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  • 301. Balakrishna, R
    et al.
    Koutsopoulos, Haris
    Northeastern University.
    Ben-Akiva, Moshe
    Simultaneous Off-Line Demand and Supply Calibration of Dynamic Traffic Assignment Systems2006In: Proceedings of Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting 2006, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 302.
    Balakrishna, Ramachandran
    et al.
    Caliper Corp.
    Ben-Akiva, Moshe
    MIT, Cambridge.
    Koutsopoulos, Haris N.
    Northeastern Univ, Boston.
    Offline calibration of dynamic traffic assignment: Simultaneous Demand-and-Supply Estimation2007In: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, no 2003, p. 50-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advances in intelligent transportation systems have resulted in deployment of surveillance systems that automatically collect and store extensive networkwide traffic data. Dynamic traffic assignment (DTA) models have been developed for a variety of dynamic traffic management applications. They are designed to estimate and predict the evolution of congestion with detailed models and algorithms that capture travel demand and network supply and their complex interactions. The availability of rich time-varying traffic data spanning multiple days provides the opportunity to calibrate a DTA model’s inputs and parameters offline so that its outputs reflect field conditions in future offline and online real-time applications. The state of the art of DTA model calibration is a sequential approach, with supply model calibration (assuming known demand inputs) followed by demand calibration with fixed supply parameters. An offline DTA model calibration methodology is presented for simultaneous estimation of all demand-and-supply inputs and parameters, with sensor data. A minimization formulation that can use any general traffic data and present scalable solution approaches for the complex, nonlinear, stochastic optimization problem is adopted. A case study with DynaMIT, a DTA model with traffic estimation and prediction capabilities, is used to demonstrate and validate the methodology. Archived sensor data and a network from Los Angeles, California, are used to demonstrate scalability. Results indicate that the simultaneous approach significantly outperforms the sequential state of the art in terms of modeling accuracy and computational efficiency.

  • 303.
    Balakrishna, Ramachandran
    et al.
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
    Koutsopoulos, Haris N.
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston.
    Ben-Akiva, Moshe
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston.
    Fernandez Ruiz, Bruno M.
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
    Mehta, Manish
    Lehman Brothers Inc..
    A Simulation-based Evaluation of Advanced Traveler Information Systems2005In: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, Vol. 1910, p. 90-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traveler information has the potential to reduce travel times and improve their reliability. Studies have verified that driver overreaction from the dissemination of information can be eliminated through prediction-based route guidance that uses short-term forecasts of network state. Critical off-line tests of advanced dynamic traffic assignment-based prediction systems have been limited, since the system being evaluated has also been used as the test bed. This paper outlines a detailed simulation-based laboratory for the objective and independent evaluation of advanced traveler information systems, a laboratory with the flexibility to analyze the impacts of various design parameters and modeling errors on the quality of the generated guidance. MITSIMLab, a system for the evaluation of advanced traffic management systems, is integrated with Dynamic Network Assignment for the Management of Information to Travelers (DynaMIT), a simulation-based decision support system designed to generate prediction-based route guidance. Evaluation criteria and requirements for the closed-loop integration of MITSIMLab and DynaMIT are discussed. Detailed case studies demonstrating the evaluation methodology and sensitivity of DynaMIT's guidance are presented.

  • 304.
    Balkefors, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Meinhold, Caroline
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    System anlysis and optimazation based on animal manure - a case study in Västervik municipality2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Östersjön är ett av världens sjukaste hav på grund av övergödning som bland annat beror på jordbrukets användning av gödselmedel och specifikt användandet av konstgödsel. Genom att istället ta tillvara på flytgödseln som finns tillgänglig hos lantbrukare på lokal nivå och låta flytgödseln passera genom en biogasanläggning kan både miljövänligt gödselmedel samt biogas utvinnas. Detta leder till att konstgödselanvändningen mer eller mindre skulle kunna uteslutas och ett mer miljövänligt och lokalt kretslopp skapas. Denna studie har utvecklat en optimeringsmodell som utifrån potentiella geografiska positioner för biogasanläggningar och annan teknik som avvattnar flytgödsel och tillverkar miljövänligt gödselmedel ska besluta om var de mest optimala placeringarna är. Dessutom ingår en kartläggning om var gårdar är placerade i kommunen, hur mycket flytgödsel som är tillgänglig på varje gård samt var behovet av gödselmedel finns i kommunen. Studien har utförts på uppdrag av Västerviks kommun i samarbete med en större forskningsgrupp på Linköpings universitet.

  • 305.
    BALLAND, Julien
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    SOBHI, Neda Angela
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Humanitarian Relief Organizations and Its Relationship with Logistics Service Providers: A case study of UNICEF during the Mozambique flood disaster 20132013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Nowadays, humanitarian relief organizations are more and more present in people’s lives due to the number of recorded natural disasters increasing over the last 30 years. Although there are several actors involved in humanitarian aid, the need to integrate logistics service providers into humanitarian relief operations has been recognized. Howev- er, the literature lacks particular attention concerning the coordination roles and objectives between humanitarian relief organizations and LSPs during disaster relief operations.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between UNICEF and its LSP(s) during disaster relief operations. More specifically, this study aims to understand the elements that drive, facilitate, constrain and affect the relationship UNICEF has with its LSPs.

    Method: A qualitative, exploratory research approach was used, using a real-context case study as the research design. The empirical data was collected through in-depth semi- structured interviews with four respondents representing both UNICEF and its LSPs.

    Conclusion: The researchers present a revised version of the conceptual framework used to conduct this research. One additional component was added to the list of compo- nents affecting the effectiveness of a relationship. In addition, some other influencers were discussed. This conceptual framework can be used to formulate an effective relationship between two humanitarian actors within disaster relief operations. Finally, forming a rela- tionship between UNICEF and its LSPs is nothing new. Recommendations for future re- search include investigating implementation efforts once a relationship is built, in order to improve disaster relief operations and save more lives. 

  • 306. Bao, Jinchen
    et al.
    Ma, Zheng
    Xiao, Ming
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Theory.
    Zhu, Zhongliang
    Error Performance of Sparse Code Multiple Access Networks with Joint ML Detection2016In: 2016 IEEE 83RD VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE (VTC SPRING), IEEE, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates error performance of sparse code multiple access (SCMA) networks with multiple access channels (MAC) and broadcast channels (BC). We give the closedform expression for the pairwise error probability (PEP) of joint maximum likelihood (ML) detection for multiuser signals over additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) and Rayleigh fading channels with an arbitrary number of users and multidimensional codebooks. An upper bound for the average symbol error rate (SER) is calculated. The bound is tight in both AWGN channel and Rayleigh fading channels for high SNR regions. The analytical bounds are compared with simulations, and the results confirm the effectiveness of the analysis for both AWGN and Rayleigh fading channels.

  • 307.
    Barath, Christian
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management.
    Amini, Nasrollah
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management.
    Produktinformationens inverkan på returer inom e-handel: Fallstudie på tre företag inom modebranschen2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Med e-handelns snabba expansion har även returerna ökat, returvolymen inom e-handel kan vara så hög som 50% (Dissanayake och Singh, 2007). Returer kostar inte bara pengar utan påverkar även miljön i form av bl.a. ökade transporter. De vanligaste returorsakerna inom modebranschen är storlek och passform vilket kan härledas till bristande produktinformation som t.ex. undermåliga storleksguider. Tidigare forskning om produktinformation har oftast berört vikten av produktinformation vid konsumentköp samt vilka egenskaper i produktinformationen som är viktiga. (Chiu et al, 2014; Manvai och Venkataram, 2005; Markopoulos, Arin och Ungar, 2016) Syftet med denna fallstudie är att undersöka hur produktinformationen påverkar antalet produktreturer hos e-handelsföretag i modebranschen. Studiens frågeställningar berör hur fallföretagen arbetar med produktinformation och om det har påverkat returvolymen samt fallföretagens hållbarhetsarbete. Studien är baserad på en kvalitativ metod och med hjälp av semistrukturerade intervjuer med tre fallföretag besvaras studiens syfte och frågeställningar. Fallföretagen i denna studie arbetar med försäljning inom modebranschen, två av dessa är stora företag och har både fysiska butiker och e-handel. Det tredje fallföretaget är ett mindre företag som enbart har e-handel. Studien visar att fallföretagen får samma gynnsamma effekt av arbetet med produktinformation även om drivkraften bakom arbetet är olika. Studien visar även att produktinformationen kan ses som en kanal för att effektivt förmedla hållbarhetsarbete till kunderna. Studien bidrar med bredare kunskap om produktinformation samt att studien kan ligga till grund för vidare forskning om produktinformationens inverkan på returer. Studien styrker även vissa delar av tidigare forskning inom returer i modebranschen.

  • 308.
    Baravdish, Rabi
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Barkarmo, Nemrod
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    City logistics - The potential of consolidating goods in the city of Norrköping2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Postnord, DHL och Schenker är de tre största transportbolagen i Norrköpings stad och utför idag merparten av distributionen av gods. Inom Norrköpings stadskärna levereras varor dagligen till stadens olika gallerior samt butiker innanför promenaderna (norra, södra, östra) och Kungsgatan. Transportbolagen åker i dagsläget med totalt 6 lastbilar och 6 paketbilar för att förse kunder inom Norrköpings stadskärna med gods. Urbanisering och den ständigt växande befolkningsmängden identifieras, av aktörerna, som ett framtida trafikproblem vad gäller privata fordon och godstransportfordon. Idén med citylogistik är att optimera logistik- och transportaktiveter som sker i städer och genom det minska problemen. En potentiell lösning på problemen är samlastning av gods som går in i stadskärnan. Målet med examensarbetet är att undersöka och analysera godstransportsflödet i dagsläget i Norrköpings stad samt att uppskatta potentialen i besparingar/förbättringar för systemet, med samlastning av gods som transporteras in i Norrköpings stadskärna. Syftet med examensarbetet är att förse projektet ”Integrerad ruttplanering och kostnadsdelning inom citylogistik” med detaljerade data om Norrköpings transporter. Syftet är dessutom att undersöka ifall samlastning är en rimlig åtgärd för att erhålla sociala, miljömässiga- och ekonomiska vinster inom städer och urbana områden. För att besvara forskningsfrågor och uppfylla målet samt syftet har metoden bestått av: intervjuer med olika aktörer, litteraturstudie kring tidigare samlastningslösningar, datainsamling genom fältobservationer och bearbetning av sekundärdata från transportbolag samt beräkningar baserade på de data för att påvisa potentialen i besparingar/förbättringar för samlastning av gods i Norrköpings stadskärna. Resultaten visar att sociala- och miljömässiga vinster kan erhållas då samarbete kring samlastning av gods genomförs. Även ekonomiska vinster i form av frigjorda resurser har kunnat erhållas. Samtliga aktörer som intervjuats i Norrköpings stad finner sig positiva till ett framtida samlastningssamarbete och många av aktörerna ser även vikten av att ett sådant samarbete inträffar. Beräkningarna visade att tidseffektivisering, minskande av antalet lastbilar samt förminskning av 𝐶𝑂2-utsläpp kan erhållas då gods inom Norrköpings stadskärna samlastas och distribueras. Examensarbetet presenterar även andra citylogistiklösningar och resultaten från en del av dem. Sammanfattningsvis kan det här examensarbetet fungera som en grund för framtida studier och ett implementerande av citylogistik och ett samlastningssamarbete i Norrköpings stad.

  • 309.
    Bardaqji, Bilal
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rudolfsson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Route planning for delivery trucks at Ekoparti AB2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Ekoparti AB är ett grossistföretag som idag har cirka 480 kunder runt om i mellersta Sverige. Idag omsätter Ekoparti AB 165 miljoner kronor per år och har resurser som uppgår till 30 heltidsanställda personer, samt att man äger ett lager på 3000 kvadratmeter, varav 500 av dem är frys. Företaget har även sex stora lastbilar och två skåpbilar. På senaste tid har Ekoparti AB insett att det finns brister i distributionen mot kund. De har tagit fram två punkter som de anser vara bristerna i företagets logistiksystem. Dessa är att kundernas ordermönster behöver förändras, samt att vissa kunder avviker från leveransrutterna som går från företagets lager, samtidigt som de beställer för lite. Utifrån dessa punkter har de tagit fram ett nytt förslag för hur distributionen mot kund borde ske i företaget. Projektets uppgift blev då att undersöka de nuvarande leveranserna samt det nya förslaget och jämföra dessa två för att se vilket som blir mest kostnadseffektivt och varför. För att lösa problemet valde vi att använda programmet ArcMap som en bas för analysen av rutterna. Med hjälp av programmet kunde kostnader för att köra de olika rutterna i nuläget och i förslaget tas fram. Resultatet av analysen blir att det nya förslaget är mer kostnadseffektivt än hur distributionen hanteras i nuläget, med en minskning av kostnaderna med 614 950 kronor per år. För framtagning av resultatet används två huvudsakliga kostnadsfaktorer, vilket är tidskostnader och distanskostnader. När vi granskade resultatet var det tydligt att den variabel som har störst påverkan på kostnaderna är tidskostnaderna. Med tidskostnader menas lönekostnader för chauffören och hans medpassagerare. Dessutom tar vi även i rapporten upp att förändringen inte enbart påverkar transporterna, utan förändringarna skulle även kunna påverka andra delar av logistiksystemet, vilket i sin tur kan påverka andra delar av företaget. Slutsatsen av projektet är att det nya förslaget för rutter är mer kostnadseffektivt för Ekoparti AB än de nuvarande rutterna. I och med att tidskostnaderna utgör majoriteten av totalkostnaderna bör man för att minska totalkostnaderna ta fram lösningar som minskar den spenderade tiden vid distributionen till kunderna. Dessutom får man inte bortse från helhetsperspektivet då transportförändringar inte bara påverkar transporterna utan även resterande delar av företaget. Detta för att undvika oönskade negativa effekter i andra delar av verksamheten när man genomför en förändring

  • 310.
    Barfod, Michael Bruhn
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Leleur, Steen
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Gudmundsson, Henrik
    CONCITO.
    Hedegaard Sørensen, Claus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Greve, Carsten
    Copenhagen Business School.
    Promoting sustainability through national transport planning2018In: European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research, ISSN 1567-7133, E-ISSN 1567-7141, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 250-261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This following special issue of the European Journal of Transport Infrastructure Research (EJTIR) containing 4 scientific papers is the result of the work conducted under the research project 'National Transport Planning - Sustainability, Institutions and Tools' (SUSTAIN) (20122017) financed by the Danish Innovation Fund. SUSTAIN was coordinated by first the Department of Transport of the Technical University of Denmark (DTU Transport) and later as the result of a reorganisation of the transport research at DTU by the Department of Management Engineering (DTU Management Engineering). The project was carried out in cooperation with several Danish and international partners. In SUSTAIN the following definition of national sustainable transport planning (NSTP) was adopted: deliberate, knowledge-based, and strategic endeavours to integrate sustainability principles, criteria and goals in the development, management, regulation and assessment of nationally significant transport systems and services. This paper presents the research outcome by reviewing some of the major findings and seeing these collectively as a basis for promoting sustainability through the formulated research topic of NSTP. This basis includes defining criteria and indicators for use in NSTP combining evidence-based and performance oriented planning approaches. Furthermore, it contains a flexible evaluation framework that includes a decision support model that when informed by criteria and indicators can structure and assist an NSTP practice. This practice can support a planning process aiming at realising a sustainable transport development. Finally, the basis comprises a review of the complex political and administrative fabric in which NSTP is embedded, and thereby it can condition the ability to promote sustainability in practice.

  • 311.
    Barlow, Zachary W.
    et al.
    Oregon State University.
    Hurwitz, David S.
    Oregon State University.
    Gambatese, John A.
    Oregon State University.
    Synthesis of state highway worker safety practice and programs in the United States2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Highway work sites pose a significant risk to the workers tasked with constructing and maintaining that infrastructure. In the United States, each state has a transportation department that, in some capacity, manages or conducts the work on highways within that state. Employees of these transportation departments are exposed to the risks of highway work sites within their states. Therefore, states have adopted safety programs and policies to encourage safety and reduce risk to their employees.

    The objective of this project is to synthesize and describe the current state of safety practice at state transportation departments. State transportation departments are diverse agencies that are formed based on the geographical, institutional, and political constraints of each state. The purpose of this research synthesis is to explore this diversity and more accurately describe it.

  • 312.
    Barlow, Zachary W.
    et al.
    Oregon State University.
    Hurwitz, David S.
    Oregon State University.
    Olsen, Michael J.
    Oregon State University.
    Distraction potential of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) near roadways2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As unmanned aerial systems (UAS) are becoming more ubiquitous due to rapid advances in technology, their potential for personal and commercial usage is expanding. Conflicts between UAS and existing infrastructure will continue to increase as more UAS enter the airspace. In particular, significant attention has been given to the interaction of UAS operations and airport facilities. Nevertheless, UAS can and do operate in close proximity to roadway infrastructure as well. One manifestation of this conflict is the potential driver distraction from UAS operations near roadways, resulting in safety concerns for road users and UAS operators alike. This research evaluates the potential for this distraction through a driving simulator study.

  • 313.
    Barnard, Yvonne
    et al.
    ITS, University of Leeds.
    Lai, Frank
    ITS, University of Leeds.
    Carsten, Oliver
    ITS, University of Leeds.
    Merat, Natasha
    ITS, University of Leeds.
    Hjälmdahl, Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Dukic, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Vanderhaegen, Frederic
    UNIVAL.
    Polet, Philippe
    UNIVAL.
    Enjalbert, Simon
    UNIVAL.
    Hasewinkel, Håkan
    Chalmers.
    Lützhöft, Margareta
    Chalmers.
    Kircher, Albert
    Chalmers.
    Kecklund, Lena
    MTOP.
    Dimgård, Markus
    MTOP.
    Selection of operator support systems across modes2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This Deliverable provides an outline of the process involved in task 2.2 of the ITERATE project forselecting an appropriate set of hypotheses to be tested inWorkpackages 3 (Experimental design andscenario specification), and 4 (Experimental studies).During a workshop with all partners involved in the project, hypotheses were formulated for thethree main system functionalities outlined in D2.1: those that support speed management (SpeedManagement), systems that support system object detection and avoidance (Collision Avoidance)and those that monitor operator state (Operator State). In formulating these hypotheses, partnerswere encouraged to consider systematically the effect of operator state and different operatorgroups on interaction with these three systems. To allow succinct formulation of hypotheses, fouroperator based parameters which are thought to affect operator behaviour with the system, wereidentified: sensation-seeking, hazard perception, fatigue and (high and low) task demand. Informulating hypotheses, partnerswere encouraged to consider the whole process linking a cause toan effect, with a clear mechanism that would link the two.

  • 314.
    Barrdahl, Adam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management.
    Adolfson, Simon
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management.
    Reducering av kapitalbindning genom förändrad lagerstyrning: En studie på Husqvarna Group med fokus på inköp från avlägsna leverantörer2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study was conducted during the spring -18 as a graduate work at Husqvarna Group towards the company's purchasing department. The authors study the master’s program Logistics as part of their MSc in Engineering at Linköping University. 

    The main subjects of the study are purchasing and inventory management, focusing on the latter part and intended to reduce capital tied up without increasing overall costs through a change. Security stock, order quantities and consignment storage were the three key areas investigated and four different scenarios were created within these. In addition to cost and tied up capital, the scenarios were also evaluated according to how they affected the flexibility of Husqvarna. The two scenarios investigated in security stock were the service level method Scenario 1 - SERV1 and Scenario 2 - Percentage of demand during lead time. Within order quantities, a scenario based on economic order quantity, Scenario 3 - EOK, was investigated. Qualitatively, a consignment inventory was also investigated through Scenario 4 - Consignment storage

    Interviews and information from the company's business systems have been the key sources of information for the study, where the safety stock and order quantity changes were quantitatively evaluated and consignment storage qualitatively. The study has focused on two remote suppliers located in Asia. 

    The study found that using the SERV1 service-level methodology reduces the company's tied up capital by 13.6% and total costs by 15.9%, with the additional effect of a higher and more even service level for the entire product range. Also, deciding the order quantities by using economic order quantity resulted in a reduction of 9,8% in capital tied up and a marginal decrease in total costs. The percentage changes are in relation to the current situation and the costs which change in connection with the introduction of the scenarios are included. A consignment storage will reduce capital tied up, but the costs would probably increase in the transition from the present. In this scenario, it is important to evaluate the profit of decreasing tied up capital to the increased costs. Scenario 2 - Percentage of demand during the lead time was not considered to give a sufficiently good result and is for that reason not worth for Husqvarna to move forward with. 

    The conclusion of the study is that Husqvarna Group should dimension its security stocks and review its order quantities for the existing articles according to the recommended methods. They should also focus on determining the order quantity when starting to buy new articles. Consignment storage should be further investigated on the basis of difficulties to quantitatively investigate costs. The result of the study can be used for both remote and nearby suppliers and is therefore considered to be generalizable for all Husqvarna products and also for other companies.

  • 315.
    Barua, Shaibal
    et al.
    Mälardalens Högskola.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    Mälardalens Högskola.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Begum, Shahina
    Mälardalens Högskola.
    Automatic driver sleepiness detection using EEG, EOG and contextual information2019In: Expert systems with applications, ISSN 0957-4174, E-ISSN 1873-6793, Vol. 115, p. 121-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The many vehicle crashes that are caused by driver sleepiness each year advocates the development of automated driver sleepiness detection (ADSD) systems. This study proposes an automatic sleepiness classification scheme designed using data from 30 drivers who repeatedly drove in a high-fidelity driving simulator, both in alert and in sleep deprived conditions. Driver sleepiness classification was performed using four separate classifiers: k-nearest neighbours, support vector machines, case-based reasoning, and random forest, where physiological signals and contextual information were used as sleepiness indicators. The subjective Karolinska sleepiness scale (KSS) was used as target value. An extensive evaluation on multiclass and binary classifications was carried out using 10-fold cross-validation and leave-one-out validation. With 10-fold cross-validation, the support vector machine showed better performance than the other classifiers (79% accuracy for multiclass and 93% accuracy for binary classification). The effect of individual differences was also investigated, showing a 10% increase in accuracy when data from the individual being evaluated was included in the training dataset. Overall, the support vector machine was found to be the most stable classifier. The effect of adding contextual information to the physiological features improved the classification accuracy by 4% in multiclass classification and by and 5% in binary classification.

  • 316.
    Barua, Shaibal
    et al.
    Malardalen Univ, Sweden.
    Uddin Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    Malardalen Univ, Sweden.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Physiological Measurements. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Swedish Natl Rd and Transport Res Inst VTI, SE-58195 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Begum, Shahina
    Malardalen Univ, Sweden.
    Automatic driver sleepiness detection using EEG, EOG and contextual information2019In: Expert systems with applications, ISSN 0957-4174, E-ISSN 1873-6793, Vol. 115, p. 121-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The many vehicle crashes that are caused by driver sleepiness each year advocates the development of automated driver sleepiness detection (ADSD) systems. This study proposes an automatic sleepiness classification scheme designed using data from 30 drivers who repeatedly drove in a high-fidelity driving simulator, both in alert and in sleep deprived conditions. Driver sleepiness classification was performed using four separate classifiers: k-nearest neighbours, support vector machines, case-based reasoning, and random forest, where physiological signals and contextual information were used as sleepiness indicators. The subjective Karolinska sleepiness scale (KSS) was used as target value. An extensive evaluation on multiclass and binary classifications was carried out using 10-fold cross-validation and leave-one-out validation. With 10-fold cross-validation, the support vector machine showed better performance than the other classifiers (79% accuracy for multiclass and 93% accuracy for binary classification). The effect of individual differences was also investigated, showing a 10% increase in accuracy when data from the individual being evaluated was included in the training dataset. Overall, the support vector machine was found to be the most stable classifier. The effect of adding contextual information to the physiological features improved the classification accuracy by 4% in multiclass classification and by and 5% in binary classification. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 317.
    Barås, Madeleine
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics.
    Brunberg, Annika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics.
    von Haartman, Robin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    A supply chain strategy for an innovative commodity producer: Testing the applicability of established theoretical models2014In: EurOMA 2014 Full Papers, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The distinction between innovative and functional products have for more than a decade been central to our understanding of how to design appropriate supply chains. However, the distinction between the two types of products, and the associated "optimal" supply chain, are blurring, as high competition forces commodity producers to move up the value chain and increase the innovative content of their products. The purpose of this paper is to use a single case study to test whether established supply chain models can be applied to an innovative commodity producer. The paper finds that although some established model still have merits, a supply chain strategy cannot only be based on product characteristics. Factors such ease of transport and uncertainties in materials supply needs to be taken into account and an effective supply chain may involve utilising decoupling point to combine the benefits of both efficient and responsive supply chains.

  • 318.
    Bastian, Anne
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    Explaining Trends in Car Use2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many western countries have seen a plateau and subsequent decline in car travel during the early 21st century. What has generated particular interest and debate is the claim that the development cannot only be explained by changes in traditional explanatory factors such as GDP, fuel prices and land-use. Instead, it has been argued, the observed trends are indications of substantial changes in lifestyles, preferences and attitudes to car travel and thus, not just a temporary plateau but a true peak in car use.

    This thesis is a compilation of five papers, studying the issue on a national, international, regional and city scale through quantitative analysis of aggregate administrative data and individual travel survey data. It concludes that the aggregate development of car travel per capita can be explained fairly well with the traditional model variables GDP and fuel price. Furthermore, this thesis shows that spatial context and policy become increasingly important in car use trends: car use diverges over time between city, suburban and rural residents of Sweden and other European countries, while gender and to some extent income become less differentiating for car use.

  • 319.
    Bastian, Anne
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Peak Car in Sweden?2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It has long been well-known that economic variables such as GDP and fuel price as well as socio-demographic characteristics and spatial distribution are key factors in explaining car use trends. However, due to the recently observed plateau of total car travel in many high income countries, it has been argued that other factors, such as changes in preferences, attitudes and life-styles, have become more important drivers of car use. 

     

    This thesis shows that the two variables GDP per capita and fuel price explain most of the aggregate trends in car distances driven per adult in Sweden: as much as 80% over the years 2002 to 2012. The estimated elasticities are well in line with previous literature and can reasonably well reproduce the trend in car distances driven per adult back to 1980. We find, however, a substantial variation in elasticities between municipalities depending on public transport supply, population density, share of foreign-born inhabitants and the average income level.

     

    Swedish National Travel Survey data from 1978 to 2011 reveals that reductions in per adult driving mainly occurred among urban men. Urban men of all income groups reduced their driving for both commuting and non-commuting trips in conjunction with rising gasoline prices, which may have contributed to this development. We find that driving among those socio-demographic groups, who have better opportunities to reduce their driving, and driving for discretionary rather than commute purposes is being reduced over time. Sweden is ranked among the most gender-equal countries in the world; yet we find a substantial remaining gender gap in the share of adults driving a car on an average day, even when controlling for other socio-economic differences.

     

  • 320.
    Bastian, Anne
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Peak car?: Drivers of the recent decline in Swedish car use2015In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 42, p. 94-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has long been well-known that economic variables such as GDP and fuel price as well as socio-demographic characteristics and spatial distribution are key factors explaining car use trends. However, due. to the recently observed plateau of total car travel in many high income countries, it has been argued that other factors, such as changes in preferences, attitudes and life-styles, have become more important drivers of car use. This paper shows that the two variables, GDP per capita and fuel price, explain most of the aggregate trends in car distances driven per adult in Sweden: as much as 80% over the years 2002 to 2012. The estimated elasticities are well in line with previous literature and can reasonably well reproduce the trend in car distances driven per adult back to 1980. We find, however, a substantial variation in elasticities between municipalities depending on public transport supply, population density, share of foreign-born inhabitants and the average income level.

  • 321.
    Bastian, Anne
    et al.
    KTH.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH.
    Peak car?: Drivers of the recent decline in Swedish car use2015In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 42, p. 94-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has long been well-known that economic variables such as GDP and fuel price as well as socio-demographic characteristics and spatial distribution are key factors explaining car use trends. However, due. to the recently observed plateau of total car travel in many high income countries, it has been argued that other factors, such as changes in preferences, attitudes and life-styles, have become more important drivers of car use. This paper shows that the two variables, GDP per capita and fuel price, explain most of the aggregate trends in car distances driven per adult in Sweden: as much as 80% over the years 2002 to 2012. The estimated elasticities are well in line with previous literature and can reasonably well reproduce the trend in car distances driven per adult back to 1980. We find, however, a substantial variation in elasticities between municipalities depending on public transport supply, population density, share of foreign-born inhabitants and the average income level.

  • 322.
    Bastian, Anne
    et al.
    Stockholm City Transport Administration.
    Börjesson, Maria
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    The city as a driver of new mobility patterns, cycling and gender equality: Travel behaviour trends in Stockholm 1985–20152018In: Travel Behaviour & Society, ISSN 2214-367X, E-ISSN 2214-3688, Vol. 13, p. 71-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses changes in individual travel behaviour in Stockholm County over 30 years, using three large cross-sectional travel survey data sets. It shows that travel patterns have diverged over time between city, suburban and rural residents. The trends in travel behaviour that we find are consistent with changes in the labour market, ICT use, land-use and transport policy, gender equality, and population composition trends. The inner city has become increasingly attractive: the share of trips is to the inner city is increasing for all purposes, socio-economic groups, and residential locations. The reduction of car traffic in response to the introduction of the congestion charges in 2006 is more than compensated by an increase in bicycle and transit trips to the inner city. Travel times by car are increasing in the city, although the car traffic volumes have decreased. The travel behaviour gender gap has closed completely in the inner city, but not further out in the region or in the rest of the country. Understanding long term trends in travel behaviour in different population segments, and the context under which they occur, helps to understand how the conditions, opportunities and constraints for different population segments are changing, which is key for transport policy and land-use planning. Since the societal trends driving travel behaviour in Stockholm and Sweden are much the same in many cities and countries, the findings are of general relevance.

  • 323.
    Batley, Richard
    et al.
    Univ Leeds, Inst Transport Studies, Leeds LS2 9JT, W Yorkshire, England..
    Bates, John
    John Bates Serv, Abingdon, Oxon, England..
    Bliemer, Michiel
    Univ Sydney, Inst Transport & Logist Studies, Transport Network Modelling, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Bourdon, Jeremy
    Arup, London, England..
    Cabral, Manuel Ojeda
    Univ Leeds, Inst Transport Studies, Leeds LS2 9JT, W Yorkshire, England..
    Chintakayala, Phani Kumar
    Univ Leeds, Inst Transport Studies, Leeds LS2 9JT, W Yorkshire, England..
    Choudhury, Charisma
    Univ Leeds, Inst Transport Studies, Leeds LS2 9JT, W Yorkshire, England..
    Daly, Andrew
    Univ Leeds, Inst Transport Studies, Leeds LS2 9JT, W Yorkshire, England..
    Dekker, Thijs
    Univ Leeds, Inst Transport Studies, Leeds LS2 9JT, W Yorkshire, England..
    Drivyla, Efie
    Arup, London, England..
    Fowkes, Tony
    Univ Leeds, Inst Transport Studies, Leeds LS2 9JT, W Yorkshire, England..
    Hess, Stephane
    Univ Leeds, Inst Transport Studies, Leeds LS2 9JT, W Yorkshire, England..
    Heywood, Chris
    Accent, London, England..
    Johnson, Daniel
    Univ Leeds, Inst Transport Studies, Leeds LS2 9JT, W Yorkshire, England..
    Laird, James
    Univ Leeds, Inst Transport Studies, Leeds LS2 9JT, W Yorkshire, England..
    Mackie, Peter
    Univ Leeds, Inst Transport Studies, Leeds LS2 9JT, W Yorkshire, England..
    Parkin, John
    Univ West England, Ctr Transport & Soc, Transport Engn, Bristol, Avon, England..
    Sanders, Stefan
    Arup, London, England..
    Sheldon, Rob
    Accent, London, England..
    Wardman, Mark
    Univ Leeds, Inst Transport Studies, Leeds LS2 9JT, W Yorkshire, England..
    Worsley, Tom
    Univ Leeds, Inst Transport Studies, Leeds LS2 9JT, W Yorkshire, England..
    New appraisal values of travel time saving and reliability in Great Britain2019In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 583-621Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides an overview of the study Provision of market research for value of time savings and reliability' undertaken by the Arup/ITS Leeds/Accent consortium for the UK Department for Transport (DfT). The paper summarises recommendations for revised national average values of in-vehicle travel time savings, reliability and time-related quality (e.g. crowding and congestion), which were developed using willingness-to-pay (WTP) methods, for a range of modes, and covering both business and non-work travel purposes. The paper examines variation in these values by characteristics of the traveller and trip, and offers insights into the uncertainties around the values, especially through the calculation of confidence intervals. With regards to non-work, our recommendations entail an increase of around 50% in values for commute, but a reduction of around 25% for other non-workrelative to previous DfT WebTAG' guidance. With regards to business, our recommendations are based on WTP, and thus represent a methodological shift away from the cost saving approach (CSA) traditionally used in WebTAG. These WTP-based business values show marked variation by distance; for trips of less than 20miles, values are around 75% lower than previous WebTAG values; for trips of around 100miles, WTP-based values are comparable to previous WebTAG; and for longer trips still, WTP-based values exceed those previously in WebTAG.

  • 324. Bayarma, Alexander
    et al.
    Kitamura, Ryuichi
    Susilo, Yusak
    Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    On the recurrence of daily travel patterns: A stochastic-process approach to multi-day travel behavior2007In: 86th Annual Meeting of Transportation Research Board (TRB), 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 325. Bayarma, Alexander
    et al.
    Kitamura, Ryuichi
    Susilo, Yusak
    Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    On the recurrence of daily travel patterns: A stochastic-process approach to multi-day travel behavior2007In: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, Vol. 2021, p. 55-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multiday travel behavior was examined as a stochastic process, and new empirical findings are offered on the variation of travel patterns from day to day. The analysis was based on data from a 6-week travel diary survey conducted in Germany. A small number of travel pattern classes were identified, and transitions in the patterns over a course of weeks were analyzed with Markov chain models. Transitions from a pattern to itself are frequent, particularly for nonworkers, and indicate that some patterns tend to be pursued for a large number of consecutive days. The study also reveals that individuals are heterogeneous in terms of multiday travel behavior; pattern-to-pattern transition probabilities vary substantially across individuals. Some of the observable heterogeneity is demonstrated in terms of the association between attributes of the individual and the recurrence of daily travel patterns.

  • 326.
    Beckman, Claes
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Nilsson, Kristoffer
    The Technical and Economic Consequences of Protecting GSM-R in Sweden2016In: 2016 IEEE 83RD VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE (VTC SPRING), IEEE, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of protection criteria were implemented by the Swedish regulator PTS in order to protect the GSM-R operations in Sweden. In order to protect the GSM-R receivers from interference and blocking, two different constraints were implemented: First, a limitation of the "out-of-band" emissions from the mobile operators' existing base stations operating in the 900MHz band was implemented. Secondly, a limitation of the aggregated power received over the railroad within the operator's spectrum allocation in the 900 band was added. In this study, the background of these protection criteria is presented and their technical and economic consequences estimated. Regarding "out-of-band" emissions from base stations, four alternative protection levels have been investigated: -92, -95, -98 and -107 dBm. It is found that in order to meet these requirements, safety distances of between 280 and 1200m need to be introduced, which means that between 1500 and 2700 base stations would be needed to be taken out of service. In order to avoid blocking, the received power over the embankment from each base station within the public GSM band would also be needed to be limited. The consequences of limiting the received power levels to either -10, -23 or -40 dBm were here investigated. Given the level of blocking protection, it is found that between 1085 and 2330 base stations within the vicinity of the railway track would be affected and possibly needed to be shut down To avoid causing interference, all operators - with the exception of Hi3G - may limit their "out-of-band" emissions by installing filters on the base stations. The cost of such installations is estimated at 50 000 SEK per base station. Depending on the protection level that is applied, the estimated total cost for the mobile operators is between 67 and 113 million SEK (about 12 million Euros). In order to protect the GSM-R receivers from blocking, some 3500 locomotives would need to be equipped with additional filters at a total cost of around 130 million SEK (about 14 million Euros).

  • 327. Beckman-Thoor, Karin
    Kulturhistoriskt planeringsunderlag för Ostlänken: exempel från Södermanland2003Book (Other academic)
  • 328. Bekebrede, Geertje
    et al.
    Harteveld, Casper
    Warmelink, Harald
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Beauty or the Beast: Importance of the Attraction of Educational Games2012In: Student Usability in Educational Software and Games: Improving Experiences, IGI Global, 2012, p. 138-160Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Educational games are often less attractive than entertainment games in visuals, gameplay, and other aspects, but do we need entertainment-level beauties in our education or are beasts sufficient? To identify the importance of attraction for educational games, the authors offer the results of a comparative analysis of five educational games used and evaluated from 2005-2010 (N=754). They operationalized attraction through statements in which players were asked to rate the games’ visual, gameplay, and user interface attractiveness. While some scholars argue that for game-based education to become successful, educational games need to be visually more attractive, the results of the analysis show the opposite. For educational games, attraction is of relatively low importance. The authors further found that gameplay is the most important aspect of attraction and visuals the least. These results contribute to the debate amongst designers and educators on what priorities to set when considering game-based education.

  • 329.
    Bekiros, Stelios
    et al.
    Department of Economics, European University Institute, Florence, Italy; Department of Acc. & Finance, Athens University of Economics and Business, Athens, Greece.
    Nguyen, Duc Khuong
    IPAG Lab, IPAG Business School, Paris, France; School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University, Bloomington, United States, USA.
    Sandoval Junior, Leonidas
    Insper Instituto de Ensino e Pesquisa, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Uddin, Gazi Salah
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Information diffusion, cluster formation and entropy-based network dynamics in equity and commodity markets2017In: European Journal of Operational Research, ISSN 0377-2217, E-ISSN 1872-6860, Vol. 256, no 3, p. 945-961Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the dynamic causal linkages among U.S. equity and commodity futures markets via the utilization of complex network theory. We make use of rolling estimations of extended matrices and time-varying network topologies to reveal the temporal dimension of correlation and entropy relationships. A simulation analysis using randomized time series is also implemented to assess the impact of de-noising on the data dependence structure. We mainly show evidence of emphasized disparity of correlation and entropy-based centrality measurements for all markets between pre- and post-crisis periods. Our results enable the robust mapping of network influences and contagion effects while incorporating agent expectations.

  • 330.
    Ben-Akiva, M.
    et al.
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
    Bottom, J.
    CRA International.
    Gao, S.
    Caliper Corporation.
    Koutsopoulos, Haris N.
    Northeastern University, Boston.
    Wen, Y.
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
    Towards Disaggregate Dynamic Travel Forecasting Models2007In: Tsinghua Science and Technology, ISSN 1007-0214, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 115-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors argue that travel forecasting models should be dynamic and disaggregate in their representation of demand, supply, and supply-demand interactions, and propose a framework for such models. The proposed framework consists of disaggregate activity-based representation of travel choices of individual motorists on the demand side integrated with disaggregate dynamic modeling of network performance, through vehicle-based traffic simulation models on the supply side. The demand model generates individual members of the population and assigns to them socioeconomic characteristics. The generated motorists maintain these characteristics when they are loaded on the network by the supply model. In an equilibrium setting, the framework lends itself to a fixed-point formulation to represent and resolve demand-supply interactions. The paper discusses some of the remaining development challenges and presents an example of an existing travel forecasting model system that incorporates many of the proposed elements.

  • 331. Ben-Akiva, Moshe
    et al.
    Koutsopoulos, Haris
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Antoniou, C
    Balakrishna, R
    Traffic Simulation with DynaMIT2010In: Fundamentals of Traffic Simulation, Springer, 2010, p. 363-398Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    DynaMIT (Dynamic Network Assignment for the Management of Information to Travelers) is a dynamic traffic assignment model system that estimates and predicts traffic. DynaMIT is also a real-time system for decision support at traffic management centers for generation of predictive traffic information. A planning version also exists. DynaMIT captures the dynamic performance of the network (e.g., lane-based queuing and spillback effects), travel behavior, its sensitivity to traffic conditions and available traffic information, and consistency between demand and supply. DynaMIT consists of a demand simulator, a supply simulator, and algorithms that capture demand and supply interactions. Methodologies for the online and offline estimation of OD flows and the offline and online calibration of various inputs and parameters (such as network performance parameters) have been developed as well. Several case studies from the United States, Europe, and Asia are discussed, and a distributed version of DynaMIT is also presented.

  • 332. Ben-Akiva, Moshe
    et al.
    Koutsopoulos, Haris
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Toledo, Tomer
    Yang, Qi
    Choundhury, Charisma
    Antoniou, Constantinos
    Balakrishna, Ramachandran
    Traffic Simulation with MITSIMLab2010In: Fundamentals of Traffic Simulation, Springer, 2010, p. 233-268Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    MITSIMLab (MIcroscopic Traffic SIMulation Laboratory) is a microscopic traffic simulation model that evaluates the impacts of alternative traffic management system designs at the operational level and assists in their subsequent refinement. MITSIMLab models the travel and driving behavior of individual vehicles, the detailed movement of transit vehicles, and the various control and information provision strategies through a generic controller. A calibration methodology for important parameters and inputs was also developed. The model has been extended to address the special driving behavior evidenced in urban networks and has been used as a test bed for the evaluation of advanced traveler information systems (ATIS). Calibration and validation results from networks in the United States and Europe are discussed.

  • 333.
    Bengtsson, Anton
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Mireé, Ahmed
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    EFFEKTIVISERING AV MATERIALHANTERINGSPROCESSEN TILL OCH FRÅN SERVICEAVDELNING I SJUKHUSMILJÖ2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to examine the challenges that exist within thematerial handling process, to and from a department for service and maintenance at a hospital, and how the challenges can be managed to achieve a more efficient material handling process. In order to fulfill the purpose the following two questions where formulated:

    1. What challenges exist within the material handling process, to and from adepartment for service and maintenance at a hospital?

    2. How can the challenges be managed to achieve a more efficient materialhandling process?

    Method – To achieve the purpose of the study, a case study was conducted at Ryhov Hospital in Jönköping. The case study was conducted through interviews, observations and document studies. The collected data has been interpreted and analyzed against a theoretical framework and thus generated the study’s results.

    Findings – The challenges identified in the study have been divided into five different categories: lack of process efficiency, lack of information exchange, lack ofcollaboration, variations and individually dependent deficiencies. Tools to deal with the challenges include developing a more holistic view and developing a higher degree of standardization and routinisation. Additionally, the introduction of a coordinating transport organization is introduced, thus creating the conditions to simplify and streamline the material handling process, streamline information exchange, develop cooperation and make it easier to handle variations and individually dependent deficiencies.

    Implications – During the study the challenges for the material handling process in ahealth care context were divided into five different categories. The methods and tools used to manage the challenges have different traits and characteristics. While trying to make the material handling process more efficient it is important for each organization to take into account the challenges that are the most critical to improve their specific situation.

    Limitations – The aim of this study was to create a deeper understanding for the problem area by studying a case. A single case study, however, is an unsecure foundation for creating generalizable results. It had been desirable to make further case studies in other hospitals. The focus has also been on the material handling process to and from the service organization, and it could have been interesting to broaden the perspective to get more insights.

    Keywords – Material handling process, Healthcare, Logistics, Internal logistics

  • 334.
    Bengtsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Johansson, Sofia
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    En studie om möjligheten att dubblera råvaruflödet med hänsyn till in- och utleveranser samt beläggningsgrad i terminal2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Alfredsson Transport AB är ett tredjepartslogistiksföretag som samordnar och distribuerar råvaror till 25 000 portioner per dag till bland annat skolor och äldreboenden i Norrköpings kommun. Alfredsson Transport vill anta ett nytt uppdrag som innebär att råvaruflödet kommer att fördubblas. Studien har genomförts för att undersöka möjligheten att anta uppdraget och på detta sätt fördubbla flödet med hänsyn till in- och utleveranser samt antal bur i terminalen. Tre alternativa scheman har skapats där köer vid terminalen inte uppstår. Det finns möjlighet för Alfredsson Transport att anta uppdraget, vilket innebär ett dubblerat flöde, genom användande av alternativt schema 3. Alternativt schema 3 innebär bland annat att en av Alfredsson Transports omlastningar på förmiddagen senareläggs. Alternativt schema 3 innebär även att inleverans från Leverantör A tidigareläggs och inleverans från Leverantör C senareläggs. För att frigöra utrymme i terminalen är det även planerat i alternativt schema 3 att två av Alfredsson Transports lastbilar lastas snarast efter inleverans. För att det skall vara möjligt för Alfredsson Transport att anta det nya uppdraget krävs det förmodligen att Alfredsson köper in ytterligare lastbilar och anställer mer personal.

  • 335.
    Bengtsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Johansson, Emma
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Förutsättningar för flygfrakt på Norrköping Flygplats2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Syftet med studien är att kartlägga flygfrakten i Sverige, och undersöka hur förutsättningarna samt möjligheterna för att ta emot en större del flygfrakt på Norrköpings flygplats ser ut. Studien har genomförts med hjälp av litteraturstudie, prognostisering samt intervjuer. Resultatet från studien visar att det i nuläget inte finns någon efterfrågan för flygfrakt via Norrköpings flygplats. Det finns dock möjligheter att utöka flygfrakten till flygplatsen eftersom företag i regionen flyger sin frakt via exempelvis Örebro och Arlanda istället för Norrköping. Flygplatsen skulle klara av att ta emot mer flygfrakt redan idag, men för att långsiktigt kunna konkurrera som en fraktflygplats och ta emot en större mängd frakt behöver investeringar i form av terminalbyggnader göras. Dessutom behöver ytterligare resurser läggas på marknadsföringen av flygfrakten för att hitta intresserade samarbetspartners. Inom den närmsta framtiden ser en ökning av flygfrakten genom Norrköpings flygplats inte ut att vara möjlig, men om Norrköpings kommun och Norrköpings flygplats tillsammans arbetar aktivt med flygfraktsfrågan så finns förutsättningarna för att flygfrakten långsiktigt kan bli en del i Norrköping som logistiknav.

  • 336.
    Bengtsson, Susanna Hedborg
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Project Communication.
    Coordinated construction logistics: an innovation perspective2019In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 37, no 5, p. 294-307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coordinated construction logistics is an increasingly discussed topic in the Swedish construction industry. It is suggested as a means to increase efficiency in transportation, decrease material usage, coordinate health and safety on-site, etc. Much research on construction logistics has been done from a supply chain management perspective, often highlighting construction logistics as a necessary rational tool to improve efficiency in construction industry. However, could there be other ways to study this phenomenon? The purpose of this paper is to map empirically found coordinated construction logistics models and explore them as different types of innovation. The findings suggest that coordinated construction logistics models should be regarded as not being a fully embedded innovation as they have not yet changed the processes in the way they set out to do initially. Furthermore, differences are identified between company-based models, project-based models and system-based models, and suggest that differences in, for example, development, impact and objectives should be regarded both when conducting research on and when implementing coordinated construction logistics in practice. Finally, it is concluded that commitment, communication and cooperation are important when implementing coordinated construction logistics, which is in line with findings within the supply chain management literature.

  • 337.
    Bengtsson, Tobias
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    Comparison between proactive block replacement with no inventory and separate reactive replacement with inventory2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To become a successful company today all costs, must be kept to a minimum. To make sure they are companies need to try new methods and policies to get closer to an optimum production. One of the things that need attention is the inventory of spare parts and the replacement of the same. The companies want their machines to have as many active hours as possible and therefore they need to replace components in them from time to time.

    This study will compare the current policy with a new one to see if it is economically justifiable to minimize the inventory of spare parts. This will be done by replacing two identical components in the same machine before they fail and production stops. We call it the proactive block replacement policy. To test this new policy a simulation based on historical data was made where the costs associated with the different replacements such as cost of component, cost o lost production and cost of the two types of replacements. All these costs were considered to see is the company could save money through this change.

    The result showed that the new policy was not suitable for this specific component because the cost of the component and the variation of lifetime on it was too high. Because of the big variation of lifetime, the time of the replacement had to be set after fewer hours of production which means more components will be used and the cost per active hour will be higher.

    This study is limited because only one specific component at a specific machine was studied and it is not possible to make any assumptions for other components from this study. This had to be done to get the most precise information from the company to get the best result.

    The conclusion of this study is that the company should keep their current replacement theory and not change into the new one. Though there might be possible ways of lowering the costs by only having one component in inventory instead of two.

  • 338.
    Bennemo, Karin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Stockhaus, Jennie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Effektivisering av materialförsörjning mellan leverantör och kund: En fallstudie vid Emballagetillverkaren2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: A supply chain has a mayor impact on company’s competitiveness and profitability, this fact has led to increased interest in efficiencys of supply chains. This bachelor degree consist a case study at Emballagetillverkaren where the supply chain was analysed between supplier and customer with the intention of reducing tied up capital and lead times.Purpose: The aim of this thesis is to find prerequisites for a effective material supply between supplier and customer.Method: In order to answer the purpose of this thesis a case company called Emballagetillverkaren and its customer has been investigated. The case company and the supply chain between supplier and customer were observed and interview questions were formulated based on the observations. Interviews and observations were conducted to gain a deeper understanding of the problems of high tied up capital and long lead times.Results: A mapping of the current situation was established to clarify the methods of operation. The material and the information flow from both the case company and The Engeneering Company was mapped. The interviews have been devided into the categories "Planning and Forecasting", "Inventory and Materials" and "Communication".Conclusion:The prerequisites for effective material supply are an integrated and coordinated supply chain, healthy processes at work, the lean philosophy and its tools, supply chain efficiency, efficient and coordinated information and material flows, appropriate material supply method, inventory management, forecasts, good customer and supplier relationship and communication. As a conclusion we want to highlight forecasts, high resource utilization and communication to achieve a effective material supply between supplier and customer.

  • 339. Berdica, K.
    et al.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Infrastructure and Planning.
    Regional accessibility analysis from a vulnerability perspective2004In: Proceedings of The Second International Symposium on Transportation Network Reliability, INSTR , 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 340.
    Berdica, Katja
    et al.
    Transek AB.
    Mattsson, Lars-Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301), Transport and Location Analysis (closed 20110301). KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Vulnerability: A model-based case study of the road network in Stockholm2007In: Critical Infrastructure: Reliability and Vulnerabilitiy, Springer-Verlag , 2007, p. 81-106Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vulnerability, exposure and criticality in various infrastructures are issues that have been more explicitly looked into in recent years. However, road vulnerability as such has not been in focus for very long, despite the fundamental importance of our road networks in everyday life, as well as in crisis evacuation situations. Consequently, network reliability in transport modelling is an important and growing field of research (Lam 1999). The connection between reliability, vulnerability and other related concepts are discussed in Berdica (2002), with the main proposition that vulnerability analysis of road networks should be regarded as an overall framework, within which different transport studies can be performed to describe how well our transport systems function when exposed to different kinds of disturbances. Following that approach, this paper presents the results from a model-based case study, performed with the overall objective to study how vulnerable the Stockholm road network is in different respects. More specifically it is built up around three main questions:

    1.      How do interruptions of different critical links affect the system and how important are these links in relation to one another?

    2.      How is the network performance affected by general capacity reductions and possible prioritisation of a sub-network?

    3.      How is the system affected by traffic demand variations, i.e. how close to its capacity limit does the system operate?

  • 341. Berends, Sönke
    et al.
    sanchez-Diaz, Ivan
    Pernestål Brenden, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    The Socio-Economic Benefits of Off-Peak Hour Distribution: The case of Stockholm2018In: Urban Logistics. : Management, Policy and Innovation in a Rapidly Changing Environment , Kogan page, 2018Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 342.
    Berg, Jessica
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    En studie om effektiva och innovativa lösningar för kollektivtrafik på landsbygd: slutrapport av regeringsuppdrag2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the budget proposal for 2016, Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI) was tasked with implementing a study on effective and innovative solutions that can enhance people’s willingness and ability to use public transport in rural areas in Sweden. The commission should implement an environmental analysis and describe the present situation. This includes highlighting good examples of efficient and innovative solutions within the public transport area, both national and international. The commission will also consider how conditions differ between various rural areas, as well as women’s and men’s opportunities to travel by public transport. Furthermore, new opportunities for managing open data and digitalisation should be highlighted.

    The commission is reported in November 2017. The results are based on four different studies that are documented in four publications. The present final report presents a summary of important conclusions from the commission.

  • 343.
    Berg, Jessica
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Arby, Hans
    Ubigo.
    Fredricson, Magnus
    Skaraborgs kommunalförbund.
    Holmberg, Per-Erik
    RISE Viktoria.
    Hult, Åsa
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Jelica, Darijan
    RISE Viktoria.
    Persson, Sara
    Västra Götalandsregionen.
    Tufvesson, Einar
    Trafikverket.
    Kombinerade mobilitetstjänster på landsbygd och i mindre tätorter: resultat från förstudien KomILand2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Different types of mobility services in small towns and rural areas can increase accessibility among the residents and reduce the need to travel by one’s own car. The purpose of this pre-study is to prepare for future demonstration projects for combined mobility (CM) in small towns and rural areas by providing data on location, users, services and financing. Several activities have been carried out: identification of geographically appropriate areas and ongoing projects worldwide; analysis of user needs; identification of service design and business models; and mobilization of local and regional involvement. Services and business models have been developed using The Osterwalder Business Model Canvas. Several characteristics have been identified that a small town or rural area should have in order for CM to function. Services that could be included in a service package in a CM rural service have been validated theoretically in the fictional town of Småtorp. A public actor needs to provide organisational and digital platforms to local organisations, and KomILand-consultants. KomILand can contribute profitability, reduce mobility costs for customers, contribute new customers to the public transport operators, and lead to increased sustainability for society, if there is a robust and qualitative public transport system as a basis.

  • 344.
    Berg, Jessica
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Henriksson, Malin
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Comfort First! Vehicle-Sharing Systems in Urban Residential Areas: The Importance for Everyday Mobility and Reduction of Car Use among Pilot Users2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 9, article id 2521Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to explore to what extent a vehicle-sharing system (VSS) that includes electric bicycles and cars, connected to a block of apartments in a middle-sized city in Sweden, can cater for individuals' everyday mobility needs and reduce the need to own a car. The study connects to two different research areas: the usage of VSS and mobility transitions through pilot projects. Our results show a reluctance to voluntarily sacrifice comfort regarding everyday energy use. Owning and using a private car is to a high degree interpreted as convenient. The results from this study suggest that a VSS has the potential to satisfy mobility needs for people living in urban areas. However, in order for it to be successful, both in terms of satisfying mobility needs as well as being regarded as an attractive alternative to private car ownership, we argue that reconfiguration of modal choice and accessibility on different sociotechnical levels is a necessity. Interventions such as satisfactory public transport and better infrastructure for cycling and walking are suggested, as well as stricter parking regulations, banning cars in certain areas and making car use and ownership more expensive. In other words, the deployment of both soft and hard measures in combination is necessary.

  • 345.
    Berg, Jessica
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Kollektivtrafikens betydelse för mobilitet och vardagsaktiviteter hos hushåll på landsbygd: intervjustudie2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    On behalf of the government, VTI has the commission to implement a study on effective and innovative solutions that can enhance people’s willingness and ability to use public transport in rural areas in Sweden. This interview study is part of the commission and aims to highlight local examples of how access to transport meet the needs for mobility and participation in everyday activities among residents in rural areas. The following questions should be answered:

    1) What positive and negative aspects of living in rural areas are described?

    2) How are different modes of transport used?

    3) To what extent can public transport meet their mobility needs?

    The empirical material consists of interviews with people from 14 households living in rural areas that are close to urban neighborhoods. The rural areas are in the municipality of Kinda in Östergötland, Falun in Dalarna and Östersund in Jämtland. The results present positive and negative aspects of living in rural areas, the use of different transport modes, perceived restrictions and benefits of using public transport, the importance of the car and the informants' suggestions for solutions that could increase the use of public transport. Measures and improvements that can increase the ability to travel by public transport and reduce car trips are: public transport that connects rural areas with public transport hubs to increase access to high-demand routes; coordination between publicly funded school transport and public transport; access to shops and services at hubs; coordination between counties to offer efficient public transport to main urban centers, considering geographical proximity rather than administrative borders; and, integration of a wide variety of different mobility tools such as car-pooling, ride-sharing, public and demand-responsive public transport as well as bike rental services.

  • 346.
    Berg, Jessica
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    The importance of public transport for mobility and everyday activities among rural residents2019In: Social Sciences, ISSN 2076-0760, E-ISSN 2076-0760, Vol. 8, no 2, article id 58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A lack of transport opportunities has been shown to be a barrier for accessibility and social inclusion in contemporary society. In rural and sparsely populated areas, access to public transport is often poor compared to urban areas, leading to fewer possibilities to participate in normal relationships and activities among rural dwellers. Based on qualitative interviews with rural dwellers in Sweden, the aim of this study was to explore how access to transport can meet the needs of mobility and activity paation in everyday life and how different modes of transport are being used. The study has been permeated by the time-geographical perspective, which considers people's use of time and space and the restrictions they face in order to carry out activities, including travel. The results show that travel by private car plays a central role in realizing everyday activities for rural dwellers, as well as a perception of the car as being the norm in contemporary society. Frequent car use is the consequence of a combination of time-space restrictions, habit, and a lack of services, activities, and public transport in rural areas. Poor public transport services limit children's and adolescents' independent mobility in particular. Further, the physical environment influences the ability to use public transport, for example if roads and bus stops are seen as unsafe. Based on the results of the study, several measures and improvements are proposed that could increase mobility and accessibility in rural areas and reduce car dependency.

  • 347.
    Berg, Jessica
    et al.
    Linköping University, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Abramsson, Marianne
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life.
    Hagberg, Jan-Erik
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life.
    “I want complete freedom”: car use and everyday mobility among the newly retired2015In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 7, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    To investigate car use among newly retired people, to explore to what extent car transport is used for everyday mobility and how it is valued in comparison to other transport modes.

    Methods

    The data consists of travel diaries and qualitative interviews with 24 individuals, aged between 61 and 67, living in a middle-sized Swedish city. They were recruited via the local branch of one of the main associations of pensioners, one large employer in the municipality, and through another study. The informants filled in a travel diary during 1 week that were analysed by VISUAL- TimePAcTS, an application for visualising and exploring activity diary data. The semi-structured qualitative interviews were analysed using a qualitative content analysis.

    Results

    The car was used for several trips daily and often for short trips. The informants had a lot of everyday projects that they would not be able to perform if they did not have access to a car. The importance of the car does not seem to have changed upon retirement, albeit it is partly used for other reasons than before. The informant’s social context implies new space-time constraints. Commitments to family members, engagement in associations and spouses’ occupations affect how much and when they use the car, and their overall mobility.

    Conclusions

    In contrast to much research on older people’s mobility that has studied slightly older people, this study have focused on a specific group that are relatively healthy, well-off, and have the possibility to choose between different modes of transport. By combining travel diaries and qualitative interviews, we have explored how newly retired people reason as regard their travel behaviour but also how they actually travel. Although the car was used more than other transport modes, being able to walk and cycle now that they had more time as retirees was highly valued. Our results indicate that urban residents that are retiring now and in the future are a key target group in transport planning when it comes to reduce car use in favour of slow modes of transport.

  • 348.
    Berg, Jessica
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Thoresson, Karin
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Mobilitet och transportlösningar på landsbygd: en internationell litteraturstudie2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    On behalf of the Swedish government, VTI has the commission to implement a study on effective and innovative solutions that can enhance people’s willingness and ability to use public transportation in rural areas. This literature review is part of the commission and aims to describe the state of the art and to highlight the problems that have been focused in research on rural transport in recent years. The aim is to get in-depth and comprehensive knowledge about research on public transport in rural areas, about mobility among people living in rural areas and solutions available for future mobility and accessibility in rural areas. The research questions that are highlighted are:

    • What issues and problems have researchers in this field been interested in? Which social groups have been particularly focused?

    • What is the situation with respect to mobility among various social groups in rural areas? How do they solve their everyday transports and what constraints for mobility and accessibility do they experience?

    • What solutions have been tested in rural areas and what are the results?

    No specific definition of rural areas is used in the study since the search criteria would be too narrow. The searches have been concentrated to publications from the year 2000 and onwards. The final number of articles that were selected as relevant in order to answer the aim and research questions was 27. Most studies (15 articles) were conducted in the United Kingdom.

  • 349.
    Berg, Martin
    Institutionen för energi och teknik, SLU.
    Samordning av transporter inom Uppsala Kommun och Landsting2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The municipality and county administrations of Uppsala are planning a project for coordination of transports to their institutions and services across Uppsala County, which are today done separately. This report aims to analyze what the profits of such coordination might be, in terms of environmental care, economic and social aspects, given the resources available today. This is done by creating optimization models for both separate and coordinated transports, based on previously completed order tables, and comparing the results. The final results show at best a 13% improvement in driving distance and a 7% improvement in driver work time, which transfers into 172 000 SEK savings yearly and significant reductions in CO2-emissions while easing workload during high intensity days. Changes in the transport fleet might increase this to up to 272 000 SEK while possibly further reducing emissions but without creating significant increase in workload for drivers.

  • 350.
    Bergendahl, Henrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Johansson, Stina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Märkning av leveranser: En fallstudie utförd på Sandvik Materials Technology2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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