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  • 301.
    Back, Ralph-Johan
    et al.
    Turku Centre for Computer Science .
    Cerschi (Seceleanu), Cristina
    Turku Centre for Computer Science .
    Modeling and Verifying a Temperature Control System using Continuous Action Systems2000Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We formally describe and verify a real-time temperature control system for a nuclear reactor tank, using a generalization of action systems to hybrid systems (based on weakest precondition predicate transformer semantics) as our formal framework. The analyzed control system is a linear hybrid system, combining discrete control with continuous dynamics. Our work can be seen as a case study on the applicability of the hybrid action system formalism to study the reachability problem, i.e., to prove that an unsafe state can not be reached by executing the system.

  • 302.
    Back, Ralph-Johan
    et al.
    Turku Centre for Computer Science, Finland.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Turku Centre for Computer Science, Finland.
    Westerholm, Jan
    Turku Centre for Computer Science, Finland.
    Symbolic Simulation of Hybrid Systems2002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Continuous action systems (CAS) is a formalism intended for modeling hybrid systems (systems that combine discrete control with continuous behavior), and proving properties about the model within refinement calculus. In this paper we use a symbolic manipulation program to build a tool for simulating CAS models by calculating symbolically the time evolution of the discrete and continuous CAS model functions, as explicit and exact expressions of a continuous time variable. We may then study the time behavior and general properties of the model by plotting these functions with respect to time. For certain models our tool eliminates the need for introducing tolerances into the model structure. The tool is useful for checking that the model behaves correctly, and we can sometimes study the behavior of CAS models with in principle infinite precision.

  • 303.
    Badiozamany, Sobhan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Computing Science. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computing Science.
    Real-time data stream clustering over sliding windows2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In many applications, e.g. urban traffic monitoring, stock trading, and industrial sensor data monitoring, clustering algorithms are applied on data streams in real-time to find current patterns. Here, sliding windows are commonly used as they capture concept drift.

    Real-time clustering over sliding windows is early detection of continuously evolving clusters as soon as they occur in the stream, which requires efficient maintenance of cluster memberships that change as windows slide.

    Data stream management systems (DSMSs) provide high-level query languages for searching and analyzing streaming data. In this thesis we extend a DSMS with a real-time data stream clustering framework called Generic 2-phase Continuous Summarization framework (G2CS).  G2CS modularizes data stream clustering by taking as input clustering algorithms which are expressed in terms of a number of functions and indexing structures. G2CS supports real-time clustering by efficient window sliding mechanism and algorithm transparent indexing. A particular challenge for real-time detection of a high number of rapidly evolving clusters is efficiency of window slides for clustering algorithms where deletion of expired data is not supported, e.g. BIRCH. To that end, G2CS includes a novel window maintenance mechanism called Sliding Binary Merge (SBM). To further improve real-time sliding performance, G2CS uses generation-based multi-dimensional indexing where indexing structures suitable for the clustering algorithms can be plugged-in.

  • 304.
    Bagheri, M.
    et al.
    Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
    Khamespanah, E.
    Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Movaghar, A.
    Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
    Lee, A. E.
    University of California at Berkeley.
    Runtime compositional analysis of track-based traffic control systems2017In: ACM SIGBED Review, ISSN 1551-3688, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 38-39Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 305.
    Bagheri, M.
    et al.
    Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Khamespanah, E.
    Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Khakpour, N.
    Linnaeus University, Växjö Campus, Sweden.
    Akkaya, I.
    University of California at Berkeley, CA, United States.
    Movaghar, A.
    Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
    Lee, E. A.
    University of California at Berkeley, CA, United States.
    Coordinated actor model of self-adaptive track-based traffic control systems2018In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 143, p. 116-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-adaptation is a well-known technique to handle growing complexities of software systems, where a system autonomously adapts itself in response to changes in a dynamic and unpredictable environment. With the increasing need for developing self-adaptive systems, providing a model and an implementation platform to facilitate integration of adaptation mechanisms into the systems and assuring their safety and quality is crucial. In this paper, we target Track-based Traffic Control Systems (TTCSs) in which the traffic flows through pre-specified sub-tracks and is coordinated by a traffic controller. We introduce a coordinated actor model to design self-adaptive TTCSs and provide a general mapping between various TTCSs and the coordinated actor model. The coordinated actor model is extended to build large-scale self-adaptive TTCSs in a decentralized setting. We also discuss the benefits of using Ptolemy II as a framework for model-based development of large-scale self-adaptive systems that supports designing multiple hierarchical MAPE-K feedback loops interacting with each other. We propose a template based on the coordinated actor model to design a self-adaptive TTCS in Ptolemy II that can be instantiated for various TTCSs. We enhance the proposed template with a predictive adaptation feature. We illustrate applicability of the coordinated actor model and consequently the proposed template by designing two real-life case studies in the domains of air traffic control systems and railway traffic control systems in Ptolemy II. 

  • 306.
    Bagheri, Maryam
    et al.
    Sharif University of Technology, Iran.
    Akkaya, Ilge
    University of California at Berkley, US.
    Khamespanah, Ehsan
    Reykjavik University, Iceland.
    Khakpour, Narges
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Movaghar, Ali
    Sharif University of Technology, Iran.
    Lee, Edward
    University of California at Berkley, US.
    Coordinated Actors for Reliable Self-Adaptive Systems2017In: The 13th International Conference on Formal Aspects of Component Software FACS 2016, 2017, Vol. 10231, p. 241-259Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-adaptive systems are systems that automatically adapt in response to environmental and internal changes, such as possible failures and variations in resource availability. Such systems are often realized by a MAPE-K feedback loop, where Monitor, Analyze, Plan and Execute components have access to a runtime model of the system and environment which is kept in the Knowledge component. In order to provide guarantees on the correctness of a self-adaptive system at runtime, the MAPE-K feedback loop needs to be extended with assurance techniques. To address this issue, we propose a coordinated actor-based approach to build a reusable and scalable model@runtime for self-adaptive systems in the domain of track-based traffic control systems. We demonstrate the approach by implementing an automated Air Traffic Control system (ATC) using Ptolemy tool.We compare different adaptation policies on the ATC model based on performance metrics and analyze combination of policies in different configurations of the model. We enriched our framework with runtime performance analysis such that for any unexpected change, subsequent behavior of the model is predicted and results are used for adaptation at the change-point. Moreover, the developed framework enables checking safety properties at runtime.

  • 307.
    Baglee, David
    et al.
    University of Sunderland, UK.
    Gorostegui, Unai
    Mondragon University, Spain.
    Jantunen, Erkki
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Finland.
    Campos, Jaime
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Sharma, Pankaj
    Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, India.
    Optimizing Condition Monitoring of Big Data Systems2017In: Proceedings of the 2017 International Conference on Data Mining: DMIN'17 / [ed] Robert Stahlbock, Mahmoud Abou-Nasr, Gary M. Weiss, CSREA Press, 2017, p. 127-131Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial communication networks are common in a number of manufacturing organisations. The high availability of these networks is crucial for smooth plant operations. Therefore local and remote diagnostics of these networks is of primary importance in determining issues relating to plant reliability and availability. Condition Monitoring (CM) techniques when connected to a network provide a diagnostic system for remote monitoring of manufacturing equipment. The system monitors the health of the network and the equipment and is therefore able to predict performance. However, this leads to the collection, storage and analyses of large amounts of data, which must provide value. These large data sets are commonly referred to as Big Data. This paper presents a general concept of the use of condition monitoring and big data systems to show how they complement each other to provide valuable data to enhance manufacturing competiveness.

  • 308.
    Baglee, David
    et al.
    University of Sunderland, UK.
    Gorostegui, Unai
    Mondragon University, Spain.
    Jantunen, Erkki
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Finland.
    Sharma, Pankaj
    Indian Institute of Technology Dehli, India.
    Campos, Jaime
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    How can SMEs adopt a new method to advanced maintenance strategies: A Case study approach2017In: 30th International Congress & Exhibition on Condition Monitoring and Diagnostic Engineering Management COMADEM, July 10th-13th 2017, University of Central Lancashire, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 309.
    Bahri, Leila
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Software and Computer systems, SCS.
    Girdzijauskas, Sarunas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Software and Computer systems, SCS.
    When Trust Saves Enegry - A Reference Franework for Proof-of-Trust (PoT) Blockchains2018In: WWW '18 Companion Proceedings of the The Web Conference 2018, ACM Digital Library, 2018, p. 1165-1169Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Blockchains are attracting the attention of many technical, financial, and industrial parties, as a promising infrastructure for achieving secure peer-to-peer (P2P) transactional systems. At the heart of blockchains is proof-of-work (PoW), a trustless leader election mechanism based on demonstration of computational power. PoW provides blockchain security in trusless P2P environments, but comes at the expense of wasting huge amounts of energy. In this research work, we question this energy expenditure of PoW under blockchain use cases where some form of trust exists between the peers. We propose a Proof-of-Trust (PoT) blockchain where peer trust is valuated in the network based on a trust graph that emerges in a decentralized fashion and that is encoded in and managed by the blockchain itself. This trust is then used as a waiver for the difficulty of PoW; that is, the more trust you prove in the network, the less work you do.

  • 310.
    Baig, Aftab
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Ahmad, Iftikhar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    A web store based on reusable .NET components2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis project describes  the analysis, process and major factors in development of a simple component oriented Web Shop in ASP.NET. It addresses to the concepts used in  the application as  well  as  derivation  of  technical  design  and  development  from  the  concepts  acquired  by studying existing approaches.

    The report  describes  a  brief  summary of  existing  approaches  and related  technologies.  It also lays  the foundation  of  goal  oriented  approach  by  providing  an  overview  of  component  based  software engineering. The  basic  concepts for modularization  were  barrowed from  entities  identification,  object models and component models pplication’s architecture is set to be a layered app roach combining the software layered  architecture  approach  with  multi  tier  architecture  of  web  applications. Class models explaining the inner structure of each component have been provided and an overview of user interface pages is given to explain the application outer flow. The application sets out to prove the significance of component oriented approach as well as  the  support  provided for it by ASP.Net. The resulting package proves  to  have  scalable  components  that could be scaled for  or  reused in another  application or  in  a later version of the same application. 

  • 311.
    Baig, Roger
    et al.
    Fundacio Privada per la Xarxa Lliure, Oberta i Neural Guifi.net. Mas l’Esperanca, 08503 Gurb, Catalonia.
    Dowling, Jim
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Software and Computer systems, SCS.
    Escrich, Pau
    Fundacio Privada per la Xarxa Lliure, Oberta i Neural Guifi.net. Mas l’Esperanca, 08503 Gurb, Catalonia.
    Freitag, Felix
    Department of Computer Architecture. Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya. Barcelona, Spain .
    Meseguer, Roc
    Department of Computer Architecture. Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya. Barcelona, Spain.
    Moll, Agusti
    Fundacio Privada per la Xarxa Lliure, Oberta i Neural Guifi.net. Mas l’Esperanca, 08503 Gurb, Catalonia.
    Navarro, Leandro
    Department of Computer Architecture. Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya. Barcelona, Spain.
    Pietrosemoli, Ermanno
    The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP). Trieste, Italy.
    Pueyo, Roger
    Fundacio Privada per la Xarxa Lliure, Oberta i Neural Guifi.net. Mas l’Esperanca, 08503 Gurb, Catalonia.
    Vlassov, Vladimir
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Software and Computer systems, SCS.
    Zennaro, Marco
    The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP). Trieste, Italy.
    Deploying Clouds in the Guifi Community Network2015In: Proceedings of the 2015 IFIP/IEEE International Symposium on Integrated Network Management, IM 2015, IEEE , 2015, p. 1020-1025Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes an operational geographically distributed and heterogeneous cloudinfrastructure with services and applications deployed in the Guifi community network. The presentedcloud is a particular case of a community cloud, developed according to the specific needs and conditions of community networks. We describe the concept of this community cloud, explain our technical choices for building it, and our experience with the deployment of this cloud. We review our solutions and experience on offering the different service models of cloud computing (IaaS, PaaS and SaaS) in community networks. The deployed cloud infrastructure aims to provide stable and attractive cloud services in order to encourage community network user to use, keep and extend it with new services and applications.

  • 312.
    Baig, Roger
    et al.
    Fundacio Privada per la Xarxa Lliure, Oberta i Neural Guifi.net. Mas l’Esperanca, 08503 Gurb, Catalonia.
    Freitag, Felix
    Department of Computer Architecture. Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya. Barcelona, Spain .
    Khan, Amin M.
    Department of Computer Architecture. Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya. Barcelona, Spain.
    Moll, Agusti
    Fundacio Privada per la Xarxa Lliure, Oberta i Neural Guifi.net. Mas l’Esperanca, 08503 Gurb, Catalonia.
    Navarro, Leandro
    Department of Computer Architecture. Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya. Barcelona, Spain.
    Pueyo, Roger
    Fundacio Privada per la Xarxa Lliure, Oberta i Neural Guifi.net. Mas l’Esperanca, 08503 Gurb, Catalonia.
    Vlassov, Vladimir
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Software and Computer systems, SCS.
    Community clouds at the edge deployed in Guifi.net2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Community clouds are a cloud deployment model in which the cloud infrastructure is built with specific features for a community of users with shared concerns, goals, and interests. Commercialcommunity clouds already operate in several application areas such as in the finance, government and health, fulfilling community-specific requirements. In this demo, a community cloud for citizens is presented. It is formed by devices at the edge of the network, contributed by the members of acommunity network and brought together into a distributed community cloud system through the Cloudy distribution. The demonstration shows to the audience in a live access the deployedcommunity cloud from the perspective of the user, by accessing a Cloudy node, inspecting the services available in the community cloud, and showing the usage of some of its services.

  • 313.
    Baig, Roger
    et al.
    Fundacio Privada per la Xarxa Lliure, Oberta i Neural Guifi.net. Mas l’Esperanca, 08503 Gurb, Catalonia.
    Freitag, Felix
    Department of Computer Architecture. Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya. Barcelona, Spain .
    Moll, Agusti
    Fundacio Privada per la Xarxa Lliure, Oberta i Neural Guifi.net. Mas l’Esperanca, 08503 Gurb, Catalonia.
    Navarro, Leandro
    Department of Computer Architecture. Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya. Barcelona, Spain.
    Pueyo, Roger
    Fundacio Privada per la Xarxa Lliure, Oberta i Neural Guifi.net. Mas l’Esperanca, 08503 Gurb, Catalonia.
    Vlassov, Vladimir
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Software and Computer systems, SCS.
    Cloud-based community services in community networks2016In: 2016 International Conference on Computing, Networking and Communications, ICNC 2016, IEEE conference proceedings, 2016, p. 1-5, article id 7440621Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless networks have shown to be a cost effective solution for an IP-based communication infrastructure in under-served areas. Services and application, if deployed within these wireless networks, add value for the users. This paper shows how cloud infrastructures have been made operational in a community wireless network, as a particular case of a community cloud, developed according to the specific requirements and conditions of the community. We describe the conditions and requirements of such a community cloud and explain our technical choices and experience in its deployment in the community network. The user take-up has started, and our case supports the tendency of cloud computing moving towards the network edge.

  • 314.
    Baig, Roger
    et al.
    Fundacio Privada per la Xarxa Lliure, Oberta i Neural Guifi.net. Mas l’Esperanca, 08503 Gurb, Catalonia.
    Freitag, Felix
    Department of Computer Architecture. Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya. Barcelona, Spain .
    Moll, Agusti
    Fundacio Privada per la Xarxa Lliure, Oberta i Neural Guifi.net. Mas l’Esperanca, 08503 Gurb, Catalonia.
    Navarro, Leandro
    Department of Computer Architecture. Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya. Barcelona, Spain.
    Pueyo, Roger
    Fundacio Privada per la Xarxa Lliure, Oberta i Neural Guifi.net. Mas l’Esperanca, 08503 Gurb, Catalonia.
    Vlassov, Vladimir
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Software and Computer systems, SCS.
    Community network clouds as a case for the IEEE Intercloud standardization2015In: 2015 IEEE Conference on Standards for Communications and Networking, CSCN 2015, 2015, p. 269-274, article id 7390456Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The IEEE P2302 Intercloud WG conducts work since 2011 on the project Standard for Intercloud Interoperability and Federation with the goal to define a standard architecture and building components for large-scale interoperability of independent cloud providers. While the standardization process has achieved fine-grained definitions of several Intercloud components, a deployment of the Intercloud to demonstrate the architectural feasibility is not yet operational. In this paper, we describe a deployed community network cloud and we show how it matches in several aspects the vision of the Intercloud. Similar to the Intercloud, the community network cloud consists of many small cloud providers, which for interoperability use a set of common services. In this sense, the community network cloud is a real use case for elements that the Intercloud standardization WG envisions, and can feed back to and even become part of the Intercloud. In fact, a study on Small or Medium Enterprise (SME) provided commercial services in the community network cloud indicates the importance of the success of the Intercloud standardization initiative for SMEs.

  • 315. Baird, Ryan
    et al.
    Gavin, Peter
    Själander, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Whalley, David
    Uh, Gang-Ryung
    Optimizing transfers of control in the static pipeline architecture2015In: Proc. 16th ACM SIGPLAN/SIGBED Conference on Languages, Compilers, and Tools for Embedded Systems, New York: ACM Press, 2015, p. 7-16Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Statically pipelined processors offer a new way to improve the performance beyond that of a traditional in-order pipeline while simultaneously reducing energy usage by enabling the compiler to control more fine-grained details of the program execution. This paper describes how a compiler can exploit the features of the static pipeline architecture to apply optimizations on transfers of control that are not possible on a conventional architecture. The optimizations presented in this paper include hoisting the target address calculations for branches, jumps, and calls out of loops, performing branch chaining between calls and jumps, hoisting the setting of return addresses out of loops, and exploiting conditional calls and returns. The benefits of performing these transfer of control optimizations include a 6.8% reduction in execution time and a 3.6% decrease in estimated energy usage.

  • 316.
    Bakhshi, Zeynab
    et al.
    RighTel, Iran.
    Balador, Ali
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. RISE SICS, Västerås, Sweden.
    Mustafa, Jawad
    RISE SICS, Västerås, Sweden.
    Industrial IoT Security Threats and Concerns by Considering CISCO and Microsoft IoT reference Models2018In: IEEE WCNCW 2018 IEEE WCNCW 2018: 2018 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference Workshops, 2018, p. 173-178Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates security concerns and issues for Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT). The IIoT is an emerging transformation, bringing great values to every industry. Although this rapid alter in industries create values, but there are concerns about security issues, most of which would be still unknown due to the novelty of this platform. In order to provide a guideline for those who want to investigate IoT security and contribute to its improvement, this paper attempts to provide a list of security threats and issues on the cloud-side layer of IoT, which consists of data accumulation and abstraction levels. For this reason, we choose Cisco and Microsoft Azure IoT Architecture as reference models. Then, two layers of Cisco reference architecture model have been chosen to be investigated for their security issues. Finally, consideration of security issues has been briefly explained.

  • 317.
    Bakhtyar, Shoaib
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Designing Electronic Waybill Solutions for Road Freight Transport2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In freight transportation, a waybill is an important document that contains essential information about a consignment. The focus of this thesis is on a multi-purpose electronic waybill (e-Waybill) service, which can provide the functions of a paper waybill, and which is capable of storing, at least, the information present in a paper waybill. In addition, the service can be used to support other existing Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) services by utilizing on synergies with the existing services. Additionally, information entities from the e-Waybill service are investigated for the purpose of knowledge-building concerning freight flows.

    A systematic review on state-of-the-art of the e-Waybill service reveals several limitations, such as limited focus on supporting ITS services. Five different conceptual e-Waybill solutions (that can be seen as abstract system designs for implementing the e-Waybill service) are proposed. The solutions are investigated for functional and technical requirements (non-functional requirements), which can potentially impose constraints on a potential system for implementing the e-Waybill service. Further, the service is investigated for information and functional synergies with other ITS services. For information synergy analysis, the required input information entities for different ITS services are identified; and if at least one information entity can be provided by an e-Waybill at the right location we regard it to be a synergy. Additionally, a service design method has been proposed for supporting the process of designing new ITS services, which primarily utilizes on functional synergies between the e-Waybill and different existing ITS services. The suggested method is applied for designing a new ITS service, i.e., the Liability Intelligent Transport System (LITS) service. The purpose of the LITS service isto support the process of identifying when and where a consignment has been damaged and who was responsible when the damage occurred. Furthermore, information entities from e-Waybills are utilized for building improved knowledge concerning freight flows. A freight and route estimation method has been proposed for building improved knowledge, e.g., in national road administrations, on the movement of trucks and freight.

    The results from this thesis can be used to support the choice of practical e-Waybill service implementation, which has the possibility to provide high synergy with ITS services. This may lead to a higher utilization of ITS services and more sustainable transport, e.g., in terms of reduced congestion and emissions. Furthermore, the implemented e-Waybill service can be an enabler for collecting consignment and traffic data and converting the data into useful traffic information. In particular, the service can lead to increasing amounts of digitally stored data about consignments, which can lead to improved knowledge on the movement of freight and trucks. The knowledge may be helpful when making decisions concerning road taxes, fees, and infrastructure investments.

  • 318.
    Bakhtyar, Shoaib
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Henesey, Lawrence
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Electronic Waybill Solutions: A Systemtic ReviewIn: Journal of Special Topics in Information Technology and Management, ISSN 1385-951X, E-ISSN 1573-7667Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A critical component in freight transportation is the waybill, which is a transport document that has essential information about a consignment. Actors within the supply chain handle not only the freight but also vast amounts of information,which are often unclear due to various errors. An electronic waybill (e-Waybill) solution is an electronic replacement of the paper waybill in a better way, e.g., by ensuring error free storage and flow of information. In this paper, a systematic review using the snowball method is conducted to investigate the state-of-the-art of e-Waybill solutions. After performing three iterations of the snowball process,we identified eleven studies for further evaluation and analysis due to their strong relevancy. The studies are mapped in relation to each other and a classification of the e-Waybill solutions is constructed. Most of the studies identified from our review support the benefits of electronic documents including e-Waybills. Typically, most research papers reviewed support EDI (Electronic Documents Interchange) for implementing e-Waybills. However, limitations exist due to high costs that make it less affordable for small organizations. Recent studies point to alternative technologies that we have listed in this paper. Additionally in this paper, we present from our research that most studies focus on the administrative benefits, but few studies investigate the potential of e-Waybill information for achieving services, such as estimated time of arrival and real-time tracking and tracing.

  • 319.
    Balaam, M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Hansen, L. K.
    Women’s health at CHI2018In: interactions, ISSN 1072-5520, E-ISSN 1558-3449, Vol. 25, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 320.
    Balador, Ali
    et al.
    SICS Swedish ICT Västerås AB, Sweden.
    Böhm, Annette
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Calafate, Carlos T.
    Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Spain.
    Cano, Juan-Carlos
    Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Spain.
    A Reliable Token-Based MAC Protocol for V2V Communication in Urban VANET2016In: IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications PIMRC 16, Valencia, Spain, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Safety applications developed for vehicular environments require every vehicle to periodically broadcast its status information (beacon) to all other vehicles, thereby avoiding the risk of car accidents in the road. Due to the high requirements on timing and reliability posed by traffic safety applications, the current IEEE 802.11p standard, which uses a random access Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol, faces difficulties to support timely and reliable data dissemination in vehicular environments where no acknowledgement or RTS/CTS (Request-to-Send/Clear-to-Send) mechanisms are adopted. In this paper, we propose the Dynamic Token-Based MAC (DTB-MAC) protocol. It implements a token passing approach on top of a random access MAC protocol to prevent channel contention as much as possible, thereby improving the reliability of safety message transmissions. Our proposed protocol selects one of the neighbouring nodes as the next transmitter; this selection accounts for the need to avoid beacon lifetime expiration. Therefore, it automatically offers retransmission opportunities to allow vehicles to successfully transmit their beacons before the next beacon is generated whenever time and bandwidth are available. Based on simulation experiments, we show that the DTB-MAC protocol can achieve better performance than IEEE 802.11p in terms of channel utilization and beacon delivery ratio for urban scenarios.

  • 321.
    Balador, Ali
    et al.
    SICS Swedish ICT Västerås AB, Västerås, Sweden. & Polytechnic University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.
    Böhm, Annette
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Calafate, Carlos T.
    Polytechnic University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.
    Cano, Juan-Carlos
    Polytechnic University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.
    A Reliable Token-Based MAC Protocol for V2V Communication in Urban VANET2016In: 2016 IEEE 27TH ANNUAL INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON PERSONAL, INDOOR, AND MOBILE RADIO COMMUNICATIONS (PIMRC), Piscataway: IEEE , 2016, p. 1586-1591Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Safety applications developed for vehicular environments require every vehicle to periodically broadcast its status information (beacon) to all other vehicles, thereby avoiding the risk of car accidents in the road. Due to the high requirements on timing and reliability posed by traffic safety applications, the current IEEE 802.11p standard, which uses a random access Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol, faces difficulties to support timely and reliable data dissemination in vehicular environments where no acknowledgement or RTS/CTS (Request-to-Send/Clear-to-Send) mechanisms are adopted. In this paper, we propose the Dynamic Token-Based MAC (DTB-MAC) protocol. It implements a token passing approach on top of a random access MAC protocol to prevent channel contention as much as possible, thereby improving the reliability of safety message transmissions. Our proposed protocol selects one of the neighbouring nodes as the next transmitter; this selection accounts for the need to avoid beacon lifetime expiration. Therefore, it automatically offers retransmission opportunities to allow vehicles to successfully transmit their beacons before the next beacon is generated whenever time and bandwidth are available. Based on simulation experiments, we show that the DTB-MAC protocol can achieve better performance than IEEE 802.11p in terms of channel utilization and beacon delivery ratio for urban scenarios.

  • 322.
    Balador, Ali
    et al.
    SICS Swedish ICT Västerås AB, Sweden.
    Böhm, Annette
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Calafate, Carlos T.
    Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Spain.
    Cano, Juan-Carlos
    Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Spain.
    A Reliable and Efficient Token-Based MAC Protocol for Platooning Applications2016In: 12th Swedish National Computer Networking Workshop SNCNW 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Platooning is both a challenging and rewarding application. Challenging since strict timing and reliability requirements are imposed by the distributed control system required to operate the platoon. Rewarding since considerable fuel reductions are possible. As platooning takes place in a vehicular ad hoc network, the use of IEEE 802.11p is close to mandatory. However, the 802.11p medium access method suffers from packet collisions and random delays. Most ongoing research suggests using TDMA on top of 802.11p as a potential remedy. However, TDMA requires synchronization and is not very flexible if the beacon frequency needs to be updated, the number of platoon members changes, or if retransmissions for increased reliability are required. We therefore suggest a token-passing medium access method where the next token holder is selected based on beacon data age. This has the advantage of allowing beacons to be re-broadcasted in each beacon interval whenever time and bandwidth are available. We show that our token-based method is able to reduce the data age and considerably increase reliability compared to pure 802.11p.

  • 323.
    Balador, Ali
    et al.
    Polytechnic University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.
    Böhm, Annette
    Halmstad Universit, Sweden.
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Calafate, Carlos T.
    Polytechnic University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.
    Ji, Yusheng
    National Institute of Informatics, Tokyo, Japan.
    Cano, Juan-Carlos
    Polytechnic University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.
    Manzoni, Pietro
    Polytechnic University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.
    An Efficient MAC Protocol for vehicle platooning in automated highway systems2015In: Jornadas Sarteco 2015 JS 2015, Cordoba, Spain, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lately, all the top truck manufacturers are investing considerable resources in the research and development of platooning systems which would allow vehicles to save fuel and improve safety by travelling in a close-following manner. The platoon-ing system requires frequent and reliable vehicle-to-vehicle communications. As platooning takes place in a vehicular ad hoc network, the use of IEEE 802.11p is close to mandatory. However, the 802.11p medium access method suffers from packet collisions and random delays. Most ongoing research suggests using TDMA on top of 802.11p as a potential remedy. However , TDMA requires synchronization and is not very flexible if the beacon frequency needs to be updated, the number of platoon members changes, or if re-transmissions for increased reliability are required. We therefore suggest a token-passing medium access method where the next token holder is selected based on beacon data age. This has the advantage of allowing beacons to be re-broadcasted in each beacon interval whenever time and bandwidth are available. We show that our token-based method is able to reduce the data age and considerably increase reliability considerably compared to pure 802.11p.

  • 324.
    Balador, Ali
    et al.
    Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Spain.
    Calafate, Carlos T.
    Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Spain.
    Cano, Juan-Carlos
    Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Spain.
    Manzoni, Pietro
    Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Spain.
    A Density-Based Contention Window Control Scheme for Unicast Communications in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks2015In: International Journal of Ad Hoc and Ubiquitous Computing, ISSN 1743-8225, E-ISSN 1743-8233, Vol. 24, p. 65-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Achieving a well-designed medium access control MAC protocol is a challenging issue to improve communications efficiency due to the dynamic nature of vehicular ad hoc networks VANETs. IEEE 802.11p standard was selected as the best choice for vehicular environments considering its availability, maturity, and cost. The common problem in all IEEE 802.11 based protocols is scalability, exhibiting performance degradation in highly variable network scenarios. Experimental results for the IEEE 802.11-based MAC protocol show the importance of contention window adjustment on communications performance; however the vehicular communications community has not yet addressed this issue in unicast communication environments. This paper proposes a novel contention window control scheme for VANET environments based on estimating the network density, which is then used to dynamically adapt the CW size. Analysis and simulation results show that our proposal provides better overall performance compared with previous proposals, even in high network density scenarios.

  • 325. Balador, Ali
    et al.
    Calafate, Carlos T.
    Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Spain.
    Cano, Juan-Carlos
    Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Spain.
    Manzoni, Pietro
    Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Spain.
    A Novel 802.11 Contention Window Control Scheme for Vehicular Environments2013In: Jornadas Sarteco 2013 JS 2013, 2013, p. 98-103Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) have attractive potential in order to decrease the ordi- nary traffic jams and avoid transportation disasters. Also, they are able to provide various infotainment services like browsing, reading e-mail or using social networks that makes a trip more interesting. In or- der to make it more efficient in real vehicular envi- ronments, achieving a well-designed Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol is a challenging issue due to the dynamic nature of VANETs, scalability issues, and the variety of application requirements. Differ- ent standardization organizations have selected IEEE 802.11 as the first choice for VANET environments considering its availability, maturity, and cost. The research results for IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol show the importance of contention window adjustment on the communications performance. The impact of ad- justing the contention window has been studied in MANETs, but the vehicular communication commu- nity has not yet addressed this issue thoroughly. This paper proposes e-HBCWC, a new contention window control scheme for VANET environments based on estimating the network condition. Analy- sis and simulation results using OMNeT++ in urban scenarios show that e-HBCWC clearly outperforms 802.11 DCF, even in very high network density, by increasing the packet delivery rate while decreasing the number of collisions and the end-to-end delay for unicast applications.

  • 326.
    Balador, Ali
    et al.
    Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Spain.
    Calafate, Carlos T.
    Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Spain.
    Cano, Juan-Carlos
    Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Spain.
    Manzoni, Pietro
    Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Spain.
    Congestion Control for Vehicular Environments by Adjusting IEEE 802.11 Contention Window Size2013In: 13th International Conference on Algorithms and Architectures for Parallel Processing ICA3PP-2013, 2013, p. 259-266Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Medium access control protocols should manage the highly dynamic nature of Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) and the variety of application requirements. Therefore, achieving a well-designed MAC protocol in VANETs is a challenging issue. The contention window is a critical element for handling medium access collisions in IEEE 802.11, and it highly affects the communications performance. This paper proposes a new contention window control scheme, called DBM-ACW, for VANET environments. Analysis and simulation results using OMNeT++ in urban scenarios show that DBM-ACW provides better overall performance compared with previous proposals, even with high network densities.

  • 327.
    Balador, Ali
    et al.
    Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Spain.
    Calafate, Carlos T.
    Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Spain.
    Cano, Juan-Carlos
    Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Spain.
    Manzoni, Pietro
    Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Spain.
    DTB-MAC: Dynamic Token-Based MAC Protocol for Reliable and Efficient Beacon Broadcasting in VANETs2016In: The 13th Annual IEEE Consumer Communications & Networking Conference CCNC 2016, 2016, p. 109-114Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most applications developed for vehicular environments rely on broadcasting as the main mechanism to disseminate their messages. However, in IEEE 802.11p, which is the most widely accepted Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol for vehicular communications, all transmissions remain unacknowledged if broadcasting is used. Furthermore, safety message transmission requires a strict delay limit and a high reliability, which is an issue for random access MAC protocols like IEEE 802.11p. Therefore, transmission reliability becomes the most important issue for broadcast-based services in vehicular environments. In this paper, we propose a hybrid MAC protocol, referred as Dynamic Token-Based MAC Protocol (DTB-MAC). DTB-MAC uses both a token passing mechanism and a random access MAC protocol to prevent channel contention as much as possible, and to improve the reliability of safety message transmissions. Our proposed protocol tries to select the best neighbouring node as the next transmitter, and when it is not possible, or when it causes a high overhead, the random access MAC protocol is used instead. Based on simulation experiments, we show that the DTB-MAC protocol can achieve better performance compared with IEEE 802.11p in terms of channel utilization and beacon delivery ratio.

  • 328. Balador, Ali
    et al.
    Calafate, Carlos T.
    Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Spain.
    Cano, Juan-Carlos
    Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Spain.
    Manzoni, Pietro
    Performance Evaluation of Realistic Vehicular Networks: A MAC Layer Perspective2014In: Simulation Technologies in Networking and Communications: Selecting the Best Tool for the Test / [ed] Al-Sakib Khan Pathan, Muhammad Mostafa Monowar, Shafiullah Khan, CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group , 2014Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 329.
    Balador, Ali
    et al.
    Univ. Politec. de Valencia, Valencia, Spain.
    Calafate, Carlos T.
    Univ. Politec. de Valencia, Valencia, Spain.
    Cano, Juan-Carlos
    Univ. Politec. de Valencia, Valencia, Spain.
    Manzoni, Pietro
    Univ. Politec. de Valencia, Valencia, Spain.
    Reducing Channel Contention in Vehicular Environments Through an Adaptive Contention Window Solution2013In: IFIP Wireless Days WD 2013, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) are attracting growing attention both in industry and academia due to the advances in wireless communication technologies, and a significant demand for a wide variety of applications targeting this kind of environments are expected. In order to make it usable in real vehicular environments, achieving a well-designed Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol is a challenging issue due to the dynamic nature of Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs), scalability issues, and the variety of application requirements. Different standardization organizations have selected IEEE 802.11 as the first choice for VANET environments considering its availability, maturity, and cost. The contention window is a critical parameter for handling medium access collisions by the IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol, and it highly affects the communications performance. The impact of adjusting the contention window has been studied in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANETs), but the vehicular communications community has not yet addressed this issue thoroughly. This paper proposes a new contention window control scheme, called DBM-ACW, for VANET environments. Analysis and simulation results using OMNeT++ in a highway scenario show that DBM-ACW provides better overall performance compared with previous proposals, even with high network densities.

  • 330.
    Balador, Ali
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ericsson, Niclas
    Bakhshi, Zeynab
    Communication Middleware Technologies for Industrial Distributed Control Systems: A Literature Review2017In: International Conference on Emerging Technologies And Factory Automation ETFA'17, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industry 4.0 is the German vision for the future of manufacturing, where smart factories use information and communication technologies to digitise their processes to achieve improved quality, lower costs, and increased efficiency. It is likely to bring a massive change to the way control systems function today. Future distributed control systems are expected to have an increased connectivity to the Internet, in order to capitalize on new offers and research findings related to digitalization, such as cloud, big data, and machine learning. A key technology in the realization of distributed control systems is middleware, which is usually described as a reusable software layer between operating system and distributed applications. Various middleware technologies have been proposed to facilitate communication in industrial control systems and hide the heterogeneity amongst the subsystems, such as OPC UA, DDS, and RT-CORBA. These technologies can significantly simplify the system design and integration of devices despite their heterogeneity. However, each of these technologies has its own characteristics that may work better for particular applications. Selection of the best middleware for a specific application is a critical issue for system designers. In this paper, we conduct a survey on available standard middleware technologies, including OPC UA, DDS, and RT-CORBA, and show new trends for different industrial domains.

  • 331.
    Balador, Ali
    et al.
    Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
    Movaghar, Ali
    Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
    Jabbehdari, Sam
    North Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
    History Based Contention Window Control (HBCWC) in IEEE 802.11 Mac Protocol in Error Prone Channel2010In: Journal of Computer Science, ISSN 1549-3636, E-ISSN 1552-6607, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 205-209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Problem statement: IEEE 802.11 Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol is one of the most implemented protocols in this network. The IEEE 802.11 controls the access to the share wireless channel within competing stations. The IEEE 802.11 DCF doubles the Contention Window (CW) size for decreasing the collision within contending stations and to improve the network performances but it is not good for error prone channel because the sudden CW rest to CWmin may cause several collisions. Approach: The research to date has tended to focus on the current number of active stations that needs complex computations. A novel backoff algorithm is presented that optimizes the CW size with take into account the history of packet lost. Results: Finally, we compare the HBCWC with IEEE 802.11 DCF. The simulation results have shown 24.14, 56.71 and 25.33% improvement in Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR), average end to end delay and throughput compared to the IEEE 802.11 DCF. Conclusion: This study showed that monitoring the last three channel statuses achieve better delay and throughput that can be used for multimedia communications.

  • 332.
    Balador, Ali
    et al.
    Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain.
    Movaghar, Ali
    Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
    Jabbehdari, Sam
    North Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
    Kanellopoulos, Dimitris
    University of Patras, Greece.
    A novel contention window control scheme for IEEE 802.11 WLANs2012In: IETE Technical Review, ISSN 0256-4602, E-ISSN 0974-5971, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 202-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the IEEE 802.11 standard, network nodes experiencing collisions on the shared medium need a mechanism that can prevent collisions and improve the throughput. Furthermore, a backoff mechanism is used that uniformly selects a random period of time from the contention window (cw) that is dynamically controlled by the Binary Exponential Backoff (BEB) algorithm. Prior research has proved that the BEB scheme suffers from a fairness problem and low throughput, especially under high traffic load. In this paper, we present a new backoff control mechanism that is used with the IEEE 802.11 distributed coordination function (DCF). In particular, we propose a dynamic, deterministic contention window control (DDCWC) scheme, in which the backoff range is divided into several small backoff sub-ranges. In the proposed scheme, several network levels are introduced, based on an introduced channel state vector that keeps network history. After successful transmissions and collisions, network nodes change their cw based on their network levels. Our extensive simulation studies show that the DDCWC scheme outperforms four other well-known schemes: Multiplicative Increase and Linear Decrease, Double Increment Double Decrement, Exponential Increase Exponential Decrease, and Linear/Multiplicative Increase and Linear Decrease. Moreover, the proposed scheme, compared with the IEEE 802.11 DCF, gives 30.77% improvement in packet delivery ratio, 31.76% in delay, and 30.81% in throughput.

  • 333.
    Balasubramanian, S.M.N
    et al.
    Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Afshar, Sara Zargari
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gai, Paolo
    Evidence Srl, Pisa, Italy.
    Bril, Reinder J.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    A dual shared stack for FSLM in Erika enterprise2017In: The 23rd IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications - WiP Session RTCSA'17, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, the flexible spin-lock model (FSLM) has been introduced, unifying spin-based and suspension-based resource sharing protocols for real-time multi-core platforms. Unlike the multiprocessor stack resource policy (MSRP), FSLM doesn’t allow tasks on a core to share a single stack, however. In this paper, we present a hypothesis claiming that for a restricted range of spin-lock priorities, FSLM requires only two stacks. We briefly describe our implementation of a dual stack for FSLM in the Erika Enterprise RTOS as instantiated on an Altera Nios II platform using 4 soft-core processors.

  • 334.
    Balasubramanian, S.M.N
    et al.
    Tech Univ Eindhoven, Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Afshar, Sara Zargari
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gai, Paolo
    Evidence Srl, Pisa, Italy.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    J. Bril, Reinder
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Tech Univ Eindhoven, Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Incorporating implementation overheads in the analysis for the flexible spin-lock model2017In: IECON 2017 - 43RD ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE IEEE INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS SOCIETY, 2017, p. 411-8418Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The flexible spin-lock model (FSLM) unifies suspension-based and spin-based resource sharing protocols for partitioned fixed-priority preemptive scheduling based real-time multiprocessor platforms. Recent work has been done in defining the protocol for FSLM and providing a schedulability analysis without accounting for the implementation overheads. In this paper, we extend the analysis for FSLM with implementation overheads. Utilizing an initial implementation of FSLM in the OSEK/VDX-compliant Erika Enterprise RTOS on an Altera Nios II platform using 4 soft-core processors, we present an improved implementation. Given the design of the implementation, the overheads are characterized and incorporated in specific terms of the existing analysis. The paper also supplements the analysis with measurement results, enabling an analytical comparison of FSLM with the natively provided multiprocessor stack resource policy (MSRP), which may serve as a guideline for the choice of FSLM or MSRP for a specific application.

  • 335.
    Balatinac, Ivan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Radosevic, Iva
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Architecting for the cloud2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Cloud Computing is an emerging new computing paradigm which is developed out of service-orientation, grid computing, parallel computing, utility computing, autonomic computing, and virtualization paradigms. Both industry and academia have experienced its rapid growth and are exploring full usage of its potentials to maintain their services provided to customers and partners. In this context, a key aspect to investigate is how to architect or design cloud-based application that meet various system requirements of customers’ needs. In this thesis, we have applied the systematic literature review method to explore the main concerns when architecting for the cloud. We have identified, classified, and extracted existing approaches and solutions for specific concerns based on the existing research articles that focus on planning and providing cloud architecture or design for different concerns and needs. The main contribution of the thesis is a catalogued architecture solutions for managing specific concerns when architecting for the cloud.

  • 336.
    Baldini, Gianmarco
    et al.
    Institute for the Protection and Security of the Citizen (IPSC), Italy.
    Kounelis, Ioannis
    Institute for the Protection and Security of the Citizen (IPSC), Italy.
    Nai Fovino, Igor
    Institute for the Protection and Security of the Citizen (IPSC), Italy.
    Neisse, Ricardo
    Institute for the Protection and Security of the Citizen (IPSC), Italy.
    A Framework for Privacy Protection and Usage Control of Personal Data in a Smart City Scenario2013In: Critical Information Infrastructures Security: 8th International Workshop, CRITIS 2013, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, September 16-18, 2013, Revised Selected Papers, Springer Publishing Company, 2013, p. 212-217Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we address trust and privacy protection issues related to identity and personal data provided by citizens in a smart city environment. Our proposed solution combines identity management, trust negotiation, and usage control. We demonstrate our solution in a case study of a smart city during a crisis situation.

  • 337.
    Balliu, Musard
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Theoretical Computer Science, TCS.
    Logics for Information Flow Security:From Specification to Verification2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Software is becoming  increasingly  ubiquitous and today we find software running everywhere. There is software driving our favorite  game  application or  inside the web portal we use to read the morning  news, and   when we book a vacation.  Being so commonplace, software has become an easy target to compromise  maliciously or at best to get it wrong. In fact, recent trends and highly-publicized attacks suggest that vulnerable software  is at  the root of many security attacks.     

    Information flow security is the research field that studies  methods and techniques to provide strong security guarantees against  software security attacks and vulnerabilities.  The goal of an  information flow analysis is to rigorously check how  sensitive information is used by the software application and ensure that this information does not escape the boundaries of the application, unless it is properly granted permission to do so by the security policy at hand.  This process can   be challenging asit first requires to determine what the applications security policy is and then to provide a mechanism  to enforce that policy against the  software application.  In this thesis  we address the problem of (information flow) policy specification and policy enforcement by leveraging formal methods, in particular logics and language-based analysis and verification techniques.

    The thesis contributes to the state of the art of information flow security in several directions, both theoretical and practical. On the policy specification side, we provide a  framework to reason about  information flow security conditions using the notion of knowledge. This is accompanied  by logics that  can be used  to express the security policies precisely in a syntactical manner. Also, we study the interplay between confidentiality and integrity  to enforce security in  presence of active attacks.  On the verification side, we provide several symbolic algorithms to effectively check whether an application adheres to the associated security policy. To achieve this,  we propose techniques  based on symbolic execution and first-order reasoning (SMT solving) to first extract a model of the target application and then verify it against the policy.  On the practical side, we provide  tool support by automating our techniques and  thereby making it possible  to verify programs written in Java or ARM machine code.  Besides the expected limitations, our case studies show that the tools can be used to  verify the security of several realistic scenarios.

    More specifically, the thesis consists of two parts and six chapters. We start with an introduction giving an overview of the research problems and the results of the thesis. Then we move to the specification part which  relies on knowledge-based reasoning and epistemic logics to specify state-based and trace-based information flow conditions and on the weakest precondition calculus to certify security in  presence of active attacks.  The second part of the thesis addresses the problem of verification  of the security policies introduced in the first part.  We use symbolic execution  and  SMT solving techniques to enable   model checking of the security properties.  In particular, we implement a tool that verifies noninterference  and declassification policies for Java programs. Finally, we conclude with relational verification of low level code, which is also supported by a tool.

  • 338.
    Balliu, Musard
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Theoretical Computer Science, TCS.
    Dam, Mads
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Theoretical Computer Science, TCS.
    Guanciale, Roberto
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Theoretical Computer Science, TCS.
    Automating Information Flow Analysis of Low Level Code2014In: Proceedings of CCS’14, November 3–7, 2014, Scottsdale, Arizona, USA, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low level code is challenging: It lacks structure, it uses jumps and symbolic addresses, the control ow is often highly optimized, and registers and memory locations may be reused in ways that make typing extremely challenging. Information ow properties create additional complications: They are hyperproperties relating multiple executions, and the possibility of interrupts and concurrency, and use of devices and features like memory-mapped I/O requires a departure from the usual initial-state nal-state account of noninterference. In this work we propose a novel approach to relational verication for machine code. Verication goals are expressed as equivalence of traces decorated with observation points. Relational verication conditions are propagated between observation points using symbolic execution, and discharged using rst-order reasoning. We have implemented an automated tool that integrates with SMT solvers to automate the verication task. The tool transforms ARMv7 binaries into an intermediate, architecture-independent format using the BAP toolset by means of a veried translator. We demonstrate the capabilities of the tool on a separation kernel system call handler, which mixes hand-written assembly with gcc-optimized output, a UART device driver and a crypto service modular exponentiation routine.

  • 339.
    Banaee, Hadi
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Loutfi, Amy
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Towards NLG for Physiological Data Monitoring with Body Area Networks2013In: 14th European Workshop on Natural Language Generation, 2013, p. 193-197Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This position paper presents an on-goingwork on a natural language generationframework that is particularly tailored fornatural language generation from bodyarea networks. We present an overview ofthe main challenges when considering thistype of sensor devices used for at homemonitoring of health parameters. The paperpresents the first steps towards the implementationof a system which collectsinformation from heart rate and respirationusing a wearable sensor.

  • 340.
    Bandaru, Vamsi Krishna
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Balasubramanian, Rajasekaran
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    OBJECT RECOGNITION USINGDIALOGUES AND SEMANTICANCHORING2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report explains in detail the implemented system containing a robot and a sensor

    network that is deployed in a test apartment in an elderly residence area. The report

    focuses on the creation and maintenance (anchoring) of the connection between the

    semantic information present in the dialog with perceived actual physical objects in the

    home. Semantic knowledge about concepts and their correlations are retrieved from online

    resources and ontologies, e.g. Word-Net and sensors information are provided by

    cameras distributed in the apartment.

  • 341.
    Bankarusamy, Sudhangathan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Towards hardware accelerated rectification of high speed stereo image streams2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The process of combining two views of a scene in order to obtain depth information is called stereo vision. When the same is done using a computer it is then called computer stereo vision. Stereo vision is used in robotic application where depth of an object plays a role. Two cameras mounted on a rig is called a stereo camera system. Such a system is able to capture two views and enable robotic application to use the depth information to complete tasks. Anomalies are bound to occur in such a stereo rig, when both the cameras are not parallel to each other. Mounting of the cameras on a rig accurately has physical alignment limitations. Images taken from such a rig has inaccurate depth information and has to be rectified. Therefore rectification is a pre-requisite to computer stereo vision. One such a stereo rig used in this thesis is the GIMME2 stereo camera system. The system has two 10 mega-pixel cameras with on-board FPGA, RAM, processor running Linux operating system, multiple Ethernet ports and an SD card feature amongst others. Stereo rectification on memory constrained hardware is a challenging task as the process itself requires both the images to be stored in the memory. The FPGA on the GIMME2 systems must be used in order to achieve the best possible speed. Programming a system that does not have a display and for used for a specific purpose is called embedded programming. The purpose of this system is distance estimation and working with such a system falls in the Embedded Systems program. This thesis presents a method that makes rectification a step ahead for this particular system. The functionality of the algorithm is shown in MATLAB and using VHDL and is compared to available tools and systems.

  • 342.
    Bao, Yan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture (Closed 20120101), Software and Computer Systems, SCS (Closed 20120101).
    Brorsson, Mats
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture (Closed 20120101), Software and Computer Systems, SCS (Closed 20120101).
    An Implementation of Cache-Coherence for the Nios II ™ Soft-core processor2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soft-core programmable processors mapped onto fieldprogrammable gate arrays (FPGA) can be considered as equivalents to a microcontroller. They combine central processing units (CPUs), caches, memories, and peripherals on a single chip. Soft-cores processors represent an increasingly common embedded software implementation option. Modern FPGA soft-cores are parameterized to support application-specific customization. However, these softcore processors are designed to be used in uniprocessor system, not for multiprocessor system. This project describes an implementation to solve the cache coherency problem in an ALTERA Nios II soft-core multiprocessor system.

  • 343.
    Barbette, Tom
    et al.
    University of Liege.
    Soldani, Cyril
    University of Liege.
    Mathy, Laurent
    University of Liege.
    Fast userspace packet processing2015In: Architectures for Networking and Communications Systems (ANCS' 15), IEEE Press, 2015, p. 5-16Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 344. Bardizbanyan, Alen
    et al.
    Själander, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Whalley, David
    Larsson-Edefors, Per
    Improving data access efficiency by using context-aware loads and stores2015In: Proc. 16th ACM SIGPLAN/SIGBED Conference on Languages, Compilers, and Tools for Embedded Systems, New York: ACM Press, 2015, p. 27-36Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Memory operations have a significant impact on both performance and energy usage even when an access hits in the level-one data cache (L1 DC). Load instructions in particular affect performance as they frequently result in stalls since the register to be loaded is often referenced before the data is available in the pipeline. L1 DC accesses also impact energy usage as they typically require significantly more energy than a register file access. Despite their impact on performance and energy usage, L1 DC accesses on most processors are performed in a general fashion without regard to the context in which the load or store operation is performed. We describe a set of techniques where the compiler enhances load and store instructions so that they can be executed with fewer stalls and/or enable the L1 DC to be accessed in a more energy-efficient manner. We show that using these techniques can simultaneously achieve a 6% gain in performance and a 43% reduction in L1 DC energy usage.

  • 345.
    Barf, Jochen
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Development and Implementation of an Image-Processing-Based Horizon Sensor for Sounding Rockets2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 346.
    Barkah, Dani
    et al.
    Volvo Construction Equipment AB, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Ermedahl, Andreas
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Gustafsson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Lisper, Björn
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Sandberg, Christer
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Evaluation of Automatic Flow Analysis for WCET Calculation on Industrial Real-Time System Code2008In: Proceedings - Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems, 2008, 2008, p. 331-340Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A static Worst-Case Execution Time (WCET) analysis derives upper bounds for the execution times of programs. Such analysts requires information about the possible program flows. The current practice is to provide this information manually, which can be laborious and error-prone. An alternative is to derive this information through an automated flow analysis. In this article, we present a case study where an automatic flowanalysis method was tested on industrial real-time system code. The same code was the subject of an earlier WCET case study, where it was analysed using manual annotations for the flow information. The purpose of the current study was to see to which extent the same flow information could be found automatically. The results show that for the most part this is indeed possible, and we could derive comparable WCET estimates using the automatically generated flow information. In addition, valuable insights were gained on what is needed to make flow analysis methods work on real production code. 

  • 347.
    Barkland, Lars-Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Norder, Kim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    En studie av Scrum för två personer och utveckling av mobilt gränssnitt2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A big portion of software development is the method which controls the flow ofthe creative process. Thru experience it has been shown how a lack oforganisation can have a profoundly negative effect on the development workand finally on the product itself. We take the Scrum method in a two-man formand analyze how the a small-scale version effects the roles, artefacts andactivities associated with the original Scrum method. The result of the workusing a small scale Scrum is presented along with the changes that have beendone during the work. The result and the final discussion show a positive effecton using a structured development method.Lately the use of small screen devices and their use of the Internet has widelyincreased . With this change in user interface comes new challenges designing aWeb handling a wide variety of user devices. In the process of developing aweb application techniques for small-screen interfaces was analyzed from thewhere Responsive Design was found to be the best choice concidering relevantlimitations. Design principals from the concept of Responsive Design isanalyzed and applied.

  • 348. Barkowsky, M.
    et al.
    Wang, Kun
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Cousseau, R.
    Brunnstrom, K.
    Olsson, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Le Callet, P.
    Subjective quality assessment of error concealment strategies for 3DTV in the presence of asymmetric transmission errors2010In: Proceedings of 2010 IEEE 18th International Packet Video Workshop (PV, 2010, p. 193-200Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The transmission of 3DTV sequences over packet based networks may result in degradations of the video quality due to packet loss. In the conventional 2D case, several different strategies are known for extrapolating the missing information and thus concealing the error. In 3D however, the residual error after concealment of one view might leads to binocular rivalry with the correctly received second view. In this paper, three simple alternatives are presented: frame freezing, a reduced playback speed, and displaying only a single view for both eyes, thus effectively switching to 2D presentation. In a subjective experiment the performance in terms of quality of experience of the three methods is evaluated for different packet loss scenarios. Error-free encoded videos at different bit rates have been included as anchor conditions. The subjective experiment method contains special precautions for measuring the Quality of Experience (QoE) for 3D content and also contains an indicator for visual discomfort. The results indicate that switching to 2D is currently the best choice but difficulties with visual discomfort should be expected even for this method.

  • 349.
    Barkowsky, Marcus
    et al.
    LUNAM Université, Université de Nantes, IRCCyN UMR CNRS 6597, France .
    Li, Jing
    LUNAM Université, Université de Nantes, IRCCyN UMR CNRS 6597, France .
    Han, Taehwan
    Youn, Sungwook
    Ok, Jiheon
    Lee, Chulhee
    Hedberg, Christer
    Dept. of Netlab, Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Sweden .
    Ananth, Indirajith Vijai
    Dept. of Netlab, Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Sweden .
    Wang, Kun
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science. Dept. of Netlab, Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Sweden .
    Brunnström, Kjell
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems. Dept. of Netlab, Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Sweden .
    Le Callet, Patrick
    LUNAM Université, Université de Nantes, IRCCyN UMR CNRS 6597, France .
    Towards standardized 3DTV QoE assessment: Cross-lab study on display technology and viewing environment parameters2013In: Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, 2013, p. Art. no. 864809-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Subjective assessment of Quality of Experience in stereoscopic 3D requires new guidelines for the environmental setup as existing standards such as ITU-R BT. 500 may no longer be appropriate. A first step is to perform cross-lab experiments in different viewing conditions on the same video sequences. Three international labs performed Absolute Category Rating studies on a freely available video database containing degradations that are mainly related to video quality degradations. Different conditions have been used in the labs: Passive polarized displays, active shutter displays, differences in viewing distance, the number of parallel viewers, and the voting device. Implicit variations were introduced due to the three different languages in Sweden, South Korea, and France. Although the obtained Mean Opinion Scores are comparable, slight differences occur in function of the video degradations and the viewing distance. An analysis on the statistical differences obtained between the MOS of the video sequences revealed that obtaining an equivalent number of differences may require more observers in some viewing conditions. It was also seen that the alignment of the meaning of the attributes used in Absolute Category Rating in different languages may be beneficial. Statistical analysis was performed showing influence of the viewing distance on votes and MOS results.

  • 350.
    Barrera Diaz, Carlos Alberto
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Oscarsson, Jan
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Lidberg, Simon
    Manufacturing Engineering, Research and Simulation, Volvo Car Corporation, Skövde, Sweden.
    Sellgren, Tommy
    Manufacturing Engineering, Research and Simulation, Volvo Car Corporation, Skövde, Sweden.
    Discrete Event Simulation Output Data-Handling System in an Automotive Manufacturing Plant2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Discrete Event Simulation is a comprehensive tool for the analysis and design of manufacturing systems. Over the years, considerable efforts to improve simulation processes have been made. One step in these efforts is the standardisation of the output data through the development of an appropriate system which presents the results in a standardised way. This paper presents the results of a survey based on simulation projects undertaken in the automotive industry. In addition, it presents the implementation of an automated output data-handling system which aims to simplify the project’s documentation task for the simulation engineers and make the results more accessible for other stakeholders.

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