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  • 251.
    Berglund, Lisa
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO).
    Persson, Anja
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO).
    Uhlén, Mathias
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO).
    Primer design for high-throughput PCR cloningArtikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 252.
    Berglund, P.
    et al.
    University of Toronto, Canada.
    Stabile, M. R.
    Gold, M.
    Jones, J. B.
    Mitchinson, C.
    Bott, R. R.
    Graycar, T. P.
    Altering the specificity of subtilisin B. lentus by combining site-directed mutagenesis and chemical modification1996Ingår i: Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters, ISSN 0960894X (ISSN), Vol. 6, nr 21, s. 2507-2512Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The thiol side chain of the M222C mutant of the subtilisin from Bacillus lentus (SBL) has been chemically modified by methyl-, aminoethyl-, and sulfonatoethylthiosulfonate reagents. Introduction of charged residues into the active site of the enzyme reduced the catalytic efficiency with Suc-AAPF-pNA as the substrate, but resulted in better binding of sterically demanding boronic acid inhibitors.

  • 253.
    Berglund, Per
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Biokemi.
    BIO-AMINES: Searching for a Novel Approach to Biocatalytic Transaminations – a Vinnova Sponsored Project2009Ingår i: Book of abstracts, 2009Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 254.
    Berglund, Per
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Biokemi.
    Biocatalysis with Promiscuous Enzymes2007Ingår i: 2007 European BioPerspectives / [ed] Dechema, 2007Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 255.
    Berglund, Per
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Biokemi.
    Enzyme Catalytic Promiscuity and Rational Design2006Ingår i: Book of abstracts, 2006Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 256.
    Berglund, Per
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Biokemi.
    omega-Transaminases: Tailored for Chiral Amine Synthesis2010Ingår i: Biocat2010 / [ed] Ralf Grote, Garabed Antranikian, Hamburg, Germany: TuTech Verlag , 2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 257.
    Berglund, Per
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Biokemi.
    Christiernin, M.
    Hedenström, E.
    Enantiorecognition of chiral acids by Candida rugosa lipase: Two substrate binding modes evidenced in an organic medium2001Ingår i: American Chemical Society Symposium Series (ACS), ISSN 0097-6156, E-ISSN 1947-5918, Vol. 776, s. 263-273Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We have identified the existence of different modes of binding the enantiomers of 2-methyl-branched carboxylic acids to a lipase active site by rational substrate engineering. Similar to hydrolysis, previously investigated, we have now evidence for differential binding modes in the Candida rugosa lipase-catalyzed esterifications in cyclohexane. The relevance of considering two different binding modes to understand lipase enantiorecognition is demonstrated by introducing bulky substituents on a chiral carboxylic acid which impose a different orientation of the substrate acyl chain in the active site of Candida rugosa lipase. With this substrate engineering approach based on molecular modeling it is thus possible to markedly alter the enantioselectivity of the lipase. Examples from hydrolysis and new results from esterifications in an organic solvent are presented and discussed.

  • 258.
    Berglund, Per
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Biokemi.
    Hedenström, Erik
    Mid Sweden university.
    Preparation of 2-, 3-, and 4-methylcarboxylic acids and the corresponding alcohols of high enantiopurity by lipase-catalyzed esterification2001Ingår i: Enzymes in Nonaqueous Solvents: Methods and Protocols / [ed] Vulfson, E. N.; Halling, P. J.; Holland, H. L., Totowa: Humana Press , 2001, s. 307-317Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 259.
    Berglund, Per
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Biokemi.
    Holmquist, M.
    Hult, K.
    Reversed enantiopreference of Candida rugosa lipase supports different modes of binding enantiomers of a chiral acyl donor1998Ingår i: Journal of Molecular Catalysis - B Enzymatic, ISSN 13811177 (ISSN), Vol. 5, nr 1-4, s. 283-287Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Molecular modelling identifies two different productive modes of binding the enantiomers of a 2-methyldecanoic acid ester to the active site of Candida rugosa lipase (CRL). The fast reacting S-enantiomer occupies the previously identified acyl-binding tunnel of the enzyme, whereas the R- enantiomer leaves the tunnel empty. The modelling suggested that if both enantiomers were forced to bind to the active site leaving the tunnel empty, the enzyme would reverse its enantiopreference to become R-enantioselective. To test this hypothesis, we designed a structural analogue to 2- methyldecanoic acid, 2-methyl-6-(2-thienyl)hexanoic acid, which was expected to be too bulky to fit its acyl moiety into the acyl-binding tunnel. The CRL- catalysed hydrolysis of the ethyl ester of this substrate resulted in the preferential conversion of the R-enantiomer as predicted by molecular modelling. This represents the first kinetic evidence supporting the existence of two different modes of binding the enantiomers of a 2- methyldecanoic acid ester to the active site of CRL. We have shown that a rational 3D based approach in combination with substrate engineering can be used to predict and control the stereochemical outcome of a lipase catalysed reaction.

  • 260.
    Berglund, Per
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Biokemi.
    Hult, Karl
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Biokemi.
    Biocatalytic synthesis of enantiopure compounds using lipases: Chapter 212000Ingår i: Stereoselective Biocatalysis / [ed] Patel, R. N., New York: Marcel Dekker, 2000, s. 633-657Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 261.
    Berglund, Per
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Biokemi.
    Svedendahl, Maria
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Biokemi.
    Engelmark Cassimjee, Karim
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Biokemi.
    Branneby, Cecilia
    Cambrex Karlskoga AB.
    Abedi, Vahak
    AstraZeneca.
    Wells, Andrew
    AstraZeneca.
    Federsel, Hans-Jürgen
    AstraZeneca.
    Omega-Transaminases Redesigned for Chiral Amine Synthesis2011Ingår i: BIT Life Sciences’ 2nd Symposium on Enzymes & Biocatalysis, Dalian, China: BIT Life Sciences , 2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 262.
    Berglund, Per
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University.
    Vörde, Carin
    Hogberg, Hans-Erik
    Esterification of 2-methylalkanoic acids Catalysed by Lipase from Candida rugosa: Enantioselectivity as a Function of water Activity and Alcohol Chain Length1994Ingår i: Biocatalysis and Biotransformation, ISSN 1024-2422, E-ISSN 1029-2446, Vol. 9, nr 1-4, s. 123-130Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 263. Bergström, Dan
    et al.
    Israelsson, Samuel
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik, Energiteknik och termisk processkemi.
    Öhman, Marcus
    Dahlqvist, Sten-Axel
    Gref, Rolf
    Boman, Christoffer
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik, Energiteknik och termisk processkemi.
    Wästerlund, Iwan
    Effects of raw material particle size distribution on the characteristics of Scots pine sawdust fuel pellets2008Ingår i: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 89, nr 12, s. 1324-1329Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to study the influence of raw material particle size distribution on the pelletizing process and the physical and thermomechanical characteristics of typical fuel pellets, saw dust of Scots pine was used as raw material for producing pellets in a semi industrial scaled mill (similar to 300 kg h(-1)). The raw materials were screened to a narrow particle size distribution and mixed into four different batches and then pelletized under controlled conditions. Physical pellet characteristics like compression strength, densities, moisture content, moisture absorption and abrasion resistance were determined. In addition, the thermochemical characteristics, i.e. drying and initial pyrolysis, flaming pyrolysis, char combustion and char yield were determined at different experimental conditions by using a laboratory-scaled furnace. The results indicate that the particle size distribution had some effect on current consumption and compression strength but no evident effect on single pellet and bulk density, moisture content, moisture absorption during storage and abrasion resistance. Differences in average total conversion time determined for pellet batches tested under the same combustion conditions was less than 5% and not significant. The results are of practical importance suggesting that grinding of saw dust particle sizes below 8 mm is probably needless when producing softwood pellets. Thus it seem that less energy could be used if only over sized particles are grinded before pelletizing.

  • 264. Bergström, Dan
    et al.
    Israelsson, Samuel
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik, Energiteknik och termisk processkemi.
    Öhman, Marcus
    Dahlqvist, Sten-Axel
    Gref, Rolf
    Boman, Christoffer
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik, Energiteknik och termisk processkemi.
    Wästerlund, Iwan
    Effects of raw material particle size distribution on the characteristics of Scots pine sawdust fuel pellets2008Ingår i: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 89, nr 12, s. 1324-1329Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to study the influence of raw material particle size distribution on the pelletizing process and the physical and thermomechanical characteristics of typical fuel pellets, saw dust of Scots pine was used as raw material for producing pellets in a semi industrial scaled mill (similar to 300 kg h(-1)). The raw materials were screened to a narrow particle size distribution and mixed into four different batches and then pelletized under controlled conditions. Physical pellet characteristics like compression strength, densities, moisture content, moisture absorption and abrasion resistance were determined. In addition, the thermochemical characteristics, i.e. drying and initial pyrolysis, flaming pyrolysis, char combustion and char yield were determined at different experimental conditions by using a laboratory-scaled furnace. The results indicate that the particle size distribution had some effect on current consumption and compression strength but no evident effect on single pellet and bulk density, moisture content, moisture absorption during storage and abrasion resistance. Differences in average total conversion time determined for pellet batches tested under the same combustion conditions was less than 5% and not significant. The results are of practical importance suggesting that grinding of saw dust particle sizes below 8 mm is probably needless when producing softwood pellets. Thus it seem that less energy could be used if only over sized particles are grinded before pelletizing.

  • 265.
    Bernedal Nordström, Clara
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Bürger, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Engberg, Jonas
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Jansson, Ylva
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Thorell, Hannes
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Vaivade, Aina
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Sluta gnata, hantera din data - Ta fram en kravspecifikation för ett LIMS2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Excel is a great tool, however it has its flaws. Files quickly become slow as they increase in size, and Excel has no built-in feature to easily search through several documents for a specific word, phrase or value. This can be resolved through a LIMS, a Laboratory Information Management System, which is a database solution that can be used to store and trace laboratory data and information. Our task was to evaluate what system requirements the company Olink Proteomics AB has for a LIMS. By interviewing several departments at Olink, we gained information about what each group wanted from such a system and condensed it into a needs assessment. The interviews showed that traceability was needed for every single department, as well as having easy features for adding data into the system. We were also tasked by Olink to research which Swedish laws apply to old patient data, as the company wants to reuse the data for R&D. Our conclusions are that if data is made fully anonymous, there are no issues in using it for R&D. However, this can be difficult as many criteria have to be fulfilled in order for the data to become fully anonymous.

  • 266.
    Bernotat, Knut
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Industriell ekonomi och organisation.
    Sandberg, Thomas
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Industriell ekonomi och organisation.
    Biomass fired small-scale CHP in Sweden and the Baltic States: a case study on the potential of clustered dwellings2004Ingår i: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 27, nr 6, s. 521-530Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden as well as the three Baltic states has an abundant supply of biomass, mostly wood waste. Much of it goes into district heating (DH), which has expanded continuously since the first system started 50 years ago. DH now accounts for 43% of the heating consumption and a further expansion is possible in many directions. Firstly existing DH systems can be enlarged, secondly DH can be upgraded to combined heat and power (CHP) to a much larger extent, thirdly new DH (and CHP) systems can be implemented in many smaller places down to 1000 inhabitants or less. The last alternative, biomass and especially pellets fired small-scale cogeneration in combination with local heating networks, is the topic for this paper. It presents a method to estimate the potential for small-scale DH and CHP and results from a "test" area in southeast Sweden. The method estimates local heat demand using databases with individual and statistical property data. It identifies areas with clusters of buildings where the heat demand is enough to implement decentralized small DH networks if possible in combination with small-scale CHP. In the event for Swedish circumstances very sparsely populated test area of 36 x 48 km(2) with around 8000 inhabitants, the total heat consumption in residential buildings is estimated to 84 GWh. When we have identified the areas with clusters of buildings, we have set the minimum heat consumption in such an area to 500 MW h. The area size is varied in 250 m steps from 250 x 250 m(2) to 1000 x 1000 m(2). For the four area sizes, the method then identifies and locates 30, 38, 38,30, respectively, clustered areas with a potential for small-scale DH and CHP worth investing closer.

  • 267. Bessani, A.
    et al.
    Brandt, J.
    Bux, M.
    Cogo, V.
    Dimitrova, L.
    Dowling, Jim
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Programvaruteknik och Datorsystem, SCS.
    Gholami, Ali
    KTH.
    Hakimzadeh, Kamal
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Programvaruteknik och Datorsystem, SCS.
    Hummel, M.
    Ismail, Mahmoud
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Programvaruteknik och Datorsystem, SCS.
    Laure, Erwin
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Parallelldatorcentrum, PDC. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), High Performance Computing and Visualization (HPCViz).
    Leser, U.
    Litton, J. -E
    Martinez, R.
    Niazi, Salman
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Programvaruteknik och Datorsystem, SCS.
    Reichel, J.
    Zimmermann, K.
    BiobankCloud: A platform for the secure storage, sharing, and processing of large biomedical data sets2016Ingår i: 1st International Workshop on Data Management and Analytics for Medicine and Healthcare, DMAH 2015 and Workshop on Big-Graphs Online Querying, Big-O(Q) 2015 held in conjunction with 41st International Conference on Very Large Data Bases, VLDB 2015, Springer, 2016, s. 89-105Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Biobanks store and catalog human biological material that is increasingly being digitized using next-generation sequencing (NGS). There is, however, a computational bottleneck, as existing software systems are not scalable and secure enough to store and process the incoming wave of genomic data from NGS machines. In the BiobankCloud project, we are building a Hadoop-based platform for the secure storage, sharing, and parallel processing of genomic data. We extended Hadoop to include support for multi-tenant studies, reduced storage requirements with erasure coding, and added support for extensible and consistent metadata. On top of Hadoop, we built a scalable scientific workflow engine featuring a proper workflow definition language focusing on simple integration and chaining of existing tools, adaptive scheduling on Apache Yarn, and support for iterative dataflows. Our platform also supports the secure sharing of data across different, distributed Hadoop clusters. The software is easily installed and comes with a user-friendly web interface for running, managing, and accessing data sets behind a secure 2-factor authentication. Initial tests have shown that the engine scales well to dozens of nodes. The entire system is open-source and includes pre-defined workflows for popular tasks in biomedical data analysis, such as variant identification, differential transcriptome analysis using RNA-Seq, and analysis of miRNA-Seq and ChIP-Seq data.

  • 268. Bessueille, Laurence
    et al.
    Bulone, Vincent
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Glykovetenskap.
    A survey of cellulose biosynthesis in higher plants2008Ingår i: PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY, ISSN 1342-4580, Vol. 25, nr 3, s. 315-322Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellulose plays a central role in plant development and its biosynthesis represents one of the most important biochemical processes in plant biology. However, the corresponding molecular mechanisms are not well understood, despite the progress made in the past years in the identification of genes that code for the catalytic subunits of the cellulose synthases and other proteins potentially involved in cellulose formation. A major bottleneck is the high instability of the cellulose synthase complexes and their location in the plasma membrane. Additional efforts are currently being made to unravel the mechanisms of cellulose biosynthesis. Indeed, understanding how cellulose is formed and how its crystallinity is achieved is relevant not only for studying plant development, but also for improving the digestibility of the plant biomass, which is foreseen as an alternative to fossil fuels for the production of energy. This review summarizes the major unanswered questions related to the process of cellulose biosynthesis, and describes the recent progress that has been made in the area through the combination of biochemical approaches and molecular genetics.

  • 269.
    Bhalla, Aditya
    et al.
    DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University. Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Michigan State University.
    Bansal, Namita
    DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University. Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Michigan State University.
    Pattathil, Sivakumar
    Complex Carbohydrate Research Center, University of Georgia. BioEnergy Science Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA .
    Li, Muyang
    DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University. Department of Plant Biology, Michigan State University.
    Shen, Wei
    DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University. Department of Plant Biology, Michigan State University.
    Particka, Chrislyn A.
    DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University.
    Karlen, Steven D.
    DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, University. Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison of Wisconsin-Madison.
    Phongpreecha, Thanaphong
    DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University. Department of Chemical Engineering & Materials Science, Michigan State University.
    Semaan, Rachel R.
    Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Michigan State University.
    Gonzales-Vigil, Eliana
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
    Ralph, John
    DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison. Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
    Mansfield, Shawn D.
    Department of Wood Science, University of British Columbia.
    Ding, Shi-You
    DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University. Department of Plant Biology, Michigan State University.
    Hodge, David B.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik. DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University. Department of Chemical Engineering & Materials Science, Michigan State University. Department of Biosystems & Agricultural Engineering, Michigan State University.
    Hegg, Eric L.
    DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University. Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Michigan State University.
    Engineered Lignin in Poplar Biomass Facilitates Cu-Catalyzed Alkaline-Oxidative2018Ingår i: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, ISSN 2168-0485, Vol. 6, nr 3, s. 2932-2941Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Both untransformed poplar and genetically modified “zip-lignin” poplar, in which additional ester bonds were introduced into the lignin backbone, were subjected to mild alkaline and copper-catalyzed alkaline hydrogen peroxide (Cu-AHP) pretreatment. Our hypothesis was that the lignin in zip-lignin poplar would be removed more easily than lignin in untransformed poplar during this alkaline pretreatment, resulting in higher sugar yields following enzymatic hydrolysis. We observed improved glucose and xylose hydrolysis yields for zip-lignin poplar compared to untransformed poplar following both alkaline-only pretreatment (56% glucose yield for untransformed poplar compared to 67% for zip-lignin poplar) and Cu-AHP pretreatment (77% glucose yield for untransformed poplar compared to 85% for zip-lignin poplar). Compositional analysis, glycome profiling, and microscopy all supported the notion that the ester linkages increase delignification and improve sugar yields. Essentially no differences were noted in the molecular weight distributions of solubilized lignins between the zip-lignin poplar and the control line. Significantly, when zip-lignin poplar was utilized as the feedstock, hydrogen peroxide, catalyst, and enzyme loadings could all be substantially reduced while maintaining high sugar yields.

  • 270.
    Bhalla, Aditya
    et al.
    DOE-Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing.
    Bansal, Namita
    DOE-Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing.
    Stoklosa, Ryan J.
    Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, DOE-Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing.
    Fountain, Mackenzie
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing.
    Ralph, John P.
    DOE-Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison.
    Hodge, David
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Hegg, Eric L.
    Michigan State University, DOE-Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing.
    Effective alkaline metal-catalyzed oxidative delignification of hybrid poplar2016Ingår i: Biotechnology for Biofuels, ISSN 1754-6834, E-ISSN 1754-6834, Vol. 9, artikel-id 34Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundStrategies to improve copper-catalyzed alkaline hydrogen peroxide (Cu-AHP) pretreatment of hybrid poplar were investigated. These improvements included a combination of increasing hydrolysis yields, while simultaneously decreasing process inputs through (i) more efficient utilization of H2O2 and (ii) the addition of an alkaline extraction step prior to the metal-catalyzed AHP pretreatment. We hypothesized that utilizing this improved process could substantially lower the chemical inputs needed during pretreatment.ResultsHybrid poplar was pretreated utilizing a modified process in which an alkaline extraction step was incorporated prior to the Cu-AHP treatment step and H2O2 was added batch-wise over the course of 10 h. Our results revealed that the alkaline pre-extraction step improved both lignin and xylan solubilization, which ultimately led to improved glucose (86 %) and xylose (95 %) yields following enzymatic hydrolysis. An increase in the lignin solubilization was also observed with fed-batch H2O2 addition relative to batch-only addition, which again resulted in increased glucose and xylose yields (77 and 93 % versus 63 and 74 %, respectively). Importantly, combining these strategies led to significantly improved sugar yields (96 % glucose and 94 % xylose) following enzymatic hydrolysis. In addition, we found that we could substantially lower the chemical inputs (enzyme, H2O2, and catalyst), while still maintaining high product yields utilizing the improved Cu-AHP process. This pretreatment also provided a relatively pure lignin stream consisting of ≥90 % Klason lignin and only 3 % xylan and 2 % ash following precipitation. Two-dimensional heteronuclear single-quantum coherence (2D HSQC) NMR and size-exclusion chromatography demonstrated that the solubilized lignin was high molecular weight (Mw ≈ 22,000 Da) and only slightly oxidized relative to lignin from untreated poplar.ConclusionsThis study demonstrated that the fed-batch, two-stage Cu-AHP pretreatment process was effective in pretreating hybrid poplar for its conversion into fermentable sugars. Results showed sugar yields near the theoretical maximum were achieved from enzymatically hydrolyzed hybrid poplar by incorporating an alkaline extraction step prior to pretreatment and by efficiently utilizing H2O2 during the Cu-AHP process. Significantly, this study reports high sugar yields from woody biomass treated with an AHP pretreatment under mild reaction conditions.

  • 271.
    Bhalla, Aditya
    et al.
    Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA. DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center (GLBRC), Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA.
    Cai, Charles M.
    Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Riverside, CA, USA. BioEnergy Science Center (BESC) and Center for Bioenergy Innovation (CBI), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA.
    Xu, Feng
    Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA.
    Singh, Sandip K.
    Chemical & Biological Engineering Department, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT, USA.
    Bansal, Namita
    Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center (GLBRC), Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA.
    Phongpreecha, Thanaphong
    Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA.
    Dutta, Tanmoy
    Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA.
    Foster, Cliff E.
    DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center (GLBRC), Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA.
    Kumar, Rajeev
    Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Riverside, CA, USA BioEnergy Science Center (BESC) and Center for Bioenergy Innovation (CBI), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA.
    Simmons, Blake A.
    Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA.
    Singh, Seema
    Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA.
    Wyman, Charles E.
    Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Riverside, CA, USA. BioEnergy Science Center (BESC) and Center for Bioenergy Innovation (CBI), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA.
    Hegg, Eric L.
    Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center (GLBRC), Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA.
    Hodge, David
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik. DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center (GLBRC), Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA. Chemical & Biological Engineering Department, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT, USA. Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA.
    Performance of three delignifying pretreatments on hardwoods: hydrolysis yields, comprehensive mass balances, and lignin properties2019Ingår i: Biotechnology for Biofuels, ISSN 1754-6834, E-ISSN 1754-6834, Vol. 12, artikel-id 213Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    In this work, three pretreatments under investigation at the DOE Bioenergy Research Centers (BRCs) were subjected to a side-by-side comparison to assess their performance on model bioenergy hardwoods (a eucalyptus and a hybrid poplar). These include co-solvent-enhanced lignocellulosic fractionation (CELF), pretreatment with an ionic liquid using potentially biomass-derived components (cholinium lysinate or [Ch][Lys]), and two-stage Cu-catalyzed alkaline hydrogen peroxide pretreatment (Cu-AHP). For each of the feedstocks, the pretreatments were assessed for their impact on lignin and xylan solubilization and enzymatic hydrolysis yields as a function of enzyme loading. Lignins recovered from the pretreatments were characterized for polysaccharide content, molar mass distributions, β-aryl ether content, and response to depolymerization by thioacidolysis.

    Results

    All three pretreatments resulted in significant solubilization of lignin and xylan, with the CELF pretreatment solubilizing the majority of both biopolymer categories. Enzymatic hydrolysis yields were shown to exhibit a strong, positive correlation with the lignin solubilized for the low enzyme loadings. The pretreatment-derived solubles in the [Ch][Lys]-pretreated biomass were presumed to contribute to inhibition of enzymatic hydrolysis in the eucalyptus as a substantial fraction of the pretreatment liquor was carried forward into hydrolysis for this pretreatment. The pretreatment-solubilized lignins exhibited significant differences in polysaccharide content, molar mass distributions, aromatic monomer yield by thioacidolysis, and β-aryl ether content. Key trends include a substantially higher polysaccharide content in the lignins recovered from the [Ch][Lys] pretreatment and high β-aryl ether contents and aromatic monomer yields from the Cu-AHP pretreatment. For all lignins, the 13C NMR-determined β-aryl ether content was shown to be correlated with the monomer yield with a second-order functionality.

    Conclusions

    Overall, it was demonstrated that the three pretreatments highlighted in this study demonstrated uniquely different functionalities in reducing biomass recalcitrance and achieving higher enzymatic hydrolysis yields for the hybrid poplar while yielding a lignin-rich stream that may be suitable for valorization. Furthermore, modification of lignin during pretreatment, particularly cleavage of β-aryl ether bonds, is shown to be detrimental to subsequent depolymerization.

  • 272.
    Bhalla, Aditya
    et al.
    DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University East Lansing.
    Fasahati, Peyman
    DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing.
    Particka, Chrislyn A.
    DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing.
    Assad, Aline E.
    DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing.
    Stoklosa, Ryan J.
    DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing.
    Bansal, Namita
    DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing.
    Semaan, Rachel R.
    Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing.
    Saffron, Christopher M.
    DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing.
    Hodge, David
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik. DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing.
    Hegg, Eric L.
    DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing.
    Integrated experimental and technoeconomic evaluation of two-stage Cu-catalyzed alkaline–oxidative pretreatment of hybrid poplar2018Ingår i: Biotechnology for Biofuels, ISSN 1754-6834, E-ISSN 1754-6834, Vol. 11, nr 1, artikel-id 143Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    When applied to recalcitrant lignocellulosic feedstocks, multi-stage pretreatments can provide more processing flexibility to optimize or balance process outcomes such as increasing delignification, preserving hemicellulose, and maximizing enzymatic hydrolysis yields. We previously reported that adding an alkaline pre-extraction step to a copper-catalyzed alkaline hydrogen peroxide (Cu-AHP) pretreatment process resulted in improved sugar yields, but the process still utilized relatively high chemical inputs (catalyst and H2O2) and enzyme loadings. We hypothesized that by increasing the temperature of the alkaline pre-extraction step in water or ethanol, we could reduce the inputs required during Cu-AHP pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis without significant loss in sugar yield. We also performed technoeconomic analysis to determine if ethanol or water was the more cost-effective solvent during alkaline pre-extraction and if the expense associated with increasing the temperature was economically justified.

  • 273. Bhaskar, Thallada
    et al.
    Lee, Keat Teong
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Sauer, Michael
    Nampoothiri, K. Madhavan
    New Horizons in Biotechnology - NHBT 20152016Ingår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 213Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 274.
    Bi, Ran
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Träkemi och massateknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Lignocellulose Degradation by Soil Micro-organisms2016Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a sustainable resource with abundant reserves. Compared to petroleum ‐ based products, the biomass ‐ derived polymers and chemicals give better environmental profiles. A lot of research interest is focused on understanding the lignocellulose structures.

    Lignin, among the three major wood components, represents most difficulty for microbial degradation because of its complex structure and because cross ‐ linking to hemicellulose makes wood such a compact structure. Nevertheless, wood is naturally degraded by wood ‐ degrading micro ‐ organisms and modified and partly degraded residual of lignin goes into soil. Therefore soil serves as a good environment in which to search for special lignin ‐ degraders. In this thesis, different types of lignin have been used as sole carbon sources to screen for lignin ‐ degrading soil micro ‐ organisms. Eleven aerobic and three anaerobic microbe strains have been isolated and identified as able to grow on lignin. The lignin degradation patterns of selected strains have been studied and these partly include an endwise cleavage of  β‐ O ‐ 4 bonds in lignin and is more complex than simple hydrolytic degradation.

    As lignin exists in wood covalently bonded to hemicellulose, one isolated microbe strain, Phoma herbarum, has also been studied with regards to its ability to degrade covalent lignin polysaccharide networks (LCC). The results show that its culture filtrate can attack lignin ‐ polysaccharide networks in a manner different from that of the commercial enzyme product, Gammanase, possibly by selective cleavage of phenyl glucoside bonds. The effects on LCC of Phoma herbarum also enhance polymer extractability. Hot ‐ water extraction of a culture filtrate of Phoma herbarum ‐ treated fiberized spruce wood material gave an amount of extracted galactoglucomannan more than that given by the Gammanase ‐ treated material and non ‐ enzyme ‐ treated material.

    Over millions of years of natural evolution, micro ‐ organisms on the one hand develop so that they can degrade all wood components to get energy for growth, while plants on the other hand also continuously develop to defend from microbial attack. Compared with lignin and cellulose, hemicelluloses as major components of plant cell walls, are much more easily degraded, but hemicelluloses differ from cellulose in that they are acetylated to different extents. The biological functions of acetylation are not completely understood, but it is suggested is that one function is to decrease the microbial degradability of cell walls. By cultivation of soil micro ‐ organisms using mannans acetylated to deffernent degrees as sole carbon source on agar plates, we were able to see significant trends where the resistance towards microbial degradation of glucomannan and galactomannan increased with increasing degree of acetylation. Possible mechanisms and the technological significance of this are discussed. Tailoring the degree of acetylation of polysaccharide materials might slow down the biodegradation, making it possible to design a material with a degradation rate suited to its application.

  • 275. Bidgoli, H.
    et al.
    Zamani, A.
    Jeihanipour, A.
    Taherzadeh, M.J.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Preparation of carboxymethyl cellulose superabsorbents from waste textiles Fibers and Polymers2014Ingår i: Fibers And Polymers, ISSN 1229-9197, E-ISSN 1875-0052, Vol. 15, nr 3, s. 431-436Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Production of superabsorbent polymers from cotton and viscose waste textiles was investigated. The cellulose wastes were carboxymethylated, crosslinked by divinylsulfone, and then converted to superabsorbent material using air-drying, freeze-drying, or air-drying after phase inversion. The separation of cellulose from synthetic polymers in the textile (polyester) was carried out by direct dissolution of cellulose in N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO), or separation by dissolution in water after carboxymethylation of the textiles. The progress of the carboxymethylation reaction was evaluated by measurement of the degree of substitution (DS) of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). The DS values of 0.50–0.86 confirmed the prosperous substitution of hydrophilic carboxymethyl groups into the cellulosic chains. The water binding capacity and the swelling rate of the superabsorbents prepared under different conditions were measured. Under the best condition the superabsorbent obtained from waste textiles showed an ultimate water binding capacity of 541 g/g which was notably higher than that of the reference superabsorbent derived from cotton linter (470 g/g). The amount of absorbed water by this product exceeded that of the reference sample after 60 min immersion.

  • 276. Bidgoli, Hossein
    et al.
    Zamani, Akram
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Effect of carboxymethylation conditions on water binding capacity of chitosan-based superabsorbents2010Ingår i: Carbohydrate Research, ISSN 0008-6215, E-ISSN 1873-426X, Vol. 345, nr 18, s. 2683-2689Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A superabsorbent polymer (SAP) from chitosan was provided via carboxymethylation of chitosan, followed by cross-linking with glutaraldehyde and freeze-drying. This work was focused on an investigation of the effects of monochloroacetic acid (MCAA), sodium hydroxide, and reaction time on preparation of carboxymethylchitosan (CMCS). The CMCS products were characterized using FTIR spectroscopy, and their degrees of substitution (DS) were measured using conductimetry and FTIR analysis. The highest DS value was obtained when the carboxymethylation reaction was carried out using 1.75 g MCAA and 1.75 g NaOH per g of chitosan in 4 h. The water solubilities of the CMCS products at various pHs were also evaluated, and the results indicated a significant impact of the reaction parameters on the solubility of CMCS. The CMCSs with the highest DS value resulted in SAPs having the highest water-binding capacity (WBC). TheWBCof the best SAP measured after 10 minexposure in distilled water, 0.9% NaCl solution, synthetic urine, and artificial blood was 104, 33, 30, and 57 g/g, respectively. The WBC of this SAP at pH 2–9 passed a maximum at pH 6.

  • 277. Billig, S.
    et al.
    Agrawal, P.B.
    Birkemeyer, C.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Textilhögskolan.
    Warmoeskerken, M.M.C.G.
    Zimmerman, W.
    Biodegradation of diverse PET materials by polyester hydrolases from Thermobifida fusca and Fusarium solani2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 278.
    Biollaz, S.
    et al.
    PSI.
    Calbry-Muzyka, A.
    PSI.
    Rodriguez, S.
    PSI.
    Sárossy, Z.
    DTU.
    Ravenni, G.
    DTU.
    Fateev, A.
    DTU.
    Seiser, R.
    UCSD.
    Eberhard, M.
    KIT.
    Kolb, T.
    KIT.
    Heikkinen, N.
    VTT.
    Reinikainen, M.
    VTT.
    Brown, R.C.
    Iowa State University, USA.
    Johnston, P.A.
    Iowa State University, USA.
    Nau, P.
    DLR.
    Geigle, K.P.
    DLR.
    Kutne, P.
    DLR.
    Işık-Gülsaç, I.
    TÜBİTAK Mam.
    Aksoy, P.
    TÜBİTAK Mam.
    Çetin, Y.
    TÜBİTAK Mam.
    Sarıoğlan, A.
    TÜBİTAK Mam.
    Tsekos, C.
    Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    de Jong, W.
    Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Benedikt, F.
    TU Wien, Austria.
    Hofbauer, H.
    TU Wien, Austria.
    Waldheim, L.
    SFC.
    Engvall, K.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Neubauer, Y.
    Technical University of Berlin, Germany.
    Funcia, I.
    CENER.
    Gil, J.
    CENER.
    del Campo, I.
    CENER.
    Wilson, I.
    University of Glasgow, UK.
    Khan, Z.
    University of Glasgow, UK.
    Gall, D.
    Gothenburg University.
    Gómez-Barea, A.
    University of Seville, Spain.
    Schmidt, F.
    Umeå University.
    Lin, Leteng
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Strand, Michael
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Anca-Couce, A.
    Graz University of Technology, Austria.
    von Berg, L.
    Graz University of Technology, Austria.
    Larsson, A.
    GoBiGas.
    Sánchez Hervás, J.M.
    CIEMAT.
    van Egmond, B.F.
    ECN part of TNO.
    Geusebroek, M.
    ECN part of TNO.
    Toonen, A.
    ECN part of TNO.
    Kuipers, J.
    ECN part of TNO.
    Cieplik, M.
    ECN part of TNO.
    Boymans, E.H.
    ECN part of TNO.
    Grootjes, A.J.
    ECN part of TNO.
    Fischer, F.
    TUM.
    Schmid, M.
    University of Stuttgart, Germany.
    Maric, J.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Defoort, F.
    CEA.
    Ravel, S.
    CEA.
    Thiery, S.
    CEA.
    Balland, M.
    CEA.
    Kienzl, N.
    Bioenergy 2020+.
    Martini, S.
    Bioenergy 2020+.
    Loipersböck, J.
    Bioenergy 2020+.
    Basset, E.
    ENGIE Lab CRIGEN.
    Barba, A.
    ENGIE Lab CRIGEN.
    Willeboer, W.
    RWE-Essent.
    Venderbosch, R.
    BTG.
    Carpenter, D.
    NREL.
    Pinto, F.
    LNEG.
    Barisano, D.
    ENEA.
    Baratieri, M.
    UNIBZ.
    Ballesteros, R.
    UCLM.
    Mourao Vilela, C. (Redaktör)
    ECN part of TNO.
    Vreugdenhil, B.J. (Redaktör)
    ECN part of TNO.
    Gas analysis in gasification of biomass and waste: Guideline report: Document 12018Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Gasification is generally acknowledged as one of the technologies that will enable the large-scale production of biofuels and chemicals from biomass and waste. One of the main technical challenges associated to the deployment of biomass gasification as a commercial technology is the cleaning and upgrading of the product gas. The contaminants of product gas from biomass/waste gasification include dust, tars, alkali metals, BTX, sulphur-, nitrogen- and chlorine compounds, and heavy metals. Proper measurement of the components and contaminants of the product gas is essential for the monitoring of gasification-based plants (efficiency, product quality, by-products), as well as for the proper design of the downstream gas cleaning train (for example, scrubbers, sorbents, etc.). In practice, a trade-off between reliability, accuracy and cost has to be reached when selecting the proper analysis technique for a specific application. The deployment and implementation of inexpensive yet accurate gas analysis techniques to monitor the fate of gas contaminants might play an important role in the commercialization of biomass and waste gasification processes.

    This special report commissioned by the IEA Bioenergy Task 33 group compiles a representative part of the extensive work developed in the last years by relevant actors in the field of gas analysis applied to(biomass and waste) gasification. The approach of this report has been based on the creation of a team of contributing partners who have supplied material to the report. This networking approach has been complemented with a literature review. The report is composed of a set of 2 documents. Document 1(the present report) describes the available analysis techniques (both commercial and underdevelopment) for the measurement of different compounds of interest present in gasification gas. The objective is to help the reader to properly select the analysis technique most suitable to the target compounds and the intended application. Document 1 also describes some examples of application of gas analysis at commercial-, pilot- and research gasification plants, as well as examples of recent and current joint research activities in the field. The information contained in Document 1 is complemented with a book of factsheets on gas analysis techniques in Document 2, and a collection of video blogs which illustrate some of the analysis techniques described in Documents 1 and 2.

    This guideline report would like to become a platform for the reinforcement of the network of partners working on the development and application of gas analysis, thus fostering collaboration and exchange of knowledge. As such, this report should become a living document which incorporates in future coming progress and developments in the field.

  • 279.
    Biollaz, S.
    et al.
    PSI.
    Calbry-Muzyka, A.
    PSI.
    Rodriguez, S.
    PSI.
    Sárossy, Z.
    DTU.
    Ravenni, G.
    DTU.
    Fateev, A.
    DTU.
    Seiser, R.
    UCSD.
    Eberhard, M.
    KIT.
    Kolb, T.
    KIT.
    Heikkinen, N.
    VTT.
    Reinikainen, M.
    VTT.
    Brown, R.C.
    Iowa State University, USA.
    Johnston, P.A.
    Iowa State University, USA.
    Nau, P.
    DLR.
    Geigle, K.P.
    DLR.
    Kutne, P.
    DLR.
    Işık-Gülsaç, I.
    TÜBİTAK Mam.
    Aksoy, P.
    TÜBİTAK Mam.
    Çetin, Y.
    TÜBİTAK Mam.
    Sarıoğlan, A.
    TÜBİTAK Mam.
    Tsekos, C.
    Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    de Jong, W.
    Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Benedikt, F.
    TU Wien, Austria.
    Hofbauer, H.
    TU Wien, Austria.
    Waldheim, L.
    SFC.
    Engvall, K.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Neubauer, Y.
    Technical University of Berlin, Germany.
    Funcia, I.
    CENER.
    Gil, J.
    CENER.
    del Campo, I.
    CENER.
    Wilson, I.
    University of Glasgow, UK.
    Khan, Z.
    University of Glasgow, UK.
    Gall, D.
    Gothenburg University.
    Gómez-Barea, A.
    University of Seville, Spain.
    Schmidt, F.
    Umeå University.
    Lin, Leteng
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Strand, Michael
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Anca-Couce, A.
    Graz University of Technology, Austria.
    von Berg, L.
    Graz University of Technology, Austria.
    Larsson, A.
    GoBiGas.
    Sánchez Hervás, J.M.
    CIEMAT.
    van Egmond, B.F.
    ECN part of TNO.
    Geusebroek, M.
    ECN part of TNO.
    Toonen, A.
    ECN part of TNO.
    Kuipers, J.
    ECN part of TNO.
    Cieplik, M.
    ECN part of TNO.
    Boymans, E.H.
    ECN part of TNO.
    Grootjes, A.J.
    ECN part of TNO.
    Fischer, F.
    TUM.
    Schmid, M.
    University of Stuttgart, Germany.
    Maric, J.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Defoort, F.
    CEA.
    Ravel, S.
    CEA.
    Thiery, S.
    CEA.
    Balland, M.
    CEA.
    Kienzl, N.
    Bioenergy 2020+.
    Martini, S.
    Bioenergy 2020+.
    Loipersböck, J.
    Bioenergy 2020+.
    Basset, E.
    ENGIE Lab CRIGEN.
    Barba, A.
    ENGIE Lab CRIGEN.
    Willeboer, W.
    RWE-Essent.
    Venderbosch, R.
    BTG.
    Carpenter, D.
    NREL.
    Pinto, F.
    LNEG.
    Barisano, D.
    ENEA.
    Baratieri, M.
    UNIBZ.
    Ballesteros, R.
    UCLM.
    Mourao Vilela, C. (Redaktör)
    ECN part of TNO.
    Vreugdenhil, B.J. (Redaktör)
    ECN part of TNO.
    Gas analysis in gasification of biomass and waste: Guideline report: Document 2 - Factsheets on gas analysis techniques2018Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Gasification is generally acknowledged as one of the technologies that will enable the large-scale production of biofuels and chemicals from biomass and waste. One of the main technical challenges associated to the deployment of biomass gasification as a commercial technology is the cleaning and upgrading of the product gas. The contaminants of product gas from biomass/waste gasification include dust, tars, alkali metals, BTX, sulphur-, nitrogen- and chlorine compounds, and heavy metals. Proper measurement of the components and contaminants of the product gas is essential for the monitoring of gasification-based plants (efficiency, product quality, by-products), as well as for the proper design of the downstream gas cleaning train (for example, scrubbers, sorbents, etc.). The deployment and implementation of inexpensive yet accurate gas analysis techniques to monitor the fate of gas contaminants might play an important role in the commercialization of biomass and waste gasification processes.

    This special report commissioned by the IEA Bioenergy Task 33 group compiles a representative part of the extensive work developed in the last years by relevant actors in the field of gas analysis applied to (biomass and waste) gasification. The approach of this report has been based on the creation of a team of contributing partners who have supplied material to the report. This networking approach has been complemented with a literature review. This guideline report would like to become a platform for the reinforcement of the network of partners working on the development and application of gas analysis, thus fostering collaboration and exchange of knowledge. As such, this report should become a living document which incorporates in future coming progress and developments in the field.

  • 280.
    Bismarck, Alexander
    et al.
    Vienna University of Technology.
    Oksman, Kristiina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Bionanocomposites: Processing Methods, Characterization, and Properties2014Ingår i: Handbook of Green Materials: Processing Technologies, Properties and Applications, Singapore: World Scientific and Engineering Academy and Society, 2014Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 281.
    Bjervås, Jens
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH).
    Simulation of dry matter loss in biomass storage2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Material degradation and a decrease of fuel quality are common phenomena when storing biomass. A magnitude of 7.8% has been reported to degrade over five months when storing spruce wood chips in the winter in Central Europe. This thesis presents a theoretical study of biomass storage. It includes investigations of bio-chemical, chemical and physical processes that occur during storage of chipped woody biomass. These processes lead to degradation caused by micro-activity, chemical oxidation reactions and physical transformation of water. Micro-activity was modeled with Monod kinetics which are Michaelis-Menten type of expressions. The rate expressions were complemented with dependency functions describing the impact of oxygen, moisture and temperature. The woody biomass was divided into three fractions. These fractions represent how hard different components of the wood are to degrade by microorganisms. Chemical oxidation was modeled as a first order rate expression with respect to the active components of the wood. Two different cases have been simulated during the project. Firstly, an isolated system with an initial oxygen concentration of air was considered. This case displayed a temperature increase of approximately 2˚C and a material degradation less than 1%. The second case considered an isolated system with an endless depot of oxygen. This case resulted in degradation losses around 0.45-0.95% in the temperature range between 65-80˚C during approximately 300 days of storage. The temperature increased slowly due to chemical oxidation.

  • 282. Bjurström, H
    et al.
    Herbert, Roger
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära.
    The Swedish ash programme 2002 - 2008 - Biomass, wastes, peat - any solid fuel but coal.2009Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 283.
    Bjällmark, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, Medicinsk teknik.
    Larsson, Matilda
    KTH, Medicinsk teknik.
    Lind, Britta
    KTH, Medicinsk teknik.
    Brodin, Lars-Åke
    KTH, Medicinsk teknik.
    Winter, Reidar
    Westholm, Carl
    Jacobsen, Per
    Velocity tracking - a novel method for quantitative analysis of longitudinal myocardial function2007Ingår i: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography, ISSN 0894-7317, E-ISSN 1097-6795, Vol. 20, nr 7, s. 847-856Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Doppler tissue imaging is a method for quantitative analysis of longitudinal myocardial velocity. Commercially available ultrasound systems can only present velocity information using a color Dopplerbased overlapping continuous color scale. The analysis is time-consuming and does not allow for simultaneous analysis in different projections. We have developed a new method, velocity tracking, using a stepwise color coding of the regional longitudinal myocardial velocity. The velocity data from 3 apical projections are presented as static and dynamic bull's-eye plots to give a 3-dimensional understanding of the function of the left ventricle. The static bull's-eye plot can display peak systolic velocity, late diastofic tissue velocity, or the sum of peak systolic velocity and early diastolic tissue velocity. Conversely, the dynamic bull's-eye plot displays how the myocardial velocities change over one heart cycle. Velocity tracking allows for a fast, simple, and hituitive visual analysis of the regional longitudinal contraction pattern of the left ventricle with a great potential to identify characteristic pathologic patterns.

  • 284.
    Bjällmark, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinsk teknik.
    Larsson, Matilda
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinsk teknik.
    Lind, Britta
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinsk teknik.
    Brodin, Lars-Åke
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinsk teknik.
    Winter, Reidar
    Westholm, Carl
    Jacobsen, Per
    Velocity tracking - a novel method for quantitative analysis of longitudinal myocardial function2007Ingår i: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography, ISSN 0894-7317, E-ISSN 1097-6795, Vol. 20, nr 7, s. 847-856Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Doppler tissue imaging is a method for quantitative analysis of longitudinal myocardial velocity. Commercially available ultrasound systems can only present velocity information using a color Dopplerbased overlapping continuous color scale. The analysis is time-consuming and does not allow for simultaneous analysis in different projections. We have developed a new method, velocity tracking, using a stepwise color coding of the regional longitudinal myocardial velocity. The velocity data from 3 apical projections are presented as static and dynamic bull's-eye plots to give a 3-dimensional understanding of the function of the left ventricle. The static bull's-eye plot can display peak systolic velocity, late diastofic tissue velocity, or the sum of peak systolic velocity and early diastolic tissue velocity. Conversely, the dynamic bull's-eye plot displays how the myocardial velocities change over one heart cycle. Velocity tracking allows for a fast, simple, and hituitive visual analysis of the regional longitudinal contraction pattern of the left ventricle with a great potential to identify characteristic pathologic patterns.

  • 285.
    Björk, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Biological Sensing and DNA Templated Electronics Using Conjugated Polymers2007Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Conjugated polymers have been found useful in a wide range of applications such as solar cells, sensor elements and printed electronics, due to their optical and electronic properties. Functionalization with charged side chains has enabled water solubility, resulting in an enhanced interaction with biomolecules. This thesis focus on the emerging research fields, where these conjugated polyelectrolytes (CPEs) are combined with biomolecules for biological sensing and DNA nanowire assembling.

    CPEs have shown large potential in biomolecular detection where the optical read out is due to the geometrical alternation in the backbone and aggregation state. This thesis focused on transferring the biomolecular detection to a surface of CPEs. The characterization of the CPE layer show that a hydrogel can be formed, and how the layer can undergo geometrical changes upon external stimulus such as pH change. A selective sensor surface can be created by imprinting ssDNA or an antibody in the CPE layer. The discrimination for complementary DNA hybridization and specific antibody interaction can be monitored by surface plasmon resonance or quartz crystal microbalance. We have also taken the step out from the controlled test tube experiments to the complex environment of the cell showing the potential for staining of compartments and structures in live and fixed cell. Depending on the conditions and CPE used, cell nuclei, acidic vesicles and cytoskeleton structure can be visualized. Furthermore, the live staining shows no sign of toxic effect on cultured fibroblasts.

    CPEs can also be a valuable element when assembling electronics in the true nano regime. I have used DNA as building template due to its attractive size features, with a width of around 2 nm and a length scale in the µm regime, and the inbuilt base-paring recognition elements. This thesis shows how DNA can be decorated with CPEs and stretched on surfaces into a model for aligned semiconducting nanowire geometries. Not only making the template structures is of importance, but also how to place them on the correct surface position, i.e. on electrodes. Strategies for positioning DNA nanowires using transfer printing and surface energy patterning methods have therefore been developed in the thesis. The stretched DNA decorated with CPE also offers a way to further study the molecular binding interaction between the two molecules. Single molecular spectroscopy in combination with polarization has given information of the variation of the CPE binding along a DNA chain.

  • 286.
    Björk, Sara
    et al.
    KTH, Centra, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Proteinvetenskap, Nanobioteknologi.
    Jönsson, Håkan
    KTH, Centra, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Proteinvetenskap, Nanobioteknologi.
    Microfluidics for cell factory and bioprocess development2019Ingår i: Current Opinion in Biotechnology, ISSN 0958-1669, E-ISSN 1879-0429, Vol. 55, s. 95-102Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioindustry is expanding to an increasing variety of food, chemical and pharmaceutical products, each requiring rapid development of a dedicated cell factory and bioprocess. Microfluidic tools are, together with tools from synthetic biology and metabolic modeling, being employed in cell factory and bioprocess development to speed up development and address new products. Recent examples of microfluidics for bioprocess development range from integrated devices for DNA assembly and transformation, to high throughput screening of cell factory libraries, and micron scale bioreactors for process optimization. These improvements act to improve the biotechnological engineering cycle with tools for building, testing and evaluating cell factories and bioprocesses by increasing throughput, parallelization and automation.

  • 287.
    Björklund, Stefan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Microtubule associated proteins 1B and 1S: interactions with NR1 and NR3A2008Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

     

    In previous studies the carboxyl-terminus of microtubule-associated protein 1S was shown to interact with the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit NR3A (Eriksson et. al.)1.  In this study, interactions between three truncations of the microtubule-associated proteins 1B and one truncation of the microtubule-associated protein 1S carboxyl-terminus and the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunits NR1 and NR3A were examined. The study showed that an interaction occurred between amino acids 2167 to 2365 of the microtubule-associated protein 1B and NR3A.  That region of microtubule associated protein 1B corresponds to a microtubule-binding region in the light chain. It has been shown in earlier studies (Reviewed in Halpain S. et a12, Riederer, BM.  et.al3.) that the light chain is a active part of the protein that have been post translational cleaved. The MAP 1 proteins are present in all tissue but has higher concentrations in the Post Synaptic Density of neurons in the central nervous system.  The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors are present in glial cells and in the dendritic shafts of the central nervous system neurons (Eriksson et. al.)1 . The diseases were these proteins may play a part is mainly memory destructive diseases such as Alzheimers disease and in muscular dystrophy, but these assumptions are still being speculated.

     

  • 288. Björlenius, Berndt
    Avloppsreningsverket-hur fungerar det?2005Ingår i: Läkemedel och miljö / [ed] Apoteket AB, Stockholm: Apoteket AB , 2005Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 289.
    Björlenius, Berndt
    Stockholm Water Co..
    Avloppsverkens förmåga att ta hand om läkemdelsrester och andra farliga ämnen. Rapport 57942008Rapport (Refereegranskat)
  • 290.
    Björlenius, Berndt
    Stockholm Water Company.
    En jämförelse av olika reningsmetoder för avskiljning av läkemedelsrester: Resultat från Stockholm Vattens projekt 2009Ingår i: Den Nordiske / Foredrag, Skanderborg: Dansk Vand- og Spildevandsforening , 2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 291.
    Björlenius, Berndt
    Stockholm Water Company.
    Läkemedelsrester i Stockholms vattenmiljö-förekomst, förebyggande åtgärder och rening av avloppsvatten2010Rapport (Refereegranskat)
  • 292.
    Björlenius, Berndt
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Industriell bioteknologi.
    Pharmaceuticals – improved removal from municipal wastewater and their occurrence in the Baltic Sea2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Pharmaceutical residues are found in the environment due to extensive use in human and veterinary medicine. The active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) have a potential impact in non-target organisms. Municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are not designed to remove APIs.

    In this thesis, two related matters are addressed 1) evaluation of advanced treatment to remove APIs from municipal wastewater and 2) the prevalence and degradation of APIs in the Baltic Sea.

    A stationary pilot plant with nanofiltration (NF) and a mobile pilot plant with activated carbon and ozonation were designed to study the removal of APIs at four WWTPs. By NF, removal reached 90%, but the retentate needed further treatment. A predictive model of the rejection of APIs by NF was developed based on the variables: polarizability, globularity, ratio hydrophobic to polar water accessible surface and charge. The pilot plants with granular and powdered activated carbon (GAC) and (PAC) removed more than 95% of the APIs. Screening of activated carbon products was essential, because of a broad variation in adsorption capacity. Recirculation of PAC or longer contact time, increased the removal of APIs. Ozonation with 5-7 g/m3 ozone resulted in 87-95% removal of APIs. Elevated activity and transcription of biomarkers indicated presence of xenobiotics in regular effluent. Chemical analysis of APIs, together with analysis of biomarkers, were valuable and showed that GAC-filtration and ozonation can be implemented to remove APIs in WWTPs, with decreased biomarker responses.

    Sampling of the Baltic Sea showed presence of APIs in 41 out of 43 locations. A developed grey box model predicted concentration and half-life of carbamazepine in the Baltic Sea to be 1.8 ng/L and 1300 d respectively.

    In conclusion, APIs were removed to 95% by GAC or PAC treatment. The additional treatment resulted in lower biomarker responses than today and some APIs were shown to be widespread in the aquatic environment.

  • 293.
    Björling, Erik
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO).
    Databases for antibody-based proteomics2008Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans are believed to have ~20,500 protein-coding genes andmuch effort has over the last years been put into the characterizationand localization of the encoded proteins in order to understand theirfunctions. One such effort is the Human Proteome Resource (HPR)project, started in Sweden 2003 with the aim to generate specificantibodies to each human protein and to use those antibodies toanalyze the human proteome by screening human tissues and cells.The work reported in this thesis deals with structuring of data fromantibody-based proteomics assays, with focus on the importance ofaggregating and presenting data in a way that is easy to apprehend.The goals were to model and build databases for collecting, searchingand analyzing data coming out of the large-scale HPR project and tomake all collected data publicly available. A public website, theHuman Protein Atlas, was developed giving all end-users in thescientific community access to the HPR database with proteinexpression data. In 2008, the Human Protein Atlas was released in its4th version containing more than 6000 antibodies, covering more than25% of the human proteins. All the collected protein expression datais searchable on the public website. End-users can query for proteinsthat show high expression in one tissue and no expression in anotherand possibly find tissue specific biomarkers. Queries can also beconstructed to find proteins with different expression levels in normalvs. cancer tissues. The proteins found by such a query could identifypotential biomarkers for cancer that could be used as diagnosticmarkers and maybe even be involved in cancer therapy in the future.Validation of antibodies is important in order to get reliable resultsfrom different assays. It has been noted that some antibodies arereliable in certain assays but not in others and therefore anotherpublicly available database, the Antibodypedia, has been createdwhere any antibody producer can submit their binders together withthe validation data in order for end users to purchase the bestantibody for their protein target and their intended assay.

  • 294.
    Björling, Erik
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Proteomik.
    Lindskog, Cecilia
    Uppsala Univ, Rudbeck Lab.
    Oksvold, Per
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Proteomik.
    Linné, Jerker
    Uppsala Univ, Rudbeck Lab.
    Kampf, Caroline
    Uppsala Univ, Rudbeck Lab.
    Hober, Sophia
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Proteomik.
    Uhlén, Mathias
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO).
    Pontén, Fredrik
    Uppsala Univ, Rudbeck Lab.
    A web-based tool for in silico biomarker discovery based on tissue-specific protein profiles in normal and cancer tissues2008Ingår i: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics, ISSN 1535-9476, Vol. 7, nr 5, s. 825-844Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we report the development of a publicly available Web-based analysis tool for exploring proteins expressed in a tissue- or cancer-specific manner. The search queries are based on the human tissue profiles in normal and cancer cells in the Human Protein Atlas portal and rely on the individual annotation performed by pathologists of images representing immunohistochemically stained tissue sections. Approximately 1.8 million images representing more than 3000 antibodies directed toward human proteins were used in the study. The search tool allows for the systematic exploration of the protein atlas to discover potential protein biomarkers. Such biomarkers include tissue-specific markers, cell type-specific markers, tumor type-specific markers, markers of malignancy, and prognostic or predictive markers of cancers. Here we show examples of database queries to generate sets of candidate biomarker proteins for several of these different categories. Expression profiles of candidate proteins can then subsequently be validated by examination of the underlying high resolution images. The present study shows examples of search strategies revealing several potential protein biomarkers, including proteins specifically expressed in normal cells and in cancer cells from specified tumor types. The lists of candidate proteins can be used as a starting point for further validation in larger patient cohorts using both immunological approaches and technologies utilizing more classical proteomics tools.

  • 295.
    Björling, Erik
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Proteomik.
    Uhlén, Mathias
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Proteomik.
    Antibodypedia: a portal for sharing antibody and antigen validation data2008Ingår i: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics, ISSN 1535-9476, Vol. 7, nr 10, s. 2028-2037Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibodies are useful tools to characterize the components of the human proteome and to validate potential protein biomarkers discovered through various clinical proteomics efforts. The lack of validation results across various applications for most antibodies often makes it necessary to perform cumbersome investigations to ensure specificity of a particular antibody in a certain application. A need therefore exists for a standardized system for sharing validation data about publicly available antibodies and to allow antibody providers as well as users to contribute and edit experimental evidence data, including data also on the antigen. Here we describe a new publicly available portal called Antibodypedia, which has been developed to allow sharing of information regarding validation of antibodies in which providers can submit their own validation results and reliability scores. We report standardized validation criteria and submission rules for applications such as Western blots, protein arrays, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence. The contributor is expected to provide experimental evidence and a validation score for each antibody, and the users can subsequently provide feedback and comments on the use of the antibody. The database thus provides a virtual resource of publicly available antibodies toward human proteins with accompanying experimental evidence supporting an individual validation score for each antibody in an application-specific manner.

  • 296.
    Björn (Fredriksson), Annika
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Shakeri Yekta, Sepehr
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Ziels, Ryan
    Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center. Department of Civil Engineering, University of British Columbia, Columbia, Canada.
    Karl, Gustafsson
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Svensson, Bo H
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Anna, Karlsson
    Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center. Scandinavian Biogas Fuels AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Feasibility of OFMSW co-digestion with sewage sludge for increasing biogas production at wastewater treatment plants2017Ingår i: Euro-Mediterranean Journal for Environmental Integration, ISSN 2365-6433, Vol. 2, nr 21Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has the ambition to increase its annual biogas production from the current level of 1.9 to 15 TWh by 2030. The unused capacity of existing anaerobic digesters at wastewater treatment plants is among the options to accomplish this goal. This study investigated the feasibility of utilizing the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) as a co-substrate, with primary and waste-activated sewage sludge (PWASS) for production of biogas, corresponding to 3:1 ratio on volatile solid (VS) basis. The results demonstrated that co-digestion of OFMSW with PWASS at an organic loading rate of 5 gVS l−1 day−1 has the potential to increase the biogas production approximately four times. The daily biogas production increased from 1.0 ± 0.1 to 3.8 ± 0.3 l biogasl−1 day−1, corresponding to a specific methane production of 420 ± 30 Nml methane gVS−1 during the laboratory experiment. Co-digestion of OFMSW with PWASS showed a 50:50 distribution of hydrogenotrophic and aceticlastic methanogens in the digester and enhanced the turnover kinetics of intermediate products (acetate, propionate, and oleate). Practical limitations potentially include the need for sludge dewatering to maintain a sufficient hydraulic retention time (17 days in this study), as well as additional energy consumption for mixing due to an increased sludge apparent viscosity (from 1.8 ± 0.1 to 45 ± 4.8 mPa*s in this study) at elevated OFMSW-loading rates.

  • 297. Björn, Lars Olof
    et al.
    Bengtson, Sven-Axel
    Shaoshan, Li
    Hecker, Christoph
    Ullah, Saleem
    Roos, Arne
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Nilsson, Annica M.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Thermal emissivity of avian eggshells2016Ingår i: Journal of Thermal Biology, ISSN 0306-4565, E-ISSN 1879-0992, Vol. 57, s. 1-5Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The hypothesis has been tested that evolution has resulted in lower thermal emissivity of eggs of birds breeding openly in cold climates than of eggs of birds that nest under protective covering or in warmer climates. Directional thermal emissivity has been estimated from directional-hemispherical reflectance spectra. Due to several methodological difficulties the absolute emissivity is not accurately determined, but differences between species are obvious. Most notably, small waders of the genus Calidris, breeding in cold climates on the tundra, and in most cases with uniparental nest attendance, have low directional emissivity of their eggshells, about 0.92 when integration is carried out for wavelengths up to 16 mu m. Species belonging to Galloanserinae have the highest directional emissivity, about 0.96, of their eggs. No differences due to climate or breeding conditions were found within this group. Eggs of most other birds tested possess intermediate emissivity, but the values for Pica pica and Corvus corone cornix are as low as for Calidris. Large species-dependent differences in spectral reflectance were found at specific wavelengths. For instance, at 4.259 mu m the directional-hemispherical reflectance for galliforms range from 0.05 to 0.09, while for Fratercula arctica and Fulmarus glacialis it is about 0.3. The reflection peaks at 6.5 and 11.3 mu m due to calcite are differentially attenuated in different species. In conclusion, the hypothesis that evolution has resulted in lower thermal emissivity of bird eggs being exposed in cold climates is not supported by our results. The emissivity is not clearly related to nesting habits or climate, and it is unlikely that the small differences observed are ecologically important. The spectral differences between eggs that nevertheless exist should be taken into account when using infrared thermometers for estimating the surface temperature of avian eggs.

  • 298.
    Blissing, Annica
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Thiopurine S-methyltransferase - characterization of variants and ligand binding2017Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) belongs to the Class I S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase (SAM-MT) super family of structurally related proteins. Common to the members of this large protein family is the catalysis of methylation reactions using S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) as a methyl group donor, although SAM-MTs act on a wide range of different substrates and carry out numerous biologically important functions. While the natural function of TPMT is unknown, this enzyme is involved in the metabolism of thiopurines, a class of pharmaceutical substances administered in treatment of immune-related disorders. Specifically, methylation by TPMT inactivates thiopurines and their metabolic intermediates, which reduces the efficacy of clinical treatment and increases the risk of adverse side effects. To further complicate matters, TPMT is a polymorphic enzyme with over 40 naturally occurring variants known to date, most of which exhibit lowered methylation activity towards thiopurines. Consequently, there are individual variations in TPMTmediated thiopurine inactivation, and the administered dose has to be adjusted prior to clinical treatment to avoid harmful side effects.

    Although the clinical relevance of TPMT is well established, few studies have investigated the molecular causes of the reduced methylation activity of variant proteins. In this thesis, the results of biophysical characterization of two variant proteins, TPMT*6 (Y180F) and TPMT*8 (R215H), are presented. While the properties of TPMT*8 were indistinguishable from those of the wild-type protein, TPMT*6 was found to be somewhat destabilized. Interestingly, the TPMT*6 amino acid substitution did not affect the functionality or folding pattern of the variant protein. Therefore, the decreased in vivo functionality reported for TPMT*6 is probably caused by increased proteolytic degradation in response to the reduced stability of this protein variant, rather than loss of function.

    Also presented herein are novel methodological approaches for studies of TPMT and its variants. Firstly, the advantages of using 8-anilinonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid (ANS) to probe TPMT tertiary structure and active site integrity are presented. ANS binds exclusively to the native state of TPMT with high affinity (KD ~ 0.2 μm) and a 1:1 ratio. The stability of TPMT was dramatically increased by binding of ANS, which was shown to co-localize with the structurally similar adenine moiety of the cofactor SAM. Secondly, an enzyme activity assay based on isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is presented. Using this approach, the kinetics of 6-MP and 6-TG methylation by TPMT has been characterized.

  • 299.
    Blomqvist, J.
    et al.
    Department of Microbiology, Uppsala Biocenter, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    South, E.
    Department of Microbiology, Uppsala Biocenter, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Tiukova, L.
    Department of Microbiology, Uppsala Biocenter, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Momeni, M. H.
    Department of Molecular Biology, Uppsala Biocenter, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hansson, H.
    Department of Molecular Biology, Uppsala Biocenter, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ståhlberg, J.
    Department of Molecular Biology, Uppsala Biocenter, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Horn, S. J.
    Department of Chemistry, Biotechnology and Food Science, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway.
    Schnürer, Johan
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Passoth, V.
    Department of Microbiology, Uppsala Biocenter, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysate by the alternative industrial ethanol yeast Dekkera bruxellensis2011Ingår i: Letters in Applied Microbiology, ISSN 0266-8254, E-ISSN 1472-765X, Vol. 53, nr 1, s. 73-78Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Testing the ability of the alternative ethanol production yeast Dekkera bruxellensis to produce ethanol from lignocellulose hydrolysate and comparing it to Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Methods and Results: Industrial isolates of D. bruxellensis and S. cerevisiae were cultivated in small-scale batch fermentations of enzymatically hydrolysed steam exploded aspen sawdust. Different dilutions of hydrolysate were tested. None of the yeasts grew in undiluted or 1 : 2 diluted hydrolysate [final glucose concentration always adjusted to 40 g l(-1) (0.22 mol l(-1))]. This was most likely due to the presence of inhibitors such as acetate or furfural. In 1 : 5 hydrolysate, S. cerevisiae grew, but not D. bruxellensis, and in 1 : 10 hydrolysate, both yeasts grew. An external vitamin source (e.g. yeast extract) was essential for growth of D. bruxellensis in this lignocellulosic hydrolysate and strongly stimulated S. cerevisiae growth and ethanol production. Ethanol yields of 0 42 +/- 0 01 g ethanol (g glucose)(-1) were observed for both yeasts in 1 : 10 hydrolysate. In small-scale continuous cultures with cell recirculation, with a gradual increase in the hydrolysate concentration, D. bruxellensis was able to grow in 1 : 5 hydrolysate. In bioreactor experiments with cell recirculation, hydrolysate contents were increased up to 1 : 2 hydrolysate, without significant losses in ethanol yields for both yeasts and only slight differences in viable cell counts, indicating an ability of both yeasts to adapt to toxic compounds in the hydrolysate.

    Conclusions: Dekkera bruxellensis and S. cerevisiae have a similar potential to ferment lignocellulose hydrolysate to ethanol and to adapt to fermentation inhibitors in the hydrolysate.

    Significance and Impact of the study: This is the first study investigating the potential of D. bruxellensis to ferment lignocellulosic hydrolysate. Its high competitiveness in industrial fermentations makes D. bruxellensis an interesting alternative for ethanol production from those substrates.

  • 300.
    Blomqvist, Johanna
    et al.
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Eberhard, Thomas
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Schnürer, Johan
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Passoth, Volkmar
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Fermentation characteristics of Dekkera bruxellensis strains2010Ingår i: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, ISSN 0175-7598, E-ISSN 1432-0614, Vol. 87, nr 4, s. 1487-1497Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of pH, temperature and carbon source (glucose and maltose) on growth rate and ethanol yield of Dekkera bruxellensis was investigated using a full-factorial design. Growth rate and ethanol yield were lower on maltose than on glucose. In controlled oxygen-limited batch cultivations, the ethanol yield of the different combinations varied from 0.42 to 0.45 g (g glucose)(-1) and growth rates varied from 0.037 to 0.050 h(-1). The effect of temperature on growth rate and ethanol yield was negligible. It was not possible to model neither growth rate nor ethanol yield from the full-factorial design, as only marginal differences were observed in the conditions tested. When comparing three D. bruxellensis strains and two industrial isolates of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, S. cerevisiae grew five times faster, but the ethanol yields were 0-13% lower. The glycerol yields of S. cerevisiae strains were up to six-fold higher compared to D. bruxellensis, and the biomass yields reached only 72-84% of D. bruxellensis. Our results demonstrate that D. bruxellensis is robust to large changes in pH and temperature and may have a more energy-efficient metabolism under oxygen limitation than S. cerevisiae.

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