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  • 251.
    Bygren, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Gähler, Michael
    Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    The Gender Gap in Workplace Authority in Sweden 1968-2000 - A Family Affair?2007Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 252.
    Bygren, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Kumlin, Johanna
    Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Mechanisms of Organizational Segregation: Organizational Characteristics and the Sex of Newly Recruited Employees2005Ingår i: Work and Occupations, Vol. 32, s. 39-65Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the process underlying sex segregation at the organizational level by focusing on the process through which organizations renew their workforce. The authors used a sample of 1,460 Swedish workplaces that recruited 75,261 employees during the period 1991 to 1995. The results indicate that the most important factor in reproducing segregation at the organizational level is sex segregation in the occupations from which organizations recruit their personnel. Organizations’ sex composition is to a very high degree determined by the sex composition of the occupations they employ. In addition, large organizations and expanding organizations tend to make more sex-atypical recruitments compared with other organizations.

  • 253.
    Bygren, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Kumlin, Johanna
    Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Mechanisms of Organizational Segregation: Organizational Characteristics and the Sex of Newly Recruited Employees2005Ingår i: Work and Occupations, Vol. 32, nr 1, s. 39-65Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the process underlying sex segregation at the organizational level by focusing on the process through which organizations renew their workforce. The authors used a sample of 1,460 Swedish workplaces that recruited 75,261 employees during the period 1991 to 1995. The results indicate that the most important factor in reproducing segregation at the organizational level is sex segregation in the occupations from which organizations recruit their personnel. Organizations’ sex composition is to a very high degree determined by the sex composition of the occupations they employ. In addition, large organizations and expanding organizations tend to make more sex-atypical recruitments compared with other organizations.

  • 254. Bygren, Magnus
    et al.
    Kumlin, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Mechanisms of organizational sex segregation: Organizational characteristics and the sex of newly recruited employees2005Ingår i: Work and Occupations, ISSN 0730-8884, Vol. 32, nr 1, s. 39-65Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 255.
    Byun, Young-hwan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Government Redistribution and Public Opinion: A Matter of Contention or Consensus?2019Ingår i: International Journal of Sociology, ISSN 0020-7659, E-ISSN 1557-9336, Vol. 49, nr 3, s. 204-221Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous comparative research has been guided by the idea that the level of government redistribution accords with the degree of consensus on redistribution among citizens. By extending the scope of analysis to non-Western rich democracies, I offer an alternative account that associates public opinion with actual redistribution. I argue that it is not a broad consensus but a clearly formed contention among citizens that concurs with more redistributive governments. Using the International Social Survey Program (ISSP) 2016 data, this study compares social cleavages in redistributive preferences in 23 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. Countries with the least egalitarian governments, such as South Korea, Taiwan, Chile, and Israel, have broadly consented high-levels of support for redistribution. What distinguishes them from more redistributive countries is that those common redistributive cleavages such as income, education, and gender are either nonexistent or weak, indicating that the economically disadvantaged do not prefer redistribution significantly more than the advantaged. The statistical results support an explanation of the association between redistributive preferences and the size of redistribution based on “cleavage” rather than “consensus.”

  • 256.
    Bäckman, Olof
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Anknytning till arbetsmarknaden och ungas etablering2010Ingår i: Social rapport 2010, Stockholm: Socialstyrelsen , 2010, s. 54-87Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 257.
    Bäckman, Olof
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Att få fotfäste på arbetsmarknaden2011Ingår i: Utanförskap / [ed] Susanne Alm, Olof Bäckman, Anna Gavanas, Anders Nilsson, Stockholm: Dialogos Förlag, 2011Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 258.
    Bäckman, Olof
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Gymnasieavhopp ökar risken att stå utan jobb2010Ingår i: Välfärd (SCB-statistik), nr 3, s. 6-7Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 259.
    Bäckman, Olof
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    High School Dropout, Resource Attainment, and Criminal Convictions2017Ingår i: Journal of research in crime and delinquency, ISSN 0022-4278, E-ISSN 1552-731X, Vol. 54, nr 5, s. 715-749Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives:

    To examine the effect of high school dropout on subsequent criminal convictions and how postdropout resource attainment in terms of education and employment may modify such an effect.

    Methods:

    Propensity score matching (PSM) using administrative register data covering two full Swedish birth cohorts is employed to assess the effect of dropout on convictions. Event history analysis is used to examine the modifying effect of subsequent resource attainment.

    Results:

    The PSM analysis reveals an effect of dropout on convictions for men, whereas no evidence of such an effect is found for women. Returning to school after dropout significantly reduces the crime-inducing effect of dropout among men. Finding occupation after dropout also reduces the risk for criminal conviction but does so independently of the effect of dropout.

    Conclusion:

    Since resource attainment after the dropout event modifies the effect on criminal convictions, it is concluded that policies such as lifelong learning strategies promoting opportunities for a “second chance” may, besides their intended consequences, also have crime preventive side effects.

  • 260.
    Bäckman, Olof
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Longitudinal Studies on Sickness Absence in Sweden1998Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The research object of this thesis is sickness absence taking behavior in Sweden. In four empirical studies, using longitudinal data, the thesis investigates sickness absence taking behavior as a result of the impact of specific structural factors.

    The first empirical study (Chapter II) examines the relationship between the annual national sickness absence and unemployment rates for the period 1935-1990. The effects of changes of the replacement level are also studied. The analyses show that the widespread notion of an inverse relationship between the unemployment rate and the sickness absence rate cannot be verified by a closer analysis of available data.

    The remaining three empirical studies use micro-data to study sickness absence behavior. Chapter III closely examines the effect of the reduction in sickness cash benefits of March 1 1991 on the short-term absence rate. The theoretical perspective is derived from rational choice theory. Intensity regressions on duration data show that the objectives that were linked to the reduction of benefits-lower sickness absence rates and an equal distribution of the burdens brought about by the reduction-are incompatible. The weaker groups that are likely to have the greatest need for sickness absence reduce their absence taking more than stronger groups in the labor market.

    Chapter IV, co-authored with Joakim Palme, addresses the question of how conditions in childhood affect absence taking in adulthood. Analyses of data of a Stockholm cohort reveal how conditions in childhood and early adolescence structure the absence taking behavior of individuals. The chapter shows the endurance of these effects, a finding that is most clearly manifested in what has been labeled "the social imprint effect".

    The fourth of the empirical studies (Chapter V) treats the issue of gender differences in short-term absence rates. The study focuses on the impact of the gender composition of work places, but hierarchical positioning and integration among workers are also investigated. The results indicate that numerical representation conditions the short-term absence rate of women in the sense that women at workplaces where they constitute a small minority have a lower short-term absence rate than other women. For men, the hierarchical position in which they work is a more important determinant for the short-term absence rate.

    The results provide new insights for the study of sickness absence from a sociological perspective by specifying the mechanisms through which the social structure, in terms of institutional constraints, incentives, social stratification, and organizational traits of job sites, influences the behavior of individuals.

  • 261.
    Bäckman, Olof
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Ungdomar utanför – ett nordiskt perspektiv: vad innebär avhopp från gymnasiet?2014Ingår i: På väg in: ungdomars liv och försörjning: rapport från forskarseminarium i Umeå 15-16 januari 2014, Stockholm: Försäkringskassan , 2014Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 262.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Bergmark, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Escaping Welfare? Social Assistance Dynamics in Sweden2011Ingår i: Journal of European Social Policy, ISSN 0958-9287, E-ISSN 1461-7269, Vol. 21, nr 5, s. 486-500Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The article analyses temporal patterns in social assistance receipt in Sweden in the 2000s by looking at which circumstances facilitate versus reduce the possibilities of a person ceasing to be a recipient of social assistance. The analysis is guided by the following questions: What conditions lead people to terminate periods of social assistance receipt? Which factors are central to exits with different subsequent income patterns? How do these explain the different situations of recipients prior to termination? We focus particularly on income maintenance prior to spells of social assistance. We use event history data on monthly social assistance take-up covering the total adult Swedish population for the years 2002–2004. We adopt a gamma mixture model to control for unobserved heterogeneity. The results suggest that previous experience of both employment and social assistance receipt are important determinants for all types of exits from social assistance recipiency. A negative duration dependence is found also when unobserved heterogeneity is controlled for.

  • 263.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Esser, Ingrid
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Ferrarini, Tommy
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Korpi, Tomas
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Nelson, Kenneth
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Rojas, Yerko
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Sjöberg, Ola
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Comparative Indicators on Job Quality and Social Protection2009Ingår i: Quality of Work in the European Union: Concept, Data and Debates from a Transnational Perspective / [ed] Ana M. Guillén, Svenn-Åge Dahl, Brussels: Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2009Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 264.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Estrada, Felipe
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Locked Up and Locked Out? The Impact of Imprisonment on Labour Market Attachment2018Ingår i: British Journal of Criminology, ISSN 0007-0955, E-ISSN 1464-3529, Vol. 58, nr 5, s. 1044-1065Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates what effects a first prison sentence has on labour market inclusion, both by comparing those sentenced to prison to the population as a whole, and by comparing groups of convicted offenders. We utilize longitudinal data on criminal sanctions and earnings available for two complete birth cohorts of Swedish men (N = 107,337). These data enable us to compare the labour market attachment of prison inmates both before and after imprisonment. Results from propensity score matching show small negative effects of imprisonment on post-release labour market attachment. Moreover, we find no effect for those without pre-sentence labour market attachment. Thus, the negative effects are restricted to those with some labour market attachment before imprisonment.

  • 265.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Estrada, Felipe
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Substance Abuse, Crime and the Life Course2017Ingår i: The Routledge International Handbook of Life-Course Criminology / [ed] Arjan Blokland, Victor van der Geest, Routledge, 2017Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 266.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kriminologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Estrada, Felipe
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Shannon, David
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kriminologiska institutionen. The Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention, Sweden.
    The life course of young male and female offenders: Stability or change between different birth cohorts?2014Ingår i: British Journal of Criminology, ISSN 0007-0955, E-ISSN 1464-3529, Vol. 54, nr 3, s. 393-410Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Individuals’ life chances are shaped by the times and events that they experience. This emphasizes the need for studies that focus on staggered birth cohorts. The article presents a new longitudi-nal data set that includes three complete Swedish birth cohorts, born in 1965, 1975 and 1985. Comparisons between the different birth cohorts show how offending distributions among young offenders, as well as their socio-demographic backgrounds and life chances, have developed over time. The analyses of stability and change presented in the study may serve as a point of departure for more informed discussions of the significance of societal changes for the criminality and life chances of male and female offenders.

  • 267.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Estrada, Felipe
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Shannon, David
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Unga och brott i Sverige: underlagsrapport till Barns och ungas hälsa, vård och omsorg 20132013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    I rapporten beskrivs barns och ungas utsatthet för brott samt ungdomsbrottslighetens omfattning och utveckling. Dessutom analyseras de demografiska och sociala bakgrundsfaktorerna bakom ungdomsbrottslighet.

  • 268.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Ferrarini, Tommy
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Att bekämpa barnfattigdom2011Ingår i: Utanförskap / [ed] Susanne Alm, Olof Bäckman, Anna Gavanas, Anders Nilsson, Stockholm: Dialogos Förlag, 2011Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 269.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Ferrarini, Tommy
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Combating Child Poverty? A Multilevel Assessment of Links Between Family Policy Institutions in 20 Countries2010Ingår i: Journal of Social Policy, ISSN 0047-2794, E-ISSN 1469-7823, Vol. 39, nr 2, s. 275-296Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses the links between family policy institutions and poverty in households with pre-school children in 21 old and new welfare democracies. New institutional information which enables a separation of different family policy dimensions is combined with micro data from the Luxembourg Income Study. Through statistical multilevel modelling, individual- and country-level data are combined in a simultaneous analysis of their relationships to child poverty risks. The results show that family policy transfers are related to lower child poverty risks at the micro level. However, the mechanisms by which such transfers reduce poverty vary by type of family support. Support to dual-earner families operates by enabling both parents to work and raise market income, while support to more traditional family structures in some instances has a more direct effect on poverty risks. The analysis also renders support to the hypothesis that dual-earner transfers also alleviate poverty most effectively among single-mother households.

  • 270.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Ferrarini, Tommy
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Men de äro rysligt dyra - barn, fattigdom och familjepolitik2012Ingår i: Framtider, ISSN 0281-0492, nr 1/2012, s. 9-11Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 271.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Hjalmarsson, Randi
    Lindquist, Matthew J.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Pettersson, Tove
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Könsskillnader i brottslighet - hur kan de förklaras?2018Ingår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 46, nr 4, s. 67-78Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi dokumenterar könsskillnader i lagföringar och presenterar de i litteraturen vanligast förekommande förklaringsansatserna. Män begår fler och grövre tillgreppsbrott samt våldsbrott, medan kvinnor begår färre och lindrigare tillgreppsbrott, företrädesvis utan våld. För att förklara dessa viktiga könsskillnader menar vi att man, utöver de vanligaste ekonomiska incitamenten, även måste ta hänsyn till könsskillnader i icke-kognitiva förmågor, kamrateffekter samt könsroller och den ”manliga” identitet som tillåter och ibland uppmuntrar till våld.

  • 272.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Jacobsen, Vibeke
    Lorentzen, Thomas
    Österbacka, Eva
    Dahl, Espen
    Avhopp från gymnasieskolan i Norden: omfattning och konsekvenser2014Ingår i: Yrkesutbildning för morgondagens arbetsliv / [ed] Alexandru Panican, Stockholm: Dialogos Förlag, 2014Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 273.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Jakobsen, Vibeke
    Lorentzen, Thomas
    Österbacka, Eva
    Early School Leaving and Labour Market Inclusion in the Nordic Countries2018Ingår i: Youth, Diversity and Employment: Comparative Perspectives on Labour Market Policies / [ed] Rune Halvorsen, Bjørn Hvinden, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2018, s. 84-105Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 274.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Jakobsen, Vibeke
    Lorentzen, Thomas
    Österbacka, Eva
    Dahl, Espen
    Early school leaving in Scandinavia: extent and labour market effects2015Ingår i: Journal of European Social Policy, ISSN 0958-9287, E-ISSN 1461-7269, Vol. 25, nr 3, s. 253-269Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The article explores the extent to which the organization of vocational tracks in upper secondary school affects the labour market risks associated with early school exit. The Nordic countries share many features, but the upper secondary school systems differ significantly in how their vocational tracks are organized. Denmark and Norway have dual vocational tracks, that is, they combine school-based education and workplace apprenticeships, whereas in Finland and Sweden they are primarily school based. We analyse administrative longitudinal data from the mid-1990s to the mid-2000s in the four countries and find the highest vocational track dropout rates in Norway and the lowest in Finland. The results indicate that the relative labour market effect of dropping out from a vocational track is most detrimental in Norway. It is also in Norway that we find the greatest gender differences in this respect.

  • 275.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Nelson, Kenneth
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    The Egalitarian Paradise?2017Ingår i: The Routledge Handbook of Scandinavian Politics / [ed] Peter Nedergaard, Anders Wivel, Routledge, 2017Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 276.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Long-term consequences of being not in employment, education or training as a young adult. Stability and change in three Swedish birth cohorts2016Ingår i: European Societies: The Official Journal of the European Sociological Association, ISSN 1461-6696, E-ISSN 1469-8307, Vol. 18, nr 2, s. 136-157Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we analyse the development of young adults not in education, employment or training (NEET) in three complete Swedish birth cohorts born in 1975, 1980 and 1985. We analyse the risk for future labour-market exclusion among NEETs, and how this risk varies between three birth cohorts who made the transition from school to work during periods characterised by different opportunity structures for young adults. Analyses using propensity score matching with repeated outcomes show that belonging to the NEET-group in early adulthood has an independent effect on the development of subsequent labour-market risk for both men and women. Moreover, this effect increases across the cohorts. The fact that the degree of labour-market attachment has clear and long-lasting implications indicates that the problems associated with being NEET cannot be reduced to a transient phase. Rather, it seems as though being NEET may be both a step on an already unfavourable life career and a triggering factor for social exclusion.

  • 277.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Nilsson, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Pathways to Social Exclusion— A Life-Course Study2011Ingår i: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 27, nr 1, s. 107-123Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The article analyses how living conditions during childhood and adolescence structure socio-economic circumstances in midlife. The data are drawn from a new longitudinal Swedish data set—the Stockholm Birth Cohort Study—in which we can follow 14,294 individuals from birth (1953) to the age of 48 (2001). The analysis proceeds in three steps. The first step establishes the link between precarious living conditions in childhood and midlife social exclusion. In the second step, structural equation modelling is used to depict the pathways by which this association is mediated. The analysis produces tentative evidence that the long-term effect of financial poverty primarily runs via educational failure, whereas the effect of other social problems in the family of origin runs via deviant behaviour. In the third step, we analyse whether or not children who were raised in poor families or in families with other social problems are more sensitive to new risk exposures as adults. This is tested by examining the effect of long-term unemployment during the economic crisis of the 1990s on social exclusion risks 7–9 years later.

  • 278.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Nilsson, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Social exkludering i ett livsförloppsperspektiv2011Ingår i: Utanförskap / [ed] Susanne Alm, Olof Bäckman, Anna Gavanas och Anders Nilsson, Stockholm: Dialogos Förlag, 2011, 1, s. 143-161Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 279.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Nilsson, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Ung och utanför2011Ingår i: Utanförskap / [ed] Susanne Alm, Olof Bäckman, Anna Gavanas och Anders Nilsson, Stockholm: Dialogos Förlag, 2011, 1, s. 163-183Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 280.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Nilsson, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Unga som varken arbetar eller studerar - olika definitioners betydelse för omfattning, sammansättning och konsekvenser2013Ingår i: Unga som varken arbetar eller studerar: statistik, stöd och samverkan : slutbetänkande, Stockholm: Fritzes, 2013, , s. 15s. 331-346Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 281.
    Bäckman, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Nilsson, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Fritzell, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Marginalisering och uppväxtvillkor2008Ingår i: Framtider, ISSN 0281-0492, nr 4, s. 21-23Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 282.
    Båvner, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Half full or half empty?: part-time work and well-being among Swedish women2001Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 283.
    Böhlmark, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Age at Immigration and School Performance: A Siblings Analysis Using Swedish Register Data2005Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a gap in school performance between native and immigrant pupils in Sweden.This article analyzes the role of age at immigration, which is believed to be an importantdeterminant of this gap, since it is inversely related to the time spent acquiring Swedenspecificskills before graduation. The analysis exploits within-family variation in a largeset of register data on immigrant siblings (and native children) graduating fromcompulsory school between 1988 and 2003. The estimated negative impact from shortduration of residence prior to graduation is significantly less than the one observed usinga standard cross-sectional approach which fails to net out family-fixed effects. Thecritical age at arrival is about 10. Above this age, there is a strong negative impact onperformance, where the sibling-difference estimates are 27-54 percent less negative thanthe cross-sectional ones. The results show both similarities and striking differencesbetween boys and girls and between children of different origin. Moreover, children withshort duration of residence perform significantly better in mathematics than in a range ofsubjects taken together. This demonstrates the importance of Sweden-specific skills.

  • 284.
    Böhlmark, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Age at Immigration and School Performance: A Siblings Analysis Using Swedish Register DataManuskript (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 285.
    Böhlmark, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Age at Immigration and School Performance: A Siblings Analysis Using Swedish Register Data2008Ingår i: Labour Economics, Vol. 15, s. 1366-1387Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 286.
    Böhlmark, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Education Policy for Adolescent Immigrants2019Ingår i: Integrating Immigrants into the Nordic Labour Markets / [ed] Lars Calmfors, Nora Sánchez-Gassen, Nordic Council of Ministers , 2019, s. 65-83Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter describes the challenge to prepare adolescent immigrants for the Nordic labour markets. A review of the literature identifies general education efforts and targeted interventions that may be useful. There is convincing evidence of the effectiveness of several school practices for the benefit of disadvantaged students, some of which are probably generalizable to immigrant students. The evidence of the effectiveness of interventions targeted to adolescent immigrants is scarce. However, study support and guidance are identified as important measures, as well as new roads to employment for individuals who have difficulties to qualify for and finish regular high school programs.

  • 287.
    Böhlmark, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Integration of Childhood Immigrants in the Short and in the Long Run: Swedish EvidenceManuskript (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 288.
    Böhlmark, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Integration of Childhood Immigrants in the Short and Long Run - Swedish Evidence2009Ingår i: The international migration review, ISSN 0197-9183, E-ISSN 1747-7379, Vol. 43, nr 2, s. 387-409Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 289.
    Böhlmark, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Leder lottning av skolplatser till förbättrad likvärdighet?2019Ingår i: Lika för alla? En ESO-antologi om skolans likvärdighet / [ed] Robert Eriksson, Lena Unemo, Stockholm: Regeringskansliet, Finansdepartementet , 2019, s. 171-188Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 290.
    Böhlmark, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    School Reform, Educational Achievement and Lifetime Income: Essays in Empirical Labor Economics2007Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The Impact of School Choice on Pupil Achievement, Segregation and Costs: Swedish Evidence. This paper evaluates school choice at the compulsory school level. We estimate the impact of an increased enrolment in private schools on average achievement using within-municipality variation over time. We find positive effects, shown to be the sum of a (small) private school attendance effect and a competition effect. We also find effects on segregation and costs.

    Age at Immigration and School Performance: A Siblings Analysis Using Swedish Register Data. This paper analyzes the role of age at immigration for the school performance gap between native and immigrant pupils by exploiting within-family variation. The critical age is about nine, above which there is a strong negative impact on performance. The results are similar for boys and girls, but vary by region of origin. A comparison of sibling-difference and cross-sectional estimates reveals striking similarities.

    Integration of Childhood Immigrants in the Short and in the Long Run: Swedish Evidence. I study childhood immigrants at different stages in life in order to examine the role of age at immigration for educational and labor market outcomes. I find that childhood immigrants tend later to recover strongly in terms of educational achievement. Yet, the same individuals are on average found to be poorly integrated into the labor market.

    Life-Cycle Variations in the Association between Current and Lifetime Income: Replication and Extension for Sweden. We apply a generalized errors-in-variables model, recently developed by Steven Haider and Gary Solon, in order to produce estimates of the association between current and lifetime income. We find strong life-cycle patterns. This implies that the widespread use of current income as a proxy for lifetime income leads to inconsistent estimates even when the proxy is used as the dependent variable. We find country similarities, but gender and cohort differences.

  • 291.
    Böhlmark, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Grönqvist, Erik
    Vlachos, Jonas
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen. Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    The Headmaster Ritual: The Importance of Management for School Outcomes2016Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 118, nr 4, s. 912-940Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate the impact of individual principals on school outcomes by using panel data that allow us to track principals over time. We find that individual principals have a substantive impact on school policies, working conditions, and student outcomes. In particular, students who attend a school that has a one standard deviation better principal improve their achievement by between 0.05 and 0.1 standard deviations. Despite rich background information on principals, it is difficult to characterize successful management, suggesting that innate skills are central. We find that the scope for discretion is larger among voucher schools and in areas with school competition.

  • 292.
    Böhlmark, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Holmlund, Helena
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    20 år med förändringar i skolan: Vad har hänt med likvärdigheten?2011Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 293.
    Böhlmark, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Holmlund, Helena
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Lika möjligheter?: familjebakgrund och skolprestationer 1988–20102012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 294.
    Böhlmark, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Holmlund, Helena
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Lotta ut platserna till friskolor2011Ingår i: Svenska DagbladetArtikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 295.
    Böhlmark, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Holmlund, Helena
    Lindahl, Mikael
    Parental choice, neighbourhood segregation or cream skimming? An analysis of school segregation after a generalized choice reform2016Ingår i: Journal of Population Economics, ISSN 0933-1433, E-ISSN 1432-1475, Vol. 29, nr 4, s. 1155-1190Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the evolution of school segregation in Sweden in the aftermath of the 1992 universal voucher reform, which spurred the establishment of new independent schools and introduced parental choice. We assess the relative importance of neighbourhood segregation, parental choice and the location of independent schools for school segregation. In particular, we exploit variation in school choice opportunities across municipalities and provide descriptive evidence that in regions where school choice has become more prevalent, school segregation between immigrants and natives, and between children of high/low educated parents, has increased more than in regions where choice is limited. This result also holds when we account for residential segregation and focus on excess segregation over and above the segregation that would occur if all pupils attended their assigned schools. We find that the increase in school segregation 15 years after the reform that can be attributed to choice is relatively small.

  • 296.
    Böhlmark, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Lindahl, Mikael
    Uppsala university.
    Friskolereformens långsiktiga effekter på utbildningsresultat2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 297.
    Böhlmark, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Lindahl, Mikael
    Uppsala universitet.
    Independent Schools and Long-Run Educational Outcomes: Evidence from Sweden´s Large Scale Voucher Reform2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 298.
    Böhlmark, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI). CREAM, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindahl, Mikael
    Independent Schools and Long-Run Educational Outcomes: evidence from Sweden's Large Scale Voucher Reform2015Ingår i: Economica, ISSN 0013-0427, E-ISSN 1468-0335, Vol. 82, nr 327, s. 508-551Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate effects on educational outcomes from the expansion of the independent school sector in Sweden, which followed as a consequence of the radical 1992 voucher reform. Using variation in this expansion across municipalities, we find that an increase in the share of independent school students improves average short- and long-run outcomes, explained primarily by external effects (e.g. school competition). For most outcomes, we observe significant effects first a decade after the reform. By using regional level TIMSS data, we can reconcile our results with the negative national trend for Swedish students in international achievement tests.

  • 299.
    Böhlmark, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Lindahl, Mikael
    The Impact of School Choice on Pupil Achievement, Segregation and Costs: Swedish EvidenceManuskript (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 300.
    Böhlmark, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Lindquist, Matthew J.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Life-Cycle Variations in the Association Between Current and Lifetime Income: Country, Cohort and Gender Comparisons2005Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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