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  • 2601.
    Wejerborn, Sara
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Suicide by cop: En jämförelse mellan nordamerikanska och svenska förhållanden2011Student paper other, 5 poäng / 7,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Suicid i allmänhet

    Suicid är en människas medvetna handling att avsluta sitt liv. Orsaken till att människor begår suicid är många. Ofta finns det en känsla av hopplöshet och kanske också låg värdering av det egna livet. De flesta som lyckas ta sitt liv är män och det är en av de vanligaste sätt att dö bland yngre människor i Sverige i dag. Ytterligare riskfaktorer är att vara ogift, arbetslöshet, missbruk och dessutom lida av en personlighetsstörning. Gemensamt för människor med suicidtankar är att de ofta lider av en mycket stark ångest. Detta tillstånd kan leda till att döden uppfattas som en utväg.

    Varje person kan intuitivt förklara vad ordet självmord innebär. Men begreppet att ta sitt eget liv är dock betydligt mer komplicerat. Man kan ta livet av sig på många sätt. Durkheims klassiska bok Självmordet (1897) identifierar tre typer av självmord. Egoistiskt, altruistiskt och anomiskt. Dessa tre typer illustrerar en persons otillräckliga funktion eller överdrivna integration i samhället. Durkheim ansåg att suicidnivåerna i ett samhälle kan kopplas till den sociala kontext som finns i samhället. ”Egna erfarenheter och upplevelser, som ofta ansetts vara den omedelbara orsaken till att en individ begår självmord, har så att säga endast lånat detta inflytande från individens psykiska dispositioner, vilket i sin tur bara är en spegling av samhällstillståndet”(1897, sid. 8).

    Helena Rådbo (okänt årtal) som forskat kring suicidprevention skriver att man klassificerar ibland sättet att ta sitt liv i våldsam/hård metod och mjuk metod (violent and soft method). Till de våldsamma metoderna hör hängning, skjutvapen, att arrangera ”elolyckor”, att kasta sig från höga höjder och kollision med tåg eller annan tung trafik. Till de mjukare hör förgiftning med tabletter och dylikt. Ofta väljer män en mer våldsam metod. Och metoder med omfattande förstörelse föredras av framförallt yngre män. Detta styrks av en undersökning baserad på depression och suicid på Gotland gjord av Rihmer, Rutz och Pihlgren (1995). I denna kommer de fram till att av de män som ingick i undersökningen så hade två av tre använt våldsamma suicidmetoder.

    Suicide by Cop

    I Sverige har vi forskat kring suicid i preventivt syfte sedan 1970-talet och suicid har minskat sedan dess. Men det finns ett suicidfenomen som i princip är fullständigt outforskat i Sverige idag. Det är forskning på de människor som kommer i kontakt med polis och som beter sig så aggressiv och irrationellt åt att polismännen anser sig nödsakade att skjuta dem i självförsvar. I Nordamerika finns det sedan ett tiotal år tillbaka en etablerad forskning kring denna företeelse som kallas bland annat för Suicide by Cop eller Officer-Related Homicide.

    Inom svensk polis är detta fenomen inte allmänt känt och fram till slutet på 2000-talet så fick poliselever inte någon utbildning på detta. Ändå stöter alla polismän i yttre tjänst på personer som beter sig irrationellt, aggressivt och hotfullt åt trots polismannens, i normala fall, övertag genom beväpning och träning. När en svensk polis har skjutit verkanseld kommer det mer eller mindre per automatik kritik mot detta bland annat från massmedia. Och de poliser som tvingas skjuta står då i skottgluggen för denna kritik. Samtidigt som den skjutna personen ofta ses som offer för polisens övervåld. Detta i kombination med det samhälleliga behovet av att motverka suicid gör att det är önskvärt med mer forskning i ämnet Suicide by Cop ur ett svenskt perspektiv för att öka kunskapen och kanske på sikt kunna förhindra dessa skjuthändelser före de inträffar.

  • 2602.
    Wells, Michael
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Pediatrik.
    Engman, Jonas
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Sarkadi, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Pediatrik.
    Gender equality in Swedish child health centers: An analysis of their physical environments and parental behaviors2015Inngår i: Semiotica, ISSN 0037-1998, E-ISSN 1613-3692, nr 204, s. 1-20Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims

    The aim of this study is to investigate the level of gender equality within the Swedish child health centers’ (CHCs) waiting rooms.

    Methods

    A total of 31 CHCs waiting rooms were analyzed using semiotic visual analysis to explore who the waiting rooms represented by coding the pictures, brochures, and magazines by gender using a manifest analysis, where the researchers coded what the pictures physically entailed, and a latent analysis, where the meaning of those pictures was discerned. In addition, 281 parental observations were completed at 25 of the CHCs by two observers. Inter-rater reliability was established and consensus was reached by using prescribed definitions of the waiting rooms.

    Results

    Only 8 CHCs were categorized as Family-Centered, while 12 were Mother-Child Centered, 6 Child-Centered, 2 Women-Centered, and 3 were Neutral environments. The different designs between the categorized waiting rooms affected fathers’, but not the mothers’ involvement with respect to playing with their child and reading the posted information. When analyzing within one categorized environment, fathers were more likely to play with their child compared to mothers.

    Conclusions

    CHCs should consciously redesign their environments to also be inclusive of fathers so that they more habitually participate in their child’s health.

  • 2603.
    Welmer, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Angleman, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Rydwik, Elisabeth
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Fratiglioni, Laura
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Qiu, Chengxuan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Association of Cardiovascular Burden with Mobility Limitation among Elderly People: A Population-Based Study2013Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 5, artikkel-id e65815Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Cardiovascular risk factors (CRFs) such as smoking and diabetes have been associated with mobility limitations among older adults. We seek to examine to what extent individual and aggregated CRFs and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are associated with mobility limitation. Methods: The study sample included 2725 participants (age >= 60 years, mean age 72.7 years, 62% women) in the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care in the Kungsholmen district of central Stockholm, Sweden, who were living either at their own home or in institutions. Data on demographic features, CRFs, and CVDs were collected through interview, clinical examination, self-reported history, laboratory tests, and inpatient register. Mobility limitation was defined as walking speed <0.8 m/s. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic models controlling for potential confounders. Results: Of the 2725 participants, 581 (21.3%) had mobility limitation. The likelihood of mobility limitation increased linearly with the increasing number of CRFs (i.e., hypertension, high C-reactive protein, obesity, diabetes and smoking) (p for linear trend<0.010) and of CVDs (i.e., ischemic heart disease, atrial fibrillation, heart failure and stroke) (p for linear trend<0.001). There were statistical interactions of aggregated CRFs with age and APOE epsilon 4 allele on mobility limitation (p(interaction)<0.05), such that the association of mobility limitation with aggregated CRFs was statistically evident only among people aged <80 years and among carriers of the APOE epsilon 4 allele. Conclusion: Aggregations of multiple CRFs and CVDs are associated with an increased likelihood of mobility limitation among older adults; however the associations of CRFs with mobility limitation vary by age and genetic susceptibility.

  • 2604.
    Welmer, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Kåreholt, Ingemar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Angleman, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Rydwik, Elisabeth
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Fratiglioni, Laura
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Can chronic multimorbidity explain the age-related differences in strength, speed and balance in older adults?2012Inngår i: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, ISSN 1594-0667, E-ISSN 1720-8319, Vol. 24, nr 5, s. 480-489Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: It is known that physical performance declines with age in general, however there remains much to be understood in terms of age-related differences amongst older adults across a variety of physical components (such as speed, strength and balance), and particularly in terms of the role played by multimorbidity of chronic diseases. We aimed to detect the age-related differences across four components of physical performance and to explore to what extent chronic diseases and multimorbidity may explain such differences. Methods: We analyzed cross-sectional data from a population-based sample of 3323 people, aged 60 years and older from the SNAC-K study, Stockholm, Sweden. Physical performance was assessed by trained nurses using several tests (grip strength, walking speed, balance and chair stands). Clinical diagnoses were made by the examining physician based on clinical history and examination. Results: Censored normal regression analyses showed that the 72- 90+ year-old persons had 17-40% worse grip strength, 44-86% worse balance, 30-86% worse chair stand score, and 21-59% worse walking speed, compared with the 60-66 year-old persons. Chronic diseases were strongly associated with physical impairment, and this association was particularly strong among the younger men. However, chronic diseases explained only some of the age-related differences in physical performance. When controlling for chronic diseases in the analyses, the age-related differences in physical performance changed 1-11 percent. Conclusion: In spite of the strong association between multimorbidity and physical impairment, chronic morbidities explained only a small part of the age-related differences in physical performance.

  • 2605.
    Welmer, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Kåreholt, Ingemar
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. Åldrande - livsvillkor och hälsa. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Institutet för gerontologi. Karolinska Institutet.
    Rydwik, Elisabeth
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Angelman, Sara
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Wang, Hui-Xin
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Education-related differences in physical performance after age 60: a cross-sectional study assessing variation by age, gender and occupation2013Inngår i: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 13Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Having a low level of education has been associated with worse physical performance. However, it is unclear whether this association varies by age, gender or the occupational categories of manual and non-manual work. This study examined whether there are education-related differences across four dimensions of physical performance by age, gender or occupational class and to what extent chronic diseases and lifestyle-related factors may explain such differences.

    Methods: Participants were a random sample of 3212 people, 60 years and older, both living in their own homes and in institutions, from the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care, in Kungsholmen, Stockholm. Trained nurses assessed physical performance in grip strength, walking speed, balance and chair stands, and gathered data on education, occupation and lifestyle-related factors, such as physical exercise, body mass index, smoking and alcohol consumption. Diagnoses of chronic diseases were made by the examining physician.

    Results: Censored normal regression analyses showed that persons with university education had better grip strength, balance, chair stand time and walking speed than people with elementary school education. The differences in balance and walking speed remained statistically significant (p < 0.05) after adjustment for chronic diseases and lifestyle. However, age-stratified analyses revealed that the differences were no longer statistically significant in advanced age (80+ years). Gender-stratified analyses revealed that women with university education had significantly better grip strength, balance and walking speed compared to women with elementary school education and men with university education had significantly better chair stands and walking speed compared to men with elementary school education in multivariate adjusted models. Further analyses stratified by gender and occupational class suggested that the education-related difference in grip strength was only evident among female manual workers, while the difference in balance and walking speed was only evident among female and male non-manual workers, respectively.

    Conclusions: Higher education was associated with better lower extremity performance in people aged 60 to 80, but not in advanced age (80+ years). Our results indicate that higher education is associated with better grip strength among female manual workers and with better balance and walking speed among female and male non-manual workers, respectively.

  • 2606.
    Welmer, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Liang, Yajun
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI). Jining Medical University, People's Republic of China.
    Angleman, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Santoni, Giola
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Yan, Zhongrui
    Cai, Chuanzhu
    Qiu, Chengxuan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Vascular Risk Factor Burden, Atherosclerosis, and Functional Dependence in Old Age: A Population-Based Study2014Inngår i: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 1070-5503, E-ISSN 1532-7558, Vol. 21, nr 4, s. 597-604Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Vascular risk factors such as hypertension and obesity have been associated with physical limitations among older adults. The purpose of this study is to examine whether individual and aggregated vascular risk factors (VRFs) are associated with functional dependence and to what extent carotid atherosclerosis (CAS) or peripheral artery disease (PAD) may mediate the possible associations of aggregated VRFs with functional dependence. This cross-sectional study included 1,451 community-living participants aged a parts per thousand yen60 years in the Confucius Hometown Aging Project of China. Data on demographic features, hypertension, high total cholesterol, obesity, smoking, physical inactivity, diabetes, CAS, PAD, and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) were collected through an interview, a clinical examination, and laboratory tests. Functional dependence was defined as being dependent in at least one activity in the personal or instrumental activities of daily living. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic models controlling for potential confounders. We used the mediation model to explore the potential mediating effect of CAS and PAD on the associations of aggregated VRFs with functional dependence. Of the 1,451 participants, 222 (15.3 %) had functional dependence. The likelihood of functional dependence increased linearly with increasing number of VRFs (hypertension, high total cholesterol, abdominal obesity, and physical inactivity) (p for trend < 0.002). Mediation analysis showed that controlling for demographics and CVDs up to 11 % of the total association of functional dependence with clustering VRFs was mediated by CAS and PAD. Aggregation of multiple VRFs is associated with an increased likelihood of functional dependence among Chinese older adults; the association is partially mediated by carotid and peripheral artery atherosclerosis independently of CVDs.

  • 2607.
    Welmer, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Mörck, Annika
    Dahlin-Ivanoff, Synneve
    Physical activity in people age 80 years and older as a means of counteracting disability, balanced in relation to frailty2012Inngår i: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, ISSN 1063-8652, E-ISSN 1543-267X, Vol. 20, nr 3, s. 317-331Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe experiences of physical activity, perceived meaning, and the importance of and motives and barriers for participation in physical activity in people 80 years of age and older. A qualitative design with focus-group methodology was used. The sample consisted of 20 community-living people age 80-91 yr. Data analyses revealed 4 themes: physical activity as a part of everything else in life, joie de vivre, fear of disease and dependence, and perceptions of frailty. Our results suggest that physical activity was not seen as a separate activity but rather as a part of activities often rated as more important than the physical activity itself. Thus, when designing physical activity interventions for elderly people, health care providers should consider including time for social interaction and possibilities to be outdoors. Moreover, assessment of physical activity levels among elderly people should include the physical activity in everyday activities.

  • 2608.
    Welmer, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI). Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden; Stockholm Gerontology Research Center, Sweden.
    Rizzuto, Debora
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Calderón-Larrañaga, Amaia
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI). Aragon Institute for Health Research, Spain; Institute of Health Carlos III, Spain.
    Johnell, Kristina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Sex Differences in the Association Between Pain and Injurious Falls in Older Adults: A Population-Based Longitudinal Study2017Inngår i: American Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0002-9262, E-ISSN 1476-6256, Vol. 186, nr 9, s. 1049-1056Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated whether there are sex differences in the association between pain and incident injurious falls. A total of 2,934 people (ages >= 60 years) from the population-based Swedish National Study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen (2001-2004) participated. Participants were followed up for 3 and 10 years for falls leading to hospitalization or outpatient care. Data were analyzed with flexible parametric survival models that adjusted for potential confounders. During the first 3 years of follow-up, 67 men and 194 women experienced an injurious fall, and over 10 years of follow up, 203 men and 548 women experienced such a fall. In men, the presence of pain, having pain that was at least mild, having pain that affected several daily activities, and having daily pain all significantly increased the likelihood of incurring an injurious fall during the 3-year follow-up period. The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios ranged from 1.78 (95% confidence interval: 1.00, 3.15) for the presence of pain to 2.89 (95% confidence interval: 1.41, 5.93) for several daily activities' being affected by pain. Results for the 10-year follow-up period were similar. No significant associations were detected in women. Although pain is less prevalent in men than in women, its impact on risk of injurious falls seems to be greater in men.

  • 2609.
    Welmer, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI). Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Rizzuto, Debora
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Parker, Marti G.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Xu, Weili
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI). Tianjin Medical University, China.
    Impact of tooth loss on walking speed decline over time in older adults: a population-based cohort study2017Inngår i: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, ISSN 1594-0667, E-ISSN 1720-8319, Vol. 29, nr 4, s. 793-800Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Tooth loss has been linked to poor health such as chronic diseases and mobility limitations. Prospective evidence on the association between tooth loss and walking speed decline is however lacking.

    Aims

    To examine the impact of tooth loss on walking speed over time and explore whether inflammation may account for this association.

    Methods

    This study included 2695 persons aged 60 years and older, who were free from severe mobility limitation at baseline. Information on dental status was assessed through self-report during the nurse interview at baseline. Walking speed baseline and at 3- and 6-year follow-ups was assessed when participants walked at their usual pace. Covariates included age, sex, education, lifestyle-related factors, and chronic diseases. Blood samples were taken, and C-reactive protein (CRP) was tested.

    Results

    At baseline, 389 (13.1 %) participants had partial tooth loss and 204 (6.9 %) had complete tooth loss. Mixed-effects models showed that tooth loss was associated with a greater decline in walking speed over time after adjustment for lifestyle-related factors and chronic diseases (p = 0.001 for interaction between time and tooth loss on walking speed decline); however, when further adjusting for inflammation (CRP), the association was attenuated and no longer significant.

    Conclusion

    Tooth loss was associated with an accelerated decline in walking speed in older adults. Inflammation may play a role in the association between tooth loss and walking speed decline.

  • 2610. Wenger, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Brozzoli, Claudio
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI). Neuroscience Research Centre of Lyon (CRNL), France.
    Lindenberger, Ulman
    Lövdén, Martin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Expansion and Renormalization of Human Brain Structure During Skill Acquisition2017Inngår i: Trends in cognitive sciences, ISSN 1364-6613, E-ISSN 1879-307X, Vol. 21, nr 12, s. 930-939Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on human brain changes during skill acquisition has revealed brain volume expansion in task-relevant areas. However, the large number of skills that humans acquire during ontogeny militates against plasticity as a perpetual process of volume growth. Building on animal models and available theories, we promote the expansion-renormalization model for plastic changes in humans. The model predicts an initial increase of gray matter structure, potentially reflecting growth of neural resources like neurons, synapses, and glial cells, which is followed by a selection process operating on this new tissue leading to a complete or partial return to baseline of the overall volume after selection has ended. The model sheds new light on available evidence and current debates and fosters the search for mechanistic explanations.

  • 2611.
    Wennberg, Birgitta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Linköping, Sweden.
    Janeslätt, Gunnel
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Forskning om funktionshinder och habilitering. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning Dalarna.
    Kjellberg, Anette
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Per A
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Linköping, Sweden.
    Effectiveness of time-related interventions in children with ADHD aged 9–15 years: a randomized controlled study2018Inngår i: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 27, nr 3, s. 329-342Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Specific problems with time and timing that affect daily routines, homework, school work, and social relations have been recognized in children with ADHD. The primary treatments for children with ADHD do not specifically focus on time-related difficulties. The aim of this randomized controlled study (RCT) was to investigate how multimodal interventions, consisting of training in time-processing ability (TPA) and compensation with time-assistive devices (TAD), affect TPA and daily time management (DTM) in children with ADHD and time difficulties, compared with only educational intervention. Thirty-eight children on stable medication for ADHD in the 9-15-year age range were randomly allocated to an intervention or a control group. The children's TPA was measured with a structured assessment (KaTid), and the children's DTM was rated by a parent questionnaire (Time-Parent scale) and by children's self-reporting (Time-Self-rating). The intervention consisted of time-skill training and compensation with TAD. Data were analysed for differences in TPA and in DTM between the control and intervention groups in the 24-week follow-up. Children in the intervention group increased their TPA significantly (p = 0.019) more compared to the control group. The largest increase was in orientation to time. In addition, the parents in the intervention group rated their children's DTM as significantly (p = 0.01) improved compared with the parents in the control group. According to the children, their DTM was not significantly changed. In conclusion, a multimodal intervention consisting of time-skill training and TAD improved TPA and DTM in children with ADHD aged 9-15 years.

  • 2612.
    Wenäll, Jan
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Barn i bil: Studie av dödsolyckorna 19921993Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 2613.
    Wenäll, Jan
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Dödsolyckor med barn i bil 1993 och 19941995Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 2614.
    Wenäll, Lovisa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin.
    DNA profiles generated from minute amounts of single cells2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The genetic code in our cells is built up by deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) with a sequence that is individual and unique to each person. A cell’s origin can be decided by comparing an established DNA profile with a known profile. The most publicly known application is in the forensic field and its use for identification and for establishing a connection between perpetrators and victims or crime scenes. DNA profiling is also commonly used for kinship investigations. The information embedded in the DNA is also used for diagnostic purposes in conventional medicine. Generating DNA profiles is a well-established procedure, which is used daily and for many purposes. An amount of approximately 150-1500 cells is required to be able to establish a full DNA profile using current methods. There are several situations where the amount of material is limited. To enable analysis where the testing material is limited it is of great value to develop a method that can perform these analyses on minute amounts of cells. If there were a method for generating DNA profiles from single cells then mixed samples from crime scenes would be separable. In tumour biology it is also of interest to obtain information from single cells. The aim with the thesis was to establish the smallest amount of cells needed for a full DNA profile. The thesis started with analyses on extracted DNA. During several experiments dilution series were made to investigate the possibilities to establish profiles from minute amounts of extracted DNA. The main methods used during this thesis were polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE). These methods are well-established tools both in biomedical science and at The Department of Forensic Genetics and Forensic Toxicology, National Board of Forensic Medicine. Different factors were optimized and the acquired knowledge resulted in application of DNA on FTA® Micro Cards. The cards are used in the daily routines and are easy to use. Several experiments were then performed on peripheral lymphocytes based on the knowledge acquired during the process. Applying a low amount of lymphocytes on FTA cards proved to be very successful and the method generates DNA profiles at a single cell level. The method is applicable for approximately 5-10 cells.

  • 2615.
    Werkander Harstäde, Carina
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för hälsa, socialt arbete och beteendevetenskap, Institutionen för hälso- och vårdvetenskap, HV.
    Guilt and shame in end-of-life care: the next-of-kin's perspectives2012Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The overall aim of the thesis was to explore and describe the concepts of guilt and shame and gain a greater understanding of the next-of-kin’s experiences of guilt and shame in end-of-life care.

    Methods: Study I was a qualitative secondary analysis of 47 interviews with next-of-kin searching for experiences of guilt and shame. In study II a semantic concept analysis of the two concepts guilt and shame was performed. In studies III and IV a hermeneutic approach inspired by Gadamer was used to analyze next-of-kin’s experiences of guilt (Study III), and shame (Study IV) in end-of-life care.

    Main findings: The concept of guilt focus on behaviour and the concept of shame on the influence on the self.  The situation of being next-of-kin in end-of-life care involves a commitment to make the remaining time for the loved one as good as possible. When, for some reason, the commitment cannot be accomplished there is a risk that the next-of-kin experience guilt such as not having done enough, not having been together during important events, not having talked enough to each other, or not having done the right things. Aspects such as not having fulfilled a commitment, omission, and being the cause of can be present in these experiences. The guilt experience has a focus on what the next-of-kin has, or has not done. The experiences of shame are also linked to a perception that the remaining time for the loved one should be as good as possible. Shame can occur when the next-of-kin is involved and actually causes harm to the loved one as well as in situations that are beyond their control. Shame that the next-of-kin experience can also emanate from being put in situations by other people. Feelings of inferiority and powerlessness, second order shame, and family conflicts that are brought into the open are experiences of shame found in the studies as well as ignominy, humiliation, and disgrace. The shame experience has a focus on the next-of-kin’s self.

    Conclusion: The situation of being next-of-kin in end-of-life care is complex and demanding, something that health professionals should be aware of. Acknowledgement of experiences of guilt and shame can help the next-of-kin in their adaptation to the end-of-life situation as a whole and maybe also give useful tools to support next-of-kin during bereavement.

  • 2616.
    Werkander Harstäde, Carina
    et al.
    Gotland University College, Sweden; Lineus Univ, Vaxjo, Sweden.
    Andershed, Birgitta
    Gjøvik University College, Norway.
    Roxberg, Åsa
    Linnéuniversitetet,Sweden; Gjovik Univ Coll, Dept Nursing, Gjovik, Norway.
    Brunt, David
    Linnéuniversitetet, Sweden.
    Feelings of guilt - Experiences of next-of-kin in end-of-life care2013Inngår i: Journal of Hospice and Palliative Nursing, ISSN 1522-2179, E-ISSN 1539-0705, Vol. 15, nr 1, s. 33-40Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to gain a greater understanding of the experiences of guilt of the next-of-kin in end-of-life care. Seventeen next-of-kin who had lost a loved one were interviewed with a focus on possible experiences of guilt. A Gadamerian-based hermeneutic approach to interpret these experiences was used. The interpretation showed that next-of-kin’s experiences of guilt emanated from a situation where the next-of-kin had a moral view on what was the right thing to do, it could also originate from a wish to do the best possible for the dying person out of love for this person. The situation could also involve both these aspects.  The way in which the situation was handled, could, if the next-of-kin felt that s/he did not fulfill her/his commitments, omitted or neglected the dying person or was the cause of something, lead to experiences of guilt. The situation of being next-of-kin in end-of-life care is complex and demanding, something that health professionals are and should be aware of. Acknowledgement of experiences of guilt can help the next-of-kin in their adaptation to the end-of-life situation as a whole and maybe also give useful tools to support next-of-kin through bereavement.

  • 2617.
    Werkander Harstäde, Carina
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för hälso- och vårdvetenskap (HV).
    Blomberg, Karin
    Örebro University.
    Benzein, Eva
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för hälso- och vårdvetenskap (HV).
    Östlund, Ulrika
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för hälso- och vårdvetenskap (HV). Centre for Research & Development, Uppsala University/Region Gävleborg.
    Dignity-conserving care actions in palliative care: an integrative review of Swedish research2018Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 32, nr 1, s. 8-23Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Previous research has proposed that persons in need of palliative care often have a loss of functions and roles that affects social and existential self-image. Moreover, these individuals also commonly suffer from complex multisymptoms. This, together with the situation of facing an impending death, can lead to a loss of dignity. Therefore, supporting these persons’ dignity is a crucial challenge for professional nurses. The ‘Dignity Care Intervention’ addresses the multidimensionality of dignity by identifying patients’ dignity-related concerns and suggests care actions to address them. At the present, the Dignity Care Intervention is adapted for implementation in Swedish care settings. Because expressions of dignity are influenced by culture, and an overview of care actions in a Swedish context is lacking, this integrative review aimed to find suggestions from Swedish research literature on what kind of care actions can preserve dignity.

    Methods: An integrative literature review was conducted using the databases SwePub and SweMed+. Articles published from 2006 to 2015 and theses published from 2000 to 2015 were searched for using the terms ‘dignity’ and ‘palliative care’. Result sections of articles and theses were reviewed for dignity-conserving care actions synthesised by thematic analysis and categorised under themes and subthemes in Chochinov’s model of dignity.

    Results: Fifteen articles and 18 theses were included together providing suggestions of care actions in all themes and subthemes in the dignity model. Suggested care actions included listening, communication, information, symptom control, facilitating daily living and including patients in decision-making. Additionally, nurses’ perceptiveness towards the patients was a core approach.

    Conclusion: The review offers culturally relevant suggestions on how to address specific dignity-related concerns. The adapted Dignity Care Intervention will be a way for Swedish nurses to provide person-centred palliative care that will conserve patients’ dignity

  • 2618.
    Werkander Harstäde, Carina
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Gotland University College, Visby, Sweden & Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Roxberg, Åsa
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden & Haraldsplass University College, Bergen, Norway.
    Andershed, Birgitta
    Gjøvik University College, Gjøvik, Norway & Ersta Sköndal University College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Brunt, David
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Guilt and shame – a semantic concept analysis of two concepts related to palliative care2012Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 26, nr 4, s. 787-795Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The theoretical viewpoint of the study was based on the fundamental motive in caring science; the suffering person and his/her health and life situation, which according to the philosophy of palliative care also includes the next-of-kin. The latter often wish to participate in the care of their loved ones and it is thus important for them to be able to make decisions that can generate a meaningful participation. Unfulfilled obligations or wrong decisions, concerning their dying relative, can result in experiences of guilt and shame in relation to the care of the loved one. A semantic concept analysis can provide a deeper understanding of these concepts and create a deeper insight into what the concepts mean for the individual.

    Aim

    The aim of the study was to elucidate the meaning of and the distinction between the concepts of guilt and shame.

    Methods

    Semantic concept analysis based on Koort and Eriksson.

    Findings

    The findings show that guilt and shame are two separate concepts. Guilt contains meaning dimensions of being the cause of and sin. Shame contains meaning dimensions of something that gives rise to shame and ability to experience shame. The synonyms for each concept do not overlap each other

    Conclusion

    The semantic analysis creates an understanding of the concepts ontologically and provides a basis for theoretical, contextual and clinical understanding and development. © 2012 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  • 2619.
    Werkander Harstäde, Carina
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för hälsa, socialt arbete och beteendevetenskap, Institutionen för hälso- och vårdvetenskap, HV. Karolinska Institutet.
    Roxberg, Åsa
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för hälsa, socialt arbete och beteendevetenskap, Institutionen för hälso- och vårdvetenskap, HV.
    Andershed, Birgitta
    Gjovik University College, Gjovik, Norway.
    Brunt, David
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för hälsa, socialt arbete och beteendevetenskap, Institutionen för hälso- och vårdvetenskap, HV.
    Guilt and shame: a semantic concept analysis of two concepts related to palliative care2012Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 26, nr 4, s. 787-795Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The theoretical viewpoint of the study was based on the fundamental motive in caring science; the suffering person and his/her health and life situation, which according to the philosophy of palliative care also includes the next-of-kin. The latter often wish to participate in the care of their loved ones and it is thus important for them to be able to make decisions that can generate a meaningful participation. Unfulfilled obligations or wrong decisions, concerning their dying relative, can result in experiences of guilt and shame in relation to the care of the loved one. A semantic concept analysis can provide a deeper understanding of these concepts and create a deeper insight into what the concepts mean for the individual.

     

    Aim

    The aim of the study was to elucidate the meaning of and the distinction between the concepts of guilt and shame.

     

    Methods

    Semantic concept analysis based on Koort and Eriksson.

     

    Findings

    The findings show that guilt and shame are two separate concepts. Guilt contains meaning dimensions of being the cause of and sin. Shame contains meaning dimensions of something that gives rise to shame and ability to experience shame. The synonyms for each concept do not overlap each other

     

    Conclusion

    The semantic analysis creates an understanding of the concepts ontologically and provides a basis for theoretical, contextual and clinical understanding and development.

  • 2620.
    Werling, Agneta
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper (from 2013).
    Ibrus, Katre-Helena
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper (from 2013).
    Patienter med fetma – sjuksköterskans preventiva åtgärder- en litteraturstudie.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Antalet patienter med fetma ökar i världen. Sjuksköterskan möter de här patienterna i den somatiska vården, i äldrevården och primärvården. Det preventivt arbeta med denna patientgrupp är av stor vikt då det kan förebygga följdsjukdomar som diabetes, hypertoni, hjärtkärlsjukdomar och cancer. Syfte: Syftet var att belysa sjuksköterskans preventiva åtgärder till patienter med fetma. Metod: En litteraturstudie med induktiv resultatbearbetning som utförts enligt Polit och Beck (2017) nio steg. Artiklarna söktes i databaserna CINAHL, PubMed och PsykINFO. Artiklarna granskades utifrån Polit och Beck (2017) granskningsmall och tio vetenskapliga artiklar användes i resultatet. Resultat: Sammanställningen av artiklarna resulterade i fyra kategorier - motivera patienten till livsstilsförändring, ge råd om kost, ge råd om fysisk aktivitet och uppföljning av patienten. Slutsats: Sjuksköterskor arbetar med olika preventiva åtgärder till sina patienter, det verkar inte finnas några riktlinjer om vilka råd som ges utan många gånger arbetar sjuksköterskor utifrån egna erfarenheter och eget tycke.

  • 2621.
    Westberg, Håkan
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Marsh, Gary
    Center for Occupational Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Department of Biostatistics, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh PA, United States.
    Buchanich, Jeanine
    Center for Occupational Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Department of Biostatistics, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh PA, United States.
    Zimmerman, Sarah
    Center for Occupational Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Department of Biostatistics, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh PA, United States.
    Kennedy, Kathleen
    Division of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago IL, United States.
    Esmen, Nurtan
    Division of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago IL, United States.
    Svartengren, Magnus
    Department of Medical Science, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mortality Among Hardmetal Production Workers: The Swedish Cohort2017Inngår i: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 59, nr 12, s. e263-e274Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The mortality pattern was determined in a cohort of 16,999 white and blue-collar workers in the Swedish hardmetal industry, particularly for cobalt exposure and lung cancer.

    METHODS: The mortality follow-up analysis in the Swedish Mortality register covered the period from 1952 to 2012. The exposure measures were ever/never exposed, duration of exposure, cumulative, and mean cobalt concentrations.

    RESULTS: The mortality of all causes was significantly increased, highly associated with the short-term employed workers. A negative exposure-response was found for lung cancer and duration of exposure. An exposure-response was determined for cumulative and mean cobalt exposures analyzed by quartiles, but not for exposure classes. Internal comparison analysis using proportional hazard showed no exposure-response.

    CONCLUSIONS: The cohort lung cancer mortality showed no correlation to cobalt, nickel, or tungsten exposure.

  • 2622.
    Westberg, Håkan
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Marsh, Gary
    Center for Occupational Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Department of Biostatistics, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh PA, United States.
    Kennedy, Kathleen
    Division of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago IL, United States.
    Buchanich, Jeanine
    Center for Occupational Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Department of Biostatistics, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh PA, United States.
    Zimmerman, Sarah
    Center for Occupational Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Department of Biostatistics, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh PA, United States.
    Esmen, Nurtan
    Division of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago IL, United States.
    Svartengren, Magnus
    Department of Medical Science, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mortality Among Hardmetal Production Workers: Swedish Measurement Data and Exposure Assessment2017Inngår i: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 59, nr 12, s. e327-e341Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Mortality pattern was determined in a cohort of 16,999 white and blue-collar workers in the Swedish hardmetal industry. Exposure assessment for cobalt is presented.

    METHODS: A historical database (1970 to 2012) of personal and area measurements of cobalt, tungsten, and nickel in the Swedish hardmetal industry was created. Log linear and exponential modeling of cobalt concentrations based on time period, job, and site was performed, and cumulative and mean exposures were calculated.

    RESULTS: Some 37% of the personal cobalt measurements exceeded 0.02 mg/m, mostly for powder production, pressing, and shaping. The log linear regression showed statistical differences (P < 0.05) between sites, time periods, and jobs. Some 1.6% of the cobalt cumulative exposures for blue-collar workers exceeded 0.4 mg/m years.

    CONCLUSION: Low levels of cumulative and mean exposures were determined.

  • 2623.
    Westerberg, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Rättsintyg2011Student paper other, 5 poäng / 7,5 hpOppgave
  • 2624.
    Westerberg, Liselotte
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för pedagogiska studier.
    Simning- en livsviktig kunksap: En studie om icke simkunniga elevers känslor för simning2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 2625.
    Westergren, Albert
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön PRO-CARE, Patient Reported Outcomes - Clinical Assessment Research and Education. Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Avdelningen för Sjuksköterskeutbildningarna. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsplattformen för Hälsa i samverkan.
    Eating difficulties and nutrition after stroke2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 2626.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Trajectories of labour market exit and health – cross national results2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2627.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Gustafsson, Per E.
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Janlert, Urban
    Hammarström, Anne
    Social Adversity in Adolescence Increases the Physiological Vulnerability to Job Strain in Adulthood: A Prospective Population-Based Study2012Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, nr 4, artikkel-id e35967Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: It has been argued that the association between job strain and health could be confounded by early life exposures, and studies have shown early adversity to increase individual vulnerability to later stress. We therefore investigated if early life exposure to adversity increases the individual's physiological vulnerability job strain in adulthood. Methodology/Principal Findings: In a population-based cohort (343 women and 330 men, 83% of the eligible participants), we examined the association between on the one hand exposure to adversity in adolescence, measured at age 16, and job strain measured at age 43, and on the other hand allostatic load at age 43. Adversity was operationalised as an index comprising residential mobility and crowding, parental loss, parental unemployment, and parental physical and mental illness (including substance abuse). Allostatic load summarised body fat, blood pressure, inflammatory markers, glucose, blood lipids, and cortisol regulation. There was an interaction between adversity in adolescence and job strain (B = 0.09, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.16 after adjustment for socioeconomic status), particularly psychological demands, indicating that job strain was associated with increased allostatic load only among participants with adversity in adolescence. Job strain was associated with lower allostatic load in men (beta = -0.20, 95% CI -0.35 to -0.06). Conclusions/Significance: Exposure to adversity in adolescence was associated with increased levels of biological stress among those reporting job strain in mid-life, indicating increased vulnerability to environmental stressors.

  • 2628.
    Westermark, Gunilla T.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk cellbiologi.
    Faendrich, Marcus
    Westermark, Per
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Molekylär och morfologisk patologi.
    AA Amyloidosis: Pathogenesis and Targeted Therapy2015Inngår i: Annual Review Of Pathology: Mechanisms Of Disease, Vol 10, ANNUAL REVIEWS, 2015, Vol. 10, s. 321-344Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The understanding of why and how proteins misfold and aggregate into amyloid fibrils has increased considerably during recent years. Central to amyloid formation is an increase in the frequency of the beta-sheet structure, leading to hydrogen bonding between misfolded monomers and creating a fibril that is comparably resistant to degradation. Generation of amyloid fibrils is nucleation dependent, and once formed, fibrils recruit and catalyze the conversion of native molecules. In AA amyloidosis, the expression of cytokines, particularly interleukin 6, leads to overproduction of serum amyloid A (SAA) by the liver. A chronically high plasma concentration of SAA results in the aggregation of amyloid into cross-beta-sheet fibrillar deposits by mechanisms not fully understood. Therefore, AA amyloidosis can be thought of as a consequence of long-standing inflammatory disease. This review summarizes current knowledge about AA amyloidosis. The systemic amyloidoses have been regarded as intractable conditions, but improvements in the understanding of fibril composition and pathogenesis over the past decade have led to the development of a number of different therapeutic approaches with promising results.

  • 2629.
    Westermark, Gunilla T.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk cellbiologi.
    Oskarsson, Marie
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk cellbiologi.
    Andersson, Arne
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk cellbiologi.
    Westermark, Per
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi.
    Eighty years of research on islet amyloidosis in Uppsala2015Inngår i: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 120, nr 2, s. 117-123Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2630.
    Westesson, Beatrice
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Överförskrivnings-anmälningar från svenska apotek till Inspektionen för vård och omsorg 2000–20172018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 2631.
    Westling, Linnea
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Jämförelse av den viktminskande effekten och biverkningar av Orlistat och Liraglutid vid behandling av fetma2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 2632. Westman, A.
    et al.
    Äng, Björn
    Free Fall Acrobatics to Reduce Neck Loads During Parachute Opening Shock: Evaluation of an Intervention (ACROPOSE)2016Inngår i: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine, ISSN 2055-7647, Vol. 2, nr 1, s. e000108-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2633. Westman, A.
    et al.
    Äng, Björn
    Validation of a free fall acrobatics intervention protocol to reduce neck loads during parachute opening shock2015Inngår i: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine, ISSN 2055-7647, Vol. 1, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2634.
    Wetterberg, Marit
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Förekomst av läkemedelsavvikelser vid ortopedavdelningen på Mora lasarett2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 2635.
    Wickford, Jenny
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd.
    Considerations for enhanced community based physiotherapy services in Afghanistan.2011Inngår i: Development efforts in Afghanistan: is there a will and a way?: The case of disability and vulnerability. / [ed] Jean-Francois Trani, Paris: L'Harmattan , 2011, s. 193-214Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 2636.
    Wickford, Jenny
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Physiotherapists in Afghanistan: Exploring, encouraging & experiencing professional development in the Afghan development context2010Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 2637.
    Wickford, Jenny
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Edwards, Ian
    University of South Australia.
    Rosberg, Susanne
    Göteborgs universitet.
    A transformative perspective and learning and professional development of Afghan physiotherapists.2012Inngår i: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, ISSN 0959-3985, E-ISSN 1532-5040, Vol. 28, nr 4, s. 269-282Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2638.
    Wickford, Jenny
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Hultberg, John
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Rosberg, Susanne
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Physiotherapy in Afghanistan – needs and challenges for development.2008Inngår i: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 30, nr 4, s. 305-313Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2639.
    Wickford, Jenny
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Rosberg, Susanne
    Göteborgs universitet.
    From Idealistic Helper to Enterprising Learner:  critical reflections on personal development through experiences from Afghanistan2012Inngår i: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, ISSN 0959-3985, E-ISSN 1532-5040, Vol. 28, nr 4, s. 283-291Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2640.
    Widén, Christina
    et al.
    National Forensic Centre (NFC), Linköping, Sweden.
    Ansell, Ricky
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    The Swedish new elimination database – a presentation of the new legislation and discovered contaminations2015Inngår i: Abstract book, 7th European Academy of Forensic Science, EAFS, Prag, Tjeckien, 2015, 2015, s. 342-Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The national DNA database in Sweden is managed by the Swedish National Forensic Centre (NFC), previously SKL. The national DNA database has been in use since 1999 when the DNA database legislation gained legal force. Since then, an elimination database (EDB) has also been in use, though not comprised in the DNA database legislation.

    Between 1999 and 2010, the EDB was manually managed and mainly DNA profiles thought to be contaminated were searched. The purpose of the EDB was qualitative. Laboratory staff and visitors to the laboratory submitted DNA samples to the EDB on a voluntary basis. Also a few crime scene officers volunteered to submit samples.

    In 2010, the DNA profiles in the EDB, about 500 DNA profiles, were transferred to an elimination index in CODIS and crime scene samples were automatically searched against the EDB on a daily basis.

    Finally, on the 1st of July 2014, after years of discussions and debate in Sweden, legislation on DNA elimination database gained legal force. The overall aim of the legislation is to strengthen the quality of the forensic DNA analysis. Discovered contaminations shall be investigated to improve the quality processes and minimize the risk of future contaminations. An elimination database match shall be reported back to the case investigator (police officer or public prosecutor) but information on who the EDB sample belongs to cannot be forwarded.

    According to the legislation, sampling is mandatory for all staff within the NFC as well as crime scene officers and other officials handling exhibits that can harbour DNA evidence. Staff included in the “old EDB” has been re-sampled.

    Elimination DNA samples, obtained between the 1st of July but before the 31st of December 2014, were according to the legislation allowed to be searched “backwards” against the 29000 crime scene samples in the national DNA database.

    This presentation will provide an overview of the Swedish legislation on DNA elimination database as well as a presentation of the 44 “backwards” matches obtained when 1139 elimination DNA profiles were searched. The presentation will also provide information on new contaminations discovered with the help of the new EDB.

  • 2641.
    Widén, Rosalie
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd.
    NYCKELN TILL FÖRSTÅELSE: En litteraturstudie om kommunikationens betydelse i demensvården2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Demens är en sjukdom som utgör minnesförluster, kommunikationssvårigheter och nedsatt förmåga att klara av vardagliga aktiviteter. Patientens problem med beteendet kan orsaka oro, aggressivitet och förvirring mot anhöriga och vårdare. När patienten inte kan förmedla sin önskan i kommunikationen så bidrar det att patienten inte kan uppnå hälsa. Missförstånd kan ha uppstått av det som patienten har försökt att förmedla. Patientens livsvärld kommer inte fram till följd av den oförmåga som sjukdomen kan ge upphov till. Det medför att patientens behov inte kommer fram. Problem: Det behövs mer kunskaper om kommunikation för patienter som lever med demenssjukdom. Syfte: Syfte är att beskriva kommunikationens betydelse för att underlätta omvårdnaden för patienter som lever med demens, ur ett vårdarperspektiv. Metod: En litteraturöversikt utfördes med tio vårdvetenskapliga artiklar i en beskrivande syntes som sammanställdes och beskrevs i resultatet. Resultat: Sjuksköterskan ska vara medveten om sitt förhållningssätt och tillämpa en individanpassad kommunikationsmetod för att patientens behov ska kunna tillgodoses. Vidare uppkommer det vikten av förståelse för människan bakom sjukdomen. Genom att känna till olika kommunikations metoder kan relationen förbättras. Slutsats: Det framkommer ett ökat behov av att kunna utöva kunskaper i kommunikationen, för vårdare och tillåta sig bli berörd av patienten genom att se patientens resurser och inte bara patientens sjukdom.

  • 2642.
    Wiesinger, Birgitta
    et al.
    Dept. of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology, Umeå University.
    Häggman-Henrikson, Birgitta
    Dept. of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology, Umeå University.
    Hellström, Fredrik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Wänman, Anders
    Dept. of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology, Umeå University.
    Experimental masseter muscle pain alters jaw-neck motor strategy2013Inngår i: European Journal of Pain, ISSN 1090-3801, E-ISSN 1532-2149, Vol. 17, nr 7, s. 995-1004Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    A functional integration between the jaw and neck regions has been demonstrated during normal jaw function. The effect of masseter muscle pain on this integrated motor behaviour in man is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of induced masseter muscle pain on jaw-neck movements during a continuous jaw opening-closing task.

    METHODS:

    Sixteen healthy men performed continuous jaw opening-closing movements to a target position, defined as 75% of the maximum jaw opening. Each subject performed two trials without pain (controls) and two trials with masseter muscle pain, induced with hypertonic saline as a single injection. Simultaneous movements of the mandible and the head were registered with a wireless optoelectronic three-dimensional recording system. Differences in movement amplitudes between trials were analysed with Friedman's test and corrected Wilcoxon matched pairs test.

    RESULTS:

    The head movement amplitudes were significantly larger during masseter muscle pain trials compared with control. Jaw movement amplitudes did not differ significantly between any of the trials after corrected Wilcoxon tests. The ratio between head and jaw movement amplitudes was significantly larger during the first pain trial compared with control.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Experimental masseter muscle pain in humans affected integrated jaw-neck movements by increasing the neck component during continuous jaw opening-closing tasks. The findings indicate that pain can alter the strategy for jaw-neck motor control, which further underlines the functional integration between the jaw and neck regions. This altered strategy may have consequences for development of musculoskeletal pain in the jaw and neck regions.

  • 2643.
    Wiik, Richard
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Hälso- och systemvetenskap, Ergonomi.
    Stöd av kommunikation inom distansguidning av ERCP: Applicering av ett MTO-perspektiv tillsammans med ett tjänstedesignsverktyg2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 poäng / 60 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    ERCP är ett komplicerat invärtes kirurgisk ingrepp som genomförs med hjälp av endoskopi. ERCP-avdelningen vid Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset tog tidigare ofta emot patienter från ERCP-avdelningen på Visby på grund av operationens förväntade svårighet. Nu har de istället sedan en tid tillbaka givit distansguidning under pågående operationen till ERCP i Visby. Distansguidningen skapar ett virtuellt team som ger nya mänskliga, tekniska och organisatoriska utmaningar.

    Syftet med denna studie var tvåfaldigt: det ena att fördjupa kunskapen i hur ett MTO-perspektiv tillsammans med ett tjänstedesignsverktyg kunde appliceras på det specifika fallet, det andra var att svara på hur utvalda faktorer som är kritiska för fysiskt åtskilda teams stöddes och hämmades i den valda fallstudien.

    En observation- och intervjustudie med hjälp av tjänstedesignsverktyget Blueprint utfördes med involverade personer för distansguidningen med efterföljande tematiskt analys av transkriberad data. Utfallet av analys belyser tekniska svårigheter och ett lärlingssystem mellan kirurgerna utanför distansguidningens av ERCP organisatoriska kontroll som är viktig för det virtuella teamets personliga relationer, tillit och kultur. En diskussion förs ur ett mänskligt, tekniskt och organisatoriskt perspektiv.

    Kombinationen av MTO och tjänstedesign fungerade för denna fallstudie och kan vara en kraftfull kombination. Dock anses studiens utförande kunna optimeras för att bättre integrera de två och utnyttja tjänstedesignsverktyget Blueprint ytterligare. Lärdomar i hur detta kan göras i framtida studier beskrivs.

  • 2644.
    Wiker, Beatrice
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för hälso- och vårdvetenskap.
    Rehabilitering av äldre inom slutenvård: Vad händer sedan?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Idag är 20 procent av Sveriges befolkning över 65 år. Många av dessa lider av fysisk, psykisk eller social ohälsa, samtidigt som vård och omsorg inte kan bemöta deras behov. Med stigande ålder förändras kroppens sammansättning och kroppens funktioner försämras. Äldres ohälsa blir ett ännu större problem vid sjukhusvistelse då äldre människor generellt sett är mer inaktiva och muskelstyrkan minskar. För att motverka försämrad hälsa efter utskrivning har fysisk aktivitet visat sig vara en möjlig behandlingsform. Men hur stor betydelse har den fysiska aktiviteten efter utskrivning från slutenvården?

     

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka vilken betydelse fortsatt rehabilitering genom fysisk aktivitet har för äldre personers hälsa efter utskrivning från slutenvård.

     

    Metod: En deskriptiv litteraturstudie genomfördes och vid litteratursökningen användes de akademiska databaserna PubMed och Cinahl. Samtlig litteratur bestod av vetenskapligt granskade artiklar publicerade i fulltext och tillgängliga från Högskolan i Gävle.

    Resultat: Samtliga 14 studier beskrev förbättringar på fysisk hälsa genom fortsatt fysisk aktivitet efter utskrivning från slutenvården hos äldre. Gällande psykisk och social hälsa var resultaten dock inte lika tydliga vilket påvisade att mer forskning behövs. Regelbundna motivationshöjande insatser genom återkopplingar påvisades vara viktiga All fysisk aktivitet förbättrade hälsan. Högintensiv träning påvisades dock vara mest effektiv på vissa parametrar. Aktivitet i hemmiljö visade sig vara minst lika effektiv som aktivitet inom vården samtidigt som studierna dock visade att andelen olycksfall var något högre vid obevakad aktivitet i hemmiljö än inom den bevakade slutenvården.   

     

    Slutsatser: Fortsatt fysisk aktivitet är viktigt för äldres fortsatta fysiska, psykiska och sociala hälsa. Fysisk aktivitet bör därför implementeras i de äldres vardag efter utskrivning. Regelbundenhet gällande den fysiska aktiviteten för äldre efter utskrivning är viktigt för bibehållen god hälsa och ett hälsosamt liv. Kunskap finns till viss del på området men mer forskning behövs.

  • 2645. Wikgren, Mikael
    et al.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Söderlund, Hedvig
    Nordin, Annelie
    Roos, Göran
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Norrback, Karl-Fredrik
    Shorter telomere length is linked to brain atrophy and white matter hyperintensities2014Inngår i: Age and Ageing, ISSN 0002-0729, E-ISSN 1468-2834, Vol. 43, nr 2, s. 212-217Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: leukocyte telomere length (TL) is considered a marker of biological aging. Several studies have investigated the link between leukocyte TL and aging-associated functional attributes of the brain, but no prior study has investigated whether TL can be linked to brain atrophy and white matter hyperintensities (WMHs); two prominent structural manifestations of brain aging. Methods: we investigated whether leukocyte TL was related to brain atrophy and WMHs in a sample of 102 non-demented individuals aged 64-75 years. Results: shorter TL was related to greater degree of subcortical atrophy (beta = -0.217, P = 0.034), but not to cortical atrophy. Furthermore, TL was 371 bp shorter (P = 0.041) in participants exhibiting subcortical WMHs, and 552 bp shorter (P = 0.009) in older participants exhibiting periventricular WMHs. Conclusion: this study provides the first evidence of leukocyte TL being associated with cerebral subcortical atrophy and WMHs, lending further support to the concept of TL as a marker of biological aging, and in particular that of the aging brain.

  • 2646.
    Wiklander, Ann-Charlotte
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Barnahus - Bemötandet av barn som utsatts för våld och övergrepp i ett rättsmedicinskt perspektiv2010Student paper other, 5 poäng / 7,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    På uppdrag av regeringen inleddes år 2005 en nationell försöksverksamhet med Barnahus i Sverige. Socialtjänst, barn- och ungdomspsykiatri, barnsjukvård, rättsläkare, polis och åklagare skulle samverka under samma tak i en miljö anpassad för barn. Försöksverksamheten inleddes på sex orter i Sverige: Malmö, Göteborg, Stockholm, Linköping, Sundsvall och Umeå. Försöksverksamheten med Barnahus kom att få två övergripande målsättningar, dels att rättsvårdande myndigheter skulle bedriva ett effektivt utredningsarbete som i förlängningen skulle leda till att fler gärningsmän lagfördes samt att verksamheten skulle innebära ett skydd och stöd för barnet. Ett annat mål med projektet var också att barnen inte skulle utsättas för onödiga påfrestningar i samband med brottsutredningar. 1) Rättsmedicinska undersökningar utgör en del av utredningsarbetet när rättsmedicinsk personal utreder barn som utsatts för våld och sexuella övergrepp.Undersökningarna kan upplevas av barnen som negativa och känslor av rädsla kan förekomma. Ibland får barnet sövas för att kunna genomgå en rättsmedicinsk undersökning. Då rättsintyget, i egenskap av bevismaterial i en brottmålsprocess, har stor betydelse eftersom det kan åberopas som bevisning till stöd för förekomsten av skador och skadors uppkomstsätt, så är det viktigt att rättsmedicinska undersökningar utförs i frekvent omfattning och på sådant sätt att det inte psykologiskt påverkar barnet negativt, till exempel att det känner en rädsla för framtida sjukhusbesök. 2)

     

  • 2647.
    Wilczek-Rużyczka, Ewa
    et al.
    Uniwersytet Jagielloński, Collegium Medicum, Kraków, Polska.
    Basinska, Beata
    Politechnika Gdańska, Gdańsk, Polska.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för psykologi och organisationsstudier.
    Jak pogodzić życie zawodowe i prywatne? – stres zawodowy i zaangażowanie a konflikt praca - dom wśród pielęgniarek [How to balance professional involvement with private life? – job-related stress and professional responsibilities in the light of the conflict between job and private life in the nursing  profession].2012Inngår i: Conference "Patient-friendly medicine", Warsaw, 19-20.05.2012: XX Jubilee Conference of Psychosomatic Medicine, Section of the Polish Medicine Association / [ed] Szewczyk, Leszek, 2012, s. 2-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [pl]

    Wprowadzenie: Większość pielęgniarek to kobiety, które tradycyjnie często godzą profesjonalne obowiązki z życiem rodzinnym. Konflikt pomiędzy sferą prywatną i zawodową ma dwustronną naturę. Negatywny wpływ pracy na życie prywatne jest odnotowywany częściej niż relacja odwrotna (Greuters et al., 2003).

    Celem pracy była ocena konfliktu praca – dom i dom – praca na percepcję stresu zawodowego i zaangażowania w pracę. Wymagania zawodowe zdefiniowano jako przeciążenie pracą i konflikty interpersonalne (Spector & Jex, 1998). Zaangażowanie charakteryzowano jako wigor i poświęcenie (Schaufeli et al., 2002).

    Metody: Zastosowano następujące metody: Skala Konfliktu Interpersonalnego i Ilościowego Przeciążenia Pracą (Spector & Jex, 1998), Utrechtska Skala Zaangażowania w Pracę – wersja skrócona (Schaueli, Bakker, & Salanova, 2006), Skale Konflikt Praca – Rodzina i Rodzina Praca (Netemeyer, Boles, & McMurrian, 1996).

    W badaniu wzięło udział 98 pielęgniarek (średnia wieku 41 lat SD = 5,9) pracujące w zawodzie przeciętnie od 19 lat (zakres1,5 – 33). Większość byłą zamężna (85%), a ich partnerzy pracowali zawodowo (82%).

    Wyniki: Konflikt praca – rodzina był silniejszy niż konflikt rodzina – praca wśród badanych pielęgniarek. Negatywne oddziaływania pracy na życie prywatne, różnicuje percepcję stresu zawodowego (przeciążenie pracą i konflikty interpersonalne) i zaangażowania w pracę (wigor i poświęcenie).  Pielęgniarki, które odczuwały większy konflikt na linii dom – praca doświadczały większego konfliktu praca dom.

  • 2648.
    Wilinska, Monika
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för beteendevetenskap och socialt arbete. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. SALVE (Socialt arbete, Livssammanhang, Välfärd). Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping).
    Jaco Hoffman and Katrien Pype (eds.) (2016). Ageing in Sub-Saharan Africa. Spaces and Practices of Care. Bristol: Policy Press, 248 pp. ISBN 978 1 4473 2525 3 (hardback)2017Inngår i: International Journal of Ageing and Later Life, ISSN 1652-8670, E-ISSN 1652-8670Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 2649.
    Wilinska, Monika
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för socialt arbete. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. SALVE (Socialt arbete, Livssammanhang, Välfärd). Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping).
    de Hontheim, Astrid
    Université libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium.
    Anbäcken, Els-Marie
    Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Ageism in a cross-cultural perspective: Reflections from the research field2018Inngår i: Contemporary perspectives on ageism / [ed] Liat Ayalon & Clemens Tesch-Römer, Cham: Springer Publishing Company, 2018, s. 425-440Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, we discuss the opportunities and challenges of researching ageism from a cross-cultural perspective. We discuss the complexity of exploring diverse ageist practices as performed in different parts of the world. We also reflect upon the socio-cultural backgrounds through which researchers filter the experiences of fieldwork and research on various enactments of ageism. The key tenet of our argument is that these two dimensions interact during the fieldwork to create unique frameworks that researchers apply in their studies.

    We confront our experiences of researching ageism in Japan, Poland, Sweden, and West Papua to explore the notion that the socio-cultural context matters to the following aspects of ageism: diversity of ageist practices, societal images of later life, and the researchers’ socio-cultural understandings of ageism. We explore the position of researchers who, on the one hand, apply the privileged perspective of a stranger to their fieldwork, and on the other hand, are deeply embedded in their own socio-cultural background, which affects their way of approaching later life and ageism. We conclude with a notion of establishing a “sense of touch” within the field and a discussion recognizing the potential changes that such an approach can bring to the ways we study ageism worldwide.

  • 2650.
    Wilińska, Monika
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för socialt arbete. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. SALVE (Socialt arbete, Livssammanhang, Välfärd). Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping).
    Introductory Remarks2018Inngår i: Romanian Journal of Communication and Public Relations, ISSN 2344-5440, Vol. 20, nr 1, s. 7-9Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In one of the most widely used definitions of qualitative research, Denzin and Lincoln (2005, p. 3) describe this practice as consisting of “a set of interpretive, material practices that make the world visible”. However, as much as qualitative research “locates the observer in the world”, it also locates the observed in research. This intrinsic complexity of qualitative research becomes even more prominent in research inquiring into such highly social and cultural phenomena as age and ageing.

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