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  • 251.
    Baudin, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Biomedicinsk laboratorievetenskap.
    Ökad trombopoes och perifer trombocytaktivering i Hantavirus-infekterade patienter2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 252.
    Baumann, Martin J.
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO).
    Xyloglucan-active enzymes: properties, structures and applications2007Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Cellulosabaserade material är världens rikligast förekommande förnyelsebara råvara. Växters cellväggar är naturliga kompositmaterial där den kristallina cellulosan är inbäddad i en väv av hemicellulosa, strukturproteiner och lignin. Xyloglukaner är en viktig hemicellulosagrupp som omger och korslänkar den kristallina cellulosan i cellväggarna. I denna avhandling undersöks undersöks sambanden mellan struktur och funktion hos olika xyloglukan-aktiva enzymer.

    En modell för effektiv enzymatisk omvandling av biomassa ges av cellulosomen hos den anaeroba prokaryota organismen Clostridium thermocellum. Cellulosomen är ett proteinkomplex med hög molmassa och flera olika enzymaktiviteter, bl.a. det inverterande xyloglukan-endohydrolaset CtXGH74A. Proteinstrukturen för CtXGH74A har lösts i komplex med xyloglukanoligosackarider, som stabliliserar vissa loopar/slingor som är oordnade i apostrukturen. Ytterligare detaljerade kinetiska och produktananalyser har genomförts för att entydigt visa att CtXGH74A är ett endoxyloglukanas vars slutliga nedbrytningsprodukt är Glc4-baserade xyloglukanoligosackarider.

    Som jämförelse innehåller glykosidhydrolasfamilj 16 (GH16) såväl hydrolytiska endoxyloglukanaser som xyloglukantransglykosylaser (XETs) från växter. För att utreda vad som bestämmer förhållandet mellan transglykosylering och hydrolys i xyloglukanaktiva enzymer från familj GH 16 jämfördes struktur och kinetik hos ett strikt transglykosylas, PttXET16-34 från hybridasp, med ett nära besläktat hydrolytiskt enzym, NXG1 från krasse. I NXG1 identifierades en viktig förlängningsloop, som vid trunkering gav ett muterat enzym med högre transglykosyleringshastighet och minskad hydrolytisk aktivitet. Kinetikstudierna genomfördes med hjälp av nyutvecklade känsliga provmetoder med väldefinerade XGO:er och ett antal kromogena XGO-arylglykosider.

    En detaljerad förståelse av enzymologin inom GH16 möjliggjorde utvecklingen av en ny kemoenzymatisk metod för biomimetisk fiberytmodifiering med hjälp av PttXET16-34s translgykosyleringsaktivitet. Aminoalditolderivat av xyloglukanoligosackarider användes som nyckelintermediärer för att introducera ny kemisk funktionalitet hos xyloglukan, såsom kromoforer, reaktiva grupper, proteinligander och initiatorer för polymeriseringsreaktioner. Tekniken innebär ett nytt och mångsidigt verktyg för fiberytmodifiering.

  • 253.
    Baumann, Martina
    et al.
    Univ Nat Resources & Appl Life Sci, Dept Biotechnol, Vienna, Austria.
    Höppner, Marc P.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Meier, Michael
    Univ Nat Resources & Appl Life Sci, Dept Biotechnol, Vienna, Austria.
    Pontiller, Jens
    Univ Nat Resources & Appl Life Sci, Dept Biotechnol, Vienna, Austria.
    Ernst, Wolfgang
    Univ Nat Resources & Appl Life Sci, Dept Biotechnol, Vienna, Austria.
    Grabherr, Reingard
    Univ Nat Resources & Appl Life Sci, Dept Biotechnol, Vienna, Austria.
    Mauceli, Evan
    Broad Inst, Cambridge, MA USA.
    Grabherr, Manfred G.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Broad Inst, Cambridge, MA USA.
    Artificially designed promoters: understanding the role of spatial features and canonical binding sites in transcription2012Inngår i: Bioengineered Bugs, ISSN 1949-1018, E-ISSN 1949-1026, Vol. 3, nr 2, s. 120-123Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The promoter is a key element in gene transcription and regulation. We previously reported that artificial sequences rich in the dinucleotide CpG are sufficient to drive expression in vitro in mammalian cell lines, without requiring canonical binding sites for transcription factor proteins. Here, we report that introducing a promoter organization that alternates in CpGs and regions rich in A and T further increases expression strength, as well as how insertion of specific binding sites makes such sequences respond to induced levels of the transcription factor NFκB. Our findings further contribute to the mechanistic understanding of promoters, as well as how these sequences might be shaped by evolutionary pressure in living organisms.

  • 254.
    Baumgarten, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Schlegel, Susan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Wagner, Samuel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Löw, Mirjam
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Eriksson, Jonas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Bonde, Ida
    Herrgård, Markus J.
    Heipieper, Hermann J.
    Nørholm, Morten H. H.
    Slotboom, Dirk Jan
    de Gier, Jan-Willem
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Isolation and characterization of the E. coli membrane protein production strain Mutant56(DE3)2017Inngår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, artikkel-id 45089Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Membrane protein production is usually toxic to E. coli. However, using genetic screens strains can be isolated in which the toxicity of membrane protein production is reduced, thereby improving production yields. Best known examples are the C41(DE3) and C43(DE3) strains, which are both derived from the T7 RNA polymerase (P)-based BL21(DE3) protein production strain. In C41(DE3) and C43(DE3) mutations lowering t7rnap expression levels result in strongly reduced T7 RNAP accumulation levels. As a consequence membrane protein production stress is alleviated in the C41(DE3) and C43(DE3) strains, thereby increasing membrane protein yields. Here, we isolated Mutant56(DE3) from BL21(DE3) using a genetic screen designed to isolate BL21(DE3)-derived strains with mutations alleviating membrane protein production stress other than the ones in C41(DE3) and C43(DE3). The defining mutation of Mutant56(DE3) changes one amino acid in its T7 RNAP, which weakens the binding of the T7 RNAP to the T7 promoter governing target gene expression rather than lowering T7 RNAP levels. For most membrane proteins tested yields in Mutant56(DE3) were considerably higher than in C41(DE3) and C43(DE3). Thus, the isolation of Mutant56(DE3) shows that the evolution of BL21(DE3) can be promoted towards further enhanced membrane protein production.

  • 255.
    Beaussant Törne, Karin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik.
    Khan, Fareed Ashraf
    Örnberg, A.
    Weissenrieder, Jonas
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik.
    Zn-Mg and Zn-Ag degradation mechanism under biologically relevant conditionsManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Zinc alloys form a promising new class of biodegradable metals that combine suitable mechanical properties with the favorable degradation properties of pure zinc. However, the current understanding of the influence of alloying elements on the corrosion of zinc alloys, in biologically relevant media, is limited. We studied the degradation of three alloys, Zn 4 wt% Ag, Zn 0.5 wt% Mg and Zn 3 wt% Mg by in situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). After exposure for 1h or 30 days the samples were characterized by infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The presence of secondary phases in the alloy microstructure induced selective corrosion and increased degradation rate. An increase in surface inhomogeneity was evident by EIS analysis both at short (hours) as well as long immersion times (days). The microgalvanic corrosion of the Zn-Ag alloy resulted in enrichment of the AgZn3 phase at the sample surface. The enrichment of Ag and potential release of AgZn3 particles may result in complications during the tissue regeneration. The Zn-Mg alloy surface was depleted of the Mg-rich phase after 8-12 days. The selective dissolution caused local precipitation of2corrosion products and a thicker corrosion layer with larger pore size consistent with increased corrosion rate.

  • 256.
    Beaussant Törne, Karin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik.
    Örnberg, A.
    Weissenrieder, Jonas
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik.
    Characterization of the Protective Layer Formed on Zinc in Whole BloodManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The advantageous degradation properties of zinc in a biological environment are related to the presence of a protective corrosion layer composed of both organic and inorganic components. However, the mechanisms governing its formation and how the organic species influence its properties have not been established. Here we study the protective layer formation during anodic polarization in whole blood by in situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) as well as infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Simulated body fluid (m-SBF) was used as a reference media to discern the influence of the organic species present in whole blood. Protective zinc phosphate layers form on the Zn surface in both solutions, but of different nature and through diverse mechanisms. In m-SBF the passivating thin film formation occur already at open circuit potential, reducing the corrosion current compared to exposure in whole blood by a factor of 103. The high corrosion current in whole blood can be explained by a process including rapid protein adsorption preventing the initial formation of a protective phosphate layer. EIS analysis detected an inductive arc in whole blood at low overpotentials, before the onset of protective film formation, indicating the presence of adsorbed Zn2ions. The coverage of Zn ions approach 100% of the active surface at 110 mV. At this critical surface coverage a reaction between the adsorbed Zn ions and PO42- takes place which results in formation of a protective, porous, film of ~1 μm thickness. The inorganic component of the protective film formed in whole blood was characterized as Zn(PO4)2(OH)2·3H2O.

  • 257. Bello, M. A.
    et al.
    Ruiz-León, Y.
    Sandoval-Sierra, J. V.
    Rezinciuc, Svetlana
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Glykovetenskap.
    Diéguez-Uribeondo, J.
    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) protocols for problematic plant, oomycete, and fungal samples2017Inngår i: Journal of Visualized Experiments, ISSN 1940-087X, E-ISSN 1940-087X, Vol. 2017, nr 120, artikkel-id e55031Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Common problems in the processing of biological samples for observations with the scanning electron microscope (SEM) include cell collapse, treatment of samples from wet microenvironments and cell destruction. Using young floral tissues, oomycete cysts, and fungi spores (Agaricalesas examples, specific protocols to process delicate samples are described here that overcome some of the main challenges in sample treatment for image capture under the SEM. Floral meristems fixed with FAA (Formalin-Acetic-Alcohol) and processed with the Critical Point Dryer (CPD) did not display collapsed cellular walls or distorted organs. These results are crucial for the reconstruction of floral development. A similar CPD-based treatment of samples from wet microenvironments, such as the glutaraldehyde-fixed oomycete cysts, is optimal to test the differential growth of diagnostic characteristics (e.g., the cyst spines) on different types of substrates. Destruction of nurse cells attached to fungi spores was avoided after rehydration, dehydration, and the CPD treatment, an important step for further functional studies of these cells. The protocols detailed here represent low-cost and rapid alternatives for the acquisition of good-quality images to reconstruct growth processes and to study diagnostic characteristics.

  • 258.
    Benderix, Ylva
    et al.
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Institutionen för pedagogik.
    Almqvist, Ann-Mari
    Andersson, Åsa
    Bengtsson, Elisabeth
    Björk, Maria
    Birgersson, Petra
    Bramhagen, Ann-Cathrin
    Bredlöv, Britt
    Broberg, Malin
    Danielsson, Pernilla
    Drevenhorn, Eva
    Edwinsson-Månsson, Marie
    Ervander Grandinsson, Inger
    Falk, Ann-Charlotte
    Forsner, Maria
    Gelander, RS
    Gothefors, Leif
    Gånemo, Agneta
    Barn med neuropsykiatriskt funktionshinder2009Inngår i: PEDIATRISK OMVÅRDNAD / [ed] Inger Hallström & Tom Lindberg, Stockholm: LIBER , 2009, s. 309-315Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 259. Bengtsson, Erik
    et al.
    Nerjovaj, Pashtrik
    Wangefjord, Sakarias
    Nodin, Björn
    Eberhard, Jakob
    Uhlén, Mathias
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Proteomik och nanobioteknologi. KTH, Centra, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Borgquist, Signe
    Jirström, Karin
    HMG-CoA reductase expression in primary colorectal cancer correlates with favourable clinicopathological characteristics and an improved clinical outcome2014Inngår i: Diagnostic Pathology, ISSN 1746-1596, E-ISSN 1746-1596, Vol. 9, nr 1, s. 78-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: An association between tumor-specific HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR) expression and good prognosis has previously been demonstrated in breast and ovarian cancer. In this study, the expression, clinicopathological correlates and prognostic value of HMGCR expression in colorectal cancer was examined. Findings: Immunohistochemical expression of HMGCR was assessed in tissue microarrays with primary tumours from 557 incident cases of colorectal cancer in the Malmo Diet and Cancer Study. Pearson's Chi Square test was applied to explore the associations between HMGCR expression and clinicopathological factors and other investigative biomarkers. Kaplan Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards modeling were used to assess the relationship between HMGCR expression and cancer-specific survival (CSS) according to negative vs positive HMGCR expression. A total number of 535 (96.0%) tumours were suitable for analysis, of which 61 (11.4%) were HMGCR negative. Positive cytoplasmic HMGCR expression was associated with distant metastasis-free disease at diagnosis (p = 0.002), lack of vascular invasion (p = 0.043), microsatellite-instability (p = 0.033), expression of cyclin D1 (p = <0.001) and p21 (p = <0.001). Positive HMGCR expression was significantly associated with a prolonged CSS in unadjusted Cox regression analysis in the entire cohort (HR = 1.79; 95% CI 1.20-2.66) and in Stage III-IV disease (HR = 1.71; 95% CI 1.09-2.68), but not after adjustment for established clinicopathological parameters. Conclusions: Findings from this prospective cohort study demonstrate that HMGCR is differentially expressed in colorectal cancer and that positive expression is associated with favourable tumour characteristics and a prolonged survival in unadjusted analysis. The utility of HMGCR as a predictor of response to neoadjuvant or adjuvant statin treatment in colorectal cancer merits further study. Virtual slides: The virtual slides for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2115647072103464.

  • 260.
    Bengtsson, Katarina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. LunaMicro AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Christoffersson, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teknisk biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Mandenius, Carl-Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teknisk biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. LunaMicro AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    A clip-on electroosmotic pump for oscillating flow in microfluidic cell culture devices2018Inngår i: Microfluidics and Nanofluidics, ISSN 1613-4982, E-ISSN 1613-4990, Vol. 22, nr 3, artikkel-id 27Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advances in microfluidic devices put a high demand on small, robust and reliable pumps suitable for high-throughput applications. Here we demonstrate a compact, low-cost, directly attachable (clip-on) electroosmotic pump that couples with standard Luer connectors on a microfluidic device. The pump is easy to make and consists of a porous polycarbonate membrane and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) electrodes. The soft electrode and membrane materials make it possible to incorporate the pump into a standard syringe filter holder, which in turn can be attached to commercial chips. The pump is less than half the size of the microscope slide used for many commercial lab-on-a-chip devices, meaning that these pumps can be used to control fluid flow in individual reactors in highly parallelized chemistry and biology experiments. Flow rates at various electric current and device dimensions are reported. We demonstrate the feasibility and safety of the pump for biological experiments by exposing endothelial cells to oscillating shear stress (up to 5 dyn/cm2) and by controlling the movement of both micro- and macroparticles, generating steady or oscillatory flow rates up to ± 400 μL/min.

  • 261.
    Bengtsson, Rebecca
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Jämförelse av automatiskt beräknade ejektionsfraktion (EF) ochmaximal volym vid diastole i vänster kammare (EDV) vid myokardscintigrafi och ultraljud.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Hjärtats storlek och funktion är avgörande för att ställa diagnos och prognos vid kardiella sjukdomar. För bestämning av dessa parametrar finns olika metoder att använda sig av. I denna studie har vi försökt visa korrelation och överensstämmelse mellan 3-dimensionell ekokardiografi (RT3DE) och myokardscintigrafi (SPECT). Då 25 patienter var remitterade för arbetsdelen av myokardscintigrafin undersöktes de även med RT3DE. Av dessa exkluderades 7 patienter antingen för att bildkvaliteten var för dålig för automatiska beräkningar, eller för att programvaran inte klarade av att göra trovärdiga beräkningar även då bildkvaliteten var god. De återstående 18 patienter (ålder 62 ± 11 år, 9 kvinnor) ingick i jämförelserna. Vänsterkammarens ejektionsfraktion (EF) och end diastoliska volym (EDV) beräknades automatiskt utan manuell justering av konturerna med RT3DE och jämfördes med erhållna värden från SPECT. Resultaten för EDV mätt med SPECT och RT3DE blev 83 ± 59 ml (37-291 ml) respektive 118 ± 32 ml (75-186 ml). Pearsons korrelationskoefficient mellan SPECT och RT3DE var r = 0,78 (P < 0,002). Beräkning av överensstämmelsen mellan metoderna ger bias som är medelvärdet av skillnaden vilket blev 35 ± 40 ml (P < 0,001). Motsvarande resultat för EF beräknat med SPECT och RT3DE blev 62 ± 13 % (36-83 %) respektive 54 ± 8 % (36-71 %). Pearsons korrelationskoefficient mellan metoderna var r = 0,59 (P = 0,009). Biasvärdet blev -7 ± 11 % (P = 0,004) för EF. Spridningen mellan metoderna var stor och några tydliga trender kunde inte ses. Med en trendlinje i differensdiagrammet visualiserades att felet växte med storleken på värdena för EF. De stora variationerna mellan metoderna ökar vikten av utbildning och erfarenhet vid bedömning av enskilda resultat oavsett undersökning.

  • 262. Bengtsson-Palme, Johan
    et al.
    Hammaren, Rickard
    Pal, Chandan
    Ostman, Marcus
    Björlenius, Berndt
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Industriell bioteknologi.
    Flach, Carl-Fredrik
    Fick, Jerker
    Kristiansson, Erik
    Tysklind, Mats
    Larsson, D. G. Joakim
    Elucidating selection processes for antibiotic resisitance in sewage treatment plants using metagenomics2016Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 572, s. 697-712Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sewage treatment plants (STPs) have repeatedly been suggested as hotspots for the emergence and dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. A critical question still unanswered is if selection pressures within STPs, caused by residual antibiotics or other co-selective agents, are sufficient to specifically promote resistance. To address this, we employed shotgun metagenomic sequencing of samples from different steps of the treatment process in three Swedish STPs. In parallel, concentrations of selected antibiotics, biocides and metals were analyzed. We found that concentrations of tetracycline and ciprofloxacin in the influent were above predicted concentrations for resistance selection, however, there was no consistent enrichment of resistance genes to any particular class of antibiotics in the STPs, neither for biocide and metal resistance genes. The most substantial change of the bacterial communities compared to human feces occurred already in the sewage pipes, manifested by a strong shift from obligate to facultative anaerobes. Through the treatment process, resistance genes against antibiotics, biocides and metals were not reduced to the same extent as fecal bacteria. The OXA-48 gene was consistently enriched in surplus and digested sludge. We find this worrying as OXA-48, still rare in Swedish clinical isolates, provides resistance to carbapenems, one of our most critically important classes of antibiotics. Taken together, metagenomics analyses did not provide clear support for specific antibiotic resistance selection. However, stronger selective forces affecting gross taxonomic composition, and with that resistance gene abundances, limit interpretability. Comprehensive analyses of resistant/non-resistant strains within relevant species are therefore warranted. 

  • 263.
    Bentley, Katie
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Vaskulärbiologi. Harvard Med Sch, Beth Israel Deaconess Med Ctr, Computat Biol Lab, Boston, MA USA..
    Chakravartula, Shilpa
    Harvard Med Sch, Beth Israel Deaconess Med Ctr, Computat Biol Lab, Boston, MA USA..
    The temporal basis of angiogenesis2017Inngår i: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8436, E-ISSN 1471-2970, Vol. 372, nr 1720, s. 1-11, artikkel-id 20150522Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The process of new blood vessel growth (angiogenesis) is highly dynamic, involving complex coordination of multiple cell types. Though the process must carefully unfold over time to generate functional, well-adapted branching networks, we seldom hear about the time-based properties of angiogenesis, despite timing being central to other areas of biology. Here, we present a novel, time-based formulation of endothelial cell behaviour during angiogenesis and discuss a flurry of our recent, integrated in silico/in vivo studies, put in context to the wider literature, which demonstrate that tissue conditions can locally adapt the timing of collective cell behaviours/decisions to grow different vascular network architectures. A growing array of seemingly unrelated 'temporal regulators' have recently been uncovered, including tissue derived factors (e.g. semaphorins or the high levels of VEGF found in cancer) and cellular processes (e.g. asymmetric cell division or filopodia extension) that act to alter the speed of cellular decisions to migrate. We will argue that 'temporal adaptation' provides a novel account of organ/disease-specific vascular morphology and reveals 'timing' as a new target for therapeutics. We therefore propose and explain a conceptual shift towards a 'temporal adaptation' perspective in vascular biology, and indeed other areas of biology where timing remains elusive. This article is part of the themed issue 'Systems morphodynamics: understanding the development of tissue hardware'.

  • 264.
    Berg, Cecilia
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Proteomik och nanobioteknologi.
    Hedrum, A
    Holmberg, A
    Pontén, F
    Uhlén, M
    Lundeberg, J
    Direct solid-phase sequence analysis of the human p53 gene by use of multiplex polymerase chain reaction and alpha-thiotriphosphate nucleotides.1995Inngår i: Clinical Chemistry, ISSN 0009-9147, E-ISSN 1530-8561, Vol. 41, nr 10, s. 1461-6Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Among the candidate cancer-prognostic genes is the p53 tumor suppressor gene, which, when mutated, plays an important role in the development of many types of cancers. To facilitate robust large-scale DNA analysis of microdissected tumor biopsies, we describe a multiplex/nested PCR approach for a simultaneous outer amplification of exons 4-9 of the human p53 gene with parallel amplification of the HLA-DQB1 locus, involving a total of 14 primers. This approach reduces the required number of cells for analysis and avoids any variation in the amplifications of the individual p53 exons during the common outer amplification step. The HLA sequencing allows sample identification because the DQB1 locus is highly polymorphic and is thereby patient-specific. The p53 and HLA amplicons are analyzed by solid-phase sequencing in a semiautomated format. To improve the DNA sequence quality, we used 2'-deoxyribonucleoside 5'-O-1-thiotriphosphates in the sequencing reactions.

  • 265.
    Berg, Johanna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Biomedicinsk laboratorievetenskap.
    Visualisering av mikroorganismer i hårfolliklar från patienter med follikulit2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 266. Berg, Kirsti
    et al.
    Ericsson, Madelene
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Fysiologisk kemi.
    Lindgren, Mikael
    Gustafsson, Håkan
    A High Precision Method for Quantitative Measurements of Reactive Oxygen Species in Frozen Biopsies2014Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. e90964-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: An electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique using the spin probe cyclic hydroxylamine 1-hydroxy-3-methoxycarbonyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidine (CMH) was introduced as a versatile method for high precision quantification of reactive oxygen species, including the superoxide radical in frozen biological samples such as cell suspensions, blood or biopsies. Materials and Methods: Loss of measurement precision and accuracy due to variations in sample size and shape were minimized by assembling the sample in a well-defined volume. Measurement was carried out at low temperature (150 K) using a nitrogen flow Dewar. The signal intensity was measured from the EPR 1st derivative amplitude, and related to a sample, 3-carboxy-proxyl (CPN) with known spin concentration. Results: The absolute spin concentration could be quantified with a precision and accuracy better than +/- 10 mu M (k = 1). The spin concentration of samples stored at -80 degrees C could be reproduced after 6 months of storage well within the same error estimate. Conclusion: The absolute spin concentration in wet biological samples such as biopsies, water solutions and cell cultures could be quantified with higher precision and accuracy than normally achievable using common techniques such as flat cells, tissue cells and various capillary tubes. In addition; biological samples could be collected and stored for future incubation with spin probe, and also further stored up to at least six months before EPR analysis, without loss of signal intensity. This opens for the possibility to store and transport incubated biological samples with known accuracy of the spin concentration over time.

  • 267. Bergander, L
    et al.
    Wahlström, Niklas
    Södertörns högskola, Avdelning Naturvetenskap. Karolinska Institutet.
    Alsberg, T
    Bergman, Jan
    Södertörns högskola, Avdelning Naturvetenskap. Karolinska Institutet.
    Rannug, A
    Rannug, U
    Characterization of in vitro metabolites of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligand 6-formylindolo[3,2-b] carbazole by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and NMR.2003Inngår i: Drug Metabolism And Disposition, ISSN 0090-9556, E-ISSN 1521-009X, Vol. 31, nr 2, s. 233-241Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The tryptophan photoproduct 6-formylindolo[3,2-b] carbazole (FICZ) exhibits the highest aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) binding affinity reported so far. In different cells, in vitro, both extracts of UV-irradiated tryptophan and the synthesized pure compound FICZ induce a rapid and transient expression of AhR-regulated genes. The transient induction suggests that the biotransformation gene battery induced by AhR activation takes part in a metabolic degradation of the ligand, whereby a low steady-state level is regained. The down-regulation of AhR-regulated gene expression was previously shown to be dependent on cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1). Metabolism of FICZ generates five major metabolites, which appeared as three peaks (M1-M3) in the high performance liquid chromatography. The aim of the present study was to use rat liver S9 from Aroclor-pretreated rats to produce large enough quantities of FICZ metabolites for structure characterization and to determine their product precursor relationship. NMR analysis of large combined fractions of the metabolites indicated that M3 and M2 contained 2 isomers, respectively. By means of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (negative ion electrospray mode) and NMR spectroscopy (by H-1-NMR, correlation spectroscopy, and nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy techniques) five metabolites of FICZ were identified, and their structures were elucidated. The molecular weights of the two M3 isomers were 300 and both M2 and M1 compounds demonstrated molecular weights of 316, corresponding to addition of one (M3) and of two oxygen (M2 and M1), respectively. The structures were assigned as 2- and 8-hydroxy (M3), 2,10- and 4,8-dihydroxy (M2) and 2,8-dihydroxy derivatives of indolo[3,2-b] carbazole-6-carboxaldehyde (6-formylindolo[ 3,2-b] carbazole).

  • 268.
    Bergendahl, Christina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Tibell, Lena
    Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Linköping .
    Boosting complex learning by strategic assessment and course design2005Inngår i: Journal of Chemical Education, ISSN 0021-9584, E-ISSN 1938-1328, Vol. 82, nr 4, s. 645-651Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning quality depends on the assessment methods used, as well as other factors. By choosing adequate assessments and involving students in the process of learning, students can gain a deeper understanding of the content and its context while developing related skills. In this study we describe a practical university-level biochemistry course that focuses on understanding protein separation and analysis techniques and especially on their application. The course was designed to examine the effects of a strategic use of differentassessment methods and an analysis of the resulting outcomes. We used quantitative as well as qualitative methods, including a simplified variant of the Bloom taxonomy, statistical methods, principle component analysis, inquires, and interviews. We conclude that astrategic choice of assessments and instructional design can be used to achieve morecomplex learning. We did not find any single teaching or assessment method to be clearly the best for enhancing higher-order thinking or achieving all learning objectives; rather a combination of different methods (i.e., a strategic choice) seems the best approach.

  • 269.
    Bergfors, Monica
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    Evaluation of Microsatellite Instability Analysis as a Diagnostic Tool to Identify Lynch Syndrome in Endometrial Cancer Patients2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Hereditary endometrial cancer (EC) is a Lynch syndrome (LS) related cancer variant and 2-10% of all EC are hereditary. The aim of this study was to develop a method for analysis of microsatellite instability (MSI) as such analysis would assist in identifying potential LS patients with EC at an early state of their disease, before a possible second cancer is developed in another organ.

    Twenty-six patients with adenocarcinoma in the endometrium, diagnosed at Uppsala University Hospital in Sweden between 1993 and 2012, were included in the study. Seven of these patients were also diagnosed with LS and the rest were sporadic EC. DNA was extracted from the patients’ formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues. The extracted DNA was subjected to a multiplex PCR with fluorescently labelled primers and then analysed by using capillary electrophoresis.

    Of the sporadic EC, 26% was MSI-High, which correlates well with published data. Of the LS patients, 83% was MSI-High. The outcome of this project resulted in that MSI analysis is now a validated and established method used in the process of identifying potential LS among patients with EC.

  • 270.
    Bergkvist, Liza
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Amyloid-β and lysozyme proteotoxicity in Drosophila: Beneficial effects of lysozyme and serum amyloid P component in models of Alzheimer’s disease and lysozyme amyloidosis2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In the work presented this thesis, two different conditions that are classified as protein misfolding diseases: Alzheimer's disease and lysozyme amyloidosis and proteins that could have a beneficial effect in these diseases, have been studied using Drosophila melanogaster, commonly known as the fruit fly. The fruit fly has been used for over 100 years to study and better understand fundamental biological processes. Although the fruit fly, unlike humans, is an invertebrate, many of its central biological mechanisms are very similar to ours. The first transgenic flies were designed in the early 1980s, and since then, the fruit fly has been one of the most widely used model organisms in studies on the effects of over-expressed human proteins in a biological system; one can regard the fly as a living, biological test tube. For  most proteins, it is necessary that they fold into a three-dimensional structure to function properly. But sometimes the folding goes wrong; this may be due to mutations that make the protein unstable and subject to misfolding. A misfolded protein molecule can then aggregate with other misfolded proteins. In Alzheimer's disease, which is the most common form of dementia, protein aggregates are present in the brains of patients. These aggregates are composed of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide, a small peptide of around 42 amino acids which is cleaved from the larger, membrane-bound, protein AβPP by two different enzymes, BACE1 and γ-secretase. In the first part of this thesis, two different fly models for Alzheimer’s disease were used: the Aβ fly model, which directly expresses the Aβ peptide, and the AβPP-BACE1 fly model, in which all the components necessary to produce the Aβ peptide in the fly are expressed in the fly central nervous system (CNS). The two different fly models were compared and the results show that a significantly smaller amount of the Aβ peptide is needed to achieve the same, or an even greater, toxic effect in the AβPP-BACE1 model compared to the Aβ model. In the second part of the thesis, these two fly models for Alzheimer’s disease were again used, but now to investigate whether lysozyme, a protein involved in our innate immune system, can counteract the toxic effect of Aβ generated in the fly models. And indeed, lysozyme is able to save the flies from Aβ-induced toxicity. Aβ and lysozyme were found to interact with each other in vivo. The second misfolding disease studied in this thesis is lysozyme amyloidosis. It is a rare, dominantly inherited amyloid disease in which mutant variants of lysozyme give rise to aggregates, weighing up to several kilograms, that accumulate around the kidneys and liver, eventually leading to organ failure. In the third part of this thesis, a fly model for lysozyme amyloidosis was used to study the effect of co-expressing the serum amyloid P component (SAP), a protein that is part of all protein aggregates found within this disease class. SAP is able to rescue the toxicity induced by expressing the mutant variant of lysozyme, F57I, in the fly's CNS. To further investigate how SAP was able to do this, double-expressing lysozyme flies, which exhibit stronger disease phenotypes than those of the single-expressing lysozyme flies previously studied, were used in the fourth part of this thesis. SAP was observed to reduce F57I toxicity and promote F57I to form aggregates with more distinct amyloid characteristics. In conclusion, the work included in this thesis demonstrates that: i) Aβ generated from AβPP processing in the fly CNS results in higher proteotoxicity compared with direct expression of Aβ from the transgene, ii) lysozyme can prevent Aβ proteotoxicity in Drosophila and could thus be a potential therapeutic molecule to treat Alzheimer’s disease and iii) in a Drosophila model of lysozyme amyloidosis, SAP can prevent toxicity from the disease-associated lysozyme variant F57I and promote formation of aggregated lysozyme morphotypes with amyloid properties; this is important to take into account when a reduced level of SAP is considered as a treatment strategy for lysozyme amyloidosis.

  • 271.
    Bergkvist, Liza
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sandin, Linnea
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Kågedal, Katarina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Brorsson, Ann-Christin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    A beta PP processing results in greater toxicity per amount of A beta(1-42) than individually expressed and secreted A beta(1-42) in Drosophila melanogaster2016Inngår i: BIOLOGY OPEN, ISSN 2046-6390, Vol. 5, nr 8, s. 1030-1039Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aggregation of the amyloid-beta (A beta) peptide into fibrillar deposits has long been considered the key neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimers disease (AD). A beta peptides are generated from proteolytic processing of the transmembrane A beta precursor protein (A beta PP) via sequential proteolysis through the beta-secretase activity of beta-site A beta PP-cleaving enzyme (BACE1) and by the intramembranous enzyme gamma-secretase. For over a decade, Drosophila melanogaster has been used as a model organism to study AD, and two different approaches have been developed to investigate the toxicity caused by AD-associated gene products in vivo. In one model, the A beta peptide is directly over-expressed fused to a signal peptide, allowing secretion of the peptide into the extracellular space. In the other model, human A beta PP is co-expressed with human BACE1, resulting in production of the A beta peptide through the processing of A beta PP by BACE1 and by endogenous fly gamma-secretase. Here, we performed a parallel study of flies that expressed the A beta(1-42) peptide alone or that co-expressed A beta PP and BACE1. Toxic effects (assessed by eye phenotype, longevity and locomotor assays) and levels of the A beta(1-42), A beta(1-40) and A beta(1-38) peptides were examined. Our data reveal that the toxic effect per amount of detected A beta(1-42) peptide was higher in the flies co-expressing A beta PP and BACE1 than in the A beta(1-42)-expressing flies, and that the co-existence of A beta(1-42) and A beta(1-40) in the flies co-expressing A beta PP and BACE1 could be of significant importance to the neurotoxic effect detected in these flies. Thus, the toxicity detected in these two fly models seems to have different modes of action and is highly dependent on how and where the peptide is generated rather than on the actual level of the A beta(1-42) peptide in the flies. This is important knowledge that needs to be taken into consideration when using Drosophila models to investigate disease mechanisms or therapeutic strategies in AD research.

  • 272.
    Berglin, Lena
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Textilhögskolan.
    Interactive Textile Structures: Creating Multifunctional Textiles based on Smart Materials2008Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Textiles of today are materials with applications in almost all our activities. We wear clothes all the time and we are surrounded with textiles in almost all our environments. The integration of multifunctional values in such a common material has become a special area of interest in recent years. Smart Textile represents the next generation of textiles anticipated for use in several fashion, furnishing and technical textile applications. The term smart is used to refer to materials that sense and respond in a pre-defined manner to environmental stimuli. The degree of smartness varies and it is possible to enhance the intelligence further by combining these materials with a controlling unit, for example a microprocessor. As an interdisciplinary area Smart Textile includes design spaces from several areas; the textile design space, the information technology design space and the design space of material science. This thesis addresses how Smart Textiles affect the textile design space; how the introduction of smart materials and information technology affects the creation of future textile products. The aim is to explore the convergence between textiles, smart materials and information technology and to contribute to providing a basis for future research in this area. The research method is based on a series of interlinked experiments designed through the research questions and the research objects. The experiments are separated into two different sections: interactive textile structures and health monitoring. The result is a series of basic methods for how interactive textile structures are created and a general system for health monitoring. Furthermore the result consists of a new design space, advanced textile design. In advanced textile design the focus is set on the relation between the different natures of a textile object: its physical structure and its structure in the context of design and use.

  • 273.
    Berglund, Anna-Karin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Dual Targeting of Proteins to Mitochondria and Chloroplasts2009Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The vast majority of mitochondrial and chloroplastic proteins are nuclear encoded, synthesized in the cytosol and imported into the respective organelle using an N-terminal extension, the targeting peptide (TP). After import into the organelle, the TP is cleaved off and degraded by the Presequence protease (PreP). The import process is thought to be highly specific, however there is a group of proteins that are localised to both mitochondria and chloroplasts, using an ambiguous, dual targeting peptide (dTP). The aim of this thesis was to investigate targeting properties of dTPs. Analysis of the amino acid content of all currently known dually targeted proteins revealed that the dTPs are enriched in hydroxylated, hydrophobic and positively charged residues, lacking acidic residues, whereas the content of serine, arginine and proline is intermediary in comparison to the mitochondrial and chloroplastic TPs. dTPs do not form amphiphilic a-helices, characteristic of the mitochondrial TPs, but the helical structure can be induced in membrane mimetic environment, as revealed by spectroscopic studies of a dTP of an aminoacyl- tRNA-synthetase (aaRS). In vitro and in vivo import experiments of fusion constructs containing N-terminal truncations of seven aaRS-dTPs coupled to green fluorescent protein (GFP) demonstrated different organisation of targeting determinants showing that the N-terminal portion of dTPs was crucial for import into both organelles or at least one organelle for different constructs. In addition, studies of targeting capacity of the TPs of PreP homologues from plant, mammal and yeast (AtPreP, hPreP and Mop112) showed species dependent intra-mitochondrial localisation of the coupled GFP and demonstrated functional complementation of an intermembrane space located Mop112 with a matrix located AtPreP. The studies presented here contribute to understanding of the intracellular and intra-mitochondrial sorting process of proteins in the eukaryotic cell.

  • 274. Berglund, Elias
    The effects of probiotics on sleep and fatty acids2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Probiotics are dietary supplements that contain bacteria that are potentially beneficial for the intestinal flora. The positive effects of probiotics are however not limited to the intestine. The use of probiotics is becoming more and more common and therefore needs to be studied more closely.The purpose of this study is to see how healthy individuals, in the age between 18 and 28 years old and with a BMI between 20 and 25, respond to the probiotic LactiPlus (also called FF8).Blood samples were collected before and after the subjects have eaten a standardized meal. The subject´s glucometabolic responses to food, sleep patterns and their fatty acid profile was analyzed in relation to the probiotic composition.Due to difficulties including study subjects, three subject completed the participation in the study. The three study subjects had similar sleeping habits, one had slightly higher fruit intake, the word and number memory were similar, but it was not possible to relate any data to the use of probiotics. It can be summarized that inclusion additional study subjects is needed.

  • 275.
    Berglund, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Pollard, Katherine S.
    Webster, Matthew T.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Hotspots of biased nucleotide substitutions in human genes2009Inngår i: PLoS biology, ISSN 1544-9173, E-ISSN 1545-7885, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. e26-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Genes that have experienced accelerated evolutionary rates on the human lineage during recent evolution are candidates for involvement in human-specific adaptations. To determine the forces that cause increased evolutionary rates in certain genes, we analyzed alignments of 10,238 human genes to their orthologues in chimpanzee and macaque. Using a likelihood ratio test, we identified protein-coding sequences with an accelerated rate of base substitutions along the human lineage. Exons evolving at a fast rate in humans have a significant tendency to contain clusters of AT-to-GC (weak-to-strong) biased substitutions. This pattern is also observed in noncoding sequence flanking rapidly evolving exons. Accelerated exons occur in regions with elevated male recombination rates and exhibit an excess of nonsynonymous substitutions relative to the genomic average. We next analyzed genes with significantly elevated ratios of nonsynonymous to synonymous rates of base substitution (dN/dS) along the human lineage, and those with an excess of amino acid replacement substitutions relative to human polymorphism. These genes also show evidence of clusters of weak-to-strong biased substitutions. These findings indicate that a recombination-associated process, such as biased gene conversion (BGC), is driving fixation of GC alleles in the human genome. This process can lead to accelerated evolution in coding sequences and excess amino acid replacement substitutions, thereby generating significant results for tests of positive selection.

  • 276.
    Berglund, Sara
    Karlstads universitet.
    AB0-blodgruppens betydelse i trombocyttransfusionssammanhäng.2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 277.
    Berglund, Sofia
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Gaballa, Ahmed
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci Intervent & Technol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Sawaisorn, Piamsiri
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci Intervent & Technol, Stockholm, Sweden.;Mahidol Univ, Fac Med Technol, Ctr Res & Innovat, Bangkok, Thailand..
    Sundberg, Berit
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci Intervent & Technol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Uhlin, Michael
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik. Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci Intervent & Technol, Stockholm, Sweden.; Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Immunol & Transfus Med, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Expansion of Gammadelta T Cells from Cord Blood: A Therapeutical Possibility2018Inngår i: STEM CELLS INTERNATIONAL, ISSN 1687-966X, artikkel-id 8529104Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Gammadelta (gamma delta) T cells are found in both blood and tissues and have antiviral and antitumor properties. The frequency of gamma delta T cells in umbilical cord blood (UCB) is low, and the majority express delta 1, in contrast to blood, whereas the main subset is delta 2 gamma 9 T cells. UCB gamma delta T cells are functionally immature, which together with their scarcity complicates the development of UCB gamma delta T cell therapies. We aimed to develop an effective expansion protocol for UCB gamma delta T cells based on zoledronate and IL-2. We found that culture with 5 mu M zoledronate and 200 IU IL-2/ml medium for 14 days promoted extensive proliferation. The majority of the cultured cells were gamma 9 delta 2 T cells. The fold expansion of this, originally infrequent, subset was impressive (median and maximum fold change 253 and 1085, resp.). After culture, the cells had a polyclonal gamma delta T cell repertoire and the main memory subset was central memory (CD45RO(+) CD27(+)). The cells produced cytokines such as IL-1B, IL-2, and IL-8 and displayed significant tumor-killing capacity. These results show that development of in vitro expanded UCB gamma delta T cell therapies is feasible. It could prove a valuable treatment modality for patients after umbilical cord blood transplantation.

  • 278. Bergmann, Olaf
    et al.
    Zdunek, Sofia
    Felker, Anastasia
    Salehpour, Mehran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Alkass, Kanar
    Bernard, Samuel
    Sjostrom, Staffan L.
    Szewczykowska, Mirosawa
    Jackowska, Teresa
    dos Remedios, Cris
    Malm, Torsten
    Andrae, Michaela
    Jashari, Ramadan
    Nyengaard, Jens R.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi.
    Jovinge, Stefan
    Druid, Henrik
    Frisen, Jonas
    Dynamics of Cell Generation and Turnover in the Human Heart2015Inngår i: Cell, ISSN 0092-8674, E-ISSN 1097-4172, Vol. 161, nr 7, s. 1566-1575Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The contribution of cell generation to physiological heart growth and maintenance in humans has been difficult to establish and has remained controversial. We report that the full complement of cardiomyocytes is established perinataly and remains stable over the human lifespan, whereas the numbers of both endothelial and mesenchymal cells increase substantially from birth to early adulthood. Analysis of the integration of nuclear bomb test-derived C-14 revealed a high turnover rate of endothelial cells throughout life (>15% per year) and more limited renewal of mesenchymal cells (<4% per year in adulthood). Cardiomyocyte exchange is highest in early childhood and decreases gradually throughout life to <1% per year in adulthood, with similar turnover rates in the major subdivisions of the myocardium. We provide an integrated model of cell generation and turnover in the human heart.

  • 279.
    Bergner, Helén
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Virologi.
    Screening för virus i myggor insamlade sommaren 2017 i Västerbotten2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 280.
    Bergquist, Helen
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Inturi, Raviteja
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Zain, Rula
    Punga, Tanel
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    RNA triplex formation in human adenovirus type 4 VA RNAI and its implication on virus growthArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 281.
    Bergquist, Jonas
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - BMC, Analytisk kemi.
    Proteomics to Understand the Degenerative Matter2014Inngår i: Free Radical Biology & Medicine, ISSN 0891-5849, E-ISSN 1873-4596, Vol. 75, s. S10-S10Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 282.
    Bergsten, Niklas
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    PDIA3 and Prostate Cancer: Do changes in nucleotidesequence correspond tomalignancy?2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    PDIA3 interacts with the lectin chaperons; calnexin and calreticulin to surveythe folding of newly synthesized glycoproteins by the addition of N-linkedglycans. PDIA3 is also involved in transcaltachia signaling cascades andimmunogenicity. The purpose was to determine if there were any changespresent in the nucleotide sequence of the Pdia3 gene. To study this, fourprostate cell lines were examined by Sanger sequencing, two malignant(LNCaP, PC3) and two normal (PNT1A, PNT2). These were to be compared tothe nucleotide sequence from nine formalin fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE)samples of different Gleason score and the sequence from three FFPE samplesof normal prostate tissue chosen from the Örebro Radical Cohort. The obtainedsequences were then analysed with several bioinformatics tools to determine ifthere were any changes present. The nucleotide sequence obtained from thesequencing indicated that none of the cell lines expressed the most redundantisofrom; CRA_c, but instead CRA_a and CRA_b. Surprisingly, the two normalcell lines (PNT1A and PNT2) produced similar scores in BLAST search forboth the CRA_a and the CRA_b isoforms. Software analysis of the translatedsequences predicted that LNCaP expressed a membrane bound form PDIA3while PC3 expressed a cytoplasmic variant of the protein. To confirm this,another sequencing reaction was performed. The second results indicated thatall cell lines expressed the same isoform, but that the isoforms were localizedto different intracellular compartments.

  • 283.
    Bergström, Joakim
    et al.
    Veryst Engineering, LLCNeedhamUSA.
    Hayman, Danika
    An Overview of Mechanical Properties and Material Modeling of Polylactide (PLA) for Medical Applications2016Inngår i: Annals of Biomedical Engineering, ISSN 0090-6964, E-ISSN 1573-9686, Vol. 44, nr 2, s. 330-340Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article provides an overview of the connection between the microstructural state and the mechanical response of various bioresorbable polylactide (PLA) devices for medical applications. PLLA is currently the most commonly used material for bioresorbable stents and sutures, and its use is increasing in many other medical applications. The non-linear mechanical response of PLLA, due in part to its low glass transition temperature (T g ≈ 60 °C), is highly sensitive to the molecular weight and molecular orientation field, the degree of crystallinity, and the physical aging time. These microstructural parameters can be tailored for specific applications using different resin formulations and processing conditions. The stress-strain, deformation, and degradation response of a bioresorbable medical device is also strongly dependent on the time history of applied loads and boundary conditions. All of these factors can be incorporated into a suitable constitutive model that captures the multiple physics that are involved in the device response. Currently developed constitutive models already provide powerful computations simulation tools, and more progress in this area is expected to occur in the coming years.

  • 284.
    Bergström, Rosita
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwiginstitutet för cancerforskning. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för evolution, genomik och systematik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Savary, Katia
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwiginstitutet för cancerforskning.
    Morén, Anita
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwiginstitutet för cancerforskning.
    Guibert, Sylvain
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för evolution, genomik och systematik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Heldin, Carl-Henrik
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwiginstitutet för cancerforskning.
    Ohlsson, Rolf
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för evolution, genomik och systematik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Moustakas, Aristidis
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwiginstitutet för cancerforskning.
    Transforming growth factor β promotes complexes between Smad proteins and the CCCTC-binding factor on the H19 imprinting control region chromatin2010Inngår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 285, nr 26, s. 19727-19737Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Whether signal transduction pathways regulate epigenetic states in response to environmental cues remains poorly understood. We demonstrate here that Smad3, signaling downstream of transforming growth factor beta, interacts with the zinc finger domain of CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF), a nuclear protein known to act as "the master weaver of the genome." This interaction occurs via the Mad homology 1 domain of Smad3. Although Smad2 and Smad4 fail to interact, an alternatively spliced form of Smad2 lacking exon 3 interacts with CTCF. CTCF does not perturb well established transforming growth factor beta gene responses. However, Smads and CTCF co-localize to the H19 imprinting control region (ICR), which emerges as an insulator in cis and regulator of transcription and replication in trans via direct CTCF binding to the ICR. Smad recruitment to the ICR requires intact CTCF binding to this locus. Smad2/3 binding to the ICR requires Smad4, which potentially provides stability to the complex. Because the CTCF-Smad complex is not essential for the chromatin insulator function of the H19 ICR, we propose that it can play a role in chromatin cross-talk organized by the H19 ICR.

  • 285.
    Bergström, Sven
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS).
    Zückert, Wolfram R
    Structure, function and biogenesis of the Borrelia cell envelope2010Inngår i: Borrelia, molecular biology, host interactions and pathogenesis / [ed] Eds DS Samuels and JD Radolf, Norfolk, UK: Caister Academic Press , 2010, s. 139-166Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 286.
    Bergström, Tobias
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Cancer och vaskulärbiologi.
    Modeling Neural Stem Cell and Glioma Biology2013Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is focused on neural stem cell (NSC) and glioma biology. I discuss how NSCs interact with extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in the stem cell niche, and investigate the consequences of deregulated Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) signaling for embryonic NSCs in transgenic mice. Furthermore I present cell cultures of human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) that models human disease, taking into account the heterogeneity of GBM. Finally, interactions between brain tumors and mast cells are studied using the glioma cultures.

    In paper I, the importance of NSC interactions with the ECM in the stem cell niche during development is discussed. Contacts between NSCs and the ECM in the subventricular zone (SVZ) are emerging as important regulatory mechanisms. We show that early postnatal neural stem and progenitor cells (NSPC) attach to collagen I, and that the adhesion is explained by higher expression of collagen receptor integrins compared to adult NSPC. Further, blood vessels in the SVZ express collagen I, indicating a possible functional relationship.

    Growth factors, e.g. PDGF, regulate NSC proliferation and differentiation. Aberrant activation of growth factor signaling pathways also plays a role in brain tumor formation. Paper II demonstrates that transgenic mice expressing PDGF-B at high levels in embryonic NSCs displayed mild neurological defects but no hyperplasia or brain tumors. This suggests that a high level of PDGF is not sufficient to induce brain tumors from NSCs without further mutations.

    Paper III presents a novel panel of human glioma stem cell (GSC) lines from GBM that display NSC markers in vitro and form secondary orthotopic tumors in vivo. GBM has recently been categorized in molecular subclasses and we demonstrate, for the first time, that these subclasses can be retained in vitro by stem cell culture conditions. We have thus generated models for research and drug development aiming at a focused treatment depending on GBM subtype.

    Interactions with the immune system are integral parts of tumorigenesis. Mast cells are found in glioma and in paper IV we demonstrate that the grade-dependent infiltration of mast cells is in part mediated by macrophage migration inhibitory factor and phosphorylation of STAT5.

     

     

  • 287.
    Bergström, Valentina
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Effekt av extrakt från kråkbär, grönt te, Rooibos te och kakao på prostaglandin E2-bildning i humana monocyter och makrofager2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 288.
    Berkeby Banérsson, Emilia
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för kemi och biomedicin (KOB).
    Hållbarhetsstudier och granskning av automatvalidering av analysresultat vid analys av prostataspecifikt antigen Hållbarhetsstudier och granskning av automatvalidering av analysresultat vid analys av prostataspecifikt antigen2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Prostatacancer är den vanligaste orsaken till cancerdöd hos män i Sverige. Cirka 9500 patienter får diagnosen prostatacancer varje år. Prostatacancer diagnostiseras med hjälp av analys av tumörmarkören prostataspecifikt antigen (PSA) i plasma.

    Syftet med den aktuella studien var att undersöka den preanalytiska stabiliteten av PSA i plasma och att undersöka hur förändrade provtagningsanvisningar och provtagningsrutiner påverkade analysresultat, arbetsförhållanden och patientsäkerhet.

    Analysmetoden som användes vid studien var electrochemiluminiscence immunoassay (ECLIA), vilken nyttjar ljus för detektion av antigen-/antikroppskomplex.

    I en första studie visades att centrifugerade PSA-prover med icke avhälld plasma, förvarade i 6o C, kan analyseras upp till 5 dagar efter provtagning. Detta till skillnad från nuvarande metodbeskrivning som kräver avhälld plasma vid analys 24 timmar efter provtagning. En andra studie visade att PSA-prov, förvarat i 6o C, centrifugerat och analyserat 24 timmar efter provtagning gav oförändrade PSA-värden jämfört med PSA-prov som centrifugerats och analyserats direkt efter provtagning. Detta till skillnad från nuvarande metodbeskrivning där prov skall centrifugeras inom 2 timmar och att ocentrifugerat prov skall förvaras i rumstemperatur.

    Nya automatvalideringsgränser och införandet av laboratoriedataprogrammet Delta-check gav en halvering av antalet analysresultat som ej automatvalideras.

    Studien visar att PSA var mer stabilt än tidigare förmodats och att förändrade rutiner vid analys av PSA och införande av automatvalidering med Delta-check kan leda till ett förbättrat och mer effektivt arbete för personalen på laboratoriet och ge ökad patientsäkerhet.

  • 289.
    Berndtson, E.
    et al.
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Emanuelson, U.
    Swedish Association for Livestock Breeding and Production, Eskilstuna, Sweden .
    Engvall, A.
    Department of Epizootiology, National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Danielsson-Tham, Marie-Louise
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    A 1-year epidemiological study of campylobacters in 18 Swedish chicken farms1996Inngår i: Preventive Veterinary Medicine, ISSN 0167-5877, E-ISSN 1873-1716, Vol. 26, nr 3-4, s. 167-185Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Broiler chickens are often intestinal carriers of Campylobacter. During processing, Campylobacter may be spread over the carcass. Thus, undercooked chicken meat, or other foods contaminated by raw chicken can act as a source of infection to humans. This study was conducted to identify risk factors for chicken flocks being colonized with Campylobacter. Eighteen chicken farms with altogether 62 chicken compartments were studied for 1 year with visits during each growing period and sampling of chicken caecal contents at slaughter. Four to six subsequent flocks were raised in each compartment during the study. A detailed questionnaire was used to record farm parameters such as building materials, feed and water equipment, hygiene and management routines. Campylobacter prevalence varied between farms, between growing periods within the farms and also during the year, with lowest prevalence during the spring. Campylobacters were isolated from 27% out of 287 flocks. Only two farms were negative at all samplings. Often the flock following a positive flock in a compartment was negative, indicating that normal cleaning and disinfecting routines are sufficient for eliminating the bacteria from the house. Usually only one serotype was found in each positive flock. Campylobacter occurrence increased with the age of the chickens at slaughter, and also with flock size.

    Univariable chi-square tests were done of the association between possible risk factors and Campylobacter prevalence. Factors associated with higher Campylobacter prevalence in flocks were lack of or diffuse hygiene barriers, increasing flock size, increasing age at slaughter, short vs. long empty periods, wet litter beds, other poultry nearby or staff handling other poultry, flocks divided before slaughter, staff loading to slaughter at several farms and occurrence of mice. Under Swedish conditions, water does not seem to be a source of infection for chickens. Origin and handling of day-old chickens, feed additives, houses and litter were not associated with higher Campylobacter prevalence.

  • 290.
    Berner-Branzell, Filip
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin.
    Carbohydrate Binding Specificity of a Variant Heliocobacter pylori BabA Adhesin2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 291.
    Bernzen, Noel
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Noellator: Vinterrollator2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag är det en hög andel av äldre personer, främst kvinnor, som använder rollatorer. De blir allt fler med tiden, då genomsnittsåldern av befolkningen blir allt högre. För att öka livskvalitet för de äldre, är det rekommenderat att promenera utomhus så ofta som möjligt, exempelvis med hjälp av en rollator. Ett problem som uppstår är att ingen rollator är anpassad för användning under vintern. I detta examensarbete har ett rollator-koncept tagits fram, speciellt anpassat för ”fyra årstider”. Detta innebär att konceptet har allt som en vanligt rollator har men även tillbehör som är användarvänliga i vilket väder som helst, såväl vid snö- som isförhållanden. Det innebär en komplettering med specialdesignade tillbehör som är enkla att byta oberoende av väderslag. En årstidsoberoende rollator blir dyrare än en vanligt rollator, men samtidigt skapas ett hjälpmedel som gör det lättare för användaren att vara en del av samhället och förbättra sin hälsa, vilket faktiskt är såväl viktigt som aktuellt

  • 292.
    Berts, Ida
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Ossipov, Dmitri
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Fragneto, Giovanna
    Institut Laue-Langevin.
    Frisk, Andreas
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Materialfysik.
    Rennie, Adrian. R
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Materialfysik.
    Polymeric Smart Coating Strategy for Titanium Implants2014Inngår i: Advanced Engineering Materials, ISSN 1438-1656, E-ISSN 1527-2648, Vol. 16, nr 11, s. 1340-1350Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Hyaluronan based hydrogel coatings can mimic extracellular matrix components and incorporate growth factors that can be released during a progressive degradation while new tissue regenerates. This paper describes a structural characterization of a hydrogel coating made of modified hyaluronan polymers and how these coatings interact with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2). Quartz crystal microbalance and neutron reflectivity measurements were used for in-situ, real-time measurements of the adsorption properties of polymers and proteins on smooth titanium oxide surfaces that mimic implant products in orthopedics. The adsorption of BMP-2 on a bare titanium oxide surface is compared to that on titanium oxide coated with different chemically modified hyaluronan, the most important being hyaluronan with bisphosphonate groups (HA-BP). The subsequent release of the BMP-2 from these hydrogel coatings could be triggered by calcium ions. The amount of adsorbed protein on the surfaces as well as the amount of released protein both depend on the type of hyaluronan coating. We conclude that HA-BP coated titanium oxide surfaces provide an excellent material for growth factor delivery in-vivo.

  • 293. Bestas, Burcu
    et al.
    Moreno, Pedro M. D.
    Blomberg, K. Emelie M.
    Mohammad, Dara K.
    Saleh, Amer F.
    Sutlu, Tolga
    Nordin, Joel Z.
    Guterstam, Peter
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för neurokemi.
    Gustafsson, Manuela O.
    Kharazi, Shabnam
    Piatosa, Barbara
    Roberts, Thomas C.
    Behlke, Mark A.
    Wood, Matthew J. A.
    Gait, Michael J.
    Lundin, Karin E.
    EL Andaloussi, Samir
    Mansson, Robert
    Berglof, Anna
    Wengel, Jesper
    Smith, C. I. Edvard
    Splice-correcting oligonucleotides restore BTK function in X-linked agammaglobulinemia model2014Inngår i: Journal of Clinical Investigation, ISSN 0021-9738, E-ISSN 1558-8238, Vol. 124, nr 9, s. 4067-4081Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is an inherited immunodeficiency that results from mutations within the gene encoding Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK). Many XLA-associated mutations affect splicing of BTK pre-mRNA and severely impair B cell development. Here, we assessed the potential of antisense, splice-correcting oligonucleotides (SCOs) targeting mutated BTKtranscripts for treating XLA. Both the SCO structural design and chemical properties were optimized using 2'-O-methyl, locked nucleic acid, or phosphorodiamidate morpholino backbones. In order to have access to an animal model of XLA, we engineered a transgenic mouse that harbors a BAC with an authentic, mutated, splice-defective human BTK gene. BTK transgenic mice were bred onto a Btk knockout background to avoid interference of the orthologous mouse protein. Using this model, we determined that BTK-specific SCOs are able to correct aberrantly spliced BTK in B lymphocytes, including pro-B cells. Correction of BTK mRNA restored expression of functional protein, as shown both by enhanced lymphocyte survival and reestablished BTK activation upon B cell receptor stimulation. Furthermore, SCO treatment corrected splicing and restored BTK expression in primary cells from patients with XLA. Together, our data demonstrate that SCOs can restore BTK function and that BTK-targeting SCOs have potential as personalized medicine in patients with XLA.

  • 294.
    Bett, Bernard
    et al.
    Int Livestock Res Inst, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Said, Mohammed Y.
    Int Livestock Res Inst, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Sang, Rosemary
    Kenya Govt Med Res Ctr, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Bukachi, Salome
    Univ Nairobi, Inst Anthropol Gender & African Studies, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Wanyoike, Salome
    Minist Agr, Dept Vet Serv, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Kifugo, Shem C.
    Int Livestock Res Inst, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Otieno, Fredrick
    Int Livestock Res Inst, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Ontiri, Enoch
    Int Livestock Res Inst, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Njeru, Ian
    Kenyatta Natl Hosp, Minist Publ Hlth & Sanitat, Div Dis Surveillance & Response, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Lindahl, Johanna
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi. Int Livestock Res Inst, Nairobi, Kenya.;Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Grace, Delia
    Int Livestock Res Inst, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Effects of flood irrigation on the risk of selected zoonotic pathogens in an arid and semi-arid area in the eastern Kenya2017Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, nr 5, artikkel-id e0172626Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To investigate the effects of irrigation on land cover changes and the risk of selected zoonotic pathogens, we carried out a study in irrigated, pastoral and riverine areas in the eastern Kenya. Activities implemented included secondary data analyses to determine land use and land cover (LULC) changes as well as human, livestock and wildlife population trends; entomological surveys to characterize mosquitoes population densities and species distribution by habitat and season; and serological surveys in people to determine the risk of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), West Nile fever virus (WNV), dengue fever virus (DFV), Leptospira spp. and Brucella spp. Results demonstrate a drastic decline in vegetation cover over R approximate to 25 years particularly in the irrigated areas where cropland increased by about 1,400% and non-farm land (under closed trees, open to closed herbaceous vegetation, bushlands and open trees) reduced by 30-100%. The irrigated areas had high densities of Aedes mcintoshi, Culexspp. and Mansonia spp. (important vectors for multiple arboviruses) during the wet and dry season while pastoral areas had high densities of Ae. tricholabis specifically in the wet season. The seroprevalences of RVFV, WNV and DFV were higher in the irrigated compared to the pastoral areas while those for Leptospira spp and Brucella spp. were higher in the pastoral compared to the irrigated areas. It is likely that people in the pastoral areas get exposed to Leptospira spp by using water fetched from reservoirs that are shared with livestock and wildlife, and to Brucella spp. by consuming raw or partially cooked animal source foods such as milk and meat. This study suggests that irrigation increases the risk of mosquito-borne infections while at the same time providing a protective effect against zoonotic pathogens that thrive in areas with high livestock population densities.

  • 295.
    Beven, Laure
    et al.
    Univ Bordeaux, Villenave Dornon, France ; INRA Villenave Dornon, France .
    Charenton, Claire
    Univ Bordeaux, Villenave Dornon, France ; INRA Villenave Dornon, France .
    Dautant, Alain
    Univ Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France ; IBMC, CNRS, Bordeaux, France.
    Bouyssou, Guillaume
    Univ Bordeaux, Villenave Dornon, France ; INRA Villenave Dornon, France .
    Labroussaa, Fabien
    Univ Bordeaux, Villenave Dornon, France ; INRA Villenave Dornon, France .
    Sköllermo, Anna
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Proteomik. KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Centra, Albanova VinnExcellence Center for Protein Technology, ProNova.
    Persson, Anja
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Proteomik. KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Centra, Albanova VinnExcellence Center for Protein Technology, ProNova.
    Blanchard, Alain
    Univ Bordeaux, Villenave Dornon, France ; INRA Villenave Dornon, France .
    Sirand-Pugnet, Pascal
    Univ Bordeaux, Villenave Dornon, France ; INRA Villenave Dornon, France .
    Specific Evolution of F-1-Like ATPases in Mycoplasmas2012Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, nr 6, s. e38793-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    F1F0 ATPases have been identified in most bacteria, including mycoplasmas which have very small genomes associated with a host-dependent lifestyle. In addition to the typical operon of eight genes encoding genuine F1F0 ATPase (Type 1), we identified related clusters of seven genes in many mycoplasma species. Four of the encoded proteins have predicted structures similar to the alpha, beta, gamma and e subunits of F-1 ATPases and could form an F-1-like ATPase. The other three proteins display no similarity to any other known proteins. Two of these proteins are probably located in the membrane, as they have three and twelve predicted transmembrane helices. Phylogenomic studies identified two types of F-1-like ATPase clusters, Type 2 and Type 3, characterized by a rapid evolution of sequences with the conservation of structural features. Clusters encoding Type 2 and Type 3 ATPases were assumed to originate from the Hominis group of mycoplasmas. We suggest that Type 3 ATPase clusters may spread to other phylogenetic groups by horizontal gene transfer between mycoplasmas in the same host, based on phylogeny and genomic context. Functional analyses in the ruminant pathogen Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides showed that the Type 3 cluster genes were organized into an operon. Proteomic analyses demonstrated that the seven encoded proteins were produced during growth in axenic media. Mutagenesis and complementation studies demonstrated an association of the Type 3 cluster with a major ATPase activity of membrane fractions. Thus, despite their tendency toward genome reduction, mycoplasmas have evolved and exchanged specific F-1-like ATPases with no known equivalent in other bacteria. We propose a model, in which the F-1-like structure is associated with a hypothetical X-0 sector located in the membrane of mycoplasma cells.

  • 296.
    Bhushan, Shashi
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Kuhn, Claus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Berglund, Anna-Karin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Roth, Christian
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Glaser, Elzbieta
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    The role of the N-terminal domain of chloroplast targeting peptides in organellar protein import and miss-sorting2006Inngår i: FEBS Letters, ISSN 0014-5793, E-ISSN 1873-3468, Vol. 580, nr 16, s. 3966-3972Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We have analysed 385 mitochondrial and 567 chloroplastic signal sequences of proteins found in the organellar proteomes of Arabidopsis thaliana. Despite overall similarities, the first 16 residues of transit peptides differ remarkably. To test the hypothesis that the N-terminally truncated transit peptides would redirect chloroplastic precursor proteins to mitochondria, we studied import of the N-terminal deletion mutants of ELIP, PetC and Lhcb2.1. The results show that the deletion mutants were neither imported into chloroplasts nor miss-targeted to mitochondria in vitro and in vivo, showing that the entire transit peptide is necessary for correct targeting as well as miss-sorting.

  • 297.
    Bhushan, Shashi
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Pavlov, Pavel F
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Rudhe, Charlotta
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Glaser, Elzbieta
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    In vitro and in vivo methods to study protein import into plant mitochondria.2007Inngår i: Methods Mol Biol, ISSN 1064-3745, Vol. 390, s. 131-50Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Plant mitochondria contain about 1000 proteins, 90-99% of which in different plant species are nuclear encoded, synthesized on cytosolic polyribosomes, and imported into the organelle. Most of the nuclear-encoded proteins are synthesized as precursors containing an N-terminal extension called a presequence or targeting peptide that directs the protein to the mitochondria. Here we describe in vitro and in vivo methods to study mitochondrial protein import in plants. In vitro synthesized precursor proteins can be imported in vitro into isolated mitochondria (single organelle import). However, missorting of chloroplast precursors in vitro into isolated mitochondria has been observed. A novel dual import system for simultaneous import of proteins into isolated mitochondria and chloroplasts followed by reisolation of the organelles is superior over the single import system as it abolishes the mistargeting. Precursor proteins can also be imported into the mitochondria in vivo using an intact cellular system. In vivo approaches include import of transiently expressed fusion constructs containing a presequence or a full-length precursor protein fused to a reporter gene, most commonly the green fluorescence protein (GFP) in protoplasts or in an Agrobacterium-mediated system in intact tobacco leaves.

  • 298.
    Biasiotto, Roberta
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Akusjärvi, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Regulation of Human Adenovirus Alternative RNA Splicing by the Adenoviral L4-33K and L4-22K Proteins2015Inngår i: International Journal of Molecular Sciences, ISSN 1422-0067, E-ISSN 1422-0067, Vol. 16, nr 2, s. 2893-2912Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Adenovirus makes extensive use of alternative RNA splicing to produce a complex set of spliced viral mRNAs. Studies aimed at characterizing the interactions between the virus and the host cell RNA splicing machinery have identified three viral proteins of special significance for the control of late viral gene expression: L4-33K, L4-22K, and E4-ORF4. L4-33K is a viral alternative RNA splicing factor that controls L1 alternative splicing via an interaction with the cellular protein kinases Protein Kinase A (PKA) and DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK). L4-22K is a viral transcription factor that also has been implicated in the splicing of a subset of late viral mRNAs. E4-ORF4 is a viral protein that binds the cellular protein phosphatase IIA (PP2A) and controls Serine/Arginine (SR)-rich protein activity by inducing SR protein dephosphorylation. The L4-33K, and most likely also the L4-22K protein, are highly phosphorylated in vivo. Here we will review the function of these viral proteins in the post-transcriptional control of adenoviral gene expression and further discuss the significance of potential protein kinases phosphorylating the L4-33K and/or L4-22K proteins.

  • 299.
    Biava, Pier M.
    et al.
    Scientific Institute of Research and Care Multimedica, Milano, Italy.
    Canaider, Silvia
    Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine (DIMES), Unit of Histology, Embryology and Applied Biology, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy; National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems, Bologna, Italy.
    Facchin, Federica
    Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine (DIMES), Unit of Histology, Embryology and Applied Biology, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy; National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems, Bologna, Italy.
    Bianconi, Eva
    Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine (DIMES), Unit of Histology, Embryology and Applied Biology, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy; National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems, Bologna, Italy.
    Ljungberg, Liza
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin.
    Rotilio, Domenico
    Department of Haematology, Ospedali Riuniti BMM, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Burigana, Fabio
    Associazione Medicina e Complessità (AMEC), Trieste, Italy.
    Ventura, Carlo
    Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine (DIMES), Unit of Histology, Embryology and Applied Biology, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy; National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems, Bologna, Italy; Stem Wave Institute for Tissue Healing (SWITH), Gruppo Villa Maria (GVM) Care & Research - Ettore Sansavini Health Science Foundation, Lugo (Ravenna), Italy.
    Stem Cell Differentiation Stage Factors from Zebrafish Embryo: A Novel Strategy to Modulate the Fate of Normal and Pathological Human (Stem) Cells2015Inngår i: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, ISSN 1389-2010, E-ISSN 1873-4316, Vol. 16, nr 9, s. 782-792Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In spite of the growing body of evidence on the biology of the Zebrafish embryo and stem cells, including the use of Stem Cell Differentiation Stage Factors (SCDSFs) taken from Zebrafish embryo to impact cancer cell dynamics, comparatively little is known about the possibility to use these factors to modulate the homeostasis of normal human stem cells or to modulate the behavior of cells involved in different pathological conditions. In the present review we recall in a synthetic way the most important researches about the use of SCDSFs in reprogramming cancer cells and in modulating the high speed of multiplication of keratinocytes which is characteristic of some pathological diseases like psoriasis. Moreover we add here the results about the capability of SCDSFs in modulating the homeostasis of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) isolated from a fat tissue obtained with a novel-non enzymatic method and device. In addition we report the data not yet published about a first protein analysis of the SCDSFs and about their role in a pathological condition like neurodegeneration.

  • 300.
    Biberfeld, G
    et al.
    National bacteriological laboratory.
    Thorstensson, R
    National bacteriological laboratory.
    Bergström, M
    National bacteriological laboratory.
    Naucler, A
    National bacteriological laboratory.
    Costa, C M
    National bacteriological laboratory.
    Enzyme immunoassays for the demonstration of antibodies to HIV-2SBL-6669 and HTLV-IV (SIVmac).1988Inngår i: AIDS (London), ISSN 0269-9370, E-ISSN 1473-5571, Vol. 2, nr 3, s. 195-9Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were developed for the demonstration of antibodies to HIV-2 using disrupted virions of the SBL-6669 isolate of HIV-2 and the so-called human T-lymphotropic virus type IV (HTLV-IV), recently found to be identical with the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac), as antigens. Three hundred sera from West African subjects, attending an outward clinic in Bissau for examination of suspected tuberculosis, were tested by these two assays as well as by a commercially available anti-HIV-2 ELISA (ELAVIA II). Fifty of these sera were positive in all three ELISAs as well as in Western blot tests against HTLV-IV. Thirty-eight of these positive sera were also tested by an anti-HIV-2 Western blot kit (LAV-Blot II) with positive results. The ELISAs based on SBL-6669 and HTLV-IV antigens had a specificity of 99.6% (one false positive among 250 negative sera) whereas the specificity of ELAVIA II was 94.6% using the recommended cut-off value and 98.4% using a higher cut-off value. Another 58 sera from West African patients, clinically suspected of having AIDS or HIV-related disease, were tested for HIV-2/HTLV-IV antibodies by Western blot and by ELISA against SBL-6669 and HTLV-IV antigens; all of the 30 sera which were positive by Western blot were found to be positive in both ELISAs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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