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  • 2801.
    Sundgren, David
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    The Apparent Arbitrariness of Second-Order Probability Distributions2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Adequate representation of imprecise probabilities is a crucial and non-trivial problem in decision analysis. Second-order probability distributions is the model for imprecise probabilities whose merits are discussed in this thesis.

    That imprecise probabilities may be represented by second-order probability distributions is well known but there has been little attention to specific distributions. Since different probability distributions have different properties, the study of the desired properties of models of imprecise probabilities with respect to second-order models require analysis of particular second-order distributions.

    An often held objection to second-order probabilities is the apparent arbitrariness in the choice of distribution. We find some evidence that the structure of second-order distributions is an important factor that prohibits arbitrary choice of distributions. In particular, the properties of two second-order distributions are investigated; the uniform joint distribution and a variant of the Dirichlet distribution that has the property of being the normalised product of its own marginal distributions.

    The joint uniform distribution is in this thesis shown to have marginal distributions that belie the supposed non-informativeness of a uniform distribution. On the other hand, the modified Dirichlet distribution discovered here has its information content evenly divided among the joint and marginal distributions in that the total correlation of the variables is minimal.

    It is also argued in the thesis that discrete distributions, as opposed to the continuous distributions mentioned above, would have the advantage of providing a natural setting for updating of lower bounds, and computation of expected utility is made more efficient.

  • 2802.
    Sundgren, David
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Danielson, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Shifted Dirichlet Distributions as Second-Order Probability Distributions that Factors into Marginals2009In: Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposiumon Imprecise Probability: Theories and Applications / [ed] Thomas Augustin, Frank P. A. Coolen, Serafin Moral & Matthias C. M.Troffaes, SIPTA , 2009, p. 405-410Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In classic decision theory it is assumed that a decisionmaker can assign precise numerical values corresponding to the true value of each consequence, as well as precise numerical probabilities for their occurrences. In attempting to address real-life problems, where uncertainty in the input data prevails, some kind of representation of imprecise information is important. Second-order distributions, probability distributions over probabilities, is one way to achieve such a representation. However, it is hard to intuitively understand statements in a multi-dimensional space and user statements must be provided more locally. But the information-theoretic interplay between joint and marginal distributions may give rise to unwanted effects on the global level. We consider this problem in a setting of second-order probability distributions and find a family of distributions that normalised over the probability simplex equals its own product of marginals. For such distributions, there is no flow of information between the joint distributions and the marginal distributions other than the trivial fact that the variables belong to the probability simplex.

  • 2803.
    Sundgren, David
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Danielson, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Some Second Order Effects on Interval Based Probabilities2006In: Proceedings of the Nineteenth International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society Conference / [ed] Geoff Sutcliffe & Randy Goebel, Menlo Park, California: AAAI Press , 2006, p. 848-853Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In real-life decision analysis, the probabilities and values of consequences are in general vague and imprecise. One way to model imprecise probabilities is to represent a probability with the interval between the lowest possible and the highest possible probability, respectively. However, there are disadvantages with this approach, one being that when an event has several possible outcomes, the distributions of belief in the different probabilities are heavily concentrated to their centers of mass, meaning that much of the information of the original intervals are lost. Representing an imprecise probability with the distribution’s center of mass therefore in practice gives much the same result as using an interval, but a single number instead of an interval is computationally easier and avoids problems such as overlapping intervals. Using this, we demonstrate why second-order calculations can add information when handling imprecise representations, as is the case of decision trees or probabilistic networks. We suggest a measure of belief density for such intervals. We also demonstrate important properties when operating on general distributions. The results herein apply also to approaches which do not explicitly deal with second-order distributions, instead using only first-order concepts such as upper and lower bounds.

  • 2804.
    Sundgren, David
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Danielson, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Warp Effects on Calculating Interval Probabilities2009In: International Journal of Approximate Reasoning, ISSN 0888-613X, E-ISSN 1873-4731, Vol. 50, no 9, p. 1360-1368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In real-life decision analysis, the probabilities and utilities of consequences are in general vague and imprecise. One way to model imprecise probabilities is to represent a probability with the interval between the lowest possible and the highest possible probability, respectively. However, there are disadvantages with this approach; one being that when an event has several possible outcomes, the distributions of belief in the different probabilities are heavily concentrated toward their centres of mass, meaning that much of the information of the original intervals are lost. Representing an imprecise probability with the distribution’s centre of mass therefore in practice gives much the same result as using an interval, but a single number instead of an interval is computationally easier and avoids problems such as overlapping intervals. We demonstrate why second-order calculations add information when handling imprecise representations, as is the case of decision trees or probabilistic networks. We suggest a measure of belief density for such intervals. We also discuss properties applicable to general distributions. The results herein apply also to approaches which do not explicitly deal with second-order distributions, instead using only first-order concepts such as upper and lower bounds.

  • 2805.
    Sundgren, David
    et al.
    Dept. of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Danielson, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Some Properties of Aggregated Distributions over Expected Values2008In: MICAI 2008: Advances in Artificial Intelligence: Proceedings / [ed] Alexander Gelbukh, Eduardo F. Morales, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2008, p. 699-709Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software agents and humans alike face severe difficulties in making decisions in uncertain contexts. One approach is to formalise the decision situation by means of decision theory, i.e. probabilities and utilities leading to the principle of maximising the expected utility. Expected utility is here considered as a stochastic variable; under the assumption that all utility values are equally likely, and that each vector of probability values is equally likely, the probability distribution of expected utility is calculated for two, three, and four possible outcomes. The effect of these probability distributions concentrating around the middle value is explored and its significance for making decisions.

  • 2806.
    Sundgren, David
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Karlsson, Alexander
    On Dependence in Second-Order Probability2012In: Scalable Uncertainty Management: 6th International Conference, SUM 2012, Proceedings / [ed] Eyke Hüllermeier, Sebastian Link, Thomas Fober and Bernhard Seeger, Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, p. 379-391Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a notion, relative independence, that models independence in relation to a predicate.  The intuition is to capture the notion of a minimum of dependencies among variables with respect to the predicate. We prove that relative independence coincides with conditional independence only in a trivial case. For use in second-order probability, we let the predicate express first-order probability, i.e. that the probability variables must sum to one in order to restrict dependency to the necessary relation between probabilities of exhaustive and mutually exclusive events. We then show examples of Dirichlet distributions that do and do not have the property of relative independence.  These distributions are compared with respect to the impact of further dependencies, apart from those imposed by the predicate.

  • 2807.
    Sundgren, David
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Karlsson, Alexander
    Uncertainty Levels of Second-Order Probability2013In: POLIBITS Research Journal on Computer Science and Computer Engineering With Applications, ISSN 1870-9044, no 48, p. 5-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since second-order probability distributions assign probabilities to probabilities there is uncertainty on two levels. Although different types of uncertainty have been distinguished before and corresponding measures suggested, the distinction made here between first- and second-order levels of uncertainty has not been considered before. In this paper previously existing measures are considered from the perspective of first- and second-order uncertainty and new measures are introduced. We conclude that the concepts of uncertainty and informativeness needs to be qualified if used in a second-order probability context and suggest that from a certain point of view information can not be minimized, just shifted from one level to another.

  • 2808.
    Sundholm, Hillevi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Collaboration in Technology-Enhanced Environments: Issues of SpaceIn: Cognition technology and work, ISSN 1435-5558Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2809.
    Sundholm, Hillevi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Social Conventions and Issues of Space for Distributed Collaboration2007In: Intercultural Collaboration: First International Workshop, IWIC 2007 Kyoto, Japan, January 25-26, 2007 Invited and Selected Papers / [ed] Toru Ishida, Susan R. Fussell, Piek T. J. M. Vossen, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2007, p. 306-320Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We followed the work of an international research network that holds regular meetings in technology-enhanced environments. The team is geographically distributed and to support its collaborative work it uses a set of technical artifacts, including audio- and videoconferencing systems and a media space. We have been studying some of the techniques and social conventions the team develops for its collaboration, and different aspects of what it mean to be located in a shared but distributed workspace. Our approach has been to analyze the initiatives and responses made by the team members. Over time the group created conventions; e.g. the chair introduces team members participating only by audio and members turn off their microphones when not talking. The latter convention led to the side effect of faster decision making. We also identified two characteristics, implicit excluding andexplicit including, in a situation where the majority of the team members were co-located.

  • 2810.
    Sundholm, Hillevi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Spaces within Spaces: The Construction of a Collaborative Reality2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about collaborative activities in interactive spaces. These spaces are characterized by having shared, large displays in combination with private displays and software tools that facilitate a fluent sharing of information between people and their resources. The aim is to understand the collaborative activities in interactive spaces in terms of how team members are allowed to contribute to the overall work and what influence the physical qualities of space have on the collaboration. The research questions focus on the ways team members come to contribute to the work, how roles and functions are handled during collaboration, and how the physical qualities of the space influence the collaborative activities. To investigate these issues two empirical studies were conducted. The first study focused on two student teams that carried out conceptual design activities. The second study focused on geographically distributed meetings of an international research network. Data was mainly collected using video recordings, observations and questionnaires. The analyses are primarily based on detailed investigations of video recordings. The results showed in the first study that the large, touch-sensitive displays made it possible for the team members to interact and contribute to the work in several ways, which led to more equalized roles. In the second study the setting was more complex; the use of both video- and audio conferences made it difficult for the team members to overview the situation and to take part in the conversations, and their roles became more accentuated. It was further found that the physical- and the social space were intertwined: they appeared as spaces within spaces. The team members were also in a concrete sense constructing spaces within spaces: they created their own spaces in the common space and they often made transitions between shared and private, focal and peripheral work.

  • 2811.
    Sundholm, Hillevi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    To Share or Not to Share: Distributed Collaboration in Interactive Workspaces2006In: Cooperative Systems Design: Seamless Integration of Artifacts and Conversations – Enhanced Concepts of Infrastructure for Communication, Amsterdam: IOS Press , 2006, p. 270-285Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 2812.
    Sundholm, Hillevi
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Artman, Henrik
    Ramberg, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Backdoor creativity: collaborative creativity in technology supported teams2004In: Cooperative systems design: senario-based design of collaborative systems / [ed] Francoise Darses, Rose Dieng, Carla Simone, Manuel Zacklad, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2004, p. 99-114Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2813.
    Sundholm, Hillevi
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Ramberg, Robert
    Artman, Henrik
    Learning Conceptual Design: Activities with Electronic Whiteboards2004In: CADE2004: Web Proceedings of Computers in Art and Design Education Conference, Copenhagen Business School, Denmark, and Malmö University, Sweden, June 21–July 1, 2004, 2004Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 2814.
    Sundholm, Hillevi
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Ramberg, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Artman, Henrik
    Learning Conceptual Design: Collaborative Activities with Electronic Whiteboards2004In: Computers in Art and Design Education (CADE), 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2815.
    Sundström, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Designing Affective Loop Experiences2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a lack of attention to the emotional and the physical aspects of communication in how we up to now have been approaching communication between people in the field of Human Computer Interaction (HCI). As designers of digital communication tools we need to consider altering the underlying model for communication that has been prevailing in HCI: the information transfer model. Communication is about so much more than transferring information. It is about getting to know yourself, who you are and what part you play in the communication as it unfolds. It is also about the experience of a communication process, what it feels like, how that feeling changes, when it changes, why and perhaps by whom the process is initiated, altered, or disrupted. The idea of Affective Loop experiences in design aims to create new expressive and experiential media for whole users, embodied with the social and physical world they live in, and where communication not only is about getting the message across but also about living the experience of communication - feeling it.

    An Affective Loop experience is an emerging, in the moment, emotional experience where the inner emotional experience, the situation at hand and the social and physical context act together, to create for one complete embodied experience. The loop perspective comes from how this experience takes place in communication and how there is a rhythmic pattern in communication where those involved take turns in both expressing themselves and standing back interpreting the moment.

    To allow for Affective Loop experiences with or through a computer system, the user needs to be allowed to express herself in rich personal ways involving our many ways of expressing and sensing emotions – muscles tensions, facial expressions and more. For the user to become further engaged in interaction, the computer system needs the capability to return relevant, either diminishing, enforcing or disruptive feedback to those emotions expressed by the user so that the she wants to continue express herself by either strengthening, changing or keeping her expression.

    We describe how we used the idea of Affective Loop experiences as a conceptual tool to navigate a design space of gestural input combined with rich instant feedback. In our design journey, we created two systems, eMoto and FriendSense.

  • 2816.
    Sundström, Petra
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Höök, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Hand in Hand with the Material: Designing for Suppleness2010In: CHI 2010: 28th ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Atlanta, Georgia: ACM press , 2010, p. 463-472Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Designing for a supple interaction, involving users bodily and emotionally into a 'dance' with a system is a challenging task. Any break-ups in interaction become fatal to the sensual, fluent, bodily and social experience sought. A user-centered, iterative design cycle is therefore required.

    But getting to know the affordances of the digital material used to build the application plays an equally important role in the design process. The 'feel' of the digital material properties sometimes even determines what the design should be. We describe three situations in which the properties and affordances of sensor network technologies guided our design process of FriendSense -- a system for expressing friendship and emotional closeness through movement. We show how the sensor node look and feel, choice of sensors, limitations of the radio signal strength and coverage, as well as iterative prototyping to properly exploit the software/algorithmic possibilities guided our design process.

  • 2817.
    Sundström, Petra
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Jaensson, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Höök, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Pommeranz, Alina
    Probing the Potential of Non-verbal Group Communication2009In: Proceedings of the ACM 2009 international conference on Supporting group work, Sanibel Island, Florida, USA: ACM , 2009, p. 351-360Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Designing for non-verbal communication using e.g. gestures and other bodily expressions is difficult. Hardware and software need to be co-designed and harmonize in order to not throw users out of their embodied experience. We aim to design for kinaesthetic expressions of emotion in communication between friends - in this case, colleagues at work. A probe was built using sensor node technology designed to let users express themselves and their emotional state to a public and shared display where the expressions together formed a collective art piece expressing the individuals but also the group as a whole. Two groups of colleagues used the probe during two weeks. It came to serve as a channel in which some conflicts and expressions of social relations were acted out which were not openly discussed in the office. It exposed different roles and balances in relationships in the group. Finally, the probe taught us the importance of balancing the design for joint group expression and individual, personal expressions. The study also allowed the participants to experience the sensor node-'material' - enabling a participatory design process.

  • 2818.
    Sundström, Petra
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Ståhl, Anna
    Höök, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    eMoto: Affectively Involving both Body and Mind2005In: CHI '05 extended abstracts on Human factors in computing systems, Portland, OR, USA: ACM , 2005, p. 2005-2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is known that emotions are experienced by both body and mind. Oftentimes, emotions are evoked by sub-symbolic stimuli, such as colors, shapes, gestures, or music. We have built eMoto, a mobile service for sending affective messages to others, with the explicit aim of addressing such sensing. Through combining affective gestures for input with affective expressions that make use of colors, shapes and animations for the background of messages, the interaction pulls the user into an embodied 'affective loop'. We present a user study of eMoto where 12 out of 18 subjects got both physically and emotionally involved in the interaction. The study also shows that the designed 'openness' and ambiguity of the expressions, was appreciated and understood by our subjects.

  • 2819.
    Sundström, Petra
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Ståhl, Anna
    Höök, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    In Situ Informants Exploring an emotional Mobile Meassaging System in Their Everyday Practice2007In: International journal of human-computer studies, ISSN 1071-5819, E-ISSN 1095-9300, Vol. 65, no 4, p. 388-403Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have designed and built a mobile emotional messaging system named eMoto. With it, users can compose messages through using emotion-signalling gestures as input, rendering a message background of colours, shapes and animations expressing the emotional content. The design intent behind eMoto was that it should be engaging physically, intellectually and socially, and allow users to express themselves emotionally in all those dimensions, involving them in an affective loop experience. In here, we describe the user-centred design process that lead to the eMoto system, but focus mainly on the final study where we let five friends use eMoto for two weeks. The study method, which we name in situ informants, helped us enter and explore the subjective and distributed experiences of use, as well as how emotional communication unfolds in everyday practice when channelled through a system like eMoto. The in situ informants are on the one hand users of eMoto, but also spectators, that are close friends who observe and document user behaviour. Design conclusions include the need to support the sometimes fragile communication rhythm that friendships require—expressing memories of the past, sharing the present and planning for the future. We saw that emotions are not singular state that exist within one person alone, but permeates the total situation, changing and drifting as a process between the two friends communicating. We also gained insights into the under-estimated but still important physical, sensual aspects of emotional communication. Experiences of the in situ informants method pointed to the need to involve participants in the interpretation of the data obtained, as well as establishing a closer connection with the spectators

  • 2820. Sunnqvist, Charlotta
    et al.
    Karlsson, Karin
    Lindell, Lisbeth
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Virtual patient simulation in psychiatric care - A pilot study of digital support for collaborate learning2016In: Nurse Education in Practice, ISSN 1471-5953, E-ISSN 1873-5223, Vol. 17, p. 30-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychiatric and mental health nursing is built on a trusted nurse and patient relationship. Therefore communication and clinical reasoning are two important issues. Our experiences as teachers in psychiatric educational programmes are that the students feel anxiety and fear before they start their clinical practices in psychiatry. Therefore there is a need for bridging over the fear. Technology enhanced learning might support such activities so we used Virtual patients (VPs), an interactive computer simulations of real-life clinical scenarios. The aim of this study was to investigate 4th term nursing students' opinions on the use of Virtual Patients for assessment in a Mental Health and Ill-health course module. We asked 24 volunteering students to practise with five different VP cases during almost 10 weeks before the exam. The participants were gathered together for participating in a written and an oral evaluation. The students were positive to the use of VPs in psychiatry and were very positive to use VPs in their continued nursing education. It seems that Virtual Patients can be an activity producing pedagogic model promoting students' independent knowledge development, critical thinking, reflection and problem solving ability for nurse students in psychiatric care.

  • 2821. Suominen, Hanna
    et al.
    Salanterä, Sanna
    Velupillai, Sumithra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Chapman, Wendy W.
    Savova, Guergana
    Elhadad, Noemie
    Pradhan, Sameer
    South, Brett R.
    Mowery, Danielle L.
    Jones, Gareth J.F.
    Leveling, Johannes
    Kelly, Liadh
    Goeuriot, Lorraine
    Martinez, David
    Zuccon, Guido
    Overview of the ShARe/CLEF eHealth Evaluation Lab 20132013In: Information Access Evaluation. Multilinguality, Multimodality, and Visualization: Proceedings / [ed] Forner, P., Müller, H., Paredes, R., Rosso, P., Stein, B., Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, p. 212-231Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Discharge summaries and other free-text reports in healthcare transfer information between working shifts and geographic locations. Patients are likely to have difficulties in understanding their content, because of their medical jargon, non-standard abbreviations, and ward-specific idioms. This paper reports on an evaluation lab with an aim to support the continuum of care by developing methods and resources that make clinical reports in English easier to understand for patients, and which helps them in finding information related to their condition. This ShARe/CLEFeHealth2013 lab offered student mentoring and shared tasks: identification and normalisation of disorders (1a and 1b) and normalisation of abbreviations and acronyms (2) in clinical reports with respect to terminology standards in healthcare as well as information retrieval (3) to address questions patients may have when reading clinical reports. The focus on patients’ information needs as opposed to the specialised information needs of physicians and other healthcare workers was the main feature of the lab distinguishing it from previous shared tasks. De-identified clinical reports for the three tasks were from US intensive care and originated from the MIMIC II database. Other text documents for Task 3 were from the Internet and originated from the Khresmoi project. Task 1 annotations originated from the ShARe annotations. For Tasks 2 and 3, new annotations, queries, and relevance assessments were created. 64, 56, and 55 people registered their interest in Tasks 1, 2, and 3, respectively. 34 unique teams (3 members per team on average) participated with 22, 17, 5, and 9 teams in Tasks 1a, 1b, 2 and 3, respectively. The teams were from Australia, China, France, India, Ireland, Republic of Korea, Spain, UK, and USA. Some teams developed and used additional annotations, but this strategy contributed to the system performance only in Task 2. The best systems had the F1 score of 0.75 in Task 1a; Accuracies of 0.59 and 0.72 in Tasks 1b and 2; and Precision at 10 of 0.52 in Task 3. The results demonstrate the substantial community interest and capabilities of these systems in making clinical reports easier to understand for patients. The organisers have made data and tools available for future research and development.

  • 2822. Susha, Iryna
    et al.
    Johannesson, Paul
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Juell-Skielse, Gustaf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Open Data Research in the Nordic Region: Towards a Scandinavian Approach?2016In: Electronic Government: 15th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2016, Guimarães, Portugal, September 5-8, 2016, Proceedings / [ed] Hans Jochen Scholl, Olivier Glassey, Marijn Janssen, Bram Klievink, Ida Lindgren, Peter Parycek, Efthimios Tambouris, Maria A. Wimmer, Tomasz Janowski, Delfina Sá Soares, Springer, 2016, p. 61-73Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2009 open data has been growing into a specialized research area, including in the Nordic countries. Historically Information Systems research from this region has managed to develop a distinct identity on the international research arena. Hence, the expectation is that also in the context of open data there exists room for unique contributions of Nordic researchers. However, no systematic overview exists yet of the open data research conducted in these countries or of the emerging research community. This paper, therefore, aims to fill this gap by conducting a comprehensive literature review. Our study focuses on the following aspects: (1) which perspectives and topics are exam- ined and (2) which empirical settings and methods are applied in Nordic open data research. Finding answers to these questions will enable us to propose a future research agenda and thereby stimulate debate in the Nordic open data research community.

  • 2823. Sutinen, Martti
    et al.
    Danielson, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Larsson, Aron
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Web-based analytical decision support system2010In: Proceedings of the 2010 10th International Conference on Intelligent Systems Design and Applications, ISDA'10 2010, Article number 5687202, 2010, p. 575-579Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a web-application supporting structured decision modelling and analysis. The application allows for decision modelling with respect to different preferences and views, allowing for numerically imprecise and vague background probabilities, values, and criteria weights, which further can be adjusted in an interactive fashion when considering calculated decision outcomes. The web-application is based on a decision tool that has been used in a large number of different domains over the last 15 years, ranging from investment decision analysis for companies to public decision support for local governments.

  • 2824.
    Svee, Eric Oluf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Utilizing Consumer Preferences to Promote Values Awareness in Information Systems Development2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The challenges of developing the information systems (IS) that support modern enterprises are becoming less about engineering and more about people. Many of the technical issues of the past, such as hardware size and power, connectivity, and robust software, are engineering problems that have largely been solved. In the next stage of computing, the human factor will be far more important than it has been in the past: the colors of an interface or the shape of an icon are the engineering problems of the past, and the availability and usefulness of such basic solutions is rapidly coming to a close. A new paradigm is needed that provides a roadmap of higher level conceptions and values, one about humane computing.

    A part of this older, mechanistic approach are quantitative, economic values whose impact on IS are readily visible and acknowledged within software engineering. However, qualitative values, and in particular consumer preferences, have been researched to a lesser degree, and there has been very little direct application.  To create the next-generation information systems, requirements engineers and systems developers need new methods to capture the real preferences of consumers, conceptualize these abstract concepts, and then relate such preferences to concrete requirements for information systems.

    To address this problem, this thesis establishes a conceptual link between the preferences of consumers and system requirements by accommodating the variations between them and expressing them via a conceptual model. Modeling such preferences and values so that they can be used as requirements for IS development is the primary contribution of this work. This is accomplished via a design science research paradigm to support the creation of the works’ primary artifact—the Consumer Preference-aware Meta-Model (CPMM).

    CPMM is intended to improve the alignment between business and information systems by capturing and concretizing the real preferences of consumers and then expressing such preferences via the requirements engineering process, with the eventual output being information systems. CPMM’s development relies on theoretical research contributions within three areas in information systems—Business Strategy, Enterprise Architecture, and Requirements Engineering—whose relationships to consumer values have been under-researched and under-applied.

    The case studies included in this thesis each demonstrate the significance of consumer preferences to each of these three areas.  In the first, a set of logical mappings between CPMM and a common approach to business strategy (strategy maps/balanced scorecards) is produced. In the second, CPMM provides the conceptual undergirding to process a massive amount of unstructured consumer-generated text to generate system requirements for the airline industry. In the concluding case, an investigation of foreign and domestic students at Swedish universities is structured through CPMM, one that first discovers the requirements for a consumer preference-based online education and then produces feature models for such a software product line-based system. The significance of CPMM as a lens for discovering new concepts and highlighting important information within consumer preference data is clearly seen, and the usefulness of the meta-model is demonstrated by its broad and beneficial applicability within information systems practice and research.

  • 2825.
    Svee, Eric-Oluf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Explorations in Values Awareness: Elicitation of Consumer Preferences for Information Systems Development2014Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The need for complex software to coordinate the activities of modern enterprises has become a necessity for their success. As business sectors are rapidly reshaped, organizations become global, and consumers have a seemingly endless degree of choice, these competitive conditions require software engineers to incorporate consumer values—personal judgments based on comparative, preferential experiences—into the design of such supporting software.

    Traditional modes of thinking, whose primary focus was often on economic value, are being left behind, as consumers are requiring more qualitative experiences than ever before. And while the impact of quantitative values on IT is readily seen and acknowledged within software engineering, such qualitative values, and in particular consumer values, have been researched to a lesser degree. To foster greater alignment between business and its supporting IT infrastructure, requirements engineers operating under such conditions need new means to both capture real preferences of consumers and then relate such preferences to requirements for next-generation software. 

    To address this problem, this thesis establishes a conceptual link between the preferences of consumers and system requirements by systematically accommodating the variations between them. It accomplishes this by following a design science research paradigm to support the development of the works' primary artifact—the Consumer Preference-aware Meta-Model (CPMM).

    CPMM is designed to improve alignment between business and IT by both capturing the real preferences of consumers and then relating such preferences to the requirements engineering process. It relies on research contributions within three areas in information systems—Business Strategy, Enterprise Architecture, and Requirements Engineering—whose relationships to consumer values have been under-researched and under-applied. These support the design and development of CPMM and its relevance to the problem area. The benefits it provides towards solving the problem are then exemplified in three demonstrations: via logical mappings between CPMM and a common approach to business strategy (strategy maps/balanced scorecards); the application of CPMM to generate requirements for a Patient Health Record (PHR) system; and an empirical study of the development of a consumer preference-based system for online education for foreign and domestic students at Swedish universities.

  • 2826.
    Svee, Eric-Oluf
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Giannoulis, Constantinos
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Zdravkovic, Jelena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Modeling Business Strategy: a Consumer Value Perspective2011In: IFIP Working Conference, Practice of Enterprise Modeling, Oslo, Norway: Springer , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Business strategy lays out the plan of an enterprise to achieve its vision by providing value to its customers. Typically, business strategy focuses on economic value and its relevant exchanges with customers and does not directly address consumer values. However, consumer values drive customers’ choices and decisions to use a product or service, and therefore should have a direct impact on business strategy. This paper explores whether and how consumer values influence business strategy, and how they might be linked to IS solutions that support the implementation of such strategies. To address these questions, the study maps consumer values to a business strategy approach via a meta-model commonly used for such purposes, based on strategy maps and balanced scorecards (SMBSC). Additionally, the applicability of the mappings is illustrated via a case scenario where the mappings are applied and the business strategy conceptualization captures them. Finally, based on these mappings, high level guidelines for linking consumer values to requirements for the development of IS solutions through business strategy conceptualization are proposed.

  • 2827.
    Svee, Eric-Oluf
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Giannoulis, Constantinos
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Zdravkovic, Jelena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Towards Consumer Preference-Aware Requirements2012In: Advanced Information Systems Engineering Workshops: CAiSE 2012 International Workshops, Proceedings / [ed] Marko Bajec, Johann Eder, Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, p. 531-542Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From the business perspective, one of the core concerns within Business-IT alignment is coordinating strategic initiatives and plans with Information Systems (IS). However, while substantial work has been done on linking strategy to requirements for IS development, it has usually been focused on the core value exchanges offered by the business, overlooking other aspects influencing the implementation of strategy. One of these, consumer preferences, has been proven to influence the successful provisioning of the business’s customer value proposition, and this study aims to establish a conceptual link between them and system requirements. The core contention is that reflecting consumer preferences through business strategy in system requirements allows for the development of systems aligned to consumer preferences, and therefore systems that better support a consumer orientation, where the reasoning behind a particular solution stems from them. The contribution of this paper is the proposal of a consumer preference meta-model along with an illustration of its relationship to a requirements’ technique (i*) through the Strategy Maps business strategy formulation.

  • 2828.
    Svee, Eric-Oluf
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Kvist, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Velupillai, Sumithra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Capturing and Representing Values for Requirements of Personal Health Records2013In: PoEM Short Papers: Short Paper Proceedings of the 6th IFIP WG 8.1 Working Conference on the Practice of Enterprise Modeling (PoEM 2013) / [ed] Janis Grabis, Marite Kirikova, Jelena Zdravkovic, Janis Stirna, 2013, p. 166-175Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Patients’ access to their medical records in the form of Personal Health Records (PHRs) is a central part of the ongoing shift in health policy, where patient empowerment is in focus. A survey was conducted to gauge the stakeholder requirements of patients in regards to functionality requests in PHRs. Models from goal-oriented requirements engineering were created to express the values and preferences held by patients in regards to PHRs from this survey. The present study concludes that patient values can be extracted from survey data, allowing the incorporation of values in the common workflow of requirements engineering without extensive reworking.

  • 2829.
    Svee, Eric-Oluf
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Sanches, Pedro
    Swedish Institute of Computer Sciences, , .
    Markus, Bylund
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science, , .
    Time Geography Rediscovered: A Common Language for Location-Oriented Services2009In: LocWeb, ACM Press , 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose that the concepts of Time Geography be evaluated as a framework for use within location-oriented services. Originally conceived as a system to describe patterns in human migration, Time Geography is ideally suited for providing the common language and concepts necessary for dialogue within this evolving area. Location-oriented services have been the focus of a great deal of attention, but with research occurring in many disparate disciplines, the lack of a common model that can conceptualize these ideas has not received appropriate attention. To demonstrate its applicability within location-oriented services, we present a research activity which makes explicit use of concepts from Time Geography, with the hope that it can be seen as a tractable and practical solution for several difficulties facing this fast growing area of interest.

  • 2830.
    Svee, Eric-Oluf
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Zdravkovic, Jelena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    A Model-based Approach for Capturing Consumer Preferences from Crowdsources: The Case of Twitter2016In: IEEE RCIS 2016: IEEE 10th International Conference on Research Challenges in Information Science / [ed] Sergio España, Jolita Ralyté, Carine Souveyet, IEEE Computer Society, 2016, p. 65-76Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Consumer choices are enormously influential in the success of the companies and organizations behind the highly competitive global service and product offerings of today. Consumer choice relates to preference, i.e. a set of assumptions a person creates around a service or a product such as convenience, utility or aesthetics. Furthermore, consumer preferences allow ranking of different assumptions about products or services based on the expected or to-be-experienced satisfaction of consuming them. In our previous work, we proposed a conceptualization of consumer preferences—the Consumer Preference Meta-Model (CPMM)—to enable a classification and ranking of the preferences that would be the basis for deciding which of would be considered to be developed into supporting information systems/services. In this study we collect consumer preferences through crowdsourcing, and in particular Twitter, because of its increasing popularity as a source of up-to-date comments and information about current services and products. The tweets of four major American airlines were processed using different techniques from natural language processing (NLP) that enabled the classification of their objectives, content, and importance within CPMM. By next mapping the highest-ranked results from CPMM to goal models enabled a model-based linkage from a corpus of preferences contained within short texts to high-level requirements for system/services.

  • 2831.
    Svee, Eric-Oluf
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Zdravkovic, Jelena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Case-based Development of Consumer Preferences Using Brand Personality and Values Co-creation2015In: The Practice of Enterprise Modeling / [ed] Jolita Ralyté, Sergio España, Óscar Pastor, Heidelberg: Springer , 2015, Vol. 235, p. 159-173Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Consumers have preferences whose determination is outside the realm of economic rules and values. To be successful in current market conditions, product and service companies need to capture such preferences to provide best-fit support by their Information Systems (IS), sometimes by developing entirely new features. In our previous work, we have conceptualized a metamodel for incorporating consumer preferences into the development of IS —Consumer Preference Meta-Model (CPMM). This artifact was developed with the ability to be expanded with new kinds of consumer preferences, as well as their related concepts. Building upon that work, in this study we consider methodological usage of CPMM for the case of Asker’s Brand Personality as the primary value framework. The framework brings both the enterprise and the consumer into dialog, with this values co-creation fostering synchronicity between the information systems that are designed as an outgrowth of this process, and the desires of both the consumers and the businesses that they will support. The case example uses the Twitter feed of a major airline, whose tweets are processed using Aaker’s 5-factors and Kano’s quality framework. The results complete an instantiation of CPMM that generates a feature model reflective of both brand personality and values co-creation.

  • 2832.
    Svee, Eric-Oluf
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Zdravkovic, Jelena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Extending Enterprise Architectures to Capture Consumer Values: The Case of TOGAF2015In: Advanced Information Systems Engineering Workshops: Proceedings / [ed] Anne Persson, Janis Stirna, Springer, 2015, p. 221-232Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores how to make Enterprise Architecture (EA) aware of consumer values. Current proposals in enterprise modeling recognize the need for user needs, although often without taking explicit account of the consumer values that are at the root of the exchange process. Enterprise architecture provides a roadmap for the development of systems that can support the creation and delivery of products of interest. First, a survey of enterprise architecture practitioners highlights the importance and significance of integrating consumer values into enterprise architecture through. Next, the survey results are used to enhance a consumer value meta-model for better integration with enterprise architecture, specifically The Open Group Architecture Framework (TOGAF).

  • 2833.
    Svee, Eric-Oluf
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Zdravkovic, Jelena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    iStar Instruction in Mixed Student Cohort Environments2015In: iStar Teaching Workshop: Proceedings of the 1st International iStar Teaching Workshop co-located with the 27th International Conference on Advanced Information Systems Engineering (CAiSE 2015) Stockholm, Sweden, June 9, 2015. / [ed] Jennifer Horkoff, James Lockerbie, Xavier Franch, Eric Yu, John Mylopoulos, Aachen: WISU Verlag Aachen , 2015, Vol. 1370, p. 19-24Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2834.
    Svee, Eric-Oluf
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Zdravkovic, Jelena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Towards a Consumer Preference-Based Taxonomy for Information Systems Development2015In: Perspectives in Business Informatics Research: 14th International Conference, BIR 2015, Tartu, Estonia, August 26-28, 2015, Proceedings / [ed] Raimundas Matulevičius, Marlon Dumas, 2015, p. 213-227Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A fundamental problem in many disciplines is the classification of objects within a domain of interest. This struggle is willingly undertaken to accrue the benefits of a shared vocabulary, with the concomitant reduction in complexity allowing for easier study of complex domains. Taxonomies are one such type of controlled vocabulary, and their development within information systems has moved from the ad hoc towards more standardized methods. However, the consumer preferences that catalyze and drive the development of many such systems have been little explored within information science research. This study presents a solution for this deficiency: a taxonomy structure of consumer preferences, based on extendible concepts derived from economic theory, marketing and psychology, and developed extending a known/generic taxonomy development method. A use case from the higher education domain—a platform for online education—has been used to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed solution.

  • 2835.
    Svee, Eric-Oluf
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Zdravkovic, Jelena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Using Intentional Modeling to Discover the User Preferences in Existing Software Systems2014In: Proceedings of the 7th International i* Workshop (iStar 2014), Thessaloniki, Greece, June 16-17, 2014, CEUR-WS , 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information systems consist of many low-level components, such as source code, functioning together as a unified whole. However, higher-level requirements, such as the preferences of users concerning quality intentions of the system, are often under-documented, if documented at all. Consequently it can be highly important to elicit the intentions underlying the system for driving or justifying system acceptance in a certain business context. This paper utilizes intentional modeling to discover just such user preferences in existing software systems, in this case a system for managing of the student thesis process in a Swedish university. To accomplish this, stepwise guidelines are proposed for evaluating what user preferences an extant software system expresses. These are presented in a feature model, which is then mapped to the software systems goals, which are themselves represented in i*.

  • 2836.
    Svee, Eric-Oluf
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Zdravkovic, Jelena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Giannoulis, Constantinos
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Consumer Value-aware Enterprise Architecture2012In: Software Business: Third International Conference, ICSOB 2012. Proceedings / [ed] Michael A. Cusumano, Bala Iyer, N. Venkatraman, Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, p. 55-69Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To improve the alignment between business and IT, this paper explores how to make Enterprise Architecture (EA) aware of consumer values. Current proposals in enterprise modeling recognize the need for modeling user needs, or values. However they do not classify them nor do they provide means to obtain them. In our study, these are first introduced as basic values captured via Schwartz’s Value Survey, a cross-culturally applicable tool from the world of psychology, which are mapped onto Holbrook’s Typology of Consumer Values. Additionally, because formal models require inputs that are more concrete than abstract, and through this proposal, the indistinct values of consumers can be transformed and formalized to be incorporated into enterprise architecture, represented here by ISO/IEC 42010. The novelty of this work is found in the method for operationalizing consumer values for their alignment and utilization within information systems.

  • 2837.
    Svee, Eric-Oluf
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Zdravkovic, Jelena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Mojtahed, Vahid
    Semantic Enhancements when Designing a BOM-based Conceptual Model Repository2010In: 2010 International Simulation Multi-Conference, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Defence Conceptual Modeling Framework (DCMF) is the Swedish Defence Research Agency’s (FOI) proposal for conceptual modeling in the military domain. DCMF enables the conceptualization, composition, visualization, and reuse of knowledge for modeling and simulation. To achieve these aims, DCMF requires that its final products—conceptual models expressed as Base Object Models (BOMs)—-are embedded with semantics. In this study, this is accomplished by formalizing them through the use of an ontology. These semantically enriched models are better able to achieve key requirements of DCMF, mainly conceptualization and reuse of knowledge. Such requirements are crucial when conceptual models are stored for later use in a repository.

  • 2838. Svensson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Afzal, Avid M.
    Norinder, Ulf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences. Karolinska Institutet, Swetox, Sweden.
    Bender, Andreas
    Maximizing gain in high-throughput screening using conformal prediction2018In: Journal of Cheminformatics, ISSN 1758-2946, E-ISSN 1758-2946, Vol. 10, article id 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Iterative screening has emerged as a promising approach to increase the efficiency of screening campaigns compared to traditional high throughput approaches. By learning from a subset of the compound library, inferences on what compounds to screen next can be made by predictive models, resulting in more efficient screening. One way to evaluate screening is to consider the cost of screening compared to the gain associated with finding an active compound. In this work, we introduce a conformal predictor coupled with a gain-cost function with the aim to maximise gain in iterative screening. Using this setup we were able to show that by evaluating the predictions on the training data, very accurate predictions on what settings will produce the highest gain on the test data can be made. We evaluate the approach on 12 bioactivity datasets from PubChem training the models using 20% of the data. Depending on the settings of the gain-cost function, the settings generating the maximum gain were accurately identified in 8-10 out of the 12 datasets. Broadly, our approach can predict what strategy generates the highest gain based on the results of the cost-gain evaluation: to screen the compounds predicted to be active, to screen all the remaining data, or not to screen any additional compounds. When the algorithm indicates that the predicted active compounds should be screened, our approach also indicates what confidence level to apply in order to maximize gain. Hence, our approach facilitates decision-making and allocation of the resources where they deliver the most value by indicating in advance the likely outcome of a screening campaign.

  • 2839. Svensson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Aniceto, Natalia
    Norinder, Ulf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences. Swetox, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Cortes-Ciriano, Isidro
    Spjuth, Ola
    Carlsson, Lars
    Bender, Andreas
    Conformal Regression for Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Modeling-Quantifying Prediction Uncertainty2018In: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling, ISSN 1549-9596, E-ISSN 1549-960X, Vol. 58, no 5, p. 1132-1140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Making predictions with an associated confidence is highly desirable as it facilitates decision making and resource prioritization. Conformal regression is a machine learning framework that allows the user to define the required confidence and delivers predictions that are guaranteed to be correct to the selected extent. In this study, we apply conformal regression to model molecular properties and bioactivity values and investigate different ways to scale the resultant prediction intervals to create as efficient (i.e., narrow) regressors as possible. Different algorithms to estimate the prediction uncertainty were used to normalize the prediction ranges, and the different approaches were evaluated on 29 publicly available data sets. Our results show that the most efficient conformal regressors are obtained when using the natural exponential of the ensemble standard deviation from the underlying random forest to scale the prediction intervals, but other approaches were almost as efficient. This approach afforded an average prediction range of 1.65 pIC50 units at the 80% confidence level when applied to bioactivity modeling. The choice of nonconformity function has a pronounced impact on the average prediction range with a difference of close to one log unit in bioactivity between the tightest and widest prediction range. Overall, conformal regression is a robust approach to generate bioactivity predictions with associated confidence.

  • 2840. Svensson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Norinder, Ulf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Bender, Andreas
    Improving Screening Efficiency through Iterative Screening Using Docking and Conformal Prediction2017In: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling, ISSN 1549-9596, E-ISSN 1549-960X, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 439-444Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-throughput screening, where thousands of molecules rapidly can be assessed for activity against a protein, has been the dominating approach in drug discovery for many years. However, these methods are costly and require much time and effort. In order to suggest an improvement to this situation, in this study, we apply an iterative screening process, where an initial set of compounds are selected for screening based on molecular docking. The outcome of the initial screen is then used to classify the remaining compounds through a conformal predictor. The approach was retrospectively validated using 41 targets from the Directory of Useful Decoys, Enhanced (DUD-E), ensuring scaffold diversity among the active compounds. The results show that 57% of the remaining active compounds could be identified while only screening 9.4% of the database. The overall hit rate (7.6%) was also higher than, when using docking alone (5.2%). When limiting the search to the top scored compounds from docking, 39.6% of the active compounds could be identified, compared to 13.5% when screening the same number of compounds solely based on docking. The use of conformal predictors also gives a clear indication of the number of compounds to screen in the next iteration. These results indicate that iterative screening based on molecular docking and conformal prediction can be an efficient way to find active compounds while screening only a small part of the compound collection.

  • 2841. Svensson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Norinder, Ulf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences. Swedish Toxicology Sciences Research Center, Sweden.
    Bender, Andreas
    Modelling compound cytotoxicity using conformal prediction and PubChem HTS data2017In: Toxicology Research, ISSN 2045-452X, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 73-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The assessment of compound cytotoxicity is an important part of the drug discovery process. Accurate predictions of cytotoxicity have the potential to expedite decision making and save considerable time and effort. In this work we apply class conditional conformal prediction to model the cytotoxicity of compounds based on 16 high throughput cytotoxicity assays from PubChem. The data span 16 cell lines and comprise more than 440 000 unique compounds. The data sets are heavily imbalanced with only 0.8% of the tested compounds being cytotoxic. We trained one classification model for each cell line and validated the performance with respect to validity and accuracy. The generated models deliver high quality predictions for both toxic and non-toxic compounds despite the imbalance between the two classes. On external data collected from the same assay provider as one of the investigated cell lines the model had a sensitivity of 74% and a specificity of 65% at the 80% confidence level among the compounds assigned to a single class. Compared to previous approaches for large scale cytotoxicity modelling, this represents a balanced performance in the prediction of the toxic and non-toxic classes. The conformal prediction framework also allows the modeller to control the error frequency of the predictions, allowing predictions of cytotoxicity outcomes with confidence.

  • 2842.
    Svensson, Åke
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics.
    Wohed, Petia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Juell Skielse, Gustaf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    ÖST Öppna Sociala eTjänster: ett Vinnova projekt 2009-2011: slutrapport2011Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2843.
    Svärdemo-Åberg, Eva
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Åkerfeldt, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Selander, Staffan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Elevers design av representationer inom gymnasieskolans projektarbete2013In: Syn for skriving: læringsressurser og skriving i skolens tekstkulturer / [ed] Askeland Norunn , Aamotsbakken Bente, Oslo: Cappelen Damm Akademisk, 2013, p. 170-203Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Införandet av digital teknologi i skolan förändrar såväl undervisningens uppläggning och genomförande som elevernas sätt att bearbeta kunskap. Inte minst skrivandet påverkas. I linje med ett vidgat textbegrepp kan vi idag tala om ett vidgat skrivbegrepp, som bl.a. innefattar urval av texter och komposition av verbaltexter och bildelement m.m. Även om skrivforskning pågått länge, är forskning om multimodalt skrivande ur ett didaktiskt perspektiv ännu inte särskilt omfattande. I den här artikeln analyseras svenska gymnasieelevers representationer i loggböcker, rapporter och muntliga presentationer inom ramen för gymnasieskolans projektarbete.

  • 2844. Sygel, K
    et al.
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Kristiansson, M
    A new, interactive, computer simulation concept for treatment and evaluation of men convicted of domestic violence2010In: International Association of Forensic Mental Health Services 2010, Vancouver Canada, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2845. Sygel, Kristina
    et al.
    Danielson, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Handling Imprecise Information in Emergency Psychiatric Care2015In: New Trends on System Science and Engineering: Proceedings of ICSSE 2015 / [ed] Hamido Fujita, Shun-Feng Su, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2015, p. 250-259Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2846. Sygel, Kristina
    et al.
    Kristiansson, Marianne
    Furberg, Roberto
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Reactions on Display/Intimate Partner Violence (RoD/IPVviolence): a study of a new interactive computer simulation program for the treatment of men convicted of intimate partner violence2014In: International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, ISSN 1499-9013, E-ISSN 1932-9903, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 369-380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new, interactive computer simulation system (Reactions on Display/Intimate Partner Violence, RoD/IPV) depicting intimate partner violence has been created to facilitate change in a participant's violent behavior by allowing him to visually observe and reflect upon common feelings, thoughts, actions, and consequences in a typical domestic violence scenario. In this pilot study of the RoD/IPV system, 24 male offenders' use of RoD/IPV was compared with a non-offender control group of 10 men. Fourteen of the offenders had previously completed the Integrated Domestic Abuse Programme (IDAP). One two-hour simulation session per participant was carried out, during which the choices made and answers given to the interactive questions were logged. The participants' impressions of the system were recorded using a questionnaire. In this study, RoD/IPV appeared to be well received and understood, both by offenders and non-offenders, despite disparity in intelligence and computer literacy between the groups. Offenders who had not undergone IDAP showed a trend towards making more violent choices, and significant differences between the groups emerged in the area of interpretation of the simulated characters' emotions. This lends some support to earlier research regarding differences in emotional processing between offenders and non-offenders and suggestions that therapeutic interventions for intimate partner violence may be improved by adding emotion recognition training skills. The results of this small pilot study provide a base from which a future prospective randomised controlled trial of the RoD/IPV may be designed.

  • 2847. Sygel, Kristina
    et al.
    Sturup, Joakim
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Edberg, Hanna
    Gavazzeni, Joakim
    Howner, Katarina
    Persson, Mats
    Kristiansson, Marianne
    The effect of gender on the outcome of forensic psychiatric assessment in Sweden: A case vignette study2017In: CBMH. Criminal behaviour and mental health, ISSN 0957-9664, E-ISSN 1471-2857, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 124-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Previous research suggests that female violent offenders at risk of a prison sentence are more likely than their male counterparts to be assessed as having mental health problems of a nature or degree that would lead to a court requirement for hospital treatment.

    Aims/hypotheses

    To test the hypothesis that there is bias towards hospital disposal of female compared with male violent offenders with mental disorder.

    Methods

    In Sweden, the National Board of Forensic Medicine oversees all assessments of mental disorder for the criminal courts. Twenty-six Board appointed forensic psychiatrists, psychologists and social workers each independently assessed six case vignettes for fit with criteria for ‘severe mental disorder’, a prerequisite for hospital disposal from court. Each gender neutral vignette described a person who had been convicted of serious assault and had a major mental disorder. A gender was then assigned to each offender randomly within a block design, thus varying between sets. Participants were blind to the main aim of the study and the gender variation.

    Results

    There was no significant association between gender of the person assessed and judgement that s/he had a ‘severe mental disorder’. An offender depicted as having mental retardation was more likely to be assessed as at high risk of criminal recidivism if portrayed as female, regardless of the sex, place of work or level of experience of the assessor.

    Conclusion

    We found no evidence of gender bias in determining appropriateness of a hospital disposal of an offender with mental disorder. The difference in assessment of recidivism according to sex of the patient was only in relation to mental retardation; further research would be needed to able to interpret this. As researchers in other countries have reported gender bias in disposals from court, our findings may provide support for a centralised forensic psychiatric assessment board and formal, on-going training.

  • 2848.
    Söderström, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    B2B Standards Implementation: Issues and Solutions2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Interoperability between organisations involved in Business-to-Business (B2B) electronic commerce requires a common understanding and a common language. For this purpose, standards are required. B2B standards are in the thesis defined as guidelines for how communication and information sent between companies should be structured and managed.

    Three problem areas exist for B2B standards: the development of standards, the standards specifications, and standards implementation. The research and development focus regarding standards has so far been on either technological aspects or the development of standards and specifications. Less is known about the implementation process. This work addresses this lack of knowledge, and hence its aim is to explore the world of B2B standardisation in order to identify and describe issues and solutions concerning B2B standards implementation.

    The research aim was addressed by firstly dividing the aim into three objectives, which are to be regarded as actions to take to realise the aim. Both theoretical and empirical material has been gathered. Theoretical material refers to existing scientific publications, while the empirical part covers four stakeholder perspectives: standards users, developers, software organisations and researchers. The approach taken, which is reflected in the thesis objectives and structure, is top-down. This means a life cycle perspective is addressed before the implementation process as such is considered.

    The result of the research is a series of contributions, stemming from all parts of the thesis. The contributions have been used to create a list of guidelines for B2B standards implementation. The 45 guidelines are separated into five sections: concepts review, standards selection and comparison, life cycle influence, stakeholder identification, and implementation process. The guidelines can be used in the planning and preparing for implementation projects, as well as for increasing the level of knowledge about standards and the implementation thereof.

  • 2849.
    Söderström, Eva
    et al.
    Skövde University, , .
    Henkel, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Perjons, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Reference Models for Service Oriented Architectures2011In: IADIS Information Systems, Avila, Spain: IADIS Press , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reference models for service oriented architectures can be used as a blueprint for the description of e-services themselves, as well as their relations to the business and technical contexts in which they will operate. Thus, rather than re-inventing the wheel, organizations can turn to service oriented reference models to get a quick start at describing, designing and organizing e-services. In this paper, we examine eight reference models for service oriented architecture, based on a framework consisting of meta data descriptions, i.e. information about the reference models, such as its origin, purpose and existing methods for applying the reference model. We furthermore present practical guidelines that can be used to select among the reference models. The guidelines are based on the meta data descriptions, and a number of identified needs of service oriented organizations.

  • 2850. Söderström, Olof
    et al.
    Moradian, Esmiralda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Secure Audit Log Management2013In: Procedia Computer Science, ISSN 1877-0509, E-ISSN 1877-0509, Vol. 22, p. 1249-1258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Log management and analysis is a vital part of organization's network management and system administration. Logs indicate current status of the system and contain information that refers to different security events, which occur within the system. Logs are used for different purposes, such as recording user activities, track authentication attempts, and other security events. Due to increasing number of threats against networks and systems, the number of security logs increases. However, many organizations that work in a distributed environment face following problems: log generation and storage, log protection, and log analysis. Moreover, ensuring that security, system and network administrators analyze log data in an effective way is another issue. In this research, we propose an approach for receiving, storing and administrating audit log events. Furthermore, we present a solution design that in a secure way allows organizations in distributed environments to send audit log transactions from different local networks to one centralized server.

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