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  • 2901.
    Vu, Phi-Long
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Implementing a web-based bookingsystem using Go2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The project investigated the advantages and disadvantages of Go while abooking system for Tieto was developed. The frameworks and APIs AngularJS,REST, JSON and mongoDB were used during the development of thebooking system. The result was a fully working stand-alone booking systemwith a login functionality. The back-end server was written in Go while thefront-end client was written in JavaScript using AngularJS.

  • 2902.
    Vuković, Ognjen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks.
    Dán, György
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks.
    On the Security of Distributed Power System State Estimation under Targeted Attacks2013In: Proceedings of the 28th Annual ACM Symposium on Applied Computing, 2013, p. 666-672Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    State estimation plays an essential role in the monitoring and control of power transmission systems. In modern, highly inter-connected power systems the state estimation should be performed in a distributed fashion and requires information exchange between the control centers of directly connected systems. Motivated by recent reportson trojans targeting industrial control systems, in this paper we investigate how a single compromised control center can affect the outcome of distributed state estimation. We describe five attack strategies, and evaluate their impact on the IEEE 118 benchmark power system. We show that that even if the state estimation converges despite the attack, the estimate can have up to 30% of error, and bad data detection cannot locate theattack. We also show that if powerful enough, the attack can impede the convergence of the state estimation, and thus it can blind the system operators. Our results show that it is important to provide confidentiality for the measurement data in order to prevent the most powerful attacks. Finally, we discuss a possible way to detect and to mitigate these attacks.

  • 2903.
    Vuković, Ognjen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks.
    Dán, György
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks.
    Karlsson, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks.
    Mitigating Denial of Service Attacks using Anonymity Networks: Relationship Anonymity-Communication Overhead Trade-offManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Denial-of-service attacks are a significant threat to mission critical communication infrastructures, e.g., to industrial control systems. They are relatively easy to perpetrate, as an attacker that has access to communication links or equipment could observe the source and destination addresses for every message, and can identify and discard the messages exchanged between particular communication participants. Mix networks and anonymity networks could render these attacks more difficult by providing anonymous communication via relaying. Nevertheless, relaying introduces overhead and increases the end-to-end message delivery delay, which in practice must often be low. Hence, an important question is how to optimize anonymity for limited overhead and delay. In this paper we address this question by studying two anonymity networks: MCrowds, an extension of Crowds, which provides unbounded communication delay and Minstrels, which provides bounded communication delay. We derive exact and approximate analytical expressions for the relationship anonymity for these systems. Using MCrowds and Minstrels we show that, contrary to intuition, increased overhead does not always improve anonymity. We investigate the impact of the system's parameters on anonymity and on the optimal anonymity network parameters, and the sensitivity of anonymity to the misestimation of the number of attackers.

  • 2904.
    Vuković, Ognjen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks.
    Dán, György
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks.
    Karlsson, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks.
    Traffic Analysis Attacks in Anonymity Networks: Relationship Anonymity-Overhead Trade-off2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mix networks and anonymity networks provide anonymous communication via relaying, which introduces overhead and increases the end-to-end message delivery delay. In practice overhead and delay must often be low, hence it is important to understand how to optimize anonymity for limited overhead and delay. In this work we address this question under passive traffic analysis attacks, whose goal is to learn the traffic matrix. For our study, we use two anonymity networks: MCrowds, an extension of Crowds, which provides unbounded communication delay and Minstrels, which provides bounded communication delay. We derive exact and approximate analytical expressions for the relationship anonymity for these systems. Using MCrowds and Minstrels we show that, contrary to intuition, increased overhead does not always improve anonymity. We investigate the impact of the system's parameters on anonymity, and the sensitivity anonymity to the misestimation of the number of attackers.

  • 2905.
    Vázquez, Carlos
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics. University of Castilla-La Mancha.
    Tomas, Luis
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Moreno, Ginés
    University of Castilla-La Mancha.
    Tordsson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    A fuzzy approach to cloud admission control for safe overbooking2013In: 10th International Workshop on Fuzzy Logic and Applications (WILF), 2013, p. 212-225Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cloud computing enables elasticity - rapid provisioning and deprovisioning of computational resources.Elasticity allows cloud users to quickly adapt resource allocation to meet changes in their workloads.For cloud providers, elasticity complicates capacity management as the amount ofresources that can be requested by users is unknown and can vary significantly over time. Overbooking techniques allowproviders to increase utilization of their data centers. For safe overbooking, cloud providersneed admission control mechanisms to handle the tradeoff between increasedutilization (and revenue), and risk of exhausting resources, potentially resulting in penalty fees and/or lost customers.We propose a flexible approach (implemented with fuzzy logic programming) to admission control and the associated risk estimation.Our measures exploit different fuzzy logic operators in order to model optimistic, realistic, and pessimistic behaviour under uncertainty.An experimental evaluation confirm that our fuzzy admission control approach can significantly increaseresource utilization while minimizing the risk of exceeding the total available capacity.

  • 2906.
    Välja, Margus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Network and Systems engineering.
    Korman, Matus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Network and Systems engineering.
    Lagerström, Robert
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Network and Systems engineering.
    A study on software vulnerabilities and weaknesses of embedded systems in power networks2017In: Proceedings - 2017 2nd Workshop on Cyber-Physical Security and Resilience in Smart Grids, CPSR-SG 2017 (part of CPS Week), Association for Computing Machinery, Inc , 2017, p. 47-52Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we conduct an empirical study with the purpose of identifying common software weaknesses of embedded devices used as part of industrial control systems in power grids. The data is gathered about the devices and software of 6 companies, ABB, General Electric, Schneider Electric, Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Siemens and Wind River. The study uses data from the manufacturersfi online databases, NVD, CWE and ICS CERT. We identified that the most common problems that were reported are related to the improper input validation, cryptographic issues, and programming errors.

  • 2907.
    Välja, Margus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Korman, Matus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Lagerström, Robert
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Franke, Ulrik
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Automated Architecture Modeling for Enterprise Technology Management Using Principles from Data Fusion: A Security Analysis Case2016In: Proceedings of 2016 Portland International Conference on Management of Engineering and Technology (PICMET), 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2908.
    Välja, Margus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Network and Systems engineering.
    Lagerström, Robert
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Network and Systems engineering.
    Korman, Matus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Franke, Ulrik
    Bridging the gap between business and technology in strategic decision-making for cyber security management2016In: Proceedings of 2016 Portland International Conference on Management of Engineering and Technology, 2016, p. 32-42Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    System architectures are getting more and more complex. Thus, making strategic decisions when it comes to managing systems is difficult and needs proper support. One arising issue that managers need to take into account when changing their technology is security. No business is spared from threats in today's connected society. The repercussions of not paying this enough attention could result in loss of money and in case of cyber physical systems, also human lives. Thus, system security has become a high-level management issue. There are various methods of assessing system security. A common method that allows partial automation is attack graph based security analysis. This particular method has many variations and wide tool support. However, a complex technical analysis like the attack graph based one needs experts to run it and interpret the results. In this paper we study what kind of strategic decisions that need the support of threat analysis and how to improve an attack graph based architecture threat assessment method to fit this task. The needs are gathered from experts working with security management and the approach is inspired by an enterprise architecture language called ArchiMate. The paper contains a working example. The proposed approach aims to bridge the gap between technical analysis and business analysis making system architectures easier to manage.

  • 2909.
    Väänänen, Eero
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University Espoo.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Estimation, measurement and improvement of distributed automation applications performance10.1109/IECON.2017.82169402017In: Proceedings IECON 2017: 43rd Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, p. 5426-5431Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the problem of how to estimate performance of distributed IEC 61499 automation systems and optionally, how to improve end-to-end response times in general. In order to make the process of distributed automation system design and deployment more streamlined, a software tool which could reliably estimate end-to-end response times within a system offline would be very beneficial. Focusing on possibilities to develop such a tool, there is a need for researching ways to determine end-to-end response times within distributed IEC 61499 systems. Based on the findings a model is created which can be used in the future software tool. The tool can either be a stand-alone application or as a plugin to some existing automation software development environment. This tool could be used already in the software development phase in order to compensate for the delays occurring in the physical system and thus, the actual work resulting from fine tuning while deploying the system could be minimized.

  • 2910.
    Våge, Lars
    Mid Sweden University.
    Search engines of today and beyond2002In: Tidskrift för Dokumentation, ISSN 0040-6872, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 79-85Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The major Internet search engines nowadays enable us to search for keywords in vast quantities of web pages. In this article the most important crawler-based search engines are reviewed along with newer ones which are starting to make an impact. Web directories, meta-search engines and the use of sponsored links are considered as well as the future of web searching. The need for faster reindexing of the databases of search engines in order to give users a more up-to-date view of the web is emphasized.

  • 2911.
    Våge, Lars
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University.
    Dalianis, Hercules
    Iselid, Lars
    Informationssökning på Internet2008 (ed. 2)Book (Other academic)
  • 2912.
    Våleman, Adrian
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Database and information techniques. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Automatgenerering av transaktionshanteringsprocedurer2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In a database environment, when you create or alter tables you often want to have a basic interface for standard operations such as insert, delete and update. This thesis report covers an analysis of what programs there are on the market for generating such interfaces and compares them against the demands of a real company. The analysis showed that none of the programs were completely meeting the requirements and therefore an own implementation of an interface generating program was created. The result is a PL/SQL program capable of generating files, storing them in a version handling system and executing the files into the database.

  • 2913.
    Waddington, Simon
    et al.
    King's College London, UK.
    Hedges, Mark
    King's College London, UK.
    Riga, Marina
    CERTH, Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Mitzias, Panagiotis
    CERTH, Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Kontopoulos, Efstratios
    CERTH, Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Kompatsiaris, Ioannis
    CERTH, Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Vion-Dury, Jean-Yves
    XRCE, Grenoble, France.
    Lagos, Nikolaos
    XRCE, Grenoble, France.
    Darányi, Sándor
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Corubolo, Fabio
    University of Liverpool, UK.
    Muller, Christian
    BUSOC, Belgium.
    McNeill, John
    Tate Galleries, London, UK.
    PERICLES – Digital Preservation through Management of Change in Evolving Ecosystems.2016In: The Success of European Projects Using New Information and Communication Technologies / [ed] Hamriouni, S., Setubal, Portugal, 2016, p. 51-74Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Management of change is essential to ensure the long-term reusabilityof digital assets. Change can be brought about in many ways, includingthrough technological, user community and policy factors. Motivated by casestudies in space science and time-based media, we consider the impact ofchange on complex digital objects comprising multiple interdependent entities,such as files, software and documentation. Our approach is based on modellingof digital ecosystems, in which abstract representations are used to assess risksto sustainability and support tasks such as appraisal. The paper is based onwork of the EU FP7 PERICLES project on digital preservation, and presentssome general concepts as well as a description of selected research areas underinvestigation by the project.

  • 2914.
    Waheed, Adnan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, PELAB - Programming Environment Laboratory.
    Support for Modelica Action Code in ModelicaML Models2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ModelicaML is a UML/Modelica profile to support model-driven development of combined software/hardware UML/Modelica models. In order to support the development and maintenance of large ModelicaML models this thesis work has developed advanced enhancements to the ModelicaML profile, to enable users to more conveniently edit textual parts, i.e., action code, of ModelicaML models. This approach covers many of the concepts present in advanced language editors, i.e., code completion, error markers, as well as indentation and code template user support for developing and maintaining complex models. In large and complex models it is hard to remember all the parameters and values given in textual parts of UML diagrams. It is also very difficult to remember the complete set of components of a ModelicaML model. The ModelicaML enhancements developed in this work now supports features to facilitate advanced usage by showing all the components in just one key press. Two levels of Error Marker support have been developed to help user to find errors anywhere in a model without knowing the details. Moreover, ModelicaML has been extended with features like Modelica syntax highlighting and code completion. Furthermore, this work included upgrading and porting ModelicaML to run on the new Papyrus [13] on the new Eclipse versions. For example, by using the new features introduced in ModelicaML in this work the users do not have to remember all the variables from used base classes and derived classes.

  • 2915.
    Wahlén, Conrad
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding.
    Global Illumination in Real-Time using Voxel Cone Tracing on Mobile Devices2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores Voxel Cone Tracing as a possible Global Illumination solutionon mobile devices.The rapid increase of performance on low-power graphics processors hasmade a big impact. More advanced computer graphics algorithms are now possi-ble on a new range of devices. One category of such algorithms is Global Illumi-nation, which calculates realistic lighting in rendered scenes. The combinationof advanced graphics and portability is of special interest to implement in newtechnologies like Virtual Reality.The result of this thesis shows that while possible to implement a state of theart Global Illumination algorithm, the performance of mobile Graphics Process-ing Units is still not enough to make it usable in real-time.

  • 2916.
    Wajima, Koji
    et al.
    Tokyo University of Science.
    Hayashi, Masaki
    Gotland University, School of Game Design, Technology and Learning Processes.
    Hurukawa, Toshihiro
    Tokyo University of Science.
    On reusable CG object for MMD in T2V2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Production of Computer Graphics (CG) by individuals has become active. CG movie production free tool called MMD (MikuMikuDance) is famous for its volunteers to produce CG character animations. Videos that have been produced in MMD are very popular among the fans of the character. Many people want to create their own animations, however, the production tool requires highly technical skill, and therefore, there is a big barrier for such individual people to create animations with the MMD. On the other hand, T2V (Text-To-Vision) is proposed to provide the easy-to-use production tool of character animation for the people who do not have much skill of making animations. Considering reuse of CG object of MMD in T2V to allow users to make animation in the easy way, we can expect the further development of content sharing sites. In this paper, we compare the CG formats of each of the MMD and T2V then we have had a test rendering to validate our method. We then clarify the issue of CG object reuse of MMD and T2V for the future applications.

  • 2917.
    Wall, Anders
    et al.
    ABB AB, Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden .
    Andersson, Johan
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Decreasing Maintenance Costs by Introducing Formal Analysis of Real-Time Behavior in Industrial Settings2006In: Leveraging Applications of Formal Methods: First International Symposium, ISoLA 2004, Paphos, Cyprus, October 30 - November2, 2004, Revised Selected Papers, 2006, p. 130-145Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A common problem with long-lived large industrial software systems such as telecom and industrial automation systems is the increasing complexity and the lack of formal models enabling efficient analyses of critical properties. New features are added or changed during the system life cycle and it becomes harder and harder to predict the impact of maintenance operations such as adding new features or fixing bugs.

    We present a framework for introducing analyzability in a late phase of the system's life cycle. The framework is based on the general idea of introducing a probabilistic formal model that is analyzable with respect to the system properties in focus, timing and usage of logical resources. The analyses are based on simulations. Traditional analysis method falls short due to a too limited modelling language or problems to scale up to real industrial systems.

    This method can be used for predicting the impact caused by e.g. adding a new feature or other changes to the system. This enables the system developers to identify potential problems with their design at an early stage and thus decreasing the maintenance cost.

    The framework primarily targets large industrial real-time systems, but it is applicable on a wide range of software system where complexity is an issue. This paper presents the general ideas of the framework, how to construct, validate, and use this type of models, and how the industry can benefit from this. The paper also present a set of tools developed to support the framework and our experiences from deploying parts of the framework at a company.

  • 2918.
    Wall, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Asplund, Lars
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Björnfot, Lars
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Performance Expectations on Ada Programs1993In: Proc. Ada-Europe'93, LNCS 688, 1993, p. 227-239Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2919.
    Wallenberg, Marcus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Vision. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Forssen, Per-Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Vision. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Attentional Masking for Pre-trained Deep Networks2017In: Proceedings of IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS17), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to direct visual attention is a fundamental skill for seeing robots. Attention comes in two flavours: the gaze direction (overt attention) and attention to a specific part of the current field of view (covert attention), of which the latter is the focus of the present study. Specifically, we study the effects of attentional masking within pre-trained deep neural networks for the purpose of handling ambiguous scenes containing multiple objects. We investigate several variants of attentional masking on partially pre-trained deep neural networks and evaluate the effects on classification performance and sensitivity to attention mask errors in multi-object scenes. We find that a combined scheme consisting of multi-level masking and blending provides the best trade-off between classification accuracy and insensitivity to masking errors. This proposed approach is denoted multilayer continuous-valued convolutional feature masking (MC-CFM). For reasonably accurate masks it can suppress the influence of distracting objects and reach comparable classification performance to unmasked recognition in cases without distractors.

  • 2920.
    Wallin, Andreas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Rubensson, Jonas
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Iggstrand, Alexander
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Allmänhetens säkerhetsmedvetenhet med avseende på trådlös kommunikation2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Public wireless networks are more available than ever. The networks all havesomething in common—they can be tapped in to, which poses the risk of sensitiveuser information being compromised. This research paper explores the public’ssecurity awareness with regards to public wireless networks by two differentmethods. One technical experiment in which, access to a public wireless networks inseveral different locations were offered. This allowed us to, in real-time, assess thesafety awareness of the users of our public wireless network, by analyzing theirnetwork traffic. The second was a survey, which were distributed to our sample ofpeople. It asked the sample questions about how they perceive their own behavioron a public wireless network. Thus, the survey allowed us to get an idea of theknowledge and the security awareness the public in general believe that they have.The results from our research indicate that people’s security awareness can andshould be improved. One first step towards improvement would be educationconcerning the risks that exist and how to avoid them, which is something that will be brought up in this paper.

  • 2921.
    Wallin, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Volvo Car Corporation, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Volvo Car Corporation, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Making Decisions in Integration of Automotive Software and Electronics: A Method Based on ATAM and AHP2007In: Proceedings - ICSE 2007 Workshops: Fourth International Workshop on Software Engineering for Automotive Systems, SEAS'07, 2007, p. Article number 4228592--Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a new method for makingdecisions on integration strategy for in-vehicle automotive systems.We describe the problem of choosing integration strategy and wedescribe the method, which is a combination of the ArchitectureTradeoff Analysis Method, ATAM, and the Analytical HierarchyProcess, AHP. We exemplify the use of the proposed method byevaluating the integration decisions concerning the physicalconnection of a realistic example system; a computer controlledautomatic gearbox. We present analysis on the use of the method andconclude that the method has several benefits compared to ATAM orAHP used individually. The method firstly supports a structured wayof listing system goals, and secondly, it also supports the makingof design decisions.

  • 2922.
    Wallmyr, Markus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Understanding the user in self-managing systems2015In: 9th European Conference on Software Architecture Workshops ECSAW 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For distributed systems to appear both intelligent and attractive to the user, they should be grounded in user needs and their ability to use the system. Not only do this increase the possibility of user adoption, but adequate user understanding also gives input for designing system functionality that transforms the ways these tasks are traditionally performed. As intelligent systems increasingly affect our daily life and as distributed systems grow in range and complexity, new usage scenarios appear that need to be understood. Simultaneously, tasks where the human is the only possible operator are now getting closer to being executed by intelligent systems. However, this process of replacing human intelligence by machine control might not remove the human from the system altogether, though it might change human’s role and the character of the tasks performed, making old knowledge less applicable. This paper reflects on the necessity of including the user/operator in the design of intelligent distributed systems. In a novel approach a farming scenario is presented, assessing both local machine distributed systems and the intelligence of cloud-connected infrastructure.

  • 2923.
    Wan, Zhanyong
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.
    Taha, Walid
    Department of Computer Science, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.
    Hudak, Paul
    Department of Computer Science, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.
    Event-Driven FRP2002In: Practical Aspects of Declarative Languages: 4th International Symposium, PADL 2002 Portland, OR, USA, January 19–20, 2002 Proceedings / [ed] Shriram Krishnamurthi & C. R. Ramakrishnan, Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2002, p. 155-172Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Functional Reactive Programming (FRP) is a high-level declarative language for programming reactive systems. Previous work on FRP has demonstrated its utility in a wide range of application domains, including animation, graphical user interfaces, and robotics. FRP has an elegant continuous-time denotational semantics. However, it guarantees no bounds on execution time or space, thus making it unsuitable for many embedded real-time applications. To alleviate this problem, we recently developed Real-Time FRP (RT-FRP), whose operational semantics permits us to formally guarantee bounds on both execution time and space.

    In this paper we present a formally verifiable compilation strategy from a new language based on RT-FRP into imperative code. The new language, called Event-Driven FRP (E-FRP), is more tuned to the paradigm of having multiple external events. While it is smaller than RT-FRP, it features a key construct that allows us to compile the language into efficient code. We have used this language and its compiler to generate code for a small robot controller that runs on a PIC16C66 micro-controller. Because the formal specification of compilation was crafted more for clarity and for technical convenience, we describe an implementation that produces more efficient code.

  • 2924.
    Wan, Zhanyong
    et al.
    Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.
    Taha, Walid
    Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.
    Hudak, Paul
    Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.
    Real-Time FRP2001In: ICFP '01: Proceedings of the sixth ACM SIGPLAN international conference on Functional programming, New York, NY: ACM Special Interest Group on Computer Science Education, 2001, Vol. 36, p. 146-156Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Functional reactive programming (FRP) is a declarative programming paradigm where the basic notions are continuous, time-varying behaviors and discrete, event-based reactivity. FRP has been used successfully in many reactive programming domains such as animation, robotics, and graphical user interfaces. The success of FRP in these domains encourages us to consider its use in real-time applications, where it is crucial that the cost of running a program be bounded and known before run-time. But previous work on the semantics and implementation of FRP was not explicitly concerned about the issues of cost. In fact, the resource consumption of FRP programs in the current implementation is often hard to predict. As a first step towards addressing these concerns, this paper presents Real-Time FRP (RT-FRP), a statically-typed language where the time and space cost of each execution step for a given program is statically bounded. To take advantage of existing work on languages with bounded resources, we split RT-FRP into two parts: a reactive part that captures the essential ingredients of FRP programs, and a base language part that can be instantiated to any generic programming language that has been shown to be terminating and resource-bounded. This allows us to focus on the issues specific to RT-FRP, namely, two forms of recursion. After presenting the operational explanation of what can go wrong due to the presence of recursion, we show how the typed version of the language is terminating and resource-bounded. Most of our FRP programs are expressible directly in RT-FRP. The rest are expressible via a simple mechanism that integrates RT-FRP with the base language. Copyright 2001 ACM.

  • 2925. Wang, C.
    et al.
    Liu, F.
    Min, G.
    Fan, P.
    Xue, X.
    Hu, R.
    Xiao, Ming
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Theory.
    Fang, X.
    Miao, W.
    Jiang, Y.
    Message from the HWNQoE 2015 workshop chairs2015In: Proceedings - 15th IEEE International Conference on Computer and Information Technology, CIT 2015, 14th IEEE International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing and Communications, IUCC 2015, 13th IEEE International Conference on Dependable, Autonomic and Secure Computing, DASC 2015 and 13th IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Intelligence and Computing, PICom 2015, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2015, article id 7362998Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2926. Wang, Jiazhen
    et al.
    Xu, Jun
    Zheng, Lirong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
    Ren, Junyan
    Design of an analog front-end for ambulatory biopotential measurement systems2010In: Journal of Semiconductors, ISSN 1674-4926, Vol. 31, no 10, p. 105004-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A continuously tunable gain and bandwidth analog front-end for ambulatory biopotential measurement systems is presented. The front-end circuit is capable of amplifying and conditioning different biosignals. To optimize the power consumption and simplify the system architecture, the front-end only adopts two-stage amplifiers. In addition, careful design eliminates the need for chopping circuits. The input-referred noise of the system is only 1.19 μVrms (0.48-2000 Hz). The chip is fabricated via a SMIC 0.18 μm CMOS process. Although the power consumption is only 32.1 μW under a 3 V voltage supply, test results show that the chip can successfully extract biopotential signals.

  • 2927.
    Wang, Kun
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Stereoscopic 3D Video Quality of Experience: impact of coding, transmission and display technologies2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Three-Dimensional (3D) videos are using their success from cinema to home entertainmentmarkets such as TV, DVD, Blu-ray, video games, etc. The video quality isa key factor which decides the success and acceptance of a new service. Visual qualitywill have more severe consequences for 3D than for 2D videos, e.g. eye-strain,headache and nausea.This thesis addresses the stereoscopic 3D video quality of experience that can beinfluenced during the 3D video distribution chain, especially in relation to coding,transmission and display stages. The first part of the thesis concentrates upon the3D video coding and transmission quality over IP based networks. 3D video codingand transmission quality has been studied from the end-users’ point of view byintroducing different 3D video coding techniques, transmission error scenarios anderror concealment strategies. The second part of the thesis addresses the displayquality characterization. Two types of major consumer grade 3D stereoscopic displayswere investigated: glasses with active shutter (SG) technology based display,and those with passive polarization technology (film patterned retarder,FPR) baseddisplay.Themain outcomes can be summarized in three points: firstly the thesis suggeststhat a spatial down-sampling processworking togetherwith high quality video compressingis a efficient means of encoding and transmitting stereoscopic 3D videoswith an acceptable quality of experience. Secondly, this thesis has found that switchingfrom 3D to 2D is currently the best error concealment method for concealingtransmission errors in the 3D videos. Thirdly, this thesis has compared three majorvisual ergonomic parameters of stereoscopic 3D display system: crosstalk, spatialresolution and flicker visibility. The outcomes of the thesis may be of benefit for 3Dvideo industries in order to improve their technologies in relation to delivering abetter 3D quality of experience to customers.

  • 2928.
    Wang, Lei
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    GUI test automation for Qt application2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    GUI test automation is a popular and interesting subject in the testing industry. Many companies plan to start test automation projects in order to implement efficient, less expensive software testing. However, there are challenges for the testing team who lack experience performing GUI tests automation. Many GUI test automation projects have ended in failure due to mistakes made during the early stages of the project.

    The major work of this thesis is to find a solution to the challenges of establishing new test automation projects and determine an appropriate method to build GUI tests automation. Due to the particularity of GUI tests automation, keyword driven test approach is introduced in this thesis. The advantages and disadvantages are shown by undertaking comparison with the Record and replay testing method and the data driven testing method. The research also includes a feasibility study of GUI tests automation. The analysis report points out which kinds of test projects should be automated and which kinds should not be automated.

    Test automation tool selection is a critical step for an test automation project. This thesis shows the correct procedure for selecting a testing tool and explains the strategies of testing tool selection. It also summaries the mistakes made during the tool selection process. Several classical types of testing tools which support Qt software testing are compared and evaluated. Based on the in-depth analysis and comparison of testing tools, the thesis explains how the different tools fit with the different test projects.

    The implementation procedure of a test automation is demonstrated in this thesis. The procedure includes test case design and testing framework implementation. The test script is created based on the structure of a keyword driven test framework. The thesis also discusses several interesting topics related to GUI tests automation for future research.

  • 2929.
    Wang, Lihui
    et al.
    National Research Council of Canada.
    Shen, Weiming
    A Web-Based Approach to Real-Time Machine Condition Monitoring and Control2005In: Manufacturing Engineering and Materials Handling, 2005 Pts A and B, The American Society of Mechanical Engineers , 2005, Vol. 16, p. 641-646Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this research is to develop a web-based approach to remote machine condition monitoring and control enabled by Java technologies and based on publish-subscribe design pattern. On top of a Wise-ShopFloor framework (W eb-based i ntegrated s ensor-driven e-ShopFloor ), this system can serve real-time data from bottom up and can function as a constituent component of e-manufacturing, particularly for web-based collaborative manufacturing. It is designed to use the popular client-server architecture, VCM (view-control-model) design pattern, and publish-subscribe design pattern for secure device control and efficient machine condition monitoring. This paper presents the basis of the developed technology for building a web-based monitoring and control system that can be easily integrated to the e-manufacturing paradigm. A case study of a tripod parallel kinematic machine is carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness and validate our approach to web-based real-time machine condition monitoring and remote control for collaborative manufacturing.

  • 2930.
    Wang, Xi Vincent
    et al.
    KTH, Centres, XPRES, Excellence in production research. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Production Systems.
    Wang, Lihui
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Production Systems.
    A cloud-based production system for information and service integration: an internet of things case study on waste electronics2017In: Enterprise Information Systems, ISSN 1751-7575, E-ISSN 1751-7583, Vol. 11, no 7, p. 952-968Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cloud computing is the new enabling technology that offers centralised computing, flexible data storage and scalable services. In the manufacturing context, it is possible to utilise the Cloud technology to integrate and provide industrial resources and capabilities in terms of Cloud services. In this paper, a function block-based integration mechanism is developed to connect various types of production resources. A Cloud-based architecture is also deployed to offer a service pool which maintains these resources as production services. The proposed system provides a flexible and integrated information environment for the Cloud-based production system. As a specific type of manufacturing, Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) remanufacturing experiences difficulties in system integration, information exchange and resource management. In this research, WEEE is selected as the example of Internet of Things to demonstrate how the obstacles and bottlenecks are overcome with the help of Cloud-based informatics approach. In the case studies, the WEEE recycle/recovery capabilities are also integrated and deployed as flexible Cloud services. Supporting mechanisms and technologies are presented and evaluated towards the end of the paper.

  • 2931.
    Wang, Xi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Xu, X.
    Virtualise manufacturing capabilities in the cloud: Requirements, architecture and implementation2014In: International Journal of Manufacturing Research, ISSN 1750-0591, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 348-368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, cloud manufacturing concept has been proposed by taking advantage of cloud computing to enhance the performance of manufacturing industry. Cloud manufacturing can be perceived as two types, i.e., manufacturing version of computing cloud, and a distributed environment that is networked around manufacturing cloud. This paper discusses manufacturing resources, abilities and relevant essentials from the service-oriented perspective. The functional requirements of a cloud manufacturing environment are also discussed, along with an interoperable manufacturing system framework. Cloud resource integration methods have been developed based on the function block and software agent technologies. It is possible to achieve a collaborative, intelligent, and distributed environment via cloud manufacturing technologies.

  • 2932.
    Wang, Yang
    et al.
    Northeastern Univ, Shenyang, Liaoning, Peoples R China..
    Guan, Nan
    Hong Kong Polytech Univ, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Sun, Jinghao
    Northeastern Univ, Shenyang, Liaoning, Peoples R China..
    Lv, Mingsong
    Northeastern Univ, Shenyang, Liaoning, Peoples R China..
    He, Qingqiang
    Northeastern Univ, Shenyang, Liaoning, Peoples R China..
    He, Tianzhang
    Northeastern Univ, Shenyang, Liaoning, Peoples R China..
    Wang, Yi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Northeastern Univ, Shenyang, Liaoning, Peoples R China..
    Benchmarking OpenMP Programs for Real-Time Scheduling2017In: 2017 IEEE 23Rd International Conference On Embedded And Real-Time Computing Systems And Applications (RTSCA), IEEE Computer Society, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Real-time systems are shifting from single-core to multi-core processors. Software must be parallelized to fully utilize the computation power of multi-core architecture. OpenMP is a popular parallel programming framework in general and high-performance computing, and recently has drawn a lot of interests in embedded and real-time computing. Much recent work has been done on real-time scheduling of OpenMP-based parallel workload. However, these studies conduct evaluations with randomly generated task systems, which cannot well represent the structure features of OpenMP workload. This paper presents a benchmark suite, ompTGB, to support research on real-time scheduling of OpenMP-based parallel tasks. ompTGB does not only collect realistic OpenMP programs, but also models them into task graphs so that the real-time scheduling researchers can easily understand and use them. We also present a new response time bound for a subset of OpenMP programs and use it to demonstrate the usage of ompTGB.

  • 2933.
    Wang, Yuquan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    Reactive control and coordination of redundant robotic systems2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Redundant robotic systems, in terms of manipulators with one or twoarms, mobile manipulators, and multi-agent systems, have received an in-creasing amount of attention in recent years. In this thesis we describe severalways to improve robotic system performance by exploiting the redundancy.

    As the robot workspace becomes increasingly dynamic, it is common towork with imperfect geometric models of the robots or its workspace. Inorder to control the robot in a robust way in the presence of geometric uncer-tainties, we propose to assess the stability of our controller with respect to acertain task by deriving bounds on the geometric uncertainties. Preliminaryexperimental results support the fact that stability is ensured if the proposedbounds on the geometric uncertainties are fulfilled.

    As a non-contact measurement, computer vision could provide rich infor-mation for robot control. We introduce a two step method that transformsthe position-based visual servoing problem into a quadratic optimization prob-lem with linear constraints. This method is optimal in terms of minimizinggeodesic distance and allows us to integrate constraints, e.g. visibility con-straints, in a natural way.

    In the case of a single robot with redundant degrees of freedom, we canspecify a family of complex robotic tasks using constraint based programming(CBP). CBP allows us to represent robotic tasks with a set of equality andinequality constraints. Using these constraints we can formulate quadraticprogramming problems that exploit the redundancy of the robot and itera-tively resolve the trade-off between the different constraints. For example, wecould improve the velocity or force transmission ratios along a task-dependent direction using the priorities between different constraints in real time.

    Using the reactiveness of CBP, we formulated and implemented a dual-armpan cleaning task. If we mount a dual-arm robot on a mobile base, we proposeto use a virtual kinematic chain to specify the coordination between the mobilebase and two arms. Using the modularity of the CBP, we can integrate themobility and dual-arm manipulation by adding coordination constraints intoan optimization problem where dual-arm manipulation constraints are alreadyspecified. We also found that the reactiveness and modularity of the CBPapproach is important in the context of teleoperation. Inspired by the 3Ddesign community, we proposed a teleoperation interface control mode thatis identical to the ones being used to locally navigate the virtual viewpoint ofmost Computer Aided Design (CAD) softwares.

    In the case of multiple robots, we combine ideas from multi-agent coopera-tive coverage control, with problem formulations from the resource allocationfield, to create a distributed convergent approach to the resource positioningproblem.

  • 2934.
    Ward, B. C.
    et al.
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, United States.
    Thekkilakattil, Abhilash
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Anderson, J. H.
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, United States.
    Optimizing preemption-overhead accounting in multiprocessor real-time systems2014In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, 2014, Vol. 8, p. 235-243Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There exist two general techniques to account for preemption-related overheads on multiprocessors. This paper presents a new preemption-related overhead-accounting technique, called analytical redistribution of preemption overheads (ARPO), which integrates the two previous techniques to minimize preemption-overhead-related utilization loss. ARPO is applicable under any job-level fixed priority (JLFP) preemptive scheduler, as well as some limited-preemption schedulers. ARPO is evaluated in a new experimentaldesign framework for overhead-aware schedulability studies that addresses unrealistic simplifying assumptions made in previous studies, and is shown to improve real-time schedulability.

  • 2935. Warg, F.
    et al.
    Gassilewski, M.
    Tryggvesson, J.
    Izosimov, Viacheslav
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Werneman, A.
    Johansson, R.
    Defining autonomous functions using iterative hazard analysis and requirements refinement2016In: International Conference on Computer Safety, Reliability, and Security, SAFECOMP 2016 and International Workshop on Assurance Cases for Software-Intensive Systems, ASSURE 2016, Workshop on Dependable Embedded and Cyber-physical Systems and Systems-of-Systems, DECSoS 2016, 5th International Workshop on Next Generation of System Assurance Approaches for Safety-Critical Systems, SASSUR 2016, and 1st International Workshop on the Timing Performance in Safety Engineering, TIPS 2016, Springer, 2016, p. 286-297Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomous vehicles are predicted to have a large impact on the field of transportation and bring substantial benefits, but they present new challenges when it comes to ensuring safety. Today the standard ISO 26262:2011 treats each defined function, or item, as a complete scope for functional safety; the driver is responsible for anything that falls outside the items. With autonomous driving, it becomes necessary to ensure safety at all times when the vehicle is operating by itself. Therefore, we argue that the hazard analysis should have the wider scope of making sure the vehicle’s functions together fulfill its specifications for autonomous operation. The paper proposes a new iterative work process where the item definition is a product of hazard analysis and risk assessment rather than an input. Generic operational situation and hazard trees are used as a tool to widen the scope of the hazard analysis, and a method to classify hazardous events is used to find dimensioning cases among a potentially long list of candidates. The goal is to avoid dangerous failures for autonomous driving due to the specification of the nominal function being too narrow.

  • 2936.
    Warling, Peter
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Mehmeti, Armend
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Utvärdering av sårbarheter hos moderna fordon2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Fordon utvecklas till att innehålla mer avancerade komponenter och funktioner vilka bidrar till att dess framfart görs allt mer säker och effektiv. Baksidan av denna utveckling är att nya attackytor uppstår. Under tidigare arbeten har svagheter konstaterats i många av de olika trådlösa system som ett fordon använder. Då bilindustrin kontinuerligt utvecklas fokuserar detta arbete på att undersöka vilka trådlösa enheter som finns i moderna fordon, vilket av dessa system som utgör störst risk för att sedan föreslå teoretiska åtgärder för hur riskerna kan motverkas. Slutligen utförs ett praktiskt experiment för att utvärdera om en välkänd attack fortfarande är ett hot hos dagens fordon. Under arbetet konstateras det att i samtliga av de populäraste bilmodellerna som såldes i landet under förra året påträffas trådlösa system vilka alla under tidigare experiment visats innehålla tekniska svagheter. Arbetet fastställer genom en riskanalys att fjärrstyrda låssystem utgör den största risken men också att riskerna teoretiskt kan motverkas genom enkla metoder. Avslutningsvis konstateras det att även fordon av 2017 års modell är mottagliga för enklare attacker resulterande i att de ej kan låsas.

  • 2937.
    Warnquist, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Artificial Intelligence and Intergrated Computer systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Scania CV AB.
    Troubleshooting Trucks: Automated Planning and Diagnosis2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis considers computer-assisted troubleshooting of heavy vehicles such as trucks and buses. In this setting, the person that is troubleshooting a vehicle problem is assisted by a computer that is capable of listing possible faults that can explain the problem and gives recommendations of which actions to take in order to solve the problem such that the expected cost of restoring the vehicle is low. To achieve this, such a system must be capable of solving two problems: the diagnosis problem of finding which the possible faults are and the decision problem of deciding which action should be taken.

    The diagnosis problem has been approached using Bayesian network models. Frameworks have been developed for the case when the vehicle is in the workshop only and for remote diagnosis when the vehicle is monitored during longer periods of time.

    The decision problem has been solved by creating planners that select actions such that the expected cost of repairing the vehicle is minimized. New methods, algorithms, and models have been developed for improving the performance of the planner.

    The theory developed has been evaluated on models of an auxiliary braking system, a fuel injection system, and an engine temperature control and monitoring system.

  • 2938.
    Wecksten, Magnus
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Michael, Haugland
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Linux hoist review: En undersökning av automatiserade auditverktyg2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Manuell säkerhetsgranskning av Linuxsystems konfigurationer är en tidskrävandeoch mödosam uppgift. Det existerar flera automatiserade verktyg som säger sigkunna underlätta arbetet, upptäcka uppenbara säkerhetsrisker och genereraunderlag för manuella granskningar.

    I detta arbetet ställer vi oss frågorna; “Hur väl klarar befintliga verktyg, på ettautomatiserat vis, att identifiera kritiska konfigurationsbrister i ett linuxsystem?”och “Går det att ta fram metoder som bättre identifierar dessa brister?”. Arbetetundersöker detta genom att samla verktyg för automatisk auditing och testar dessa iavsiktligt sårbart konfigurerade testmiljöer baserade på vedertagna riktlinjer försystemhärdning. Parallellt med detta tog vi också ta fram förbättradeidentifieringsmetoder genom att utveckla ett eget verktyg som inkluderas iundersökningen.

  • 2939.
    Wedelin, Axel
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    Glaas, David
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    Analys av marknadsetablerade aktörers nyttjande av cloud computings möjligheter2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2940.
    Wehrmeister, Marco A.
    et al.
    Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.
    Pignaton de Freitas, Edison
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Pereira, Carlos E.
    Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.
    An Infrastructure for UML-Based Code Generation Tools2009In: Analysis, architectures and modelling of embedded systems: Third IFIP TC 10 International Embedded Systems Symposium, IESS 2009, Langenargen, Germany, September 14-16, 2009, proceedings / [ed] Rettberg, A Zanella, MC Rammig, FJ, New York: Springer-Verlag New York, 2009, p. 32-43Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) techniques in the domain of distributed embedded real-time systems are gain importance in order to cope with the increasing design complexity of such systems. This paper discusses an infrastructure created to build GenERTiCA, a flexible tool that supports a MDE approach, which uses aspect-oriented concepts to handle nonfunctional requirements from embedded and real-time systems domain. GenERTiCA generates source code from UML models, and also performs weaving of aspects, which have been specified within the UML model. Additionally, this paper discusses the Distributed Embedded Real-Time Compact Specification (DERCS), a PIM created to support UML-based code generation tools. Some heuristics to transform UML models into DERCS, which have been implemented in GenERTiCA, are also discussed.

  • 2941.
    Wei, Bo
    et al.
    University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia and CSIRO, Brisbane, Australia and SICS, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Varshney, Ambuj
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Patwari, Neal
    University of Utah, Salt Lake City and Xandem Technology, Salt Lake City.
    Hu, Wen
    University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia and CSIRO, Brisbane, Australia and SICS, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Chou, Chun Tung
    University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.
    dRTI: Directional Radio Tomographic Imaging2015In: Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks, 2015, p. 166-177Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Radio tomographic imaging (RTI) enables device free localisation of people and objects in many challenging environments and situations. Its basic principle is to detect the changes in the statistics of radio signals due to the radio link obstruction by people or objects. However, the localisation accuracy of RTI suffers from complicated multipath propagation behaviours in radio links. We propose to use inexpensive and energy efficient electronically switched directional (ESD) antennas to improve the quality of radio link behaviour observations, and therefore, the localisation accuracy of RTI. We implement a directional RTI (dRTI) system to understand how directional antennas can be used to improve RTI localisation accuracy. We also study the impact of the choice of antenna directions on the localisation accuracy of dRTI and propose methods to effectively choose informative antenna directions to improve localisation accuracy while reducing overhead. Furthermore, we analyse radio link obstruction performance in both theory and simulation, as well as false positives and false negatives of the obstruction measurements to show the superiority of the directional communication for RTI. We evaluate the performance of dRTI in diverse indoor environments and show that dRTI significantly outperforms the existing RTI localisation methods based on omni-directional antennas.

  • 2942.
    Wei, Fang
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Database and information techniques. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    TEDI: Efficient Shortest Path Query Answering on Graphs2012In: Graph Data Management: Techniques and Applications, IGI Global, 2012Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 2943. Weigand, H.
    et al.
    Johannesson, Paul
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Andersson, Birger
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    The value of a META perspective in social innovation2016In: CEUR Workshop Proceedings, CEUR-WS , 2016, p. 50-64Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Collective Awareness Platforms (CAP) have been promoted as an enabler of social innovation. A CAP supports the collection of data (quantitative and qualitative, and using all the technical possibilities that are rapidly becoming available, e.g. sensors), the integration of the data, and the presentation of results to the community in order to adapt their behavior or develop new behavior patterns. Typically, a CAP has many stakeholders. To support the development and maintenance of CAPs, we propose the notion of META-CAP, a platform that allows participants to reflect on the CAP from a value and collaboration perspective. The META-CAP architecture described in this paper is evaluated from the perspective of socio-technical design.

  • 2944.
    Wei-Kleiner, Fang
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Database and information techniques. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Finding nearest neighbors in road networks: a tree decomposition method2013In: EDBT '13 Proceedings of the Joint EDBT/ICDT 2013 Workshops, New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2013, p. 233-240Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Finding k Nearest Neighbors in one category of POIs (point of interests) belongs to the most frequently issued queries in the navigating systems or online maps. This problem can be formulated as given a graph G(V, E), a vertex u and SV, finding k nearest neighbors of u in S. Classic Dijkstra's algorithm offers an optimal solution if S = V holds, but the performance deteriorates as S is of smaller size. Other approaches such as pre-computing and storing all the shortest distances require too much storage, thus suffer from drawbacks of scalability.

    To address these problems, we propose TIkNN (stands for Tree decomposition-based Indexing for kNN), an indexing and query processing scheme for kNN query answering. TIkNN is based on the tree decomposition methodology. The graph is first decomposed into a tree in which each node (a.k.a. bag) contains more than one vertex from graph. The shortest paths are stored in such bags and these local paths together with the tree are the components of the index of the graph. Based on this index, step-wise query processing over the tree can be executed to find the nearest neighbors.

    Our experimental results show that TIkNN offers orders-of-magnitude performance improvement over Dijkstra's algorithm on query answering, while the storage requirement for the index structure is relatively small.

  • 2945.
    Wendt, Michael
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Kadar Rosengren, Robin
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Carving och innehållssökning av komplexa dokument: En jämförelse av verktyg2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    File carving är konsten att återskapa raderade filer utan hjälp av filsystemsinformation. Speciellt viktigt skulle detta kunna vara vid utredning av ekonomisk brottslighet som utgör en vital del inom bekämpning av prioriterade områden som organiserad brottslighet och terrorism. I detta arbete presenteras ett nytt verktyg för att utföra file carving som även jämförs mot andra verktyg på marknaden med tyngdpunkt på processtid och minnesanvändning. Dessutom riktas fokus på egenskapen att snabbt kunna söka efter nyckelord i de framtagna filerna. Detta är något som kan vara mycket användbart när det finns behov av att snabbt hitta relevant information i en brottsutredning. Då filformaten .docx samt .pdf hör till de vanligaste typerna av textfiler har testerna valts att göras på dessa. I arbetet har det även undersökts hur polisen arbetar med file carving och sökning i textdokument idag. EnCase är det absolut mest använda programmet hos polisen, men testerna visade att det är både långsamt och resurskrävande. Verktyget Autopsy visade sig vara ett snabbare alternativ, men det nykomna verktyget Alice var mindre, snabbare och resurssnålare än båda alternativ. EnCase kunde inte heller visa resultaten av en textsökning på ett lika överskådligt sätt som Autopsy och Alice.

  • 2946.
    Wennström (Klockar), Annika
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Information Technology.
    Alfredsson, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Division for Information Technology.
    Brunstrom, Anna
    Karlstad University, Division for Information Technology.
    TCP over Wireless Networks2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report provides an overview of common wireless network technologies used today, with emphasis on data transmission. Wireless networks are becoming increasingly used for Internet communications. As discussed in the report, the TCP protocol may experience performance degradations over wireless networks, due to non-congestion related packet loss and varying round trip times. To this end, many enhancements for TCP to the link and transport layer have been proposed. A selection of these are presented and discussed in relation to the wireless network technologies.

  • 2947.
    Wennström (Klockar), Annika
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Information Technology.
    Brunstrom, Anna
    Karlstad University, Division for Information Technology.
    Garcia, Johan
    Karlstad University, Division for Information Technology.
    Gustafsson, Jan H.
    Telia Mobile AB, Karlstad, Sweden.
    A GSM/GPRS Testbed for TCP Performance Evaluation2002In: Proceedings of International Workshop on Wired/Wireless Internet Communications / [ed] Hamid R. Arabnia, Youngsong Mun, CSREA Press, 2002, p. 19-26Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Investigating the wireless Internet is a nontrivial task dueto the complexity of wireless systems and the many protocolinteractions that appear. In this paper we present a measurementtestbed that allows us to investigate the performanceof Internet traffic over a real GSM network but witha controlled radio environment and traffic load. A detailedperformance evaluation of TCP over GSM is presented. Arange of radio conditions are considered with a focus on theinteraction between TCP and the GSM link layer. With respectto efficient protocol layer interaction, the results showthat high variability in round trip times is more problematicthan poor radio conditions. How the testbed has been extendedfor GPRS and planned measurements for this systemare also discussed.

  • 2948.
    Wernersson, Henrik Wernersson
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Atwa, Yassin
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Resource constrained Industrial IoT device2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagens läge är industriella nätverk inte anpassade för att koppla upp resursbegränsade enheter pga av att industriella nätverks-protokollen som används är mer anpassade för real time applikationer. Det skulle vara ett stort steg för de industriella nätverken att kunna koppla upp resursbegränsade enheter för enkel övervakning samt analysering av data.

    Efter en undersökningsperiod av ett flertal olika IoT-protokoll, gjordes valet att implementera CoAP på en Anybus CompactCom-modul för testning. Under projektets gång användes det en del white-box testning i början vid implementationen av libCoAP. Efter att en fungerande implementation var gjord, påbörjades testning av input och output överensstämmelser med hjälp av black-box testning istället.

    Resultatet jämfördes i slutändan med den existerande lösningen att skicka parameterdata med hjälp av TCP. Resultatet hade en responstidsskillnad som var 92,3 % snabbare. Samtidigt tog det sammanlagt 24,2 % mindre plats i minnet (FLASH och RAM) för implementationen på Anybus CompactCom-modulen.

  • 2949.
    Westberg, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    TestLink: Software for connecting laboratory equipment and automation of workflow.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Software development is of great significance in manufacturing and process industry. Software can, for example, make production more efficient and monitoring easier. In paperboard industry testing the product, that is, paperboard, is important. Testing is done to make sure that the product meets the requirements of the customers who transform the paperboard to packaging products. In the Skoghall paperboard Mill operators make use of a range of different test methods. Since the work pace is high and the product is being continuously tested improvements of the workflow at the laboratory are always of interest.

     

    The aim of this project is to develop a program that connects test instruments at Skoghall Mill’s test laboratory to the Mill’s network. The motivation is to automate part of the work process by removing the step of manually reading measurement values from the test instruments. The scope of this project includes developing software that connects one of the instruments (the Short Span Compression tester [1] or SCT) at the laboratory to the Mill’s network. This program, named TestLink, will work as a proof of concept for connecting instruments using a common interface. The software is constructed using a modular approach forming a platform where an additional instrument can be connected by creating a new module. The software is developed in Visual Studio using C# as the programming language. The software architecture follows the MVVM [2] (Model View ViewModel) design pattern paradigm and WPF [3] (Windows Presentation Foundation) is used to construct the graphical user interface. The result shows that time savings can be made when automating part of the work with the introduction of new software.

  • 2950.
    Westin, Thomas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Game accessibility implementation model2008In: Comput. Games Allied Technol., CGAT - Anim., Multimedia, IPTV Edutainment, Proc., 2008, p. 161-167Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many games are not accessible for many gamers with disabilities for a number of reasons. One problem is that there is no general model or framework for how existing game accessibility guidelines, interaction design patterns and solutions can be implemented. This makes it hard to evaluate the complexity and resources needed which are key questions for game developers. The purpose of the GAIM is to propose a general model for implementing existing solutions for making games more accessible. The approach taken to achieve the purpose is a case study of implementing existing design patterns and guidelines for game accessibility, by studying existing games. The results are a proposed model for implementing game accessibility, comparison tables of existing games and interviews with developers.

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