Michel
    Poppi, Stefano
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Weidinger, Alexander
    Optimized solar and heat pump systems, components and dimensioning: Deliverable 7.3 - MacSheep - New Materials and Control for a next generation of compact combined Solar and heat pump systems with boosted energetic and exergetic performance2015Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes the optimised solar and heat pump systems developed in the MacSheepproject as well as the simulation results for these systems. Four systems have been developed by four different development groups, each with one private company participating. The development groups have chosen different types of systems as well as different target loads for their systems, which give a wide coverage of the potential markets. The aim of the project was to achieve a 25% performance increase compared to state of the art systems, while being cost-competitive compared to the state of the art.Two reference state of the art solar and heat pump systems have been defined, modelled,and simulated to derive benchmark electricity demands and SPF values for the boundary conditions that were defined for the MacSheep project. The reference systems usedtheground (boreholes) orair as a heat source for the heat pump. The chosen boundary conditions were the climates of Zurich and Carcassone, arealistic DHW load,and two buildings, one representing a modern low energy building (SFH45) and one representing an existing building (SFH100). These reference systems and boundary conditions were defined within the first year of the project, and are used throughout the project.New components were developed for the MacSheepsolar and heat pump systems and these developments are reported in the reportsof work packages 3 –6. Component models have been programmed and validated with laboratory measurements.In this report, simulation results for the four MacSheep systems arecompared to the relevant reference system in order to quantify the expected performance increase. These simulations include the component models with their validated parameters and performance obtained from phase 3 of the project.In addition, the costs of the systemswere estimated. The key performance indicator for the final system developments was defined as a figure for electric savings (25%) compared to the state of the art at competitive (i.e. comparable) cost. Therefore, cost-savings that were achieved for some of the components that were developed were allowed to be compensated by increased cost for other components or increased collector areasin order to show the project's achievements in the light of the defined key performance indicator.At present, the updated simulations show electric savings of 17%, 24%, 26%, and 30%, respectively, for the different developments and the different target heat loads.Threeof these systems will be built and tested during 2015,using the whole system test method that was further developed within the MacSheep project (see report D2.3 for more details). The results from these tests will give benchmark energy used of these systems both for the test sequence itself but also on an annual base. In addition, the simulation models described in this report will be verified against the measurements and then used for annual simulations for otherboundary conditionsthan the once that are represented in the test sequence.

  • 315.
    Bales, Chris
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Betak, Jan
    Broum, Michal
    Chèze, David
    CEA INES.
    Cuvillier, Guillaume
    Haberl, Robert
    Institut für Solartechnik SPF Hochschule für Technik HSR.
    Haller, Michel Y.
    Institut für Solartechnik SPF Hochschule für Technik HSR.
    Hamp, Quirin
    Poppi, Stefano
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Weidinger, Alexander
    Final report on storage developments in WP - Deliverable 5.4: MacSheep - New Materials and Control for a next generation of compact combined Solar and heat pump systems with boosted energetic and exergetic performance2015Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 316.
    Balke, Nina
    et al.
    Oak Ridge National Lab, TN 37831 USA.
    Bonnell, Dawn
    University of Penn, PA 19104 USA.
    Ginger, David S.
    University of Washington, WA 98195 USA.
    Kemerink, Martijn
    Technical University of Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Scanning probes for new energy materials: Probing local structure and function2012In: MRS bulletin, ISSN 0883-7694, E-ISSN 1938-1425, Vol. 37, no 7, p. 633-637Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The design and control of materials properties, often at the nanoscale, are the foundation of many new strategies for energy generation, storage, and efficiency. Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) has evolved into a very large toolbox for the characterization of properties spanning size scales from hundreds of microns to nanometers. Recent advances in SPM involve properties and size scales of precise relevance to energy-related materials, as presented in this issue. These advances are put into the general context of energy research, and the general principles are summarized.

  • 317.
    Balksten, Kristin
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Broström, Tor
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Myrin, Malin
    Tyréns AB.
    Thelin, Carl
    Tyréns AB.
    Kettunen, Rebeca
    Gotland Museum.
    Mebus, Ulrika
    Gotland Museum.
    Increased use of ruins through secured masonry and comfortable climate2010In: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Science and Technology in Archaeology and Conservation, Petra, Jordan, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a unique scientific research project, funded by the KK-foundation in Sweden together with several companies participating in the project. A primary goal is to find methods to examine and take care of open masonry constructions thereby enabling an increased use of them in a safe and comfortable way without diminishing their cultural values. A second goal is to establish a long-term cooperation/network of researchers, conservators, engineers, antiquarians and craftsmen that can keep and develop the knowledge. The project takes place in year 2010 and 2011. This paper presents a model of cooperation as well as the ongoing experiment and expected results. The project is divided into three major parts:1) Description and assessment of historic masonry as load bearing structures. 2) Assessment of stone and mortar in old masonry and finding the methods to secure and preserve them. 3) The climate in the ruin with respect to comfort and preservation. The goals for the different parts of this research project are to find the best possible solutions of how to: a) Evaluate the construction of complex masonry structures to enable new additions that are appropriate with respect to statics. b) Find efficient methods to evaluate and conserve the status of the materials (stone, mortar) and walls in old masonry to grant safe accessibility. c) Create a comfortable climate in an open masonry structure without closing it. These three research areas all focus on the historic masonry which at the same time forms the climate shell, the bearer of plaster and the historical setting to the activities that are to take place in the ruin.

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    Increased us of ruins
  • 318. Balram, Pavam
    et al.
    Tuan, Le Anh
    Bertling Tjernberg, Lina
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Centralized charging control of plug-in electric vehicles and effects on day-ahead electricity market price2015In: Plug In Electric Vehicles in Smart Grids, Springer, 2015, p. 267-299Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global policy targets to reduce greenhouse gas emissions have led to increased interest in plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) and their integration into the electricity network. Existing electricity markets, however, are not well suited to encourage direct participation of flexible demand from small consumers such as PEV owners. The introduction of an aggregator agent with the functions of gathering, aggregating, controlling and representing the energy needs of PEV owners in the electricity market could prove useful in this regard. In this chapter, a mathematical model of PEV aggregator for participation in the day-ahead electricity market is described. The modeling is done by treating each of the individual vehicle batteries as a single large battery. The centralized charging and discharging of this battery is then scheduled based on the traveling needs of the PEV owners determined by an aggregated driving profile and the cumulative electrical energy needs of vehicles over the optimization horizon. Two methods for scheduling PEV demand named as joint scheduling method (JSM) and aggregator scheduling method (ASM) are presented. The two methods are subsequently used to observe the effects of introducing flexible scheduling of PEVs on the day-ahead market price in an IEEE test system and a Nordic test system. Results from the IEEE test system case studies will indicate that the scheduling of PEV energy through direct centralized control at high PEV penetration levels of 50 % or greater could lead to potential lowering of day-ahead market prices as compared to an indirect control method such as the use of fixed period charging. Results from the Nordic test system case study shows that controlled scheduling of PEV demand could lead to only a small increase in day-ahead market price of electricity.

  • 319.
    Banerjee, Sourasekhar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Ghosh, Soumitra
    Department of Computing Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Patna, India.
    Mishra, Brojo Kishore
    GIET University, Gunupur, India.
    Application of deep learning for energy management in smart grid2022In: Deep learning in data analytics: recent techniques, practices and applications / [ed] Debi Prasanna Acharjya; Anirban Mitra; Noor Zaman, Springer, 2022, , p. 19p. 221-239Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the modern electronic power system, energy management and load forecasting are important tasks. Energy management systems are designed concerning monitoring and optimizing the energy requirement in smart systems. This research work is divided into two parts. The first part will contain load forecasting and energy management in a smart grid. Load forecasting in the smart grid can be divided into three parts long-term, mid-term, and short-term load forecasting. The second part will describe energy usage optimization for the electric vehicle. Here we will show grids to vehicle energy demand management and optimization. This chapter will first introduce different deep learning techniques and then discuss their applications related to smart-grid and smart vehicle.

  • 320. Banfill, P.F.G.
    Hygrothermal properties of NHL mortars2018In: Conference Report: The 3rd International Conference on Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings / [ed] Tor Broström, Lisa Nilsen and Susanna Carlsten, Uppsala University, 2018, p. 71-79Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 321.
    Bang Jensen, Maria Isabel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Lundberg, Simon
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Sustainable Implementation of Photovoltaic Technologies in Mauritius: A study on the energy system in Mauritius and the effect of solar power generation on frequency stability2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Mauritius is an isolated island with ambitious targets for renewable energy generation and plans to invest in more solar power. The aim of this study is to assess how the implementation of photovoltaic technologies might affect the frequency stability in Mauritius and thus assess whether solar power can help the country obtain their targets for green energy generation. The research question is answered by conducting a literature study and simulating relevant scenarios in Matlab and Simulink. By simulating the frequency response for a production disturbance with different values for system inertia and PV capacity, the inertia requirements for frequency stability is assessed. Mauritius appears to have a high potential for increasing solar power generation. Based on the simulations, their electrical grid seems to be able to maintain frequency stability with PV capacity corresponding to the generation targets for 2020, 2025 and 2030, even for low amounts of system inertia. However, the significance of these results are called into question because of the varying quality of input data. With more accurate, specific data, the applicability of the results can be improved. Nevertheless, the study can be used as a guideline on how to use the given model to evaluate frequency stability in isolated power systems in island states. Ways to further this study is to evaluate other stability challenges related to PV production such as the reactive power in the system, voltage stability and rotor angle stability.

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  • 322.
    Bano, Sayyeda Umbereen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Ghandhari, Mehrdad
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Eriksson, Robert
    Swedish National Grid System Development, Sundbyberg, Sweden.
    A Comparative Analysis Of Techniques For Real-Time Transient Stability Assessment2022In: 2022 North American Power Symposium, NAPS 2022, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) , 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Real-time monitoring of transient stability is crucial in power systems to avoid sudden blackout and power failure. Previously developed algorithms based on the concept of Maximum Lyapunov Exponent and Synchrophasor Measurements claim to have fast prediction of transient stability after a severe disturbance. In this paper, formerly established techniques for real-time transient stability assessment are implemented to the IEEE-39 bus test system for various fault case scenarios. Based on the obtained results from these techniques, a comparative analysis is performed to determine accuracy, effectiveness and robustness of each technique.

  • 323.
    Bao, Minglei
    et al.
    Zhejiang Univ, Coll Elect Engn, Hangzhou 310058, Peoples R China..
    Ding, Yi
    Zhejiang Univ, Coll Elect Engn, Hangzhou 310058, Peoples R China..
    Sang, Maosheng
    Zhejiang Univ, Coll Elect Engn, Hangzhou 310058, Peoples R China..
    Li, Daqing
    Beihang Univ, Sch Reliabil & Syst Engn, Beijing 100191, Peoples R China..
    Shao, Changzheng
    Zhejiang Univ, Coll Elect Engn, Hangzhou 310058, Peoples R China..
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Modeling and evaluating nodal resilience of multi-energy systems under windstorms2020In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 270, article id UNSP 115136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the growing frequency and extent of extreme weather events, the resilient operation of multi-energy systems (MESs) has drawn attention nowadays. However, there is little study on the methodology with a set of key indicators to quantify the resilience of MESs with the consideration of the impacts of extreme weather. To address the problem, this paper proposes a framework to evaluate the time-dependent resilience of MESs considering energy interactions during extreme weather events, such as windstorms. Firstly, the multi-phase performance curve is utilized to describe the response behavior of MESs at different phases under the impacts of windstorms. Secondly, a service-based optimal energy flow model is developed to minimize the consequences caused by windstorms through the coordination among different energy subsystems. In order to model the chaotic failures and restoration of components, the Monte-Carlo simulation technique is applied. Furthermore, nodal resilience metrics for different energy carriers are proposed to quantify the resilience in MESs. Numerical studies demonstrate the capability of the proposed technique to quantify the resilience of MESs under windstorms. The results show that the resilience performance level of MESs can differ in different regions with the impacts of windstorms. The findings can provide a useful reference for system operators to constitute targeted resilience improvement measures.

  • 324.
    Bao, Minglei
    et al.
    Zhejiang Univ, Coll Elect Engn, Hangzhou 310058, Peoples R China..
    Ding, Yi
    Zhejiang Univ, Coll Elect Engn, Hangzhou 310058, Peoples R China..
    Sang, Maosheng
    Zhejiang Univ, Coll Elect Engn, Hangzhou 310058, Peoples R China..
    Li, Daqing
    Beihang Univ, Sch Reliabil & Syst Engn, Beijing 100191, Peoples R China..
    Shao, Changzheng
    Zhejiang Univ, Coll Elect Engn, Hangzhou 310058, Peoples R China..
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes. Mälardalen Univ, Sch Business Soc & Energy, Västerås, Sweden.
    Modeling and evaluating nodal resilience of multi-energy systems under windstorms2020In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 270, article id 115136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the growing frequency and extent of extreme weather events, the resilient operation of multi-energy systems (MESs) has drawn attention nowadays. However, there is little study on the methodology with a set of key indicators to quantify the resilience of MESs with the consideration of the impacts of extreme weather. To address the problem, this paper proposes a framework to evaluate the time-dependent resilience of MESs considering energy interactions during extreme weather events, such as windstorms. Firstly, the multi-phase performance curve is utilized to describe the response behavior of MESs at different phases under the impacts of windstorms. Secondly, a service-based optimal energy flow model is developed to minimize the consequences caused by windstorms through the coordination among different energy subsystems. In order to model the chaotic failures and restoration of components, the Monte-Carlo simulation technique is applied. Furthermore, nodal resilience metrics for different energy carriers are proposed to quantify the resilience in MESs. Numerical studies demonstrate the capability of the proposed technique to quantify the resilience of MESs under windstorms. The results show that the resilience performance level of MESs can differ in different regions with the impacts of windstorms. The findings can provide a useful reference for system operators to constitute targeted resilience improvement measures.

  • 325.
    Baradar, Mohamadreza
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Hesamzadeh, Mohammad R.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Calculating Negative LMPs from SOCP-OPF2014In: ENERGYCON 2014 - IEEE International Energy Conference, IEEE Computer Society, 2014, p. 1461-1466Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research shows that non-convex OPF problem can be recast as a convex Semidefinite Programming (SDP) problem or Second Order Cone Programming (SOCP) problem. However, in the most SOCP OPF problems, there are some cases that conic relaxation results in a miscalculation of negative Local Marginal Prices (LMPs). This paper reviews the SOCP formulation of the optimal power flow problem proposed in [1] and then proposes one way of generating negative Locational Marginal Prices, LMPs, using this SOCP formulation. The proposed model is coded in GAMS and its built MOSEK solver and tested on a modified version of IEEE-30 test system.

  • 326.
    Barakat, Darar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Fortum.
    Competitiveness of Offshore Wind in the Nordic and Baltic Countries: A Market Outlook2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main intent of this thesis is to prepare the material needed for companies to build a strategy definition for offshore wind. This will be done by creating a short to mid term market and technology forecast for offshore wind. This thesis will focus on estimating the future offshore wind market, by the use of historical data, and predict the possible costs related to offshore wind. This will be done by estimating an outlook for the LCOE, CAPEX and OPEX, as well as other important factors that relate to the market outlook. Throughout this research, quantitative and qualitative methods will be used to facilitate a five step frame of work to answer key questions like, what are the current technologies of offshore wind, and what are the costs associated with the industry, what are the future technologies and what will the costs of them be, what are some of the policies and support schemes that help offshore wind in the Nordic and Baltic countries and finally who are the different players within the wind market, and what is their contribution to the industry? Answering such questions will help stir the offshore wind strategy of newcomer companies, businesses or utilities, in order to decide on new targets, and achieve bigger goals, and build a roadmap for future possible investments with offshore wind being a concrete source of income. 

  • 327.
    Baranger, Renaud
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Performance Analysis of a Grid-Connected PV System in Borlänge, Sweden2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aimed to evaluate the performance of the new configuration of the array one of Högskolan Dalarna grid-connected PV system. This PV grid-connected system has been in operation since 1994. The system is composed of two arrays with a rated power of 1.62kW and two inverters of 1.2 kWp. In 2014 the new configuration of array one was composed of 4 strings of 9 modules each. This configuration had twice as much current than array two, and its voltage was halved (180V). The objective was to improve the global performance of the system, mostly under low irradiance conditions. The performance evaluation of the system was conducted according to IEC 61724 standard, and was performed in March and April 2014.

    It appeared that the higher current in array one improved the turn-on power of its inverter. While the inverter of array two started operating at 126W/m² the inverter of array one started at 37W/m². It was also shown that the array yield of array one increased by 1% at low irradiance (0-200W/m²) during the two months of this thesis work. Moreover, the input voltage dependency of the inverter was clearly shown. Halved the voltage in array one increased the inverter efficiency between 1% and 2%. It was shown that the higher current of the array one did not impact the losses of the system. The system losses also decreased between 9.4% and 10.5%. Besides, this work highlighted that arrays’ DC power was probably different. It led to a better performance of array two at high irradiance compare to array one. Eventually the performance ratio of array one was greater than array two during these two months. It reached 63.2% in March and 69.4% in April.

  • 328.
    Barassa, Jonathan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Nordlöf, Rickard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Numerical Study on Air Demand of Free Surface Flows in a Discharge Tunnel2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aeration issued through a ventilation shaft is an important measure to prevent cavitation and large gauge pressure in flood discharge tunnels. In order to dimension the ventilation shaft appropriately, itis necessary to have a good understanding of the air-water flow in the tunnel. In this study, the multiphase flow through a discharge tunnel was simulated in the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software ANSYS Fluent. Since the flow was separated, the simulation setup used the volume of fluid (VOF) multiphase model, that could track the water surface. Furthermore, the so called RNG k-epsilon turbulence model was used. The CFD model was validated with measured data provided from two open channel experiments carried out on a scaled model at Sichuan University. To ensure mesh independence, grid convergence index (GCI)studies were performed for the two validating cases. After the validation, a top wall and a ventilation shaft was added to the CFD model. The flow was then simulated for four different shaft designs and four different water inlet velocities. The air demand and air supply for the various scenarios could thereby be calculated. The results of this study were also compared with previous research on multiphase flow through tunnels with similar design. It was concluded that the air flow downstream in the tunnel converged for the two larger designs. It was also concluded that the air demand in the tunnel was satisfied for the larger ventilation shafts. A smaller study on cavitation was made and the risk was considered non-existent for all the simulated cases.

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  • 329.
    Barguilla Jiménez, Núria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    The effect of a thin foil on the heat losses behind a radiator2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     

    This thesis work is the study of the effect of an aluminium foil on the losses that produced by a radiator, situated under a window, through the wall behind it. The reason behind this topic is due to the energy problem and the different goals that governments have set up to try to reduce the use of energy. For example, more specifically a Swedish national goal is to decrease the energy use of the built stock with 50% by 2050.

     

    For this purpose, an experimental set-up was built in the University of Gävle, Sweden. The arrangement was composed by a radiator and a window facing a climate chamber. A total of twenty-one temperatures and two heat fluxes in the exterior wall were measured in the set-up. Ten different measurement scenarios with different radiator temperature, 40°C, 50°C and 60°C; two different distance between the radiator and the wall, 5 and 9 centimetres and with and without the aluminium foil, were performed.

     

    With the experimental results, a CFD model was validated. Two different models were done, first a 2D model and afterwards a 3D model. For the turbulence, the chosen model was standard k-ε model. There were 54 cases simulated with the 2D model and the 3D model was used just for validation. The cases had different variables such as radiator temperature, outdoor temperature and wall insulation. With these cases, analysis of the effectiveness of the presence of an aluminium foil behind the radiator is performed to evaluate if there is a significant reduction of the losses.

     

    The results showed with both methods that the aluminium foil reduces the losses of the wall behind the radiator. The savings varied depending on the boundary conditions of the case and it were obtained a maximum of 4% and a minimum of 1,3%.

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  • 330. Barker Jørgensen, Bo
    et al.
    Nørh Glud, Ronnie
    Holby, Ola
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Oxygen distribution and bioirrigation in Artic fjord sediments (Svalbard, Barents Sea)2005In: Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 292:85-95Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 331.
    Barney, Andrew
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Wind Energy.
    Energy planning for islands: Guiding island energy transition and decision-making2024Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance and benefits of transitioning away from fossil fuel based energy systems is becoming ever clearer. The transition is especially crucial for geographic islands that typically have limited, or no, access to mainland energy networks. This limited access means that they must rely on costly, economically and environmentally, imported fossil fuels for energy production. This isolation and reliance on imported fuels makes islands particularly energy insecure, which is only expected to worsen because of climate change. At the same time, much of the current guidance and policy developed to help plan for islands’ energy transition is based on the conditions and circumstances present on the mainland or on energy planning that focuses primarily on technical or economic parameters. To plan for a smoother, more successful transition away from fossil fuel based energy production on islands, more data is needed about islanders themselves and their local circumstances as well as planning guidance flexible enough to fit the variable needs of island planners that goes beyond a techno-economic focus.

    In this PhD Thesis and in response to these transition issues, an energy planning platform, REACT-DECARB, has been developed to specifically address the needs of island energy planners. This platform seeks to be holistic in its approach to facilitate the island energy transition planning procedure by considering typical island characteristics and energy transition processes while also including key technical, social, environmental and economic dimensions and granting planners flexibility in how they incorporate them. Additionally, surveys and interviews with island residents are conducted to gain an understanding of islanders’ motivations, priorities and awareness in relation to energy and energy transition as well as to determine if these can be of guidance to island energy transition planners.

    The applications of the REACT-DECARB platform on geographic islands representing eight different countries from around the EU with varying populations, land areas and climates identified energy transition opportunities and obstacles specific to the islands where the platform was applied as well as to other islands seeking to transition their energy systems. Moreover, these applications of the planning platform demonstrated its ability to help island planners in the development of holistic energy transition paths. The platform takes island energy transition planning beyond a focus on techno-economics by including a wider range of planning dimensions allowing them to decide the methods best suited to their island’s needs. Further, the interactions with island residents demonstrated that their relationships to energy could be informative in the development of energy transition plans as well as likely being critical to their success. Islanders’ understandings, motivations, priorities and awareness were found to be not only directly useful in guiding planners during the designing of island energy transition plans but can also serve to inform planners in how best to educate local residents about and engage them in local energy transition projects. Ultimately, the work in this Thesis contributes to the efforts to make sure islands’, and islanders’, needs and perspectives are considered and included as a part of the wider energy transition.

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  • 332.
    Barney, Andrew
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Wind Energy.
    Integrated regional energy planning for islands: Development of a decision-aiding methodological framework and application2022Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Clear and inclusive planning guidance for island planners seeking transitions away from traditional fossil fuel based energy systems is currently needed. At present, the guidance from the scientific community has largely been provided piecemeal and with significant focus on the specifics of single islands and, more often than not, on proposed energy systems’ techno-economics. To address these gaps in applicability and encourage a more balanced energy project analysis the REACT-DECARB integrated energy planning and decision-aiding platform has been developed. REACT-DECARB seeks to work as a comprehensive planning platform for island energy transition and this thesis investigates the ability of the platform to provide the support to planners needed to facilitate their transition planning. To do so the core concepts, descriptions and applications of decision making as well as a number of energy planning tools are presented. The platform is then described and its individual steps are applied to eight geographic islands within the EU. These applications of the platform identified key opportunities for the islands, such as significant RES potential, while also finding potential obstacles, such as land use conflicts. Further, it highlighted the high economic cost of seeking full electricity autonomy and of using substantial battery capacities. The platform additionally identified the importance local preferences can potentially have on the ranking of future energy scenarios as well as the impact lifetime project environmental costs can have on overall system environmental impacts. In summation, the REACT-DECARB platform is found to be an effective tool in directing island energy decarbonisation efforts by guiding local energy planners in what should be included in their planning and how these key elements can be incorporated in the decisions made. Further, the platform is found to be flexible enough to be applied to more than the specific circumstances of a single island and allows planners to adjust their approaches to its different steps as needed and to better match their capabilities.

  • 333.
    Barney, Andrew
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Wind Energy.
    Polatidis, Heracles
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Wind Energy.
    Jelić, Marko
    School of Electrical Engineering, University of Belgrade, Bulevar kralja Aleksandra 73, 11120 Belgrade, Serbia;Institute Mihajlo Pupin, University of Belgrade, Volgina 15, 11060 Belgrade, Serbia.
    Tomašević, Nikola
    Institute Mihajlo Pupin, University of Belgrade, Volgina 15, 11060 Belgrade, Serbia.
    Pillai, Gobind
    School of Computing, Engineering and Digital Technologies, Teesside University, Middlesbrough, Tees Valley TS1 3BX, UK.
    Haralambopoulos, Dias
    University of the Aegean, Dept. of Environment, University Hill, 81100 Mytilene, Lesvos, Greece.
    Transition towards decarbonisation for islands: Development of an integrated energy planning platform and application2021In: Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, ISSN 2213-1388, E-ISSN 2213-1396, Vol. 47, article id 101501Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents REACT-DECARB, an energy planning decarbonisation platform employing renewable energy sources coupled with storage for islands. The paper implements the energy scenario creation and economic evaluation steps of the platform on eight geographic islands in seven countries within the EU. Twenty-one technologically feasible energy scenarios, applicable to the specific conditions of each island, are specified and their economic assessment via a levelized cost of energy (LCOE) calculation is then performed. The main aim of this application is to verify the noted steps of the platform as well as to test its flexibility across geographically, socially and dimensionally disparate islands with various scenario generation methods. The results of the economic analysis show a wide variation of LCOE depending primarily on whether full island autonomy is assumed. In some cases the islands’ scenarios’ costs approach current market prices but are never below them; some scenarios are, however, below the current price of the island’s thermal generation. The sensitivity and uncertainty of the economic performance results’ and the variables used to calculate them are evaluated and discussed for two of the islands. The overall analysis and application has shown that the REACT-DECARB platform is suitable for different islands, regardless of location and size and can be useful for island energy planners.

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  • 334.
    Barney, Andrew
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Wind Energy.
    Uni, Reinert Petersen
    Polatidis, Heracles
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Wind Energy.
    Energy scenarios for the Faroe Islands: A MCDA methodology including local social perspectives2022In: Sustainable Futures, E-ISSN 2666-1888, Vol. 4, article id 100092Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Planning for the decarbonisation of island energy systems is both crucial and fraught with complexities. The process to develop and evaluate these plans needs to encompass not only technical and economic specifics but each plan's impacts on the environment and local inhabitants must also be considered. This inclusive planning involves multiple criteria and requires a means of handling them. In this paper a series of potential future energy systems are generated with the EnergyPlan software for the Faroe Islands before these systems are assessed using a set of criteria covering their environmental, social, technical and economic aspects. These criteria are used by two multi-criteria approaches, along with actual weights obtained from local stakeholders, to rank the energy systems. It is found that there is a clear shift in rankings towards systems employing offshore technologies due to the inclusion of social criteria specifically fitted to the Islands’ resident's preferences. This shift, however, was not sufficient for these offshore scenarios to outperform other scenarios that performed well on the other criteria. These findings indicate there is likely value in terms of local acceptance for transition planning on the Islands in adjusting to include greater quantities of offshore technologies in future energy strategies.

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  • 335.
    Barquín del Rosario, Susana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    The future of geothermal energy in Europe2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper it is investigated the role that geothermal energy could play in theenergy mix, to meet new system requirements.

    As any other source, geothermal energy harnessing implies a number of risksmainly related to induced seismicity and landslides, together with the releaseof as greenhouse gases and metal salts. Moreover, important barriers to itsimplementation still exist, mainly concerning financial aspects and drillingoperations. As well, administrative status is uncertain and related investmentin R&D negligible.

    However, geothermal energy presents important advantages in relation toother energy sources, as its reliability and large capacity factor, comparable tonuclear and natural gas plants. It could help to reduce both the globalwarming, whose potential is up to 5 times lower than in the case of fossilfuels, and the landuse, the lowest of any power plant. Additionally, in spite ofthe high and risky initial investment, energy produced by geothermal means is amongst the cheapest.

    The geothermal potential is large enough to substantially contribute to theenergy mix, through locally available resources. Economic potential in Europeby 2050 is estimated in 100 – 4 000 TWheand 880–1 050 TWhth. Nevertheless, currently available technology strongly limits the access togeothermal resources. In addition, predictions about geothermal utilizationare modest and have hardly been achieved to date. The key for the future isthe development of the Engineered Geothermal Systems.

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  • 336.
    Barragán-Beaud, Camila
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aalto University, School of Engineering, Aalto, Finland.
    Pizarro-Alonso, A.
    Xylia, Maria
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Syri, S.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Carbon tax or emissions trading?: An analysis of economic and political feasibility of policy mechanisms for greenhouse gas emissions reduction in the Mexican power sector2018In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 122, p. 287-299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study provides a comparative assessment of carbon-pricing instruments for the Mexican electricity sector, contrasting a carbon tax with an emissions trading scheme (ETS). The assessment is performed in terms of economic impacts and political feasibility. Model-based scenarios considering different price and quantity levels are analyzed on Balmorel-MX, a cost optimization bottom-up model of the Mexican electricity system. The political feasibility is evaluated using an online survey and interviews with representatives of relevant stakeholder groups. The assessment suggests that an ETS is the most appropriate instrument for the Mexican case. We recommend to set the cap as 31% abatement in relation to a baseline, which is suggested to be 102 MtCO2 by 2030, given the business-as-usual baseline used as reference by the Mexican government (202 MtCO2) is found to leave cost-effective abatement potential untapped. An emission trading system with such design has higher cost-efficiency and lower distributional effects than a carbon tax at equivalent ambition level (15 USD/tCO2). The political feasibility analysis confirms the assessment, as it is in line with the priorities of the stakeholder groups, allows earmarking carbon revenue and avoids exempting natural gas from carbon pricing.

  • 337.
    Barrios Rivero, Matías
    Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Applied Geosciences (AGW).
    EVALUATION OF AN AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE (ATES) SYSTEM FOR THE CITY HOSPITAL IN KARLSRUHE (GERMANY)2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate the economic, technical and environmental feasibility of an Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) system combined with groundwater heat pumps (GWHP) for providing space cooling and heating for the future surgery building at the city hospital in Karlsruhe. The base case system used as reference for comparison is a system similar to the one currently supplying space cooling from a GWHP system and space heating by the local district-heating network. In addition, two alternative systems were included in the analysis, an Absorption Chiller (AbC) and a Desiccative Evaporative Cooling (DEC) system, both fed from the district-heating network. The study shows that the ATES system combined with a GWHP system is the most environmentally and economically attractive system for the planned facility. The results for the AbC system and the DEC systems show a negative net present value, meaning that this alternative is economically unfeasible. Furthermore, the AbC system and the DEC system do not provide any environmental advantage, showing an annual increase in CO2 emissions compared to the base case. A similar system like the one already providing cooling to some of the facilities would have several advantages over these two alternatives. However, it cannot compete with the ATES system together with GWHP, which apart from providing cooling at slightly higher efficiencies than the base case also delivers heating at high efficiencies. Therefore, it offers great potential savings and also provides an annual reduction in green house gas emissions. Concerning the technical feasibility of the four studied systems, no obstacle or significant barrier could be identified yet.

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  • 338.
    Barroeta, Ander
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Design of a ventilation system for carbon dioxide reduction in two gym rooms2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project is mainly focused on the improving and design of the ventilation system of two rooms at different levels of a gym (Friskis and Svettis in Gävle, Sweden) to reduce the  concentration to never be higher than 1000 ppm.

    For this purpose, several field measurements were performed in different locations and situations. Two main measurements were necessary. On one hand, the  level in different parts of the rooms during different activities. On the other hand, the air flow through the inlet and outlet ducts of the ventilation system. It was also important to take into account the indoor temperature and humidity. These measurements were enough to analyze the failures of the system and to recognize the worst points of each room.

    Comparing both rooms, the necessity of changing the ventilation system in one of these rooms was much higher, due to there were measured  values up to 3000 ppm during a typical day in the gym.

    With this information the consequences of high CO2 levels in human people were analyzed. Among various ventilation systems, displacement ventilation system was proposed as the new design. Theoretical calculations were made to reach to the value of 31.8  in the air change rate (ACH), which was the necessary value for the new design to keep the carbon dioxide level under 1000 ppm.

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    Ander Barroeta Master Thesis
  • 339.
    Bartusch, Cajsa
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Boosting behavioral change in residential electricity consumption: demand response programs and feedback2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As part of realizing national and European climate ambitions, it is imperative to bring about increased energy efficiency and consumption flexibility in the residential sector of the Swedish power market. In addition to governmental policy instruments to this end, market-based measures play an important role in making behavioral change in domestic electricity use happen. In light of the prevailing lack of incentives for residential consumers to save electricity and cut peak demand at times of physical and financial market constraints, the research studies that form the basis of this thesis have the aim of adding to the body of knowledge on policy instruments for the purpose of boosting behavioral change in residential electricity consumption. The research has accordingly contributed to the general statistics on residential electricity consumption, which constitute the starting point for policy instrument development, and augmented knowledge on the merits of residential demand response programs involving hourly settlements in power trading and demand-based, time-of-use tariffs in power distribution as well as graphic feedback on individual households’ electricity use by means of a statistics service provided over the Internet.

     

    The overall results have shown that household behavior, together with physical factors such as heating systems, help explain the sizeable differences in electricity consumption among homeowners. Statistical analysis of variance has in this context proven to be an effective method for identifying key indicators of policy development. Power suppliers and electricity consumers as well as society as a whole have been found to gain substantially from hourly settlements in retail. To suppliers, the greatest benefits are associated with risk management, while the major advantage to customers is that they are provided with an opportunity to reduce their electricity costs. It has also been empirically demonstrated that electricity users are willing to adjust their consumption to a demand-based, time-varying distribution tariff. Households generally have a favorable attitude towards this type of distribution tariff, seeing as they indirectly have a positive impact on the environment. Providing households with feedback over the Internet on their individual electricity use and demand has been shown to contribute to an increased awareness and lead to energy efficiency in homes. Easy accessibility and simplicity have proven to be key success factors in this context. Combining conventional bar charts, color symbolism and historic feedback is expedient in this respect.

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    Kappa
  • 340.
    Bartusch, Cajsa
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Visualisering av elanvändning i flerbostadshus: Delrapport inom ELAN Etapp III2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Elanvändningen i våra bostäder sker utan närmare eftertanke och reflektion. Återkopplingen avseende hushållens individuella elanvändning är i det avseendet mycket betydelsefull. I dagsläget är dock den förbrukningsinformation som hushållen har tillgång till mycket begränsad, i synnerhet i flerbostadshus. Syftet med projektet Visualisering av elanvändning i flerbostadshus är att utveckla och utvärdera designkoncept för individuell återkoppling till hushåll som bor i lägenhet. Designkoncepten avser en portabel display, en webbaserad statistiktjänst samt grafisk förbrukningsinformation på elräkningen. Det övergripande målet med projektet är en minskad och mer medveten elanvändning i flerbostadshus.

    Utvecklingen omfattar displayens och statistiktjänstens funktioner och gränssnitt samt en ändamålsenlig formgivning av den grafiska återkopplingen på elräkningen. Utvärderingen omfattar de boendes användning och upplevelser av de produkter och tjänster som designkoncepten avser. Projektet genomförs i två etapper, varav den första omfattar utvecklingen av ovan nämnda designkoncept och den andra avser utvärderingen av desamma. Föreliggande rapport avser den första etappen, medan den andra redovisas i samband med slutrapporteringen av projektet.

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  • 341.
    Bartusch, Cajsa
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Visualisering av elanvändning i flerbostadshus: Slutrapport inom ELAN Etapp III2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Elanvändningen i våra bostäder sker vanligtvis utan närmare eftertanke och reflektion. Återkopplingen avseende hushållens individuella elanvändning är i den meningen mycket betydelsefull. I dagsläget är dock den förbrukningsinformation som hushållen har tillgång till mycket begränsad, i synnerhet i flerbostadshus. Syftet med projektet Visualisering av elanvändning i flerbostadshus har varit att utveckla och utvärdera designkoncept för individuell återkoppling till hushåll som bor i lägenhet. Designkoncepten avser en portabel display, en webbaserad statistiktjänst samt grafisk förbrukningsinformation på elräkningen. Det övergripande målet med projektet har varit att bidra till en mer medveten och därmed effektivare elanvändning i flerbostadshus.Utvecklingen har omfattat displayens och statistiktjänstens funktioner och gränssnitt samt en ändamålsenlig formgivning av den grafiska återkopplingen på elräkningen.

    Utvärderingen har omfattat de boendes användning och upplevelser av de produkter och tjänster som designkoncepten avser. Projektet har genomförts i två etapper, varav den första har omfattat utvecklingen av ovan nämnda designkoncept och den andra har avsett utvärderingen av desamma. Föreliggande rapport avser i första hand den andra etappen, medan resultaten av den första har redovisats i sin helhet i en tidigare delrapport; Elforsk rapport 08:18.

    Den trådlösa displayen tillhandahåller framför allt funktioner med mer eller mindre direkt återkoppling, medan statistiktjänsten och i synnerhet den grafiska förbrukningsinformationen i första hand avser uppföljning av den individuella elanvändningen med längre tidsperspektiv. Både displayen och statistiktjänsten erbjuder även möjligheten att göra jämförelser mellan olika tidsperioder och med liknande hushåll. Traditionella stapeldiagram i kombination med förtydligande färgsymbolik har visat sig vara mycket funktionella och har följaktligen använts i flertalet av designkonceptens gränssnitt. Enkelhet och lättillgänglighet har visat sig vara de viktigaste framgångsfaktorerna i samband med återkoppling till elanvändare.

    Den grafiska förbrukningsinformationen på elräkningen har framstått som viktigast i den bemärkelsen att den utgör den återkoppling som når i särklass flest elkonsumenter. Egenskaperna enkelhet och lättillgänglighet har därför en särskilt avgörande betydelse i det här sammanhanget. Ett förhållandevis avskalat designkoncept har således förordats för ändamålet grafisk förbrukningsinformation på fakturan. Tidsupplösningen motsvarar faktureringsperioderna och grafens staplar representerar med andra ord de faktiska och förväntade månadsförbrukningarna under innevarande år samt i jämförande syfte de faktiska månadsförbrukningarna under föregående år.

    Utvecklingen och utvärderingen av en portabel display har omfattat två olika designkoncept: Interactive Institute’s Energy AWARE Clock och ”Ingenjörsdisplayen”. Namnen härstammar från gränssnittens olika utformningar av förbrukningsinformationen, som i jämförande syfte har varit abstrakt men intuitivt tillgänglig respektive konkret och reell. De användartester som har genomförts i hemmiljö tyder därvidlag på att användarna föredrar en kombination av de båda designkoncepten. För en optimal användning av den här produkten krävs en central placering i hemmet, vilket innebär att yttre egenskaper såsom en tilltalande design har visat sig ha stor betydelse för användarna.Den webbaserade statistiktjänsten, som kallas Energiinfo™, utgör den återkoppling som tillhandahåller flest alternativa tidsupplösningar.

    Förbrukningsinformationen som tillhandahålls på månads- och årsbasis har emellertid visat sig vara bäst lämpade för kontroll och uppföljning av hushållets elanvändning, vilka utgör de vanligaste användningsområdena. Användarnas syften är dock för övrigt högst varierande och möjligheten att anpassa förbrukningsinformationen för deras individuella behov har därför visat sig vara mycket betydelsefull i det här sammanhanget.

    Samtliga designkoncept som studien avser har visat sig vara mer eller mindre ändamålsenliga i den bemärkelsen att de i viss mån bidrar till en ökad medvetenhet om hushållets egen elförbrukning samt ett förändrat beteende i syfte att effektivisera densamma. Inget av designkoncepten har dock framstått som viktigare än det andra i det avseendet, utan den förbrukningsinformation som de olika återkopplingsalternativen tillhandahåller kompletterar snarare varandra. Vidare har inget av designkoncepten visat sig vara idealiskt för uppdelningsåterkoppling, vilket innebär information om hur mycket olika hushållsapparater bidrar till den totala elkonsumtionen och tenderar att vara den förbrukningsinformation som hushållen har störst behov av.

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  • 342.
    Bartusch, Cajsa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Alvehag, Karin
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Further exploring the potential of residential demand response programs in electricity distribution2014In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 125, p. 39-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart grids play a key role in realizing climate ambitions. Boosting consumption flexibility is an essential measure in bringing the potential gains of smart grids to fruition. The collective scientific understanding of demand response programs argues that time-of-use tariffs have proven its merits. The findings upon which this conclusion rests are, however, primarily derived from studies covering energy-based time-of-use rates over fairly short periods of time. Hence, this empirical study set out with the intention of estimating the extent of response to a demand-based time-of-use electricity distribution tariff among Swedish single-family homes in the long term. The results show that six years after the implementation households still respond to the price signals of the tariff by cutting demand in peak hours and shifting electricity consumption from peak to off-peak hours. Studies conducted in the Nordic countries commonly include only homeowners and so another aim of the study was to explore the potential of demand response programs among households living in apartment buildings. The demand-based tariff proved to bring about similar, but not as marked, effects in rental apartments, whereas there are virtually no corresponding evidences of demand response in condominium apartments.

  • 343.
    Bartusch, Cajsa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Juslin, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stikvoort, Britt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Yang-Wallentin, Fan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Öhrlund, Isak
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Opening the black box of demand response: Exploring the cognitive processes2024In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 189, article id 113925Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluations of price-based demand response programs tend to focus on users' electricity use patterns and/or their practical experiences. Less is known about the effects that price-based demand response programs have on cognitive drivers and barriers to energy-using behaviors and habits, or how well these predict timing of households' electricity use. This study seeks to address this gap by evaluating the effects of a mandatory demand-based time-of-use distribution tariff, using electricity-meter and questionnaire data in an intervention and a reference area, and a structural equation model following the theory of planned behavior. Although no effect was found of the tariff on the actual proportion of peak-hour use, there were significant effects on users’ intentions and motivations to shift electricity use to off-peak hours. The absence of effect on the proportion of peak-hour use seems explained by the facts that only a minority of consumers were aware of their tariffs, and by the (at least partially correct) beliefs that consumers used very little electricity and most of it was already used in off-peak hours. The relationships between intentions, drivers and the actual proportion of peak-hour use were stronger in the intervention area, compared to the reference area. Interestingly, this was true not only for the motivation targeted by the tariff, economic savings, but also for sustainability concerns and social norms. This suggests that effects of the tariff may partly run via other non-monetary motivators.

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  • 344.
    Bartusch, Cajsa
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Larsson, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Wester, Lars
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Potential of hourly settlements in the residential sector of the Swedish electricity market: Estimations of risk reduction and economic result2010In: International Journal of Green Energy, ISSN 1543-5075, E-ISSN 1543-5083, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 224-240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased demand response is essential in order to boost the effectiveness of the Swedish power market. The all-embracing installation of automatic meter reading systems enables power suppliers to introduce hourly settlements in the residential sector. The aim of the study has been to assess the impact of electricity retailers’ physical and financial risk in customer segments with different heating systems as well as to estimate the potential of the electricity contract ”Fixed price with the right to return” in terms of economic consequences and risk management. The results show that households whose main heating system consists of a geothermal heat pump constitute the largest physical price and volume risk of suppliers. The gain of introducing hourly settlements in the residential electricity market has furthermore proven to be manifold from both an economic and risk reducing point of view.

  • 345.
    Bartusch, Cajsa
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Wester, Lars
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Exploring variance in residential electricity consumption: Household features and building properties2012In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 92, p. 637-643Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved means of controlling electricity consumption plays an important part in boosting energy efficiency in the Swedish power market. Developing policy instruments to that end requires more in-depth statistics on electricity use in the residential sector, among other things. The aim of the study has accordingly been to assess the extent of variance in annual electricity consumption in single-family homes as well as to estimate the impact of household features and building properties in this respect using independent samples t-tests and one-way as well as univariate independent samples analyses of variance. Statistically significant variances associated with geographic area, heating system, number of family members, family composition, year of construction, electric water heater and electric underfloor heating have been established. The overall result of the analyses is nevertheless that variance in residential electricity consumption cannot be fully explained by independent variables related to household and building characteristics alone. As for the methodological approach, the results further suggest that methods for statistical analysis of variance are of considerable value in indentifying key indicators for policy update and development.

  • 346.
    Bartusch, Cajsa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Stikvoort, Britt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Residential demand response in the long run: Assessing the effects of a time-of-use power tariff 20 years after implementing it2018In: Behave 2018: Book of Abstracts / [ed] Hackenfort, Markus; Carabias-Hütter, Vicente; Hartmann, Cathérine; Janser, Marcel;: Schwarz, Natalie; Stücheli-Herlach, Peter, Zürich, 2018, p. 30-31Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 347.
    Bartusch, Cajsa
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Iana, Vassileva
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Wester, Lars
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Introducing a demand-based electricity distribution tariff in the residential sector: demand response and customer perception2011In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 39, no 9, p. 5008-5025Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased demand response is essential to fully exploit the Swedish power system, which in turn is an absolute prerequisite for meeting political goals related to energy efficiency and climate change. Demand response programs are, nonetheless, still exceptional in the residential sector of the Swedish electricity market, one contributory factor being lack of knowledge about the extent of the potential gains. In light of these circumstances, this empirical study set out with the intention of estimating the scope of households’ response to, and assessing customers’ perception of, a demand-based time-of-use electricity distribution tariff. The results show that households as a whole have a fairly high opinion of the demand-based tariff and act on its intrinsic price signals by decreasing peak demand in peak periods and shifting electricity use from peak to off-peak periods.

  • 348.
    Barås, Madeleine
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Assessing the environmental sustainability of an apparel supply chain: the development of a conceptual model based on a comparative study of preferred tools and actual practices2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The apparel and textile industry is one of the largest in the world and is characterised by complex, global supply chains, water and chemical intensive processes as well as environmentally harmful raw material extraction and production. Because of this, environmental sustainability has become a key issue for the businesses in recent years. With this in mind, and considering an increasing demand for textile and apparel goods, the industry is in urgent need of improving the environmental footprint of its products. However, lack of transparency and available data throughout apparel supply chains decrease chances of producing accurate sustainability assessments, which in turn obstruct improvement measures. Moreover, companies often lack the in-house competence required to manage and create strategies for sustainability assessments.

    In this study an overview of an apparel supply chain is provided, highlighting phases, sub phases, input and environmental indicators. Appropriate tools for assessing the environmental sustainability of such a supply chain are inventoried and examined. Based on a case study, a literature review and a stakeholder opinion assessment, misalignments between actual practices within an apparel company and recommended practices of the researcher and stakeholder communities are uncovered. These identified misalignments enabled the development of a conceptual model, aiming at facilitating the process of developing an environmental sustainability assessment strategy within an apparel company. 

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  • 349.
    Basar, Ezgi
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Capacity Building for Energy Performance Contracting in European Union2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Energy Performance Contracting (EPC) is an important tool to disseminate energy efficiency measures. This study focuses on the main barriers and success factors for EPC market in order to build capacity in this subject. A pilot study of questionnaire took part among the local authorities of four countries within the European Union; Croatia, Denmark, Czech Republic and Slovakia. The results of this pilot study were combined with the results of a literature research to identify common disadvantages and key points of the market. Afterwards, the most important actions to be taken on national and international level in European Union were discussed. According to this study, the supportive legal framework for the energy efficiency measures, access to financial resources, reliable energy consumption data and trust in Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) were remarked as the essential factors for increasing the capacity of the EPC.

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    Basar Ezgi EGI-2013-108MSC
  • 350.
    Basavalingappa, Sharat
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Grid-Tied Solar Photovoltaic (PV) System with Battery storage: A Brief Techno-Economic Analysis2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Most of the world’s electricity is being generated through conventional sources of energy like coal and nuclear. People are realizing the dire effect of using these fuels, and the amount of CO2 being released into the environment. Therefore, in recent year there has been a shift in emphasis towards cleaner ways of generating electricity. One such recent trend is solar photovoltaics (PV), which has seen rapid growth over the years. This ever-increasing trend of adopting PV system allows consumers to be producers or “Prosumers”. Due to the irregular production capability of solar PV, the need for an energy storage system like a battery bank is on the rise as well. This report evaluates how solar PV can be used in combination with a battery bank to supply the annual electricity demand for a household with little to no support from the grid. The building is assumed to be located in Bangalore, India. The energy demand for the household is estimated based on the requirements of a basic Indian house standard. The size and configuration of each component have been done with regards to the total load demand. Furthermore, the cost of the whole system is estimated in order to evaluate the feasibility of the grid-tied system from an economic perspective. The results show that a PV system consisting of four 270W solar panels, a battery bank of eight150Ah lead-acid batteries and a 48V 4kW inverter is required to meet the annual energy demand of the house. The results show that from a technical standpoint, the above-mentioned technology is feasible. The results from the economic evaluation show that the localized cost of energy(LCOE) for the system is ₹6.01/kWh or € 0.078/kWh or 0.84SEK/kWh and the payback time for the given system is 16.19 years. On the bright side, there are new technological advancements in the PV field every day, which could mean that an energy system of this type can be an achievable and practical alternative.

    Most of the world’s electricity is being generated through conventional sources of energy like coal and nuclear. People are realizing the dire effect of using these fuels, and the amount of CO2 being released into the environment. Therefore, in recent year there has been a shift in emphasis towards cleaner ways of generating electricity. One such recent trend is solar photovoltaics (PV), which has seen rapid growth over the years. This ever-increasing trend of adopting PV system allows consumers to be producers or “Prosumers”. Due to the irregular production capability of solar PV, the need for an energy storage system like a battery bank is on the rise as well.

    This report evaluates how solar PV can be used in combination with a battery bank to supply the annual electricity demand for a household with little to no support from the grid. The building is assumed to be located in Bangalore, India. The energy demand for the household is estimated based on the requirements of a basic Indian house standard. The size and configuration of each component have been done with regards to the total load demand. Furthermore, the cost of the whole system is estimated in order to evaluate the feasibility of the grid-tied system from an economic perspective.

    The results show that a PV system consisting of four 270W solar panels, a battery bank of eight 150Ah lead-acid batteries and a 48V 4kW inverter is required to meet the annual energy demand of the house. The results show that from a technical standpoint, the above-mentioned technology is feasible. The results from the economic evaluation show that the localized cost of energy (LCOE) for the system is ₹6.01/kWh or € 0.078/kWh or 0.84SEK/kWh and the payback time for the given system is 16.19 years. On the bright side, there are new technological advancements in the PV field every day, which could mean that an energy system of this type can be an achievable and practical alternative.

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