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  • 251.
    Danielsson, Micaela
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för kemi och biomedicin (KOB).
    Bindningsmönster av aviärt influensa A-virus till mag-tarmkanalen hos andfåglar2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Influensa A-virus ses som ett stort hot mot människans hälsa med återkommande säsongsutbrott som orsaka upp till 500 000 dödsfall världen över varje år. Virusets naturliga reservoar är vilda vattenfåglar. För att få en bättre förståelse över hur så många olika virus kan infektera vilda fåglar kan virusets bindningsmönster till värden studeras med tekniken virushistokemi. Syftet med detta arbete har varit att undersöka bindningsmönstret av aviärt influensavirus, subtyp H4, H9, H13 och H16, till mag-tarmkanal-vävnader från olika arter av andfåglar för att se om dessa virus kan binda till cellerna och därmed infektera värden. De tekniker som har använts är förökning av viruset genom odling i embryonerade kycklingägg, rening med sukrosgradient, inaktivering med formalin och sedan fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-märkning. Titern av viruset mättes med hemagglutinationsanalys, där visade resultatet att titern efter skörd av ägg för H4 var: 256 HAU/100 µl, H9: 512 HAU/100 µl, H13: 384 HAU/100 µl och för H16: 768 HAU/100 µl. FITC-märkt virustiter mättes till H4: 15 360 HAU/100 µl, H9: 30 720 HAU/100 µl, H13: 163 840 HAU/100 µl och H16: 81 920 HAU/100 µl. Virushistokemin har inte utförts och därför är resultatet över bindningsmönstret fortfarande okänt och frågeställningen inte besvarad. Det som förväntas av resultatet är dock att subtyp H4 och H9, som är vanliga att finna hos andfåglar, kommer att binda till epitelceller i tarmen hos andfåglar medan subtyp H16 och H13, som endast i ett fåtal fall har lyckats isoleras från andfåglar, inte förväntas binda till mag-tarmkanalen hos andfåglar.

  • 252.
    D'Arcy, Padraig
    et al.
    Department of Oncology and Pathology, Karolinska Institute, SE-171 76 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wang, Xin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för läkemedelsforskning. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Department of Oncology and Pathology, Karolinska Institute, SE-171 76 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Linder, Stig
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för läkemedelsforskning. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Department of Oncology and Pathology, Karolinska Institute, SE-171 76 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Deubiquitinase inhibition as a cancer therapeutic strategy2015Inngår i: Pharmacology and Therapeutics, ISSN 0163-7258, E-ISSN 1879-016X, Vol. 147, s. 32-54Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) is the main system for controlled protein degradation and a key regulator of fundamental cellular processes. The dependency of cancer cells on a functioning UPS has made this an attractive target for development of drugs that show selectivity for tumor cells. Deubiquitinases (DUBs, ubiquitin isopeptidases) are components of the UPS that catalyze the removal of ubiquitin moieties from target proteins or polyubiquitin chains, resulting in altered signaling or changes in protein stability. A number of DUBs regulate processes associated with cell proliferation and apoptosis, and as such represent candidate targets for cancer therapeutics. The majority of DUBs are cysteine proteases and are likely to be more "druggable" than E3 ligases. Cysteine residues in the active sites of DUBs are expected to be reactive to various electrophiles. Various compounds containing α,β-unsaturated ketones have indeed been demonstrated to inhibit cellular DUB activity. Inhibition of proteasomal cysteine DUB enzymes (i.e. USP14 and UCHL5) can be predicted to be particularly cytotoxic to cancer cells as it leads to blocking of proteasome function and accumulation of proteasomal substrates. We here provide an overall review of DUBs relevant to cancer and of various small molecules which have been demonstrated to inhibit DUB activity.

  • 253.
    Darmanis, Spyros
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Molekylära verktyg. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Nong, Rachel Yuan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Molekylära verktyg. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Vänelid, Johan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Molekylära verktyg. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Siegbahn, Agneta
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Klinisk kemi.
    Ericsson, Olle
    Halo Genomics AB, Dag Hammarskjölds väg 36B, SE-752 37 Uppsala Sweden.
    Fredriksson, Simon
    Olink Biosciences, Dag Hammarskjölds väg 52B, SE-752 37 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bäcklin, Christofer
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Gut, Marta
    Centro Nacional de Análisis Genómico, C/Baldiri Reixac 4, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Heath, Simon
    Centro Nacional de Análisis Genómico, C/Baldiri Reixac 4, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Gut, Ivo Glynne
    Centro Nacional de Análisis Genómico, C/Baldiri Reixac 4, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Uppsala kliniska forskningscentrum (UCR).
    Gustafsson, Mats G.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Kamali-Moghaddam, Masood
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Molekylära verktyg. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Landegren, Ulf
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Molekylära verktyg. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    ProteinSeq: high-performance proteomic analyses by proximity ligation and next generation sequencing2011Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, nr 9, s. e25583-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite intense interest, methods that provide enhanced sensitivity and specificity in parallel measurements of candidate protein biomarkers in numerous samples have been lacking. We present herein a multiplex proximity ligation assay with readout via realtime PCR or DNA sequencing (ProteinSeq). We demonstrate improved sensitivity over conventional sandwich assays for simultaneous analysis of sets of 35 proteins in 5 μl of blood plasma. Importantly, we observe a minimal tendency to increased background with multiplexing, compared to a sandwich assay, suggesting that higher levels of multiplexing are possible. We used ProteinSeq to analyze proteins in plasma samples from cardiovascular disease (CVD) patient cohorts and matched controls. Three proteins, namely P-selectin, Cystatin-B and Kallikrein-6, were identified as putative diagnostic biomarkers for CVD. The latter two have not been previously reported in the literature and their potential roles must be validated in larger patient cohorts. We conclude that ProteinSeq is promising for screening large numbers of proteins and samples while the technology can provide a much-needed platform for validation of diagnostic markers in biobank samples and in clinical use. 

  • 254. Darsalia, Vladimer
    et al.
    Mansouri, Shiva
    Ortsater, Henrik
    Olverling, Anna
    Nozadze, Nino
    Kappe, Camilla
    Iverfeldt, Kerstin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för neurokemi.
    Tracy, Linda M.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för neurokemi.
    Grankvist, Nina
    Sjöholm, Åke
    Patrone, Cesare
    Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor activation reduces ischaemic brain damage following stroke in Type 2 diabetic rats2012Inngår i: Clinical Science, ISSN 0143-5221, E-ISSN 1470-8736, Vol. 122, nr 9-10, s. 473-483Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Diabetes is a strong risk factor for premature and severe stroke. The GLP-IR (glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor) agonist Ex-4 (exendin-4) is a drug for the treatment of T2D (Type 2 diabetes) that may also have neuroprotective effects. The aim of the present study was to determine the efficacy of Ex-4 against stroke in diabetes by using a diabetic animal model, a drug administration paradigm and a dose that mimics a diabetic patient on Ex-4 therapy. Furthermore, we investigated inflammation and neurogenesis as potential cellular mechanisms underlying the Ex-4 efficacy. A total of seven 9-month-old Type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats were treated peripherally for 4 weeks with Ex-4 at 0.1, 1 or 5 mu g/kg of body weight before inducing stroke by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion and for 2-4 weeks thereafter. The severity of ischaemic damage was measured by evaluation of stroke volume and by stereological counting of neurons in the striatum and cortex. We also quantitatively evaluated stroke-induced inflammation, stem cell proliferation and neurogenesis. We show a profound anti-stroke efficacy of the clinical dose of Ex-4 in diabetic rats, an arrested microglia infiltration and an increase of stroke-induced neural stem cell proliferation and neuroblast formation, while stroke-induced neurogenesis was not affected by Ex-4. The results show a pronounced anti-stroke, neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effect of peripheral and chronic Ex-4 treatment in middle-aged diabetic animals in a preclinical setting that has the potential to mimic the clinical treatment. Our results should provide strong impetus to further investigate GLP-IR agonists for their neuroprotective action in diabetes, and for their possible use as anti-stroke medication in non-diabetic conditions.

  • 255.
    Davidsson, Hans
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Biomedicinsk laboratorievetenskap.
    Syntes och kvalitetskontroll av [18F]FDG på TRACERlab MX2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 256.
    de Gelidi, S.
    et al.
    Middlesex Univ, UK.
    Seifnaraghi, N.
    Middlesex Univ, UK.
    Bardill, A.
    Middlesex Univ, UK.
    Tizzard, A.
    Middlesex Univ, UK.
    Wu, Y.
    UCL, UK.
    Sorantin, E.
    Med Univ Graz, Austria..
    Nordebo, Sven
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Demosthenous, A.
    UCL, UK.
    Bayford, R.
    Middlesex Univ, UK.
    Torso shape detection to improve lung monitoring2018Inngår i: Physiological Measurement, ISSN 0967-3334, E-ISSN 1361-6579, Vol. 39, nr 7, artikkel-id 074001Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Newborns with lung immaturity often require continuous monitoring and treatment of their lung ventilation in intensive care units, especially if born preterm. Recent studies indicate that electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is feasible in newborn infants and children, and can quantitatively identify changes in regional lung aeration and ventilation following alterations to respiratory conditions. Information on the patient-specific shape of the torso and its role in minimizing the artefacts in the reconstructed images can improve the accuracy of the clinical parameters obtained from EIT. Currently, only idealized models or those segmented from CT scans are usually adopted. Approach: This study presents and compares two methodologies that can detect the patient-specific torso shape by means of wearable devices based on (1) previously reported bend sensor technology, and (2) a novel approach based on the use of accelerometers. Main results: The reconstruction of different phantoms, taking into account anatomical asymmetries and different sizes, are produced for comparison. Significance: As a result, the accelerometers are more versatile than bend sensors, which cannot be used on bigger cross-sections. The computational study estimates the optimal number of accelerometers required in order to generate an image reconstruction comparable to the use of a CT scan as the forward model. Furthermore, since the patient position is crucial to monitoring lung ventilation, the orientation of the phantoms is automatically detected by the accelerometer-based method.

  • 257.
    Delbro, Dick
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för kemi och biomedicinsk vetenskap. Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Dept Surg, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Do neuro-humoral signaling molecules participate in colorectal carcinogenesis/cancer progression?2012Inngår i: Neurogastroenterology and Motility, ISSN 1350-1925, E-ISSN 1365-2982, Vol. 24, nr 2, s. 96-99Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Signaling molecules in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, as released from intrinsic, or extrinsic neurons, or from local endocrine cells may serve as positive or negative growth factors, and it has been suggested that such could participate also in colorectal carcinogenesis/cancer progression. Sporadic colorectal cancer arises from an initially benign adenoma, which, in turn, develops from the stem cell compartment, located in the bottom of the crypts of the colorectal mucosa. It was recently demonstrated in rat that intrinsic denervation of the colon appeared to be protective against chemically induced carcinogenesis. Of the various GI signaling molecules, noradrenaline (NA) and substance P (SP) may be of particular importance as growth factors involved in colorectal cancer. In the current issue of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, Graf et al. demonstrate that in benign, human colon polyps, there was a loss of innervation compared with adjacent mucosa, affecting efferent, noradrenergic, as well as sensory, SP-ergic fibers, while there was an increase in SP-immunoreactive non-neuronal cells in the polyps. The results obtained could suggest that loss of mucosal innervation, due to e.g. luminal, pro-inflammatory stimuli, could result in unbalanced pro-tumorigenic stimulation of the stem cell region by non-neuronal SP. The current findings may be important for the further understanding of the development of sporadic colorectal cancer.

  • 258.
    Delbro, Dick S.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för kemi och biomedicinsk vetenskap.
    Expression of the non-neuronal cholinergic system in rat beta-cells2012Inngår i: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical, ISSN 1566-0702, E-ISSN 1872-7484, Vol. 167, nr 1-2, s. 75-77Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Various markers of the cholinergic system (like e.g. choline acetyltransferase) were demonstrated by immunohistochemistry in, seemingly, beta-cells of rat pancreas. The findings may suggest an autocrine role of acetylcholine for the beta-cells. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 259. Desmarais, Samantha M
    et al.
    Tropini, Carolina
    Miguel, Amanda
    Cava, Felipe
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Monds, Russell D
    de Pedro, Miguel A
    Huang, Kerwyn Casey
    High-throughput, Highly Sensitive Analyses of Bacterial Morphogenesis Using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography2015Inngår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 290, nr 52, s. 31090-31100Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The bacterial cell wall is a network of glycan strands crosslinked by short peptides (peptidoglycan); it is responsible for the mechanical integrity of the cell and shape determination. Liquid chromatography can be used to measure the abundance of the muropeptide subunits composing the cell wall. Characteristics such as the degree of cross-linking and average glycan strand length are known to vary across species. However, a systematic comparison among strains of a given species has yet to be undertaken, making it difficult to assess the origins of variability in peptidoglycan composition. We present a protocol for muropeptide analysis using ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and demonstrate that UPLC achieves resolution comparable with that of HPLC while requiring orders of magnitude less injection volume and a fraction of the elution time. We also developed a software platform to automate the identification and quantification of chromatographic peaks, which we demonstrate has improved accuracy relative to other software. This combined experimental and computational methodology revealed that peptidoglycan composition was approximately maintained across strains from three Gram-negative species despite taxonomical and morphological differences. Peptidoglycan composition and density were maintained after we systematically altered cell size in Escherichia coli using the antibiotic A22, indicating that cell shape is largely decoupled from the biochemistry of peptidoglycan synthesis. High-throughput, sensitive UPLC combined with our automated software for chromatographic analysis will accelerate the discovery of peptidoglycan composition and the molecular mechanisms of cell wall structure determination.

  • 260.
    Desso, Dawit Dejene
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Biomedicinsk laboratorievetenskap.
    Jämförelse av Bruker Sepsityper-kit med in-house extraktionsmetoder för direkt bakterieidentifiering i positiva blododlingar2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 261.
    Diab, Zeina
    Örebro universitet, Hälsoakademin.
    Referensvärdesbestämning av fraktionerad sensorisk nervus medianusmätning över karpaltunneln2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 262.
    Dijkstra, Erik J.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Biomekanik.
    Gutierrez-Farewik, Elena M.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Biomekanik. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Computation of ground reaction force using Zero Moment Point2015Inngår i: Journal of Biomechanics, ISSN 0021-9290, E-ISSN 1873-2380, Vol. 48, nr 14, s. 3776-3781Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Motion analysis is a common clinical assessment and research tool that uses a camera system or motion sensors and force plates to collect kinematic and kinetic information of a subject performing an activity of interest. The use of force plates can be challenging and sometimes even impossible. Over the past decade, several computational methods have been developed that aim to preclude the use of force plates. Useful in particular for predictive simulations, where a new motion or change in control strategy inherently means different external contact loads. These methods, however, often depend on prior knowledge of common observed ground reaction force (GRF) patterns, are computationally expensive, or difficult to implement. In this study, we evaluated the use of the Zero Moment Point as a computationally inexpensive tool to obtain the GRFs for normal human gait. The method was applied on ten healthy subjects walking in a motion analysis laboratory and predicted GRFs are evaluated against the simultaneously measured force plate data. Apart from the antero-posterior forces, GRFs are well-predicted and errors fall within the error ranges from other published methods. Joint extension moments were underestimated at the ankle and hip but overestimated at the knee, attributable to the observed discrepancy in the predicted application points of the GRFs. The computationally inexpensive method evaluated in this study can reasonably well predict the GRFs for normal human gait without using prior knowledge of common gait kinetics.

  • 263.
    Dimberg, Jan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för naturvetenskap och biomedicin. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. Biomedicinsk plattform.
    Skarstedt, Marita
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Ryhov County Hospital, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Löfgren, Sture
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Ryhov County Hospital, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Zar, Niklas
    Department of Surgery, Ryhov County Hospital, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Matussek, Andreas
    Department of Laboratory Services, Ryhov County Hospital, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Protein expression and gene polymorphism of CXCL10 in patients with colorectal cancer2014Inngår i: Biomedical Reports, ISSN 2049-9442, Vol. 2, nr 3, s. 340-343Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemokines (chemotactic cytokines) promote leukocyte attraction to sites of inflammation and cancer. Certain chemokines promote and regulate neoplastic progression, including metastasis and angiogenesis. One such chemokine, CXCL10, was found to be expressed in colorectal cancer (CRC) tissue. To gain insight into the prognostic significance of CXCL10, we investigated whether the levels of this chemokine were altered in the colorectal tissue or plasma of CRC patients. Using Luminex technology for protein analyses, we observed a significantly higher CXCL10 protein level in cancer tissue compared to that in paired normal tissue. Moreover, significantly higher plasma levels of CXCL10 were detected in patients compared to those in control subjects and the plasma levels of CXCL10 in disseminated disease were found to be significantly higher compared to those in localized disease. The single‑nucleotide polymorphism rs8878, which has been described in exon 4 in the 3'‑untranslated region of the CXCL10 gene, was investigated using a TaqMan system. There were significant differences in genotype distribution and allelic frequencies between CRC patients and control subjects. In conclusion, altered CXCL10 protein concentrations in CRC tissues or plasma and the rs8878 genotype variant of CXCL10 may contribute to the prediction of clinical outcome.

  • 264.
    Dobos, Rebecca
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Extremitetelektrodernas inverkan på QRS-amplituden och den elektriska axeln i ett elektrokardiogram2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 265. Dombovari, Balazs
    et al.
    Fiath, Richard
    Kerekes, Balint Peter
    Toth, Emilia
    Wittner, Lucia
    Horvath, Domonkos
    Seidl, Karsten
    Herwik, Stanislav
    Torfs, Tom
    Paul, Oliver
    Ruther, Patrick
    Neves, Hercules Pereira
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets elektronik.
    Ulbert, Istvan
    In vivo validation of the electronic depth control probes2014Inngår i: Biomedizinische Technik (Berlin. Zeitschrift), ISSN 1862-278X, E-ISSN 0013-5585, Vol. 59, nr 4, s. 283-289Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we evaluated the electrophysiological performance of a novel, high-complexity silicon probe array. This brain-implantable probe implements a dynamically reconfigurable voltage-recording device, coordinating large numbers of electronically switchable recording sites, referred to as electronic depth control (EDC). Our results show the potential of the EDC devices to record good-quality local field potentials, and single- and multiple-unit activities in cortical regions during pharmacologically induced cortical slow wave activity in an animal model.

  • 266.
    Donà, Valentina
    et al.
    Institute for Infectious Diseases, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Low, Nicola
    Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Golparian, Daniel
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. WHO Collaborating Centre for Gonorrhoea, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Unemo, Magnus
    WHO Collaborating Centre for Gonorrhoea, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Recent advances in the development and use of molecular tests to predict antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae2017Inngår i: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics, ISSN 1473-7159, E-ISSN 1744-8352, Vol. 17, nr 9, s. 845-859Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The number of genetic tests, mostly real-time PCRs, to detect antimicrobial resistance (AMR) determinants and predict AMR in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is increasing. Several of these assays are promising, but there are important shortcomings and few assays have been adequately validated and quality assured.

    Areas covered: Recent advances, focusing on publications since 2012, in the development and use of molecular tests to predict gonococcal AMR for surveillance and for clinical use, advantages and disadvantages of these tests and of molecular AMR prediction compared with phenotypic AMR testing, and future perspectives for effective use of molecular AMR tests for different purposes.

    Expert commentary: Several challenges for direct testing of clinical, especially extra-genital, specimens remain. The choice of molecular assay needs to consider the assay target, quality controls, sample types, limitations intrinsic to molecular technologies, and specific to the chosen methodology, and the intended use of the test. Improved molecular- and particularly genome-sequencing-based methods will supplement AMR testing for surveillance purposes, and translate into point-of-care tests that will lead to personalized treatments, while sparing the last available empiric treatment option (ceftriaxone). However, genetic AMR prediction will never completely replace phenotypic AMR testing, which detects also AMR due to unknown AMR determinants.

  • 267.
    Doyo, Kader
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    A prospective randomized study to compare Nidoil and Ovoil cultur oils used to culture human embryos in IVF therapy2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Since the initiation of assisted reproduction techniques, several studies has been performed to improve treatment results by development of culture conditions like embryo oil and culture media used. In this study, two embryonic oils from different companies, Nidoil and Ovoil were examined.Method: In this study, 47 human embryos were used. All embryos were donated for research purposes by couples who had been treated at the clinic in Uppsala University Hospital. The embryos were divided into two groups, one group was cultured with Ovoil and the other with Nidoil.Results: There was no difference between the two oils, the embryo quality was the same in both groups.CONCLUSION: The result was expected because both oils had the same composition and purity.

  • 268. Draeger, A
    et al.
    Nathrath, WBJ
    Lane, EB
    Sundström, Birgitta
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för kemi och biomedicinsk vetenskap.
    Stigbrand, T
    Immunohistochemical localization of cytokeratins, smooth muscle actin and vimentin in human normal salivery glands and pleomorphic adenomas with particular reference to myoepithelial and basal cells1991Inngår i: APMIS 1991;99:405-415Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 269.
    Dragan, Smiljic
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för kemi och biomedicin (KOB).
    Studies of small bicoid knock-down and overexpression at early and late stage of development in Drosophila melanogaster.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 270. Dresch, Erica
    GENETIC CHARACTERIZATION AND DISINFECTANT SUSCEPTIBILITY TESTING OF VEROTOXIN-PRODUCING Escherichia coli O157:H7 FROM SWEDISH CATTLE2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Background Verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) O157:H7 is a common cause of intestinal infections in humans. Cattle is the main reservoir, and food or water contaminated by animal feces are common sources of infection. The symptoms are usually bloody diarrhea and abdominal pain, and complications as haemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) may occur. Chlorhexidine is a widely used disinfectant both in veterinary and human medicine. Treatments using chlorhexidine have shown to be effective in reducing the fecal shedding of VTEC O157:H7.Aim The aim of this study was to genetically characterize and type a selection of VTEC O157:H7 isolates found in Swedish cattle. Additionally, the purpose was to determine if four major subgroups of VTEC O157:H7 show different levels of susceptibility against chlorhexidine.Material and methods The E. coli strains analysed were isolated from fecal samples of cattle. The characterization method applied was next generation sequencing, and the susceptibility test was performed using the broth macrodilution method.Results The results showed that the prevalence of the most virulent subgroup has decreased compared to past years. The susceptibility test showed no significant difference between the four subgroups.Conclusion The results obtained in this study have improved the knowledge about the strains currently present in the country, which facilitates the monitoring and control processes. The data obtained shows that the prevalence of the most pathogenic subgroup has decreased. The major subgroups of VTEC O157:H7 have similar levels of susceptibility against chlorhexidine, which is useful information as chlorhexidine is a widely used disinfectant.

  • 271.
    Dulaimi, Omar Ali Hussein
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin.
    Ingen association mellan polymorfismen rs7169289 i genen för retinalaldehydrogenas ALDH1A2 och hjärtinfarkt2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 272.
    Dybeck, Josefin
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    Expression of otic developmental markers in the adult human vestibular system2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The sense of hearing and balance depend on the highly organized arrangement of sensory hair cells and non-sensory supporting cells in the cochlea and in the balance organs of the vestibular system. Hair cell-dependent hearing loss is permanent due to the inability of the hair cells to regenerate. Recent research has determined that differentiation of supporting cells into hair cells could be induced by forcing expression of certain otic developmental genes. The cochlea would be the ideal model to study, however, because of the limited accessibility, the balance organs have become the second choice because of the similarities to the cochlea. This project offered a unique opportunity of access to surgical waste consisting of tissue from the vestibular system.The purpose was to stain the tissue for different developmental markers in order to find cells that might have the capacity of differentiating into new hair cells. The tissue was therefore stained for different markers associated with otic development and the expression was visualized by immunofluorescence.We found expression of the developmental marker Pax-2 in the balance organs, as well as in the endolymphatic sac. Expression of the proliferation marker Ki-67 was found in the endolymphatic sac but not in the balance organs, suggesting that the different organs have extensively diverse functions, although equally important in maintaining the inner ear homeostasis.These results offer a basis for further research in the pursuit of developing a potential gene therapy-based treatment to cure hair cell-dependent hearing loss.

  • 273.
    Dyverfeldt, Petter
    Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Klinisk fysiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Mekanisk värmeteori och strömningslära. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Extending MRI to the Quantification of Turbulence Intensity2010Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In cardiovascular medicine, the assessment of blood flow is fundamental to the understanding and detection of disease. Many pharmaceutical, interventional, and surgical treatments impact the flow. The primary purpose of the cardiovascular system is to drive, control and maintain blood flow to all parts of the body. In the normal cardiovascular system, fluid transport is maintained at high efficiency and the blood flow is essentially laminar. Disturbed and turbulent blood flow, on the other hand, appears to be present in many cardiovascular diseases and may contribute to their initiation and progression. Despite strong indications of an important interrelationship between flow and cardiovascular disease, medical imaging has lacked a non-invasive tool for the in vivo assessment of disturbed and turbulent flow. As a result, the extent and role of turbulence in the blood flow of humans have not yet been fully investigated.

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a versatile tool for the non-invasive assessment of flow and has several important clinical and research applications, but might not yet have reached its full potential. Conventional MRI techniques for the assessment of flow are based on measurements of the mean velocity within an image voxel. The mean velocity corresponds to the first raw moment of the distribution of velocities within a voxel. An MRI framework for the quantification of any moment (mean, standard deviation, skew, etc.) of arbitrary velocity distributions is presented in this thesis.

    Disturbed and turbulent flows are characterized by velocity fluctuations that are superimposed on the mean velocity. The intensity of these velocity fluctuations can be quantified by their standard deviation, which is a commonly used measure of turbulence intensity. This thesis focuses on the development of a novel MRI method for the quantification of turbulence intensity. This method is mathematically derived and experimentally validated. Limitations and sources of error are investigated and guidelines for adequate application of MRI measurements of turbulence intensity are outlined. Furthermore, the method is adapted to the quantification of turbulence intensity in the pulsatile blood flow of humans and applied to a wide range of cardiovascular diseases. In these applications, elevated turbulence intensity was consistently detected in regions where highly disturbed flow was anticipated, and the effects of potential sources of errors were small.

    Diseased heart valves are often replaced with prosthetic heart valves, which, in spite of improved benefits and durability, continue to fall short of matching native flow patterns. In an in vitro setting, MRI was used to visualize and quantify turbulence intensity in the flow downstream from four common designs of prosthetic heart valves. Marked differences in the extent and degree of turbulence intensity were detected between the different valves.

    Mitral valve regurgitation is a common valve lesion associated with progressive left atrial and left ventricular remodelling, which may often require surgical correction to avoid irreversible ventricular dysfunction. The spatiotemporal dynamics of flow disturbances in mitral regurgitation were assessed based on measurements of flow patterns and turbulence intensity in a group of patients with significant regurgitation arising from similar valve lesions. Peak turbulence intensity occurred at the same time in all patients and the total turbulence intensity in the left atrium appeared closely related to the severity of regurgitation.

    MRI quantification of turbulence intensity has the potential to become a valuable tool in investigating the extent, timing and role of disturbed blood flow in the human cardiovascular system, as well as in the assessment of the effects of different therapeutic options in patients with vascular or valvular disorders.

  • 274.
    Dyverfeldt, Petter
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Klinisk fysiologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärtcentrum, Fysiologiska kliniken.
    Escobar Kvitting, John Peder
    Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Fysiologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärtcentrum, Thorax-kärlkliniken.
    Boano, G.
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting.
    Carlhäll, Carljohan
    Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Klinisk fysiologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärtcentrum, Fysiologiska kliniken.
    Sigfridsson, Andreas
    Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Klinisk fysiologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärtcentrum, Fysiologiska kliniken.
    Hermansson, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Thoraxkirurgi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärtcentrum, Thorax-kärlkliniken.
    Bolger, A.F.
    University of California, San Fransisco, San Franisco, California, United States.
    Engvall, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Klinisk fysiologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärtcentrum, Fysiologiska kliniken.
    Ebbers, Tino
    Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Klinisk fysiologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärtcentrum, Fysiologiska kliniken.
    Turbulence Mapping Extends the Utility of Phase-Contrast MRI in Mitral Valve Regurgitation2009Inngår i: Proc. Intl. Soc. Mag. Reson. Med., 2009, s. 3939-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 275.
    Dyverfeldt, Petter
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Klinisk fysiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärtcentrum, Fysiologiska kliniken.
    Escobar Kvitting, John-Peder
    Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Fysiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärtcentrum, Thorax-kärlkliniken.
    Sigfridsson, Andreas
    Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Klinisk fysiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärtcentrum, Fysiologiska kliniken.
    Franzén, Stefan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Thoraxkirurgi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärtcentrum, Thorax-kärlkliniken.
    Bolger, Ann F.
    University of California San Fransisco, San Fransisco, California, United States.
    Ebbers, Tino
    Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Klinisk fysiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärtcentrum, Fysiologiska kliniken.
    In-Vitro Turbulence Mapping in Prosthetic Heart Valves using Generalized Phase-Contrast MRI2009Inngår i: Proc. Intl. Soc. Mag. Reson. Med., 2009, s. 3941-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 276.
    Dyverfeldt, Petter
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Klinisk fysiologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärtcentrum, Fysiologiska kliniken.
    Gårdhagen, Roland
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Mekanisk värmeteori och strömningslära. Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sigfridsson, Andreas
    Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Klinisk fysiologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärtcentrum, Fysiologiska kliniken.
    Karlsson, Matts
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Mekanisk värmeteori och strömningslära. Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ebbers, Tinno
    Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Klinisk fysiologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärtcentrum, Fysiologiska kliniken.
    MRI Turbulence Quantification2009Inngår i: Proc. Intl. Soc. Mag. Reson. Med., 2009, s. 1858-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 277.
    Dyverfeldt, Petter
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Klinisk fysiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärtcentrum, Fysiologiska kliniken.
    Sigfridsson, Andreas
    Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Klinisk fysiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärtcentrum, Fysiologiska kliniken.
    Escobar Kvitting, John-Peder
    Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Fysiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärtcentrum, Thorax-kärlkliniken.
    Ebbers, Tino
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Klinisk fysiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärtcentrum, Fysiologiska kliniken.
    Quantification of Turbulance Intensity by Generalizing Phase-Contrast MRI2006Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 278.
    Dzanovic, Elvira
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Biomedicinsk laboratorievetenskap.
    Epidemiologisk klassificering av Staphylococcus epidermidis med Matrix- Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight (MALDI-TOF)2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 279. Dzialanski, Zbigniew
    et al.
    Barany, Michael
    Engfeldt, Peter
    Magnuson, Anders
    Olsson, Lovisa A.
    Nilsson, Torbjörn K.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Klinisk kemi.
    Lactase persistence versus lactose intolerance: Is there an intermediate phenotype?2016Inngår i: Clinical Biochemistry, ISSN 0009-9120, E-ISSN 1873-2933, Vol. 49, nr 3, s. 248-252Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: According to the prevailing theory about the genetic background to lactose intolerance, there are three genotypes but only two adult physiological phenotypes: lactase persistence in individuals with the CT and TT genotypes and lactase non-persistence in individuals with the CC genotype. However, analysis of lactase activity from intestinal biopsies has revealed three distinct levels of activity, suggesting that an intermediate physiological phenotype may exist. Aim: To assess possible disparities between different genotypes with regard to biomarkers of lactase activity and physical symptoms during an oral lactose load test. Methods: A retrospective study using an oral lactose load test (n = 487). Concentrations of hydrogen in exhaled air and blood glucose were measured. Afterwards, subjects were asked to provide oral mucosa samples for genotyping and answer a questionnaire (participation rate 56%, n = 274). Results: Mean hydrogen levels in exhaled air at 120 min were significantly higher in the CT genotype than in the TT genotype. There was no significant difference in blood glucose levels between the two groups. Reported symptoms, with the possible exception of abdominal pain, were equally prevalent in both groups. Conclusions: Subjects with the CT and TT genotypes, hitherto classified as lactase-persistent, differ in their physiological response to lactose intake, indicating differences in phenotype which could have clinical significance. 

  • 280. Dzintars, Eric
    et al.
    Stathakis, Sotirios
    Mavroidis, Panayiotis
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum.
    Sadeghi, Amir
    Papanikolaou, Nikos
    Performance of independent dose calculation in helical tomotherapy: implementation of the mcsim code2012Inngår i: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine, ISSN 0158-9938, Vol. 35, nr 4, s. 423-438Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, a software-based second check dose calculation for helical tomotherapy (HT) is not available. The goal of this study is to evaluate the dose calculation accuracy of the in-house software using EGS4/MCSIM Monte Carlo environment against the treatment planning system calculations. In-house software was used to convert HT treatment plan information into a non-helical format. The MCSIM dose calculation code was evaluated by comparing point dose calculations and dose profiles against those from the HT treatment plan. Fifteen patients, representing five treatment sites, were used in this comparison. Point dose calculations between the HT treatment planning system and the EGS4/MCSIM Monte Carlo environment had percent difference values below 5 % for the majority of this study. Vertical and horizontal planar profiles also had percent difference values below 5 % for the majority of this study. Down sampling was seen to improve speed without much loss of accuracy. EGS4/MCSIM Monte Carlo environment showed good agreement with point dose measurements, compared to the HT treatment plans. Vertical and horizontal profiles also showed good agreement. Significant time saving may be obtained by down-sampling beam projections. The dose calculation accuracy of the in-house software using the MCSIM code against the treatment planning system calculations was evaluated. By comparing point doses and dose profiles, the EGS4/MCSIM Monte Carlo environment was seen to provide an accurate independent dose calculation.

  • 281.
    Ebbers, Tino
    Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Fysiologi. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Mekanisk värmeteori och strömningslära. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Fysiologiska kliniken US.
    Flow Imaging: Cardiac Applications of 3D Cine Phase-Contrast MRI2011Inngår i: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports, ISSN 1941-9074, Vol. 4, nr 2, s. 127-133Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Global and regional blood flow dynamics are of pivotal importance to cardiac function. Fluid mechanical forces can affect hemolysis and platelet aggregation, as well as myocardial remodeling. In recent years, assessment of blood flow patterns based on time-resolved, three-dimensional, three-directional phase-contrast MRI (3D cine PC MRI) has become possible and rapidly gained popularity. Initially, this technique was mainly known for its intuitive and appealing visualizations of the cardiovascular blood flow. Most recently, the technique has begun to go beyond compelling images toward comprehensive and quantitative assessment of blood flow. In this article, cardiac applications of 3D cine PC MRI data are discussed, starting with a review of the acquisition and analysis techniques, and including descriptions of promising applications of cardiac 3D cine PC MRI for the clinical evaluation of myocardial, valvular, and vascular disorders.

  • 282.
    Ebbers, Tino
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Klinisk fysiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärtcentrum, Fysiologiska kliniken.
    Dyverfeldt, Petter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Klinisk fysiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärtcentrum, Fysiologiska kliniken.
    Sigfridsson, Andreas
    Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Klinisk fysiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärtcentrum, Fysiologiska kliniken.
    Escobar Kvitting, John-Peder
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Klinisk fysiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Quantification of Mean and Fluctuating Flow2006Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 283.
    Ebbers, Tino
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Klinisk fysiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärtcentrum, Fysiologiska kliniken.
    Haraldsson, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Klinisk fysiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärtcentrum, Fysiologiska kliniken.
    Dyverfeldt, Petter
    Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Klinisk fysiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärtcentrum, Fysiologiska kliniken.
    Sigfridsson, Andreas
    Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Klinisk fysiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärtcentrum, Fysiologiska kliniken.
    Warntjes, Marcel Jan Bertus
    Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Klinisk fysiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärtcentrum, Fysiologiska kliniken.
    Wigström, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Klinisk fysiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Higher order weighted least-squares phase offset correction for improved accuracy in phase-contrast MRI2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging has the ability to accurately measure blood flow and myocardial velocities in the human body. Unwanted spatially varying phase offsets are, however, always present and may deteriorate the measurements significantly. Some of these phase offsets can be estimated based on the pulse sequence (1), but effects caused by eddy currents are more difficult to predict. A linear fit of the phase values is often estimated from either a number of manually defined areas containing stationary tissue or by semi-automatic detection of stationary tissue using the

  • 284.
    Edberg, Carina
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    Expression of weight and aggression regulating genes in Drosophila melanogaster after exposure to the behavioural pheromone 11-cis-vaccenyl acetate2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Obesity is a growing public health issue with few effective treatments. Many of the human genes involved in weight regulation have homologues in other species. In Drosophila melanogaster, 11-cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVA) is a pheromone shown to affect both aggression and feeding behaviour. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cVA exposure on gene expression in wild type flies and to confirm crosses with genetic knockouts in the cVA pathway. The genes studied in the wild type flies were Akh (homologue of glucagon), Dilp2,-3 and -5 (homologues of insulin), Dsk (homologue of cholecystokinin), sNPF (homologue of neuropeptide Y) and TβH. The knockout genes studied were Or65a, Or67d and TβH. RNA was extracted from whole heads, cDNA synthesis was performed and the cDNA was then used in SYBR Green RT-qPCR. The knockout genes were not confirmed, due to methodological problems. The expression of Dilp3, Dilp5 and Dsk were significantly lower in the experimental flies, the expression of the other genes where not affected. The results indicate that exposure to cVA affects the expression of some of the neuropeptides involved in weight regulation. Due to the methodological problems experienced, a recommendation is to confirm the data using different reagents.

  • 285.
    Edin, Alicia
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Klinisk bakteriologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS).
    Granholm, Susanne
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Klinisk bakteriologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS).
    Koskiniemi, Satu
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Klinisk bakteriologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS).
    Allard, Annika
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Virologi.
    Sjöstedt, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Klinisk bakteriologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS).
    Johansson, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Klinisk bakteriologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS).
    Development and Laboratory Evaluation of a Real-Time PCR Assay for Detecting Viruses and Bacteria of Relevance for Community-Acquired Pneumonia2015Inngår i: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics, ISSN 1525-1578, E-ISSN 1943-7811, Vol. 17, nr 3, s. 315-324Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Community-acquired pneumonia may present with similar clinical symptoms, regardless of viral or bacterial cause. Diagnostic assays are needed to rapidly discriminate between causes, because this will guide decisions on appropriate treatment. Therefore, a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay with duplex reactions targeting eight bacteria and six viruses was developed. Technical performance was examined with linear plasmids. Upper and Lower respiratory tract specimens were used to compare the qPCR assay with standard microbiological methods. The limit of detection was 5 to 20 DNA template copies with approximately 1000-fold differences in concentrations of the two competing templates. SDs for positive controls were <5%. The use of the qPCR assay resulted in 113 positive identifications in 94 respiratory specimens compared with 38 by using standard diagnostics. Diagnostic accuracy of the qPCR assay varied between 60% positive agreement with standard tests for Streptococcus pneumoniae and 100% for Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Negative percentage of agreement was >95% for M. pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, respiratory syncytial virus, and influenza A virus; whereas it was only 56% for Haemophilus influenzae. Multiple microbial agents were identified in 19 of 44 sputum and 19 of 50 nasopharynx specimens. We conclude that in parallel qPCR detection of the targeted respiratory bacteria and viruses is feasible. The results indicate good technical performance of the assay in clinical specimens.

  • 286.
    Edsborg, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Biomedicinsk laboratorievetenskap.
    Allelfrekvensen av SNV rs113247976 C>T i KIF5A genen: Regionala skillnader i den svenska populationen2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 287.
    Eduardo Venson, José
    et al.
    Institute of Informatics – INF, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul – UFRGS, Av. Bento Gonçalves, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil / Animati - Computação aplicada à Saúde, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil.
    Bevilacqua, Fernando
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi. Universidade Federal da Fronteira Sul – UFFS, Chapecó, SC, Brazil.
    Onuki, Fabio
    Medvia Diagnósticos, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.
    Cordeiro d’Ornellas, Marcos
    Laboratory for Applied Computing – LaCA, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria – UFSM, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil.
    Anderson, Maciel
    Institute of Informatics – INF, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul – UFRGS, Av. Bento Gonçalves, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.
    Efficient medical image access in diagnostic environments with limited resources2016Inngår i: Research on Biomedical Engineering, ISSN 2446-4732, Vol. 32, nr 4, s. 347-357Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    A medical application running outside the workstation environment has to deal with several constraints, such as reduced available memory and low network bandwidth. The aim of this paper is to present an approach to optimize the data flow for fast image transfer and visualization on mobile devices and remote stationary devices.

    Methods

    We use a combination of client- and server-side procedures to reduce the amount of information transferred by the application. Our approach was implemented on top of a commercial PACS and evaluated through user experiments with specialists in typical diagnosis tasks. The quality of the system outcome was measured in relation to the accumulated amount of network data transference and the amount of memory used in the host device. Besides, the system's quality of use (usability) was measured through participants’ feedback.

    Results

    Contrarily to previous approaches, ours keeps the application within the memory constraints, minimizing data transferring whenever possible, allowing the application to run on a variety of devices. Moreover, it does that without sacrificing the user experience. Experimental data point that over 90% of the users did not notice any delays or degraded image quality, and when they did, they did not impact on the clinical decisions.

    Conclusion

    The combined activities and orchestration of our methods allow the image viewer to run on resource-constrained environments, such as those with low network bandwidth or little available memory. These results demonstrate the ability to explore the use of mobile devices as a support tool in the medical workflow.

  • 288.
    Eggers, Kai M.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Uppsala kliniska forskningscentrum (UCR).
    Aldous, Sally
    Greenslade, Jaimi H.
    Johnston, Nina
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Uppsala kliniska forskningscentrum (UCR).
    Lindahl, Bertil
    Parsonage, William A.
    Pickering, John W.
    Than, Martin
    Cullen, Louise
    Two-hour diagnostic algorithms for early assessment of patients with acute chest pain - Implications of lowering the cardiac troponin I cut-off to the 97.5th percentile2015Inngår i: Clinica Chimica Acta, ISSN 0009-8981, E-ISSN 1873-3492, Vol. 445, s. 19-24Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Assessment of patients with suspected non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) is based on cardiac troponin (cTn) levels with the 99th percentile as cut-off. However, cardiovascular risk starts already at lower troponin concentrations. We therefore, aimed to investigate the utility of 2-hour algorithms using the high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) 97.5th percentile as cut-off which corresponds to the standard URL for most biomarkers. Methods: Hs-cTnI was measured at presentation and 2 h in 1624 chest pain patients. Diagnostic algorithms were developed applying hs-cTnI levels dichotomized at the 99th and 97.5th percentiles combined with hs-cTnI changes and/or ECG findings. Results: The prevalence of NSTEMI was 13.9%. The adjusted odds ratios for 1-year mortality were 2.7(95% CI 1.4-5.1) for the 99th percentile and 3.1 (95% CI 1.6-5.9) for the 97.5th percentile. The best-performing 99th percentile-based algorithms provided a positive predictive value (PPV) of 863% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 993%. Using 97.5th percentile-based algorithms to define NSTEMI resulted in few reclassifications and yielded similar diagnostic estimates (PPV 85.4%, NPV 99.4%). Conclusion: The hs-cTnI 97.5th percentile integrated into 2-hour algorithms provided high diagnostic estimates and could, due to better prognostic properties serve as an alternative to the 99th percentile.

  • 289.
    Eggers, Kai M.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Lindahl, Bertil
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Uppsala kliniska forskningscentrum (UCR).
    Application of Cardiac Troponin in Cardiovascular Diseases Other Than Acute Coronary Syndrome2017Inngår i: Clinical Chemistry, ISSN 0009-9147, E-ISSN 1530-8561, Vol. 63, nr 1, s. 223-235Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Increased cardiac troponin concentrations in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) identify patients with ongoing cardiomyocyte necrosis who are at increased risk. However, with the use of more precise assays, cardiac troponin increases are commonly noted in other cardiovascular conditions as well. This has generated interest in the use of cardiac troponin for prognostic assessment and clinical management of these patients. In this review, we have summarized the data from studies investigating the implications of cardiac troponin concentrations in various acute and chronic conditions beyond ACS,, i.e., heart failure, myocarditis, Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, aortic dissection, supraventricular arrhythmias, valve disease, pulmonary arterial hypertension, stroke, and in the perioperative setting. CONTENT: Cardiac troponin concentrations are often detectable and frankly increased in non-ACS conditions, in particular when measured with high-sensitivity (hs) assays. With the exception of myocarditis and Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, cardiac troponin concentrations carry strong prognostic information, mainly with respect to mortality, or incipient and/or worsening heart failure. Studies investigating the prognostic benefit associated with cardiac troponin guided treatments however, are almost lacking and the potential role of cardiac troponin in the management of non-ACS conditions is not defined. SUMMARY: Increased cardiac troponin indicates increased risk for adverse outcome in patients with various cardiovascular conditions beyond ACS. Routine measurement of cardiac troponin concentrations can however, not be generally recommended unless there is a suspicion of ACS. Nonetheless, any finding of an increased cardiac troponin concentration in a patient without ACS should at least prompt the search for possible underlying conditions and these should be managed meticulously according to current guidelines to improve outcome.

  • 290.
    Einarsson, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Implementation and Performance Analysis of Filternets2006Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Today Image acquisition equipment produces huge amounts of data that needs to be processed. Often the data describes signals with a dimensionality higher then 2, as with ordinary images. This introduce a problem when it comes to process this high dimensional data since ordinary signal processing tools are no longer suitable. New faster and more efficient tools need to be developed to fully exploit the advantages with e. g. a 3D CT-scan.

    One such tool is filternets, a layered networklike structure, which the signal propagates through. A filternet has three fundamental advantages which will decrease the filtering time. The network structure allows complex filter to be decomposed into simpler ones, intermediate result may be reused and filters may be implemented with very few nonzero coefficients (sparse filters).

    The aim of this study has been to create an implementation for filternets and optimize it with respect to execution time. Specially the possibility to use filternets that approximates a harmonic filterset for estimating orientation in 3D signals is investigated.

    Tests show that this method is up to about 30 times faster than a full filterset consisting of dense filters. They also show a slightly larger error in the estimated orientation compared with the dense filters, this error should however not limit the usability of the method.

  • 291.
    Ekberg, Niklas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Muscle activation during the chin-up exercise versus the lat-pulldown exercise using different workloads: An Electromyography study2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Two commonly used strength training exercises are the chin-up- and the lat-pulldown exercise. Both exercises are performed by using similar movement patterns and by using the same primary muscles. Previous research has shown that each exercise can exhibit unique training stimulus and should not be considered interchangeably. However, there is limited research regarding comparison of muscle activation between the exercises. Knowing the amount of muscle activation when performing the exercises, can help strength training participants to choose exercise and relative workload according to the specific muscles they want to target.

    Purpose: This study sought to compare muscle activation (measured as average) in m. latissimus dorsi (LD), m. biceps brachii (BB), middle m. trapezius (TR) and m. rectus abdominis (RA) between performing the chin-up at 100% of participants’ individual bodyweight (BW) with lat-pulldown at 50%-, 65%- and 75% BW.

    Methods: Twenty strength trained male participants (25.0 ± 3.3 yr; 181.0 ± 5.8 cm; 82.0 ± 7.8 kg) were examined during the study. Surface electromyography (SEMG) was collected from LD, BB, TR & RA during the exercises. Average muscle activation was expressed as percentage of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC). Exercise execution was as identical as possible for both exercises and was performed using pronated handgrip and a grip width equal to 1.5 times the participants individual biacromial distance.

    Results: Statistically significant (p<0.05) increases in average muscle activation were found in LD, BB and RA during chin-up 100% BW compared to lat-pulldown at 50%-, 65% and 75% BW. However, for TR no significant difference (p=0.145) was found between chin-up 100% BW and lat-pulldown when performed at 75% BW.

    Conclusion: These results indicate that performing the lat-pulldown using workload somewhere between 75-100% BW can exhibit the same muscle activation as performing the chin-up at 100% BW.

    Keywords: Strength training, Surface electromyography, Muscle activation, Chin-up exercise, Latpulldown exercise, Different workloads, Randomisation, Cross-over, Observational

  • 292.
    Ekelöf, Josefine
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Detection of Carbapenemases in Klebsiella pneumoniae Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/IonizationTime-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 293.
    Eklo, Niklas
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Bestämning av cytokinproduktion i nasala borstprov som respons på LPS- eller R848-stimulering2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 294.
    Eklund, Anders
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Andersson, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ohlsson, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ynnerman, Anders
    Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Visuell informationsteknologi och applikationer. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Knutsson, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    A Brain Computer Interface for Communication Using Real-Time fMRI2010Inngår i: Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Pattern Recognition, Los Alamitos, CA, USA: IEEE Computer Society, 2010, s. 3665-3669Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the first step towards a brain computer interface (BCI) for communication using real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The subject in the MR scanner sees a virtual keyboard and steers a cursor to select different letters that can be combined to create words. The cursor is moved to the left by activating the left hand, to the right by activating the right hand, down by activating the left toes and up by activating the right toes. To select a letter, the subject simply rests for a number of seconds. We can thus communicate with the subject in the scanner by for example showing questions that the subject can answer. Similar BCI for communication have been made with electroencephalography (EEG). The subject then focuses on a letter while different rows and columns of the virtual keyboard are flashing and the system tries to detect if the correct letter is flashing or not. In our setup we instead classify the brain activity. Our system is neither limited to a communication interface, but can be used for any interface where five degrees of freedom is necessary.

  • 295. Eklund, Ida
    Prevalence of microorganisms in reindeer(Rangifer tarandustarandus)and possible effects of climate changes.2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The climate in the north is changing over time, which affects the nature in many ways. For instance, some microorganisms that cause infections might become more common. This might have negative consequences for reindeer husbandry. In Sweden, this is an industry that is relatively large. However, even though the reindeer is common in the north the knowledge about its diseases is limited.In this study the prevalence of microorganisms that may cause infection in reindeer was investigated. Comparisons between different sami villages and previous studies were performed to detect differences that could occur due to climate changes. The diseases and microorganisms that were analyzed with PCR were malignant catarrhal fever, herpes infections, Chlamydia sp. and bovine viral diarrhea (BVD). The cause of eye problems in reindeer was also investigated. BVD and bovine leukemia virus where analyzed with ELISA. Next generation sequencing where used for broader screening of samples for microorganisms that might be of interest of future analysis in more detailed follow-up studies.Since not enough samples were available at the time of this study findings could not be linked to changing climate. In the reindeer with eye infection Chlamydia sp., Moraxella sp. and Neisseria sp. can probably be involved causing disease. This should be further investigated to be able to determine whether it is true or not by analyzing samples from individuals without changes in the eyes. The prevalence of reindeers with antibodies against BVD has increased in Sweden since 2012. There will be further studies in this field with reindeers from other northern countries.

  • 296.
    Eklund, Lina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Biomedicinsk laboratorievetenskap. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Cytostatikabehandling av kolorektalcancer-celler med olika genetisk bakgrund: Genetisk bakgrund har betydelse för effekten av behandlingen2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 297.
    Ekstedt, Sandra
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för kemi och biomedicin (KOB). Karolinska institutet.
    Effect of IL-13 on Serotonin mediated Airway Smooth Muscle Contraction2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Asthma is a disease that occurs worldwide and approximately 300 million people carry this disease. It is characterized by chronic inflammation, airway obstruction and airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR). This T-lymphocyte controlled disease has symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, and chest tightness. In addition to chronic inflammation, asthma is also caused by overproduction of mucus and airway wall remodelling. The chronic inflammation and airway wall remodelling are suggested to contribute to the AHR and airway obstruction. AHR is a way to measure the reactivity in the airways in asthmatics. IL-13 has been shown to play an important role in the development of AHR, and biopsies from bronchial submucosa and air way smooth muscle (ASM) in humans have shown an increased concentration of IL-13 in severe asthma.

    Aim: The aim of this work was to evaluate if IL-13 is able to enhance the 5-HT response in mouse tracheal segments, which had been cultured for 2 days and, if so, try to unravel the underlying mechanism for this phenomenon. Literature reports that IL-13 enhanced contractions in mouse trachea in presence of KCl and CCH. Earlier work within this project did not find any clear proof for this observation. However, in this work this observation will be evaluated in a more controlled fashion by correcting for size and location of the trachea.

    Methods: The trachea was removed from Balp/c mice and cultured in small wells for two days in DMEM medium and various additions were performed to the medium for understanding the effect of e.g. IL-13 on the cells. The contractility change due to IL-13 and various additions in segments challenged with KCL, CCH and 5-HT were measured in a tissue-organ bath.

    Results and Conclusion: A more enhanced CCH induced contraction of IL-13 treated segments was obtained for the lower part compared to the upper part of the trachea. IL-13 enhanced the response in the ASM to 5-HT after two days of culturing. An increased concentration of the cytokine IL-13 in the airways from TH2-cells enhances the reactivity to 5-HT in the ASM. The underlying mechanism might involve JNK and ERK but more experiments are needed to statistically ensure this claim.

  • 298.
    Ekstrand, Annie
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för naturvetenskap och biomedicin.
    Pop, Maria
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för naturvetenskap och biomedicin.
    Placenta growth factor som biomarkör vid screening av preeklampsi: Litteraturfördjupning och verifiering av metodologi2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Under år 2003-2009 utgjorde hypertensiva sjukdomar, såsom eklampsi och preeklampsi, 14,0% av värdens mödradödlighet. Preeklampsi kännetecknas vanligtvis av kliniska observationer av hypertoni och signifikant proteinuri i graviditetens andra trimester. Inom diagnostiken används en riskbedömningsprogramvara som kan beräkna vilken sannolikhetsgrad den havande kvinnan har för att utveckla preeklampsi. Förutom mätning av blodtryck och proteinuri har biomarkören placenta growth factor 1 (PlGF-1) visat ett högt prediktivt värde vid bedömningen. Studien syftade till att kartlägga och fördjupa sig i metoderna som analyserar biomarkören samt verifiera metoden för PlGF på instrumentet Brahms Kryptor compact plus. Fördjupningen baserades på granskning av vetenskapliga artiklar och resulterade i två manuella och tre automatiserade metoder. Metoden Quantikine användes i 47% av artiklarna och konstaterades som studiens golden standard. Vid jämförelse av metoderna sågs en lägre bakgrundsstörning, en högre sensitivitet samt en kortare analystid hos de automatiserade metoderna. Den laborativa verifieringen innefattade bestämning av överensstämmelse med externt laboratorium, beräkning av instrumentets provsmitta mellan höga och låga prov samt kvantifiering av inomserie- och mellanliggande precision. Verifieringen resulterade i en god överensstämmelse (r=0,953, p=0,327) med det externa laboratoriet, en konstaterad provsmitta på 0,04% samt en god precision inom leverantörens angivelser.

  • 299.
    Ekström, Sara
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för kemi och biomedicin (KOB).
    Buller som stressor i skolmatsalar: En fördjupning av Barnmiljöhälsorapport 2013 i samarbete med Landstinget i Jönköpings län2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Barnmiljöhälsorapporten 2013 indikerade att 12-åringarna i Jönköpings län känt sig besvärade av ljud i skolmatsalen. Att besväras av ljud är samma sak som att utsättas för buller. Buller har förmåga att aktivera kroppens stressystem och ljud kan bl.a. leda till ökad frisättning av kortikotropinfrisättande hormon, (CRH). Ett hormon som påverkar mag- och tarmkanalen på flera olika sätt som troligen är negativt.  Ljudstörning har förmåga att påverka hälsan hos de som utsätts, buller utgör en hälsorisk.

    Syfte: Syftet med detta arbete är att studera sambandet mellan bullerstörning i skolmatsalen och självskattad hälsa hos 858 12-åringar i Jönköpings län som deltagit i Barnmiljöhälsoenkäten 2011.

    Metod: Analyser av data från Barnmiljöhälsoenkäten 2011 där upplevelse av ljudstörning i skolmatsalen satts i relation till självskattad hälsa.

    Resultat: 12-åringarna i Barnmiljöhälsoenkäten 2011 i Jönköpings län som störts mest av ljud i skolmatsalen har en sämre självskattad hälsa än de som störts mindre eller inte alls av ljud i skolmatsalen.

    Slutsats: För att skapa bättre förutsättningar för en god hälsa hos barn bör fler studier utföras där de stresshormoner ljud kan öka frisättningen av och dess hälsoeffekter utreds. Detta eftersom denna studie indikerar en sämre självskattad hos de deltagare som upplever ljudstörning i skolmatsalen. 

  • 300.
    El Chami El Bayrakdar, Abir
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin.
    Polymorfismen rs1130864 i genen för C-reaktivt protein(CRP) och dess betydelse för CRP-expressionen2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
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