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  • 301.
    Höök, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Global Energy Systems.
    Future coal production outlooks in the IPCC Emission Scenarios: Are they plausible?2011In: Energy and Environment, ISSN 0958-305X, E-ISSN 2048-4070, Vol. 22, no 7, p. 837-858Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropogenic climate change caused by CO2 emissions is strongly linked to the future energy production, specifically coal. The Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) contains 40 scenarios for future fossil fuel production and is used by the IPCC to assess future climate change. This study examines the SRES coal production outlooks. Fundamental assumptions regarding coal availability and production in SRES was also compared with recent studies on reasonable future production outlooks. It was found that SRES puts unreasonable expectation on just a few countries. Is it reasonable to expect that China, already accounting for 46% of the global output, would increase their production by a factor of 8 over the next 90 years, as implied by certain SRES scenarios? It is concluded that SRES is underpinned by a paradigm of perpetual growth and technological optimism as well as old and outdated resource estimates. This has resulted in overoptimistic production outlooks.

  • 302.
    Höök, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Mapping Chinese Supply2018In: Nature Energy, ISSN 0028-212X, E-ISSN 2213-0217, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 166-167Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Documenting the emissions and net energy of a crude supply could be essential to meeting national emission and energy security targets. Using data from hundreds of fields worldwide, a well-to-refinery study presents a high-granularity profile of China’s crude oil supply in terms of emissions and energy return on input.

  • 303.
    Höök, Mikael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Global Energy Systems.
    Dean, Fantazzini
    Moscow State University.
    André, Angelantoni
    Post Peak Living.
    Simon, Snowden
    University of Liverpool.
    Coal-to-Liquids: viability as a peak oil mitigation strategy2012In: Twenty Ninth Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Converting coal to a liquid, commonly known as coal-to-liquids (CTL), can supply liquid fuels and has been successfully used in several countries, particularly in South Africa. However, it has not become a major contributor to the global oil supply. Increasing awareness of the scarcity of oil and rising oil prices has increased the interest in coal liquefaction. This paper surveys CTL technology, economics and environmental performance. Understanding the fundamental aspects of coal liquefaction technologies is vital for planning and policy-making since future CTL production will be integrated in a much larger global energy and liquid fuel production system.

    The economic analysis shows that many CTL studies assume conditions that are optimistic at best. In addition, the strong risk for a CTL plant to become a financial black hole is highlighted. This helps to explain why China has recently slowed down the development of its CTL program.

    The technical analysis investigates the coal consumption of CTL. Generally, a yield of between 1–2 barrels/ton coal can be achieved while the technical limit seems to be 3 barrels/ton coal. This puts a strict limit on future CTL capacity imposed by future coal production, regardless of other factors such as economic viability, emissions or environmental concern. For example, assuming that 10% of world coal production can be diverted to CTL, the contribution to the liquid fuel supply will be limited to only a few million barrels per day (Mb/d). This prevents CTL from becoming a viable mitigation plan for liquid fuel shortage on a global scale.

    However, it is still possible for individual nations to derive a significant share of their fuel supply from CTL but those nations must also have access to equally significant coal production capacity. It is unrealistic to claim that CTL provides a feasible solution to liquid fuels shortages created by peak oil. At best, it can be only a minor contributor and must be combined with other strategies to ensure future liquid fuel supply.

  • 304.
    Höök, Mikael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Global Energy Systems. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Li, Junchen
    China University of Petroleum - Beijing.
    Johansson, Kersti
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Global Energy Systems.
    Snowden, Simon
    University of Liverpool.
    Growth rates of global energy systems and future outlooks2012In: Natural Resources Research, ISSN 1520-7439, E-ISSN 1573-8981, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 23-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The world is interconnected and powered by a number of global energy systems using fossil, nuclear, or renewable energy. This study reviews historical time series of energy production and growth for various energy sources. It compiles a theoretical and empirical foundation for understanding the behaviour underlying global energy systems' growth. The most extreme growth rates are found in fossil fuels. The presence of scaling behaviour, i.e. proportionality between growth rate and size, is established. The findings are used to investigate the consistency of several long-range scenarios expecting rapid growth for future energy systems. The validity of such projections is questioned, based on past experience. Finally, it is found that even if new energy systems undergo a rapid "oil boom"-development - i.e. they mimic the most extreme historical events - their contribution to global energy supply by 2050 will be marginal.

  • 305.
    Isaksson, Sven
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeological Research Laboratory.
    Hallgren, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeology.
    Lipid residue analyses of Early Neolithic funnel-beaker pottery from Skogsmossen, eastern Central Sweden, and the earliest evidence of dairying in Sweden2012In: Journal of Archaeological Science, ISSN 0305-4403, E-ISSN 1095-9238, Vol. 39, no 12, p. 3600-3609Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study address the question of the use and function of Early Neolithic (4000-3000 cal. BC) funnel-beaker pots from Malardalen in eastern Central Sweden. The material studied is pottery from a wetland offering at the site Skogsmossen in the province of Vastmanland. While deposited under ritual circumstances in a fen, the pots were likely used in a domestic domain on the settlement adjacent to the offering fen, prior to final deposition. The lipid analysis indicate a varied vessel use, there are traces of aquatic resources, plants, terrestrial animals and milk. The identification of milk residue is the oldest so far from Sweden.

  • 306. Ivarsson, M.
    et al.
    Bengtson, S.
    Skogby, H.
    Lazor, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Belivanova, V.
    Marone, F.
    Extensive bioweathering of secondary minerals in subseafloor basalts2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 307.
    Ivarsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Broman, Curt
    Sturkell, Erik
    Ormö, Jens
    Siljeström, Sandra
    van Zuilen, Mark
    Bengtson, Stefan
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Fungal colonization of an Ordovician impact-induced hydrothermal system.2013In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 3, no 3487, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 308.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Slejkokovec, Z.
    Nilsson, E.
    Arsenic and its bioavailability in surface waters in a black schist area in northern Sweden2012In: Understanding the Geological and Medical Interface of Arsenic, As 2012 - 4th International Congress: Arsenic in the Environment, Taylor & Francis Group, 2012, p. 249-250Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Västerbotten county in northern Sweden is largely underlain by Precambrian bedrock. There are numerous sulfide ore bodies and gold deposits accompanied by arsenic. However, more black schists with a sulfur content of about 1% are a more widespread source of arsenic (As). The arsenic is accumulated in the B-horizon of tills but also remobilized in wetlands and released into surface water. Sandy sediments in brooks and streams may contain up to 500 mg/kg As adsorbed onto ferric (Fe) oxyhydroxides. Lakes may contain up to 19 ÎŒg/LAs. Speciation of As has been investigated in lake water by filtration and dialysis. Four lakes have been investigated varying from a clear-water lake to lakes high in Fe and DOC (dissolved organic carbon). The As is closely correlated to Fe in the different fractions. The fraction < 1 kDa is low in As indicating that the As has low bioavailability. Fishing is important in the area both for local people as well as for tourists. The low bioavailability of As is verified by a few analysis of fish, pike and trout, in which the As content is relatively low and consisting of predominantly organic species like MMA, DMA and arsenobetaine. Thus in spite of elevated As contents in sediments and in water the As does not seem to pose a health risk for fish consumers.

  • 309.
    Jagt, John
    et al.
    Natuurhistorisch Museum Maastricht.
    Thuy, Ben
    Geoscience Centre, University of Göttingen.
    Donovan, Stephen K.
    Naturalis Biodiversity Centre, Leiden.
    Stöhr, Sabine
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Portell, Roger W.
    Pickerill, Ron K.
    Harper, David A. T.
    Lindsay, William
    Jackson, Trevor A.
    A starfish bed in the Middle Miocene Grand Bay Formation of Carriacou, The Grenadines (West Indies)2014In: Geological Magazine, ISSN 0016-7568, E-ISSN 1469-5081, Vol. 151, no 3, p. 381-393Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 310.
    Jakobsson, Kristofer
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Global Energy Systems.
    Bentley, Roger
    University of Reading.
    Söderbergh, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Global Energy Systems.
    Aleklett, Kjell
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Global Energy Systems.
    The end of cheap oil: Bottom-up economic and geologic modeling of aggregate oil production curves2012In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 41, p. 860-870Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a lively debate between 'concerned' and 'unconcerned' analysts regarding the future availability and affordability of oil. We critically examine two interrelated and seemingly plausible arguments for an unconcerned view: (1) there is a growing amount of remaining reserves: (2) there is a large amount of oil with a relatively low average production cost. These statements are unconvincing on both theoretical and empirical grounds. Oil availability is about flows rather than stocks, and average cost is not relevant in the determination of price and output. We subsequently implement a bottom-up model of regional oil production with micro-foundations in both natural science and economics. An oil producer optimizes net present value under the constraints of reservoir dynamics, technological capacity and economic circumstances. Optimal production profiles for different reservoir drives and economic scenarios are derived. The field model is then combined with a discovery model of random sampling from a lognormal field size-frequency distribution. Regional discovery and production scenarios are generated. Our approach does not rely on the simple assumptions of top-down models such as the Hubbert curve - however it leads to the same qualitative result that production peaks when a substantial fraction of the recoverable resource remains in-ground.

  • 311.
    Jakobsson, Kristofer
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Global Energy Systems.
    Söderbergh, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Global Energy Systems.
    Snowden, Simon
    University of Liverpool Management School.
    Aleklett, Kjell
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Global Energy Systems.
    Bottom-up modeling of oil production: Review and sensitivity analysisManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 312.
    Jakobsson, Kristofer
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Global Energy Systems.
    Söderbergh, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Global Energy Systems.
    Snowden, Simon
    University of Liverpool Management School.
    Li, Chuan-Zhong
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Aleklett, Kjell
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Global Energy Systems.
    Oil exploration and perceptions of scarcity: The fallacy of early success2012In: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 1226-1233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested that oil exploration may lead to false perceptions of decreasing scarcity. We perform a simulation of the exploration process using Bayesian updating. The approach enables us to isolate the information effect on the success rate and also to quantify the subjective expectation of the total resource size. The area under exploration consists of a number of regions which may differ in their oil content. Exploration is performed with the goal to maximize the expected success rate. The resulting information about the distribution of oil and the total resource size is assumed public knowledge. A number of scenarios with variations in the dimensions of the area under exploration, the oil distribution and initial beliefs are considered. The results indicate that the information effect on the success rate is significant but brief — it might have a considerable impact on price but is an unlikely mechanism behind a long-term declining price trend. However, the information effect on expectations is gradual and persistent. Since exploration is performed in regions where the expected success rate is the highest, the historical success rate will not be representative of the area as a whole. An explorer will tend to overestimate the total resource size, thereby suggesting an alternative mechanism for false perceptions of decreasing scarcity, a mechanism that could be called the “fallacy of early success”.

  • 313.
    Jakobsson, Martin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geology and Geochemistry. Marin geovetenskap.
    Backman, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geology and Geochemistry. Marin geovetenskap.
    Rudels, Bert
    Nycander, Jonas
    Department of Meteorology. Oceanografi.
    Frank, Martin
    Mayer, Larry
    Jokat, Wilfried
    Sangiorgi, Fransesca
    O'Regan, Matt
    Brinkhuis, Henk
    King, John
    Moran, Kathryn
    The Early Miocene Onset of a Ventilated Circulation Regime in the Arctic Ocean2007In: Nature, Vol. 447, no 7147, p. 986-990Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deep-water formation in the northern North Atlantic Ocean and the Arctic Ocean is a key driver of the global thermohaline circulation and hence also of global climate. Deciphering the history of the circulation regime in the Arctic Ocean has long been prevented by the lack of data from cores of Cenozoic sediments from the Arctic’s deep-sea floor. Similarly, the timing of the opening of a connection between the northern North Atlantic and the Arctic Ocean, permitting deep-water exchange, has been poorly constrained. This situation changed when the first drill cores were recovered from the central Arctic Ocean. Here we use these cores to show that the transition from poorly oxygenated to fully oxygenated (‘ventilated’) conditions in the Arctic Ocean occurred during the later part of early Miocene times. We attribute this pronounced change in ventilation regime to the opening of the Fram Strait. A palaeo-geographic and palaeo-bathymetric reconstruction of the Arctic Ocean, together with a physical oceanographic analysis of the evolving strait and sill conditions in the Fram Strait, suggests that the Arctic Ocean went from an oxygenpoor ‘lake stage’, to a transitional ‘estuarine sea’ phase with variable ventilation, and finally to the fully ventilated ‘ocean’ phase 17.5 Myr ago. The timing of this palaeo-oceanographic change coincides with the onset of the middle Miocene climatic optimum, although it remains unclear if there is a causal relationship between these two events.

  • 314.
    Janssen, Ralf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    A molecular view of onychophoran segmentation2017In: Arthropod structure & development, ISSN 1467-8039, E-ISSN 1873-5495, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 341-353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper summarizes our current knowledge on the expression and assumed function of Drosophila and (other) arthropod segmentation gene orthologs in Onychophora, a closely related outgroup to Arthropoda. This includes orthologs of the so-called Drosophila segmentation gene cascade including the Hox genes, as well as other genetic factors and pathways involved in non-drosophilid arthropods. Open questions about and around the topic are addressed, such as the definition of segments in onychophorans, the unclear regulation of conserved expression patterns downstream of non-conserved factors, and the potential role of mesodermal patterning in onychophoran segmentation. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 315.
    Japsen, Peter
    et al.
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Øster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K, Denmark .
    Green, Paul F.
    Geotrack International, 37 Melville Road, Brunswick West, Victoria 3055, Australia .
    Bonow, Johan M.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography. Södertörn University, Alfred Nobels allé 7, SE-141 89 Huddinge, Sweden.
    Erlström, Mikael
    Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU), Kiliansgatan 10, 223 50 Lund, Sweden .
    Episodic burial and exhumation of the southern Baltic Shield: Epeirogenic uplifts during and after break-up of Pangaea2016In: Gondwana Research, ISSN 1342-937X, E-ISSN 1878-0571, Vol. 35, p. 357-377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Cratons are conventionally assumed to be areas of long-term stability. However, whereas Precambrian basement crops out across most of the Baltic Shield, Palaeozoic and Mesozoic sediments rest on basement in southern Sweden, and thus testify to a complex history of exhumation and burial. Our synthesis of published stratigraphic landscape analysis and new apatite fission-track analysis data reveals a history involving five steps after formation of the extremely flat, Sub-Cambrian Peneplain. (1) Cambrian to Lower Triassic rocks accumulated on the peneplain, interrupted by late Carboniferous uplift and exhumation. (2) Middle Triassic uplift removed the Palaeozoic cover along the south-western margin of the shield, leading to formation of a Triassic peneplain with a predominantly flat relief followed by deposition of Upper Triassic to Lower Jurassic rocks. (3) Uplift that began during the Middle Jurassic to earliest Cretaceous caused denudation leading to deep weathering that shaped an undulating, hilly relief that was buried below Upper Cretaceous to Oligocene sediments. (4) Early Miocene uplift and erosion produced the South Småland Peneplain with scattered hills. (5) Early Pliocene uplift raised the Miocene peneplain to its present elevation leading to reexposure of the sub-Cretaceous hilly relief near the coast. Our results thus provide constraints on the magnitude and timing of episodes of deposition and removal of significant volumes of Phanerozoic rocks across the southern portion of the Baltic Shield. Late Carboniferous, Middle Triassic and mid-Jurassic events of uplift and exhumation affected wide areas beyond the Baltic Shield, and we interpret them as epeirogenic uplifts accompanying fragmentation of Pangaea, caused by accumulation of mantle heat beneath the supercontinent. Early Miocene uplift affected north-west Europe but not East Greenland, and thus likely resulted from compressive stresses from an orogeny on the Eurasian plate. Early Pliocene uplift related to changes in mantle convection and plate motion affected wide areas beyond North-East Atlantic margins.

  • 316.
    Jaramillo, Fernando
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Prieto, Carmen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Lyon, Steve W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Multimethod assessment of evapotranspiration shifts due to non-irrigated agricultural development in Sweden2013In: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 484, p. 55-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the 20th century, Sweden underwent a persistent agricultural development. In this study, we use and combine historical hydroclimatic and agricultural data to investigate how this large scale change of land use, and subsequent intensification of crop production, affected regional hydrology in two adjacent Swedish drainage basins. We find a main increase of evapotranspiration (ET) as cultivated area and/or crop production increased during the period 1901-1940. Thereafter, ET stabilized at a new higher level. Comparison between the data given, water balance constrained ET quantification (ETwb), and a range of different comparative estimates of purely climate driven ET (ETclim) shows that only 31% of the steep 1901-1940 increase of ETwb can be explained by climate change alone. The remaining 69% of this ETwb shift, which occurred in both investigated drainage basins, is instead explainable to large degree by the regional land use conversion from seminatural grasslands to cultivated land and associated enhanced productivity of herbaceous species.

  • 317. Jarochowska, Emilia
    et al.
    Bremer, Oskar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Heidlas, Daniel
    Pröpster, Stephanie
    Vandenbroucke, Thijs
    Munnecke, Axel
    Multielement skeletal taphonomy in conodonts: are robust species more common or selectively preserved in shallow-water facies?2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 318. Jarochowska, Emilia
    et al.
    Viira, Viive
    Einasto, Rein
    Nawrot, Rafal
    Bremer, Oskar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Männik, Peep
    Munnecke, Axel
    Conodont Diversity Across The Onshore-Offshore Gradient: Cozy In Brine2016In: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs., 2016, Vol. 48Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 319. Jarrar, Ghaleb H.
    et al.
    Theye, Thomas
    Yaseen, Najel
    Whitehouse, Martin
    Pease, Victoria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Passchier, Cees
    Geochemistry and P-T-t evolution of the Abu-Barqa Metamorphic Suite, SW Jordan, and implications for the tectonics of the northern Arabian-Nubian Shield2013In: Precambrian Research, ISSN 0301-9268, E-ISSN 1872-7433, Vol. 239, p. 56-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Abu Barqa Metamorphic Suite (ABMS) represents the oldest part of the Arabian-Nubian Shield in southern Jordan. It comprises tonalitic gneiss, metasediments including schist and paragneiss, and granitic gneiss, intruded by later granitic bodies. Geochemically, the majority of the schist samples have shale and Fe-shale protoliths, while the paragneisses represent metagreywacke. Tectonic discrimination diagrams indicate that the protolith of the ABMS was deposited at an active continental margin/island arc setting. U-Pb zircon (SIMS) ages from metamorphic and igneous rocks of the ABMS indicate that it evolved between similar to 800 and similar to 610 Ma. A tonalitic gneiss has a crystallization age of 787 +/- 3 Ma. Detrital zircon from the metasediment has a range of concordant ages from 680 to 860 Ma. The entire metamorphic complex was intruded by calc-alkaline granitoids (similar to 615-610 Ma) and quartz diorite dated (similar to 600 Ma). Field and petrographic investigations of ABMS metasediment elucidate the development of three metamorphic zones, from north to south: (1) andalusite-staurolite (andalusite + staurolite + biotite + muscovite + plagioclase +/- garnet + quartz +/- chlorite + fibrolitic sillimanite + accessories), (2) garnetsillimanite (sillimanite + garnet + biotite + plagioclase + quartz + K-feldspar + cordierite (pinitized) +/- rutile +/- ilmenite), and (3) cordierite-sillimanite (sillimanite + biotite + plagioclase + cordierite + hercynite + quartz + accessories). The maximum metamorphic conditions (M1) were attained in the garnet-sillimanite zone (5-6 kbar, similar to 700 degrees C), while peak conditions of similar to 3.2 kbar and 540 degrees C were obtained for the andalusite-staurolite zone (using both forward-pseudosection modeling and inverse-modeling with multi-equilibrium approach). Compositional isopleth calculations of small relics of garnet yield about 3.5 kbar and 600 degrees C for the sillimanite-cordierite zone. These values are in agreement with results obtained by TWQ inverse modeling. The M1 event most probably occurred around similar to 625 and was followed by a decompressional thermal phase (M2) contemporaneous with post-tectonic granitoid emplacement at similar to 615-610 Ma; and lastly went through a retrograde cooling phase (M3) accompanying uplift of the whole complex to the surface at similar to 605 Ma.

  • 320.
    Jeddi, Zeinab
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Seismological Investigation of Katla Volcanic System (Iceland): 3D Velocity Structure and Overall Seismicity Pattern2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The work in this thesis concentrates on Katla volcano in southern Iceland. This is one of Europe’s most active volcanoes and its history tells us that it poses many threats to society, both locally (Iceland) and on a broader scale (Europe). Its geological setting is complex, where the effects of a melting anomaly in the mantle and a changing rift geometry, perturb the classical setting of volcanism in a rifting setting.

    The work has focused on two aspects. The first is the varying distribution of physical properties in the subsurface around the volcano. The second is the distribution of microearthquakes around the volcano. The physical properties that we study are the speeds of seismic waves that reflect variations of temperature, composition and fracturing of the rocks. These can, therefore, help us learn about long-term processes in the volcano. The seismicity gives shorter-term information about deformation associated with current processes.

    I have applied two tomographic techniques to study Katla’s subsurface to a depth of 5-10 km, namely local-earthquake and ambient-noise tomography. The former makes use of the timing of waves generated by local earthquakes to constrain the earthquakes’ locations and the distribution of wave speed. Here I have concentrated on compressional waves or P waves with a typical frequency content around 10 Hz. With the latter, surface waves are extracted from microseismic noise that is generated far away at sea and their timing is measured to constrain their wave-speed distribution, which then is used to map shear-wave velocity variations. This is done at a typical frequency of 0.3 Hz. I find that the volcano contains rocks of higher velocity than its surroundings, that Katla’s caldera is underlain by low velocities at shallow depth that may be explained by hot or partially molten rocks and that beneath the caldera lies a volume of particularly high velocities that may constitute differentiated cumulates. But, I also find that it is not simple to compare results from such different wave types and discuss a number of complications in that regard.

    In addition to the well-known microearthquake distribution in the caldera region of Katla and to its west, we have discovered two additional areas of microearthquake activity on the volcano’s flanks, south and east of the caldera. These point to current activity and are, therefore, of interest from a hazard point of view. However, it is difficult to pinpoint their underlying process. Speculation about possible interpretation leads me to hydrothermal processes or small pockets of melt ascending due to their buoyancy or locally enhancing fluid pressure, thereby lowering the effective stress.

  • 321. Jennings, Anne
    et al.
    Andrews, John
    Pearce, Christof
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Wilson, Lindsay
    Ólfasdótttir, Sædís
    Detrital carbonate peaks on the Labrador shelf, a 13–7 ka template for freshwater forcing from the Hudson Strait outlet of the Laurentide Ice Sheet into the subpolar gyre2015In: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 107, p. 62-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) was a large, dynamic ice sheet in the early Holocene. The glacial events through Hudson Strait leading to its eventual demise are recorded in the well-dated Labrador shelf core, MD99-2236 from the Cartwright Saddle. We develop a detailed history of the timing of ice-sheet discharge events from the Hudson Strait outlet of the LIS during the Holocene using high-resolution detrital carbonate, ice rafted detritus (IRD), ή18O, and sediment color data. Eight detrital carbonate peaks (DCPs) associated with IRD peaks and light oxygen isotope events punctuate the MD99-2236 record between 11.5 and 8.0 ka. We use the stratigraphy of the DCPs developed from MD99-2236 to select the appropriate ΔR to calibrate the ages of recorded glacial events in Hudson Bay and Hudson Strait such that they match the DCPs in MD99-2236. We associate the eight DCPs with H0, Gold Cove advance, Noble Inlet advance, initial retreat of the Hudson Strait ice stream (HSIS) from Hudson Strait, opening of the Tyrrell Sea, and drainage of glacial lakes Agassiz and Ojibway. The opening of Foxe Channel and retreat of glacial ice from Foxe Basin are represented by a shoulder in the carbonate data. ΔR of 350 years applied to the radiocarbon ages constraining glacial events H0 through the opening of the Tyrell Sea provided the best match with the MD99-2236 DCPs; ΔR values and ages from the literature are used for the younger events. A very close age match was achieved between the 8.2 ka cold event in the Greenland ice cores, DCP7 (8.15 ka BP), and the drainage of glacial lakes Agassiz and Ojibway. Our stratigraphic comparison between the DCPs in MD99-2236 and the calibrated ages of Hudson Strait/Bay deglacial events shows that the retreat of the HSIS, the opening of the Tyrell Sea, and the catastrophic drainage of glacial lakes Agassiz and Ojibway at 8.2 ka are separate events that have been combined in previous estimates of the timing of the 8.2 ka event from marine records. SW Iceland shelf core MD99-2256 documents freshwater entrainment into the subpolar gyre from the Hudson Strait outlet via the Labrador, North Atlantic, and Irminger currents. The timing of freshwater release from the LIS Hudson Strait outlet in MD99-2236 matches evidence for freshwater forcing and LIS icebergs carrying foreign minerals to the SW Iceland shelf between 11.5 and 8.2 ka. The congruency of these records supports the conclusion of the entrainment of freshwater from the retreat of the LIS through Hudson Strait into the subpolar gyre and provides specific time periods when pulses of LIS freshwater were present to influence climate.

  • 322.
    Jerram, Dougal A.
    et al.
    Department of Earth Sciences, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE, UK.
    Goodenough, Kathryn M.
    British Geological Survey, Murchison House, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3LA, UK.
    Troll, Valentin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics.
    Introduction: from the British Tertiary into the future – modern perspectives on the British Palaeogene and North Atlantic Igneous provinces2009In: Geological Magazine, ISSN 0016-7568, E-ISSN 1469-5081, Vol. 146, no 3, p. 305-308Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The study of volcanic rocks and igneous centres has long been a classic part of geological research. Despite the lack of active volcanism, the British Isles have been a key centre for the study of igneous rocks ever since ancient lava flows and excavated igneous centres were recognized there in the 18th century (Hutton, 1788). This led to some of the earliest detailed studies of petrology. The starting point for many of these studies was the British Palaeogene Igneous Province (BPIP; formerly known as the ‘British Tertiary’ (Judd, 1889), and still recognized by this name by many geologists around the globe). This collection of lavas, volcanic centres and sill/dyke swarms covers much of the west of Scotland and the Antrim plateau of Northern Ireland, and together with similar rocks in the Faroe Islands, Iceland and Greenland forms a world-class Large Igneous Province. This North Atlantic Igneous Province (NAIP) began to form through continental rifting above a mantle plume at c. 60 Ma, and subsequently evolved as North America separated from Europe, creating the North Atlantic Ocean.

  • 323.
    Jerve, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology.
    Development and three-dimensional histology of vertebrate dermal fin spines2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes) consist of two clades with living representatives, the chondricthyans (cartilaginous fish including sharks, rays, and chimaeras) and the osteichthyans (bony fish and tetrapods), and two fossil groups, the "placoderms" and "acanthodians". These extinct forms were thought to be monophyletic, but are now considered to be paraphyletic partly due to the discovery of early chondrichthyans and osteichthyans with characters that had been previously used to define them. Among these are fin spines, large dermal structures that, when present, sit anterior to both median and/or paired fins in many extant and fossil jawed vertebrates. Making comparisons among early gnathostomes is difficult since the early chondrichthyans and "acanthodians", which have less mineralized skeleton, do not have large dermal bones on their skulls. As a result, fossil fin spines are potential sources for phylogenetic characters that could help in the study of the gnathostome evolutionary history. This thesis examines the development and internal structure of fin spines in jawed vertebrates using two-dimensional (2D) thin sections and three-dimensional (3D) synchrotron datasets. The development of the dorsal fin spine of the holocephalan, Callorhinchus milii, was described from embryos and compared to that of the neoselachian, Squalus acanthias, whose spine has been the model for studying fossil shark spines. It was found that the development of the C. milii fin presents differences from S. acanthias that suggest it might be a better candidate for studying "acanthodian" fin spines. The 3D histology of fossil fin spines was studied in Romundina stellina, a "placoderm"; Lophosteus superbus, a probable stem-osteichthyan; and sever­­al "acanthodians". The 3D vascularization reconstructed from synchrotron radiation microtomographic data reveal that "acanthodian" and Lophosteus spines grew similarly to what is observed in chondrichthyans, which differs slightly from the growth of the Romundina spine. Chondrichthyans and "acanthodians" also share similarities in their internal organization. Overall, Lophosteus and Romundina spines are more similar in terms of morphology and histology compared to chondrichthyans and "acanthodians". These results support the current hypothesis of gnathostome phylogeny, which places "acanthodians" on the chondrichthyan stem. They also emphasize the need for further study of vertebrate fin spines using 3D approaches.

  • 324.
    Jia, Tao
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geodesy and Geoinformatics.
    Geospatial Knowledge Discovery using Volunteered Geographic Information: a Complex System Perspective2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The continuous progression of urbanization has resulted in an increasing number of people living in cities or towns. In parallel, advancements in technologies, such as the Internet, telecommunications, and transportation, have allowed for better connectivity among people. This has engendered drastic changes in urban systems during the recent decades. From a social geographic perspective, the changes in urban systems are primarily characterized by intensive contacts among people and their interactions with the surrounding urban environment, which further leads to subsequent challenging problems such as traffic jams, environmental pollution, urban sprawl, etc. These problems have been reported to be heterogeneous and non-deterministic. Hence, to cope with them, massive amounts of geographic data are required to create new knowledge on urban systems.

    Due to the thriving of Volunteer Geographic Information (VGI) in recent years, this thesis presents knowledge on urban systems based on extensive VGI datasets from three sources: highway dataset from the OpenStreetMap (OSM) project, photo location dataset from the Flickr website, and GPS tracking datasets from volunteers, taxicabs, and air flights. The knowledge primarily relates to two issues of urban systems: the urban space and the corresponding human dynamics. In accordance, on one hand, urban space acts as a carrier for associated geographic activities and knowledge of it benefits our understanding of current social and economic problems in urban systems. On the other hand, human dynamics reflect human behavior in urban space, which leads to complex mobility or activity patterns. Its investigation allows a derivation of the underlying driving force that is very instructive to urban planning, traffic management, and infectious disease control. Therefore, to fully understand the two issues, this thesis conducts a thorough investigation from multiple aspects.

    The first issue is investigated from four aspects. First, at the city level, the controversial topic of city size regularity is investigated in terms of natural cities, and the conclusion is that Zipf’s law holds stably for all US cities. Second, at the sub-city level, the size distribution of spatial units within different cities in terms of the clusters formed by street nodes, photo locations, and taxi static points are explored, and the result shows a remarkable scaling property of these spatial units. Third, enlightened by the scaling property of the urban space at the city or sub-city level, this thesis devises a novel tool that can demarcate the cities into three categories: compact cities, normal cities, and sprawling cities. The tool is then applied to cities in both the US and three European countries. In the last, another representation of urban space is taken into account, namely the transportation network. The findings report that the US airport network displays the properties of scale-free, small-world, and disassortative mixing and that the individual natural airports show heterogeneous patterns that are probably subject to geographic constraints and socioeconomic factors.

    The second issue is examined from four perspectives. First, at the city level, the movement flow contributed by agents using two types of behavior is investigated through an agent-based simulation, and the result conjectures that the human mobility behavior is mainly shaped by the underlying street network. Second, at the country level, this thesis reports that the human travel length by air can be approximated well by an exponential distribution, and subsequent simulations indicate that human mobility behavior is largely constrained by the underlying airport network. Third, at the regional level, the length that humans travel by car is demonstrated to agree well with a power law with exponential cutoff distribution, and subsequent simulation further reproduces this levy flight characteristic. Based on the simulation, human mobility behavior is again revealed to be primarily shaped by the underlying hierarchical spatial structure. Finally, taxicab static points are adopted to explore human activity patterns, which can be characterized as the regularities in space and time, the heterogeneity and predictability in space.

    From a complex system perspective, this thesis presents the knowledge discovered in urban systems using massive volumes of geographic data. Together with new knowledge from empirical findings, the development of methods, and the design of theoretic models, this thesis also shares the research community with geographic data generated from extensive VGI datasets and the corresponding source codes. Moreover, this study is aligned with a paradigm shift in that it analyzes large-size datasets using high processing power as opposed to analyzing small-size datasets with low processing power.

  • 325.
    Jia, Tao
    et al.
    School of Remote Sensing and Information Engineering, Wuhan University.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Trips and their CO2 emissions to and from a shopping center2013In: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, E-ISSN 1873-1236, Vol. 33, p. 135-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have focused on entire trips within a geographical region, while only a few have examined trips to and from a city landmark. This paper examines trips (and their CO2 emissions) to and from a shopping center from a time-space perspective, and it further considers how this information can be used in relocation planning. It is a case study in the Borlänge city in mid-Sweden where trips to the city’s largest shopping mall are scrutinized. We use GPS tracking data of car trips starting and ending at the shopping center. Firstly, we analyze the traffic emission patterns from a time-space perspective where the temporal patterns reveal hourly-based traffic emission dynamics. The spatial analysis uncovers a heterogeneous distribution of areal traffic emissions as well as of single street segments. Secondly, we find the observed trips mostly agree with an optimal route in terms of CO2 emissions. Drawing on this finding, we thirdly evaluate the location of the current shopping center by comparing it to two competing locations. We conclude that the two competing locations, being in the vicinity of the current one, would induce an insignificant improvement in terms of CO2 emissions.

  • 326.
    Jia, Tao
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geoinformatik och Geodesi.
    Jiang, B.
    Building and analyzing the US airport network based on en-route location information2012In: Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, ISSN 0378-4371, E-ISSN 1873-2119, Vol. 391, no 15, p. 4031-4042Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From a complex network perspective, this study sets out two aims around the US airport network (USAN) which is built from en-route location information of domestic flights in the US. First, we analyze the structural properties of the USAN with respect to its binary and weighted graphs, and second we explore the airport patterns, which have wide-ranging implications. Results from the two graphs indicate the following. (1) The USAN exhibits scale-free, small-world and disassortative mixing properties, which are consistent with the mainstream perspectives. Besides, we find (2) a remarkable power relationship between the structural measurements in the binary graph and the traffic measurements in the weighted counterpart, namely degree versus capacity and attraction versus volume. On the other hand, investigation of the airport patterns suggests (3) that all the airports can be classified into four categories based on multiple network metrics, which shows a complete typology of the airports. And it further indicates (4) that there is a subtle relationship between the airport traffic and the geographical constraints as well as the regional socioeconomic indicators.

  • 327.
    Jia, Tao
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geodesy and Geoinformatics.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Dalarna University.
    Bolin, Magnus
    Dalarna University.
    Ban, Yifang
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geodesy and Geoinformatics.
    An empirical study on human mobility and its agent-based modeling2012In: Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment, ISSN 1742-5468, E-ISSN 1742-5468, Vol. 2012, no 11, p. P11024-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to analyze the GPS traces of 258 volunteers for a better understanding of both the human mobility patterns and the mechanism. We report the regular and scaling properties of human mobility from several aspects, and importantly we identify its levy flight characteristic which is consistent with the previous studies. We further assume two factors that may govern the levy flight property: (1) the scaling and hierarchical properties of the purpose clusters which serve as the underlying spatial structure, and (2) the individual preferential behavior. To verify the assumptions, we implement an agent-based model with the two factors, and the simulated results indeed capture the same levy flight pattern as the observed one. In order to enable the model to reproduce more mobility patterns, we add the model a third factor, the jumping factor which means the probability that one person may cancel the regular mobility schedule and explore a random place. With this factor, our model could cover a relatively wide range of human mobility patterns with scaling exponent values from 1.55 to 2.05.

  • 328.
    Jianliang, Wang
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Global Energy Systems. China University of Petroleum - Beijing.
    Davidsson, Simon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Global Energy Systems.
    Höök, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Global Energy Systems.
    Lianyong, Feng
    Chinese coal supply and future production outlooks2013In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 60, p. 204-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    China's energy supply is dominated by coal, making projections of future coal production in China important. Recent forecasts suggest that Chinese coal production may reach a peak in 2010–2039 but with widely differing peak production levels. The estimated URR (ultimately recoverable resources) influence these projections significantly, however, widely different URR-values were used due to poor understanding of the various Chinese coal classification schemes. To mitigate these shortcomings, a comprehensive investigation of this system and an analysis of the historical evaluation of resources and reporting issues are performed. A more plausible URR is derived, which indicates that many analysts underestimate volumes available for exploitation. Projections based on the updated URR using a modified curve-fitting model indicate that Chinese coal production could peak as early as 2024 at a maximum annual production of 4.1 Gt. By considering other potential constraints, it can be concluded that peak coal in China appears inevitable and immediate. This event can be expected to have significant impact on the Chinese economy, energy strategies and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions reduction strategies.

  • 329.
    Jolis, Ester M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Troll, Valentin R
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Deegan, Frances M.
    Dept. of Geoscience, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm.
    Harris, Chris
    University of Cape Town, South Africa.
    Barker, Abigail K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Van Helden, MArcel
    Dept. of Petrology, FALW, Amsterdam .
    Chadwick, Jane P.
    Science Gallery, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin.
    Hilton, David R.
    Geosciences Research Division, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, USA .
    Freda, Carmela
    Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, INGV, Rome.
    Schwarzkopf, Lothar M.
    GeoDocCon, Konradsreuth, Germany.
    Tracing crustal contamination along the Java-Bali segment of the Sunda ArcManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 330. Jones, Timothy D.
    et al.
    Lawson, Ian T.
    Reed, Jane M.
    Wilson, Graham P.
    Leng, Melanie J.
    Gierga, Merle
    Bernasconi, Stefano M.
    Smittenberg, Rienk H.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Hajdas, Irka
    Bryant, Charlotte L.
    Tzedakis, P. C.
    Diatom-inferred late Pleistocene and Holocene palaeolimnological changes in the Ioannina basin, northwest Greece2013In: Journal of Paleolimnology, ISSN 0921-2728, E-ISSN 1573-0417, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 185-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The character and impact of climate change since the last glacial maximum (LGM) in the eastern Mediterranean region remain poorly understood. Here, two new diatom records from the Ioannina basin in northwest Greece are presented alongside a pre-existing record and used to infer past changes in lake level, a proxy for the balance between precipitation and evaporation. Comparison of the three records indicates that lake-level fluctuations were the dominant driver of diatom assemblage composition change, whereas productivity variations had a secondary role. The reconstruction indicates low lake levels during the LGM. Late glacial lake deepening was underway by 15.0 cal kyr BP, implying that the climate was becoming wetter. During the Younger Dryas stadial, a lake-level decline is recorded, indicating arid climatic conditions. Lake Ioannina deepened rapidly in the early Holocene, but long-term lake-level decline commenced around 7.0 cal kyr BP. The pattern of lake-level change is broadly consistent with an existing lake-level reconstruction at Lake Xinias, central Greece. The timing of the apparent change, however, is different, with delayed early Holocene deepening at Xinias. This offset is attributed to uncertainties in the age models, and the position of Xinias in the rain shadow of the Pindus Mountains.

  • 331. Jonker, L.
    et al.
    van der Zaag, P.
    Gumbo, B.
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Love, D.
    Savenije, H. H. G.
    A regional and multi-faceted approach to postgraduate water education - the WaterNet experience in Southern Africa2012In: Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, ISSN 1027-5606, E-ISSN 1607-7938, Vol. 16, no 11, p. 4225-4232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports the experience of a regional network of academic departments involved in water education that started as a project and evolved, over a period of 12 yr, into an independent network organisation. The paper pursues three objectives. First, it argues that it makes good sense to organise postgraduate education and research on water resources on a regional scale and presents the WaterNet experience as an example that a regional approach can work. Second, it presents preliminary findings and conclusions that the regional approach presented by WaterNet did make a contribution to the capacity needs of the region both in terms of management and research capacity. Third, it draws two generalised lessons from the WaterNet experience. Lesson one pertains to the importance of legitimate ownership and an accountability structure for network effectiveness. Lesson two is related to the financial and intellectual resources required to jointly developing educational programmes through shared experience.

  • 332.
    Junchen, Li
    et al.
    China University of Petroleum.
    Xiucheng, Dong
    China University of Petroleum.
    Höök, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Global Energy Systems.
    Jian, Gao
    China University of Petroleum.
    Shiqun, Li
    Risk evaluation of technology innovation in Chinese oil and gas industry2013In: International Journal of Global Energy Issues, ISSN 0954-7118, E-ISSN 1741-5128, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oiland gas industries are technology intensive and appropriate risk evaluation isnecessary. The Chinese oil and gas industry is in the development phase, thusrisk assessments and mitigation is more important than pushing technologicalinnovation. This paper compiles research of other experts in the field andevaluates innovation risk by using a multi-hierarchy grey method. The resultshows that the technology innovation risk for Chinas oil and gas industry isrelatively high. Finally, this paper proposes some suitable measures that may decreaserisk levels.

  • 333. Juschus, Olaf
    et al.
    Pavlov, Maksim
    Schwammborn, Georg
    Preusser, Frank
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Fedorov, Grigory
    Melles, Martin
    Late Quaternary Lake-Level Changes of Lake El´gygytgyn, NE Siberia2011In: Quaternary Research, ISSN 0033-5894, E-ISSN 1096-0287, Vol. 76, p. 411-451Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lake El'gygytgyn is situated in a 3.6 Ma old impact crater in northeastern Siberia. Presented here is areconstruction of the Quaternary lake-level history as derived from sediment cores from the southern lakeshelf. There, a cliff-like bench 10 m below the modern water level has been investigated. Deep-watersediments on the shelf indicate high lake levels during a warm Mid-Pleistocene period. One period with lowlake level prior to Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 has been identified, followed by a period of high lakelevel (10 m above present). In the course of MIS 2 the lake level dropped to −10 m. At the end of MIS 2 thebench was formed and coarse beach sedimentation occurred. Subsequently, the lake level rose rapidly to theHolocene level. Changes in water level are likely linked to climate variability. During relatively temperateperiods the lake becomes free of ice in summer. Strong wave actions transport sediment parallel to the coastand towards the outlet, where the material tends to accumulate, resulting in lake level rise. During coldperiods the perennial lake ice cover hampers any wave activity and pebble-transport, keeping the outlet openand causing the lake level to drop.

  • 334. Jägerskog, Anders
    et al.
    Granit, Jakob
    Stockholm International Water Institute (SIWI).
    Risberg, Anders
    Yu, Winston
    Transboundary Water Management as a Regional Public Good: Financing development– an example from the Nile Basin2007Report (Other academic)
  • 335.
    Kaden, Rene
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine, Clinical Bacteriology.
    Mikrobiologische Charakterisierung von Tonrohstoffen unter Berücksichtigung des Alterationsprozesses Mauken2011Book (Refereed)
  • 336. Kahl, Ulrika
    Samlad insats ger ny era inom polarforskning2005In: Forska, ISSN 1651-8764, no 6, p. 12-13Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 337.
    Kaislahti Tillman, Päivi
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Holzkämper, Steffen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Joest Andersen, Thorbjörn
    Hugelius, Gustaf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Kuhry, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Oksanen, Pirita
    Stable isotopes in Sphagnum fuscum peat as late-Holocene climate proxies in northeastern European Russia2013In: The Holocene, ISSN 0959-6836, E-ISSN 1477-0911, Vol. 23, no 10, p. 1381-1390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The environment of the northern taiga to tundra transition is highly sensitive to climate fluctuations. In this study from northeastern European Russia, stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios (δ13C, δ18O) in α-cellulose of Sphagnum fuscum stems subsampled from hummocks and peat plateau profiles have been used as climate proxies. The entire isotope time series, dated by lead (210Pb), caesium (137Cs) and AMS-radiocarbon (14C) dating, spans the past 2500 years. Plant macrofossil analyses were used as an aid in single species selection, but are also helpful in identifying past surface moisture conditions. The most significant relationships were found between the recent δ13C record and summer (July–August) temperatures (R 2 = 0.58, p < 0.01), and the recent δ18O record and winter (October–May) precipitation anomalies in the tundra region (R 2 = 0.36, p < 0.01). The study demonstrates that stable isotopes preserved in northern peat deposits are useful indicators for summer temperature and winter precipitation at decadal to millennial timescales.

  • 338.
    Kalantari, Zahra
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Sassner, Mona
    DHI Sverige AB.
    Assessing hydrological impact of land-use measures on peak discharge and total runoff2013In: Climate And Land Surface Changes In Hydrology, IAHS Press, 2013, p. 385-389Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change may lead to an increase in the frequency of extreme precipitation events and floods as well as changes in frost/thaw cycles. This will have impacts on the performance and life time of road infrastructures. The frequency of road closures and other incidences will probably increase. The aim of this study is to to evaluate the effect of simulated land-use measures on the local hydrological response changes of a catchment near a low-lying road. The simulated land-use measures in this paper suggest different measures to reduce the generation of storm runoff on site and its delivery to the stream. The effect of these land-use measures on catchment discharge is dependent on the size and time of storm events.

  • 339.
    Kampmann, Tobias C.
    et al.
    Lulea Univ Technol, Dept Civil Environm & Nat Resources Engn, Div Geosci, SE-97187 Lulea, Sweden..
    Stephens, Michael B.
    Lulea Univ Technol, Dept Civil Environm & Nat Resources Engn, Div Geosci, SE-97187 Lulea, Sweden.;Geol Survey Sweden, Box 670, SE-75128 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Ripa, Magnus
    Geol Survey Sweden, Box 670, SE-75128 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Hellstrom, Fredrik A.
    Geol Survey Sweden, Box 670, SE-75128 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Majka, Jaroslaw
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics. AGH Univ Sci & Technol, Fac Geol Geophys & Environm Protect, Al Mickiewicza 30, PL-30059 Krakow, Poland..
    Time constraints on magmatism, mineralisation and metamorphism at the Falun base metal sulphide deposit, Sweden, using U-Pb geochronology on zircon and monazite2016In: Precambrian Research, ISSN 0301-9268, E-ISSN 1872-7433, Vol. 278, p. 52-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    U-Th-Pb (zircon and monazite) ion probe data have provided constraints on the timing of emplacement and metamorphism of magmatic rocks close to the Palaeoproterozoic, Falun base metal sulphide deposit in the Bergslagen lithotectonic unit, Fennoscandian Shield, Sweden, and, thereby the timing of mineralisation. Hydrothermal alteration and mineralisation at Falun are constrained to a short interval of several million years between a Pb-207/Pb-206 weighted average age of 1894 +/- 3 Ma for a rhyolitic sub-volcanic rock in the felsic volcanic to sub-volcanic host rock suite, and a Pb-207/Pb-206 weighted average age of 1891 +/- 3 Ma for a post-sulphide, porphyritic dacite dyke. Magmatism also included the emplacement of granite plutons with igneous crystallization ages of 1894 +/- 3, 1894 +/- 2 Ma and 1893 +/- 3 Ma. The felsic sub-volcanic to volcanic activity and the emplacement of dacite dykes and granite plutons overlap in age within their respective analytical uncertainties, indicating hydrothermal alteration and sulphide mineralisation inside a narrow time span of intense magmatic activity, and burial of the supracrustal rocks. Two distinct patchy and homogeneous metamorphic monazite types in a felsic volcanic rock around and hydrothermally altered rocks at the Falun deposit yield Pb-207/Pb-206 weighted average ages of 1831 +/- 8 Ma and 1822 +/- 5 Ma, respectively. These ages fall well within the temporal range of a younger 1.84-1.81 Ga (M-2) metamorphic episode during the 2.0-1.8 Ga Svecokarelian orogeny, with the older episode (M-1) inside the Bergslagen lithotectonic unit at around 1.86 Ga. This shows the major influence of the M-2 event in the north-western part of this unit, leading to a complete resetting of the U-Th-Pb isotope system in monazite.

  • 340. Kappelman, J.
    et al.
    Sen, S.
    Fortelius, M.
    Duncan, A.
    Alpagut, B.
    Crabaugh, J.
    Gentry, A.
    Lunkka, J.-P.
    McDowell, F.
    Solounias, N.
    Viranta, S.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Chronology and biostratigraphy of the Miocene Sinap Formation of Central Turkey1996In: The Evolution of Western Eurasian Miocene Mammal Faunas / [ed] Bernor, R.L., Fahlbusch, V. & Mittmann, H.-W., New York: Columbia University Press, 1996, p. 78-95Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 341. Karageorgis, Aristomenis P.
    et al.
    Kanellopoulos, Theodore D.
    Mavromatis, Vasileios
    Anagnostou, Christos L.
    Koutsopoulou, Eleni
    Schmidt, Mark
    Pavlopoulos, Kosmas
    Tripsanas, Efthymios K.
    Hallberg, Rolf O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Authigenic carbonate mineral formation in the Pagassitikos palaeolake during the latest Pleistocene, central Greece2013In: Geo-Marine Letters, ISSN 0276-0460, E-ISSN 1432-1157, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 13-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Pagassitikos Gulf in Greece is a semi-enclosed bay with a maximum depth of 102 m. According to the present-day bathymetric configuration and the sea level during the latest Pleistocene, the gulf would have been isolated from the open sea, forming a palaeolake since 32 cal. ka b.p. Sediment core B-4 was recovered from the deepest sector of the gulf and revealed evidence of a totally different depositional environment in the lowest part of the core: this contained light grey-coloured sediments, contrasting strongly with overlying olive grey muds. Multi-proxy analyses showed the predominance of carbonate minerals (aragonite, dolomite and calcite) and gypsum in the lowest part of the core. Carbonate mineral deposition can be attributed to autochthonous precipitation that took place in a saline palaeolake with high evaporation rates during the last glacial-early deglacial period; the lowest core sample to be AMS C-14 dated provided an age of 19.53 cal. ka b.p. The palaeolake was presumably reconnected to the open sea at 13.2 cal. ka b.p. during the last sea-level rise, marking the commencement of marine sedimentation characterised by the predominance of terrigenous aluminosilicates and fairly constant depositional conditions lasting up to the present day.

  • 342.
    Karlsson, Emma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Organic geochemical investigation of sources, transport and fate of terrestrial organic matter in the southeast Laptev Sea2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Permafrost carbon stores have been suggested to react to warming trends with increased terrestrial loading to its coastal waters. Presently, the warming has been seen to be especially high in the East Siberian Arctic and the fate of the major release of terrestrial matter to these coasts is yet to be detailed.

    Our work is focused on the East Siberian Shelf (ESS) – which is the largest continental shelf in the world. It receives substantial inputs of terrestrial organic matter both from the large Russian rivers and from eroding coastlines. The largest of its rivers, the Lena, discharges in Buor-Khaya Bay, which is also a hot spot for coastal erosion.

    Previous studies of molecular and δ¹3C and Δ¹⁴C composition of terrestrial organic matter received by Arctic coastal waters have suggested a different propensity of different terrestrial source materials towards bacterial degradation. This detailed isotopic and molecular marker survey which is the basis for this thesis reveals clearly distinguished source patterns both between surface water (POC) and sea floor (SOC) as well as with distance away from the sources. The heavy terrestrial dominance over marine/planktonic sources are clearly detected in gradients of high POC and SOC levels, as well as depleted δ13C -OC and high HMW/LMW n-alkane ratios. Furthermore, data suggests that terr-OC was substantially older yet less degraded in the surface sediment than in the surface waters. This unusual vertical degradation trend was only recently found also for the coastal and central East Siberian Sea. It seems that the riverine terr-OC component comprising mainly annual thaw layer surface soil dominates the buoyant surface water POC and is readily degraded. This is in contrast to the coastline-erosion terr-OC which is associated with minerals and therefore ballasted to the sediments where it makes up the key OC component and seems relatively protected from degradation.

    The study area of this work is a region with strong terrestrial influence hosting many of the important carbon cycling processes, and data reveal two important OC contributors of different origin, mineral associated coastal erosion matter and riverine borne surface soil matter. These two components may well represent different propensities to contribute to a positive feedback to climate warming by converting OC from coastal and inland permafrost into CO₂.

  • 343.
    Karlsson, Emma
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Charkin, A.
    Dudarev, O.
    Semiletov, I.
    Vonk, J. E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Sanchez-Garcia, L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Andersson, August
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Gustafsson, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Carbon isotopes and lipid biomarker investigation of sources, transport and degradation of terrestrial organic matter in the Buor-Khaya Bay, SE Laptev Sea2011In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 8, no 7, p. 1865-1879Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The world's largest continental shelf, the East Siberian Shelf Sea, receives substantial input of terrestrial organic carbon (terr-OC) from both large rivers and erosion of its coastline. Degradation of organic matter from thawing permafrost in the Arctic is likely to increase, potentially creating a positive feedback mechanism to climate warming. This study focuses on the Buor-Khaya Bay (SE Laptev Sea), an area with strong terr-OC input from both coastal erosion and the Lena river. To better understand the fate of this terr-OC, molecular (acyl lipid biomarkers) and isotopic tools (stable carbon and radiocarbon isotopes) have been applied to both particulate organic carbon (POC) in surface water and sedimentary organic carbon (SOC) collected from the underlying surface sediments. Clear gradients in both extent of degradation and differences in source contributions were observed both between surface water POC and surface sediment SOC as well as over the 100 s km investigation scale (about 20 stations). Depleted delta(13)C-OC and high HMW/LMW n-alkane ratios signaled that terr-OC was dominating over marine/planktonic sources. Despite a shallow water column (10-40 m), the isotopic shift between SOC and POC varied systematically from +2 to +5 per mil for delta(13)C and from +300 to +450 for Delta(14)C from the Lena prodelta to the Buor-Khaya Cape. At the same time, the ratio of HMW n-alkanoic acids to HMW n-alkanes as well as HMW n-alkane CPI, both indicative of degradation, were 5-6 times greater in SOC than in POC. This suggests that terr-OC was substantially older yet less degraded in the surface sediment than in the surface waters. This unusual vertical degradation trend was only recently found also for the central East Siberian Sea. Numerical modeling (Monte Carlo simulations) with delta(13)C and Delta(14)C in both POC and SOC was applied to deduce the relative contribution of - plankton OC, surface soil layer OC and yedoma/mineral soil OC. This three end-member dual-carbon-isotopic mixing model suggests quite different scenarios for the POC vs SOC. Surface soil is dominating (63 +/- 10 %) the suspended organic matter in the surface water of SE Laptev Sea. In contrast, the yedoma/mineral soil OC is accounting for 60 +/- 9% of the SOC. We hypothesize that yedoma-OC, associated with mineral-rich matter from coastal erosion is ballasted and thus quickly settles to the bottom. The mineral association may also explain the greater resistance to degradation of this terr-OC component. In contrast, more amorphous humic-like and low-density terr-OC from surface soil and recent vegetation represents a younger but more bioavailable and thus degraded terr-OC component held buoyant in surface water. Hence, these two terr-OC components may represent different propensities to contribute to a positive feedback to climate warming by converting OC from coastal and inland permafrost into CO(2).

  • 344.
    Karlsson, J.M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Lyon, S.W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Destouni, G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Arctic Hydrology Shifts with Permafrost Thawing and Thermokarst Lake Changes2011In: Abstract: C31B-07, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 345.
    Karlsson, Johanna Mård
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Lyon, Steve W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Thermokarst lake, hydrological flow and water balance indicators of permafrost change in Western Siberia2012In: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 464, p. 459-466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Permafrost, mainly of discontinuous type, that underlies the tundra and taiga landscapes of the Nadym and Put river basins in northwestern Siberia has been warming during the recent decades. A mosaic of thermokarst lakes and wetlands dominates this area. In this study we tested the hypothesis chain that permafrost thawing changes thermokarst lake area and number, and is then also reflected in and detectable through other associated hydrological changes. Based on indications from previous studies, the other hydrological changes in a basin were expected to be decreasing intra-annual runoff variability (quantified by decreasing maximum and increasing minimum runoff) and systematically decreasing water storage. To test this hypothesis chain, we mapped thermokarst lake changes using remote sensing analysis and analyzed both climate (temperature and precipitation) and water flow and balance changes using available monthly data records. This was done for the whole Nadym and Pur river basins and a smaller sub-basin of the former (denoted 7129) with comparable data availability as the whole river basins. The results for the 7129 sub-basin show all the indicators (thermokarst lake and other hydrological) changing consistently, as could be expected in response to permafrost thawing that alters the connections between surface and subsurface waters, and leads to overall decreases in water (including ground ice) storage within a basin. Over the Nadym and Pur basins, the relative area influenced by similar permafrost thawing and associated lake and hydrological effects appears (yet) too small to be clearly and systematically reflected in the basin-average indicators for these large basins.

  • 346. Karlsson, Tomas
    et al.
    Hamrin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Nilsson, Hans
    Kullen, Anita
    Pitkänen, Timo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Magnetic forces associated with bursty bulk flows in Earth's magnetotail2015In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 42, no 9, p. 3122-3128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the first direct measurements of magnetic forces acting on bursty bulk flow plasma in the magnetotail. The magnetic forces are determined using Cluster multispacecraft measurements. We analyze 67 bursty bulk flow (BBF) events and show that the curvature part of the magnetic force is consistently positive, acting to accelerate the plasma toward Earth between approximately 10 and 20 R-E geocentrical distances, while the magnetic field pressure gradient increasingly brakes the plasma as it moves toward Earth. The net result is that the magnetic force accelerates the plasma at distances greater than approximately 14 R-E, while it acts to decelerate it within that distance. The magnetic force, together with the thermal pressure gradient force, will determine the dynamics of the BBFs as they propagate toward the near-Earth tail region. The determination of the former provides an important clue to the ultimate fate of BBFs in the inner magnetosphere.

  • 347. Karnachuk, Olia V
    et al.
    Pimenov, Nikolay V
    Yusupov, Sandjar K
    Frank, Yulia A
    Kaksonen, Anna H
    Puhakka, Jaakko A
    Ivanov, Mikhail V
    Lindström, E Börje
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Tuovinen, Olli H
    Sulfate reduction potential in sediments in the Norilsk mining area, northern Siberia2005In: Geomicrobiology Journal, ISSN 0149-0451, E-ISSN 1521-0529, Vol. 22, no 1-2, p. 11-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the distribution and activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria in tailings and sediments impacted by effluents from mining and smelting operations in the Norilsk area in northern Siberia. The Norilsk mining complex involves three smelter operations, a hydrometallurgical plant, and extensive tailings areas located in the permafrost zone. Sulfate reduction rates measured with a (35)SO(4)(2-) tracer technique under various in-situ conditions ranged from 0.05 to 30 nmol S cm(-3) day(-1). Acetate and glucose addition greatly stimulated sulfate reduction, whereas lactate had less effect. The most pronounced stimulation of sulfate reduction (6.5-fold) was observed with phosphate amendment. Most-probable-number (MPN) counts of sulfate-reducing bacteria in media with glucose, ethanol, lactate, and acetate as electron donors were generally highest at around 10(7) cells ml(-1). The actual MPN counts varied with the sample, electron donor, and incubation conditions (pH 7.2 vs. pH 3.5; 28 degrees C vs. 4 degrees C). Enrichment cultures of sulfate-reducing bacteria were established from a sample that showed the highest rate of sulfate reduction. After multiple serial transfers, the dominant sulfate-reducers were identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization using genus and group-specific 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes. Desulfobulbus spp. prevailed in ethanol and lactate enrichments and the Desulfosarcina-Desulfococcus group dominated in acetate and benzoate enrichments. Psychrophilic Desulfotalea-Desulfofustis and moderately psychrophilic Desulforhopalus spp. were identified in enrichments incubated at 4 degrees C, but they were also found in mesophilic enrichments.

  • 348.
    Kashian, Alireza
    et al.
    the University of Melbourne.
    Rajabifard, Abbas
    the University of Melbourne.
    Chen, Yiqun
    the University of Melbourne.
    Richter, Kai-Florian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    OSM POI Analyzer: A Platform for Assessing Position of POIs in OpenStreetMap2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     In recent years, more and increased participation in Volunteered Geographical Information (VGI) projects provides enough data coverage for most places around the world for ordinary mapping and navigation purposes, however, the positional credibility of contributed data becomes more and more important to bring a long-term trust in VGI data. Today, it is hard to draw a definite traditional boundary between the authoritative map producers and the public map consumers and we observe that more and more volunteers are joining crowdsourcing activities for collecting geodata, which might result in higher rates of man-made mistakes in open map projects such as OpenStreetMap. While there are some methods for monitoring the accuracy and consistency of the created data, there is still a lack of advanced systems to automatically discover misplaced objects on the map. One feature type which is contributed daily to OSM is Point of Interest (POI). In order to understand how likely it is that a newly added POI represents a genuine real-world feature scientific means to calculate a probability of such a POI existing at that specific position is needed. This paper reports on a new analytic tool which dives into OSM data and finds co-existence patterns between one specific POI and its surrounding objects such as roads, parks and buildings. The platform uses a distance-based classification technique to find relationships among objects and tries to identify the high-frequency association patterns among each category of objects. Using such method, for each newly added POI, a probabilistic score would be generated, and the low scored POIs can be highlighted for editors for a manual check. The same scoring method can be used for existing registered POIs to check if they are located correctly. For a sample study, this paper reports on the evaluation of 800 pre-registered ATMs in Paris with associated scores to understand how outliers and fake entries could be detected automatically.

  • 349. Kaufman, Darrell S.
    et al.
    Jakobsson, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Schmidt, Matthew
    Amino acid racemization in mono-specific foraminifera from Quaternary deep-sea sediments2013In: Quaternary Geochronology, ISSN 1871-1014, E-ISSN 1878-0350, Vol. 16, no SI, p. 50-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The deep-sea environment is among the most stable on Earth, making it well suited for amino acid geochronology. Foraminifera with calcareous tests are distributed across the World Ocean and are often recovered in sufficient abundance from sediment cores to derive robust mean amino acid D/L values of multiple replicates from each stratigraphic level. The extent of racemization (D/L) can be compared with independent age control, which in most cases is based on correlation with global marine oxygen-isotope stages and radiocarbon ages from the same stratigraphic levels. In this study, we report the results of amino acid racemization analysis of multiple foraminifera species from well-dated sediment cores taken from the Pacific, Atlantic, and Arctic oceans. The composite of results analyzed to date (179 samples, each composed of an average of 8.6 subsamples = 1531 analyses) show that D/L values generally increase systematically down core, and are similar for samples of comparable ages from different deep-sea sites. Previously published equations that relate D/L values of aspartic and glutamic acids to post-depositional temperature and sample age for Pulleniatina obliquiloculata generally conform to the D/L trends for species analyzed in this study. Laboratory heating experiments were used to quantify the difference in the rate of racemization between P. obliquiloculata and other taxa. For example, aspartic acid in P. obliquiloculata racemizes an average of 12-16% faster than in the common high-latitude species, Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (s). Apparently, the unexpectedly high D/L values previously reported for N. pachyderma (s) older than 35 lea from the Arctic Ocean cannot be attributed to taxonomic effects.

  • 350.
    Kear, Benjamin P.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Music and Museums, Museum of Evolution. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Aplin, Ken P.
    Smithsonian Inst, Div Mammals, Natl Museum Nat Hist, POB 37012, Washington, DC 20013 USA..
    Westerman, Michael
    La Trobe Univ, Dept Ecol Environm & Evolut, Melbourne, Vic 3086, Australia..
    Bandicoot fossils and DNA elucidate lineage antiquity amongst xeric-adapted Australasian marsupials2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, article id 37537Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bandicoots (Peramelemorphia) are a unique order of Australasian marsupials whose sparse fossil record has been used as prima facie evidence for climate change coincident faunal turnover. In particular, the hypothesized replacement of ancient rainforest-dwelling extinct lineages by antecedents of xeric-tolerant extant taxa during the late Miocene (-10 Ma) has been advocated as a broader pattern evident amongst other marsupial clades. Problematically, however, this is in persistent conflict with DNA phylogenies. We therefore determine the pattern and timing of bandicoot evolution using the first combined morphological + DNA sequence dataset of Peramelemorphia. In addition, we document a remarkably archaic new fossil peramelemorphian taxon that inhabited a latest Quaternary mosaic savannah-riparian forest ecosystem on the Aru Islands of Eastern Indonesia. Our phylogenetic analyses reveal that unsuspected dental homoplasy and the detrimental effects of missing data collectively obscure stem bandicoot relationships. Nevertheless, recalibrated molecular clocks and multiple ancestral area optimizations unanimously infer an early diversification of modern xeric-adapted forms. These probably originated during the late Palaeogene (30-40 Ma) alongside progenitors of other desert marsupials, and thus occupied seasonally dry heterogenous habitats long before the onset of late Neogene aridity.

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