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  • 251.
    Berg, Marlene
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science.
    Lygnestad, Madeleine
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science.
    ”Vi kan lära oss av varandra och få tips”: En undersökning om hur texttriangeln kan fungera som ett stöd när elever ger respons till varandra och om elevers attityd till kamratrespons.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    På de nationella proven i årskurs 6, presterar eleverna sämst på delprov C, där de testas på sin skriftliga förmåga. Tidigare forskning visar att elever är vana vid att få summativ respons istället för formativ respons samt att elever saknar kunskaper om hur användbar respons ges. Det finns därför ett behov av att elever lär sig att ge lämplig och användbar kamratrespons. Syftet är att undersöka om texttriangeln kan fungera som ett stöd när elever i årskurs 4–6 ger kamratrespons på varandras instruerande texter, i svenskämnet. Vidare är syftet att undersöka vad elever har för attityder gentemot kamratrespons på varandras texter, mer specifikt, att besvara frågeställningarna: Vilka typer av kommentarer skriver eleverna i sin kamratrespons när de använder texttriangeln som responsmall? och Vilka attityder har eleverna gentemot kamratrespons? För att besvara frågeställningarna och uppnå studiens syfte har elevers kommentarer de gett i sin kamratrespons och svar på en internetenkät analyserats. Resultatet visar att eleverna ger fyra olika typer av kommentarer i sin kamratrespons och att det finns en positiv attityd bland eleverna gentemot kamratrespons från en klasskamrat.

  • 252.
    Bergdahl, Josefine
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education.
    Enberg, Caroline
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education.
    Digital teknik och digital teknikanvändning: Diskursiva perspektiv på vårdnadshavares förhållanden, erfarenheter och förväntningar i relation till förskolan2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien utgick från vårdnadshavares konstruktioner av digital teknik och digital teknik­användning. Syftet med studien var att synliggöra hur vårdnadshavare konstruerar den digitala tekniken som omger dem och deras barn i vardagen samtidigt som de själva konstrueras av samhället. Syftet var även att diskutera dessa konstruktioner i relation till förskolans uppdrag. Genom att ett social­-konstruktionistiskt perspektiv antogs var det vårdnadshavarnas tal som analyserades i studien. För att synliggöra detta användes en kvalitativ semistrukturerad intervju där sex vårdnadshavare deltog. Resultatet visade att det finns många olika konstruktioner bland deltagarna. Övervägande del av vårdnadshavarna var positiva till digital teknik och digital teknikanvändning. I resultatet framgick dock att det bland annat fanns en gemensam oro bland informanterna över att barnen kan stöta på olämpligt innehåll genom digital teknik.

     

    En av de slutsatser som kunde dras var att vårdnadshavarnas konstruktion av digital teknik på-verkar barnens erfarenheter om, och tillgänglighet till den. Som förskollärare är det en viktig aspekt att vara medveten om. Förskolans uppgift blir således att komplettera hemmet för att ge alla barn en likvärdig ram för utveckling och lärande.

  • 253.
    Berge, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Ingerman, Åke
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Multiple theoretical lenses as an analytical strategy in researching group discussions: Research in Science & Technological Education2017In: Recent highlights from Research in Science and Technological Education, Dublin, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 254.
    Berge, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Ingerman, Åke
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Triple vision in different theoretical spaces: exploring physics jokes in small group discussions in engineering education2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have used multiple theoretical spaces as analytical strategy when researching learning possibilities when engineering students discuss physics together. Three different theories were purposefully applied in a series of stratified analyses. Level one employing phenomenography and variation theory, level two using positioning theory and level three making use of the techniques of conversation analysis. Having done this, we wanted to explore to what extent a phenomena in one theoretical space is visible in other theoretical spaces (but not naturally focused on) and what it in that case looks like. The students’ jokes are examples of such which were also important part of the students’ conversation. Our analysis illustrates how one joke is observable through all three analytical lenses. The three analytical lenses are linked to three different theoretical spaces, even when it is linked to the same original event. The lenses have become advantageous in different ways: the lens of conversational analyses assistances to discern the joke, the lens of position theory provides clues about the cultural context and the lens of phenomenography and variation theory informs us the learning possibilities that are related to the jokes. In this paper we propose and illustrate that these three theoretical perspectives are complementary rather than commensurable, because they are not referring to the same data, even though the data they reference is derived from the same event.

  • 255.
    Berge, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Johansson, Anders
    Uppsala University.
    Lecture jokes: a litmus test of physics discourse?2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Earlier studies in physics education research have shown the importance of analysing students' processes of ‘becoming a physicist' in a wider sense. For example, it is often expected of physicists to have a kind of ‘authentic intelligence' or ‘smartness', which is generally perceived as male. In this study we contribute to this area of research by analysing an area often forgotten in educational research: humour. Empirically, this study is based on 177 jokes from physics lectures, collected from three different higher education contexts, the US and two Scandinavian countries. With a discourse analytical framework we explore the question of how teacher's jokes in physics lectures portray physics and physicists. In the analysis of the teacher's jokes, physics is constantly constructed as difficult and very advanced, mainly through ironically speaking of it as ‘easy'. Physicists are portrayed as single minded and very passionate, not to say obsessed, about physics. In this study we argue that although none of the jokes were mean the jokes contributed to a discourse that can be perceived as problematic in limiting the conceptions of who a physicist may be.

  • 256.
    Bergel, Nils
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    Lean begripligt2011Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den japanska industrins intresse under efterkrigstiden för – denav Henry Ford (1863–1947) förädlade – löpande bandsteknikenframbringade Toyotas Production System (TPS). Japanernasförfinade automationstanke väckte uppmärksamhet på denamerikanska bilmarknaden, vilket ledde till att TPS under 80-talet blev föremål för forskningsprojekt vars utkomst blev Lean.Från att ha utvecklats för fordonsindustri återfinns i Sverige idagexempel på alltifrån kommunstyren till sjukvården somassimilerat Lean som verksamhetsstyrande metod.Trots att några av de mer basala principerna bakom Lean ärenkelhet och tydlig kommunikation tenderar västerländskaföretag som implementerar Lean köpa konceptet, och med dettaanvändande av engelska och japanska termer eller akronymer iorganisationens vardag, rakt av. Arbetets syfte är att undersökahuruvida användningen av dessa termer på svensk- ellerengelskspråkiga företag på något sätt motverkar eller försvårarimplementeringen och förståelsen för Leans grundläggandefilosofi: Uppkommer det inom en organisation begreppsförvirringvid användandet av Leans terminologi?Studien är utförd vid tre Lean-implementerande organisationer avolika karaktär, genom intervjuer med Lean-ledare ochkvalitetschefer samt kortintervjuer av medarbetare.Resultatet visar att det vid en Lean-implementering, och arbetetefter det, förekommer förvirring och missanvändning av olikaverktyg och begrepp inom Lean. Konkreta verktyg och begreppkunde flest medarbetare såväl identifiera, etikettera sombeskriva. Så snart man närmade sig abstraktbegreppsanvändande i vardagsspråk medföljde en större oklarhetoch missuppfattningar. Den japanska språkdimensionen tycksinte påverka än mer i förvirrande riktning. En japansk ellerengelsk term, såväl som en förkortning, ter sig lika främmande förden oinsatte, oavsett språk.Rapporten diskuterar även följder av resultaten och reflekterarutifrån lärandeperspektiv hur situationer med begreppsförvirringkan uppkomma, följder av det samt hur det kan undvikas.

  • 257. Bergendorff, .
    et al.
    Grankvist, M.
    Nordström, Gunilla
    Inlärning kräver trygghet1994In: Att lära efter plugget: kvalitativa undersökningar av vuxnas studiesituation / [ed] Agnieszka Bron-Wojciechowska; Lena Porsander, Stockholm: Stockholms universitet, Pedagogiska institutionen , 1994Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 258.
    Berggren, Ida
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Hur lärare bemöter flickor och pojkar i klassrummet: En observationsundersökning2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Bakgrund:

    Tidigare forskning (Wernersson, 1997; Samuelsson, 2008) har visat att lärare tenderar att ägna mer uppmärksamhet åt pojkar, som därmed dominerar klassrummen. Flickor å andra sidan tenderar att prestera bättre resultat (Wahlgren, 2011) och det feminina uppförandet är det som föredras inom skolans värld. Det ingår i läraruppdraget att främja alla elevers lika rättigheter, oavsett kön så att alla har samma möjligheter att utvecklas (Lgr11). Denna uppsats sätter därför lärarna i fokus eftersom att de spelar en viktig roll för elevernas utbildning men även identitetskapande.

    Syfte:

    Denna undersökning syftar till att synliggöra hur lärare bemöter flickor och pojkar i klassrummet för att därigenom komma ett steg närmare en jämställd utbildning där alla elever får samma möjlighet till utveckling.

    Metod:

    Jag har därmed använt mig av en kvalitativ metod där jag har observerat fyra lärare, varav två manliga och två kvinnliga som alla undervisar i olika ämnen. Det resulterade i sammanlagt 12 observationer, alla genomförda i samma två årskurs 8 klasser.

    Resultat:

    Studiens resultat visade att lärarna tenderade att missa de elever, oftast flickor, som följde skolans regler t.ex. vid handuppräckning. Det framgick även att pojkar och flickor inte ställs inför samma krav i undervisningen, utan förväntas att uppträda olika. De kvinnliga lärarna använde sig mer av de härskartekniker (Ås, 1992) som observationerna dels fokuserade på. Det visade sig då att lärarna själva behandlade eleverna könsstereotypt och hjälpte därmed till reproducera traditionella könsmönster istället för att motverka dem.

  • 259.
    Berghuijs, Wouter R.
    et al.
    Department of Civil Engineering, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.
    Harrigan, Shaun
    Irish Climate Analysis and Research Units (ICARUS), Department of Geography, Maynooth University, Maynooth, Ireland.
    Kipnis, Evan L.
    Department of Ecosystem Science and Management, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming, USA.
    Dogulu, Nilay
    Department of Civil Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey.
    Floriancic, Marius
    Institute of Environmental Engineering, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Müller, Hannes
    Institute of Water Resources Management, Hydrology and Agricultural Hydraulic Engineering, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Hanover, Germany.
    Pohle, Ina
    Chair of Hydrology and Water Resources Management, Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus-Senftenberg, Cottbus, Germany .
    Saia, Sheila M.
    Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA.
    Sedlar, Frank
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA.
    Smoorenburg, Maarten
    Institute of Environmental Engineering, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Teutschbein, Claudia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    van Emmerik, Tim
    Water resources section, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Creating Community for Early-Career Geoscientists: Student involvement in geoscience unions: A case study from hydrology2015In: EOS: Transactions, ISSN 0096-3941, E-ISSN 2324-9250, Vol. 96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The American Geophysical Union (AGU) and the European Geosciences Union (EGU) play central roles in nurturing the next generation of geoscientists. Students and young scientists make up about one quarter of the unions’ active memberships [American Geophysical Union, 2013; European Geosciences Union, 2014], creating a major opportunity to include a new generation of geoscientists as more active contributors to the organizations’ activities, rather than merely as consumers.

    Both organizations are now explicitly expanding their bottom-up organizational structures to include early-career members (ECMs) by appointing student (AGU) and early-career scientist (EGU) representatives for their scientific divisions. (We refer to “early-career members” because AGU and EGU define student and postdoc members differently). Because this expansion is a recent development, it is still unclear what roles these representatives will play and how these roles will evolve over the coming years.

    We are ECMs in the hydrological sciences. Here we show how the Young Hydrological Society (YHS) used bottom-up initiatives, aligned closely with the newly appointed AGU and EGU representatives, to help improve the professional development of student and postdoc members by providing opportunities to increase their contributions to the geoscience unions. We call for a conversation on how ECMs can make the best use of these new opportunities to engage proactively with the unions.

  • 260.
    Bergkvist, Ann
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    Molin, Helen
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    Ansvar… det var en svår fråga: Elevers tankar kring ansvar2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ansvar är ett begrepp som används flitigt inom samhället och synnerhet inom den svenska sko-lan. Trots att begreppet är välbekant för oss alla, görs olika definitioner. Syftet med studien var att söka förståelse för elevers syn gällande ansvar för sitt skolarbete. Vi ville också undersöka om det fanns några skillnader när det gällde synen på ansvar mellan elever med höga respektive låga meritvärden. Den kvalitativa studien genomfördes med hjälp av semistrukturerade inter-vjuer på en högstadieskola. Analysen av resultatet visade att eleverna har svårt att definiera be-greppet ansvar och att ingen gemensam definition finns. De har dock lättare att förstå och för-klara innebörden av begreppet. När det kommer till att definiera vad det innebär att ta ansvar för sitt skolarbete kan eleverna räkna upp många olika exempel på vad det innebär. Eleverna är medvetna om att andra elever tänker olika om begreppet ansvar och att ansvarstagandet ser olika ut. Förväntningar från omgivning såsom föräldrar, kamrater och lärare har betydelse om ansvarstagande sker. Eleverna anser att de har möjligheter att ta ansvar i skolan och att ansvars-nivån är lagom i förhållande till ålder. Ett ökat ansvarstagande tror de kan leda till en stökigare och rörigare lärmiljö. Det går inte att göra entydiga kopplingar mellan ansvar och meritvärden, likheter och skillnader finns men kan förklaras utifrån andra faktorer.

  • 261.
    Berglund, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Blackne, Johannes
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Jansson, Niklas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Proposing a Feedback System to Enhance Learning Based on Key Performance Indicators2014In: International Journal of Quality Assurance in Engineering and Technology Education, ISSN 2155-496X, Vol. 3, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a feedback system that is based on the self-evaluation of perceived productivity as a mechanism for detecting deviations in an engineering design student project. By monitoring key performance indicators, project members used feedback loops to recognize alarming patterns and act accordingly. The study is based on descriptive survey data that addressed three factors of influence: perceived productivity, perception of stage completion, and work-activity distribution. The productivity data was analysed by detecting patterns in the form of peaks and lows and by combining the patterns with qualitative data from observations and documented work activities. Measurements were taken every time the project team got together; 33 occasions during the course of the project, resulting in a total of 280 student responses for productivity (P) and completion (C) and 115 student replies for work activity distribution. The findings provide an extraction of peak values and low values that enables tracking of critical incidents. Through an in-depth activity log, each value was enriched with lessons learned about what took place and the consequences for the project, thus enhancing learning from past activities through systematic feedback sessions. The accumulated set of data provided distinguishable patterns for the project team to interpret. Over time this made student actions more proactive, activity execution more distinct and purposeful, and resource allocation in combination with feedback reflections more refined.

  • 262.
    Berglund, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Eckerdal, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Scientific Computing.
    What do CS students try to learn?: Insights from a distributed, project-based course in computer systems2006In: Computer Science Education, ISSN 0899-3408, E-ISSN 1744-5175, Vol. 16, p. 185-195Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 263.
    Berglund, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Eckerdal, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Scientific Computing.
    What do our students strive for?: Insights from a distributed, project-based course in computer systems2005In: Proc. 5th Finnish/Baltic Sea Conference on Computer Science Education: Koli Calling, Finland: Turku Centre for Computer Science , 2005, p. 65-72Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 264.
    Berglund, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Eckerdal, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Scientific Computing.
    Pears, Arnold
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    East, Philip
    Kinnunen, Päivi
    Malmi, Lauri
    McCartney, Robert
    Moström, Jan Erik
    Murphy, Laurie
    Ratcliffe, Mark
    Schulte, Carsten
    Simon, Beth
    Stamouli, Ioanna
    Thomas, Lynda
    Learning computer science: Perceptions, actions and roles2009In: European Journal of Engineering Education, ISSN 0304-3797, E-ISSN 1469-5898, Vol. 34, p. 327-338Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 265.
    Berglund, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Leifer, Larry
    TRIPLE-LOOP-LEARNING: AN INSTRUMENTATION MODEL FOR ENGINEERING DESIGN INNOVATION EDUCATION2016In: DESIGN EDUCATION: COLLABORATION AND CROSS-DISCIPLINARY, The Design Society, 2016, p. 77-82Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a framework for engineering design innovation education. This is discovery research in a purely qualitative sense. The authors, both highly experienced educators, are reflecting upon their practice of delivering team-based new product development courses at the master's degree level at deeply different universities in Sweden and the United States of America. In both cases, industry partners bring real-world projects and funding to the curricula. They have, as their primary objective, the development of talented new product development leaders. In both cases there is no intellectual property attachment to the funding. This paper seeks to make important distinctions about common language and practices within different regional and academic cultures. We are hopeful that our observations and the presented framework will draw others to deepen our understanding through next generation quantitative studies.

  • 266.
    Berglund, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Leifer, Larry
    Stanford University.
    Why we Prototype!: An International Comparison of the Linkage between Embedded Knowledge and Objective Learning2013In: Engineering Education, ISSN 1750-0044, E-ISSN 1750-0052, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 2-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prototypes are made, presented, and interpreted differently by people according to theirunderstanding and frame of reference. Design educators have, in recent decades, comecloser to one another in how they approach design creativity. Still, many distinct differencesexist. One of the most striking has to do with the role of prototyping in developing ideasinto concrete manifestations. Prototypes unlock cognitive association mechanisms relatedto visualisation, prior experience, and interpersonal communication in ways that favouriterative learning between peers in the product development community. When, where, andhow to use prototyping strategies depends on context, and it demands a high level ofsituation awareness. The nature of this awareness is, in turn, dependent on culturalvariables and curriculum development. Prototyping has been portrayed as an excellentactivity to share inner thoughts, yet a deeper connection to its knowledge-buildingprocesses has been lacking in previous research. This paper builds on related literature inshaping a common understanding of how prototyping is perceived and applied in twodifferent high-performance academic contexts (Stanford University, Stanford, USA, and theKTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden). Our exploration focuses onstudents’ perceived learning experiences and on teachers’ experiences within engineeringdesign projects. Prototyping is an active enabler in both cases, establishing iterative loopsof new knowledge through social interaction and team-based communication. The deeperlevel of cognitive attachments to prototyping provides an explicit link between embeddedimplicit knowledge and its consequences for objective learning.

  • 267.
    Berglund, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Sturm, Dennis
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical sensors, signals and systems (MSSS).
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Embracing Entrepreneurial Behaviour in a Research School2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Product Innovation Engineering program (PIEp) has recently established a Research School withthe aim to increase innovation capabilities in Swedish industries and to promote entrepreneurialbehaviour. By following a bottom-up approach PIEp has been able to both embrace and fosterentrepreneurship. As a result, the research school has already been able to change preexisting mindsetsand to encourage PhD students to be more proactive, risk-taking and innovative. Through descriptions of their own experiences and of key cases along the way, the authors illustratethe transformation from the initial idea to the research school as it is today. This paper seeks toprovide insight and draw comparisons with other research schools to further research and assist policymakers interested in founding new research schools.

  • 268.
    Berglund, Daniel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    Kommunikation – mötet mellan IT-utvecklare och kund: En studie i hur IT-branschens kultur förhåller sig till andra yrkeskulturer,och vilken betydelse det kan ha för kommunikationen dem emellan.2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper concerns my research on the culture of the IT-workforce and how it relates to otheroccupational cultures, as well as how the relation affects the communication between them. Iconducted an ethnographic study at an IT-consulting company. My focus was on theinteraction between the IT-consultants and their customers. In combination with previousresearch in the same subject area, the study shows that the IT-workforce has a distinctoccupational culture. It is influenced by the reverence of technical knowledge and how the ITworkforceis treated as a group by society in general. This reciprocal prejudice also leads tointercultural dysfunction. Since a lot of companies depend on the IT-workforce there is muchto gain if communication is improved. Some solutions are for the IT-workforce to be morepronounced and understanding in the intercultural communication and to find common goalsto strive towards. Also the lowest level of IT-knowledge among the general population mustbe raised to avoid a class society related to IT.

  • 269.
    Berglund, Maria-Therese
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Thunstedt Degnell, Jacqueline
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Stämmer det här verkligen?: En kvalitativ studie om hur källkritik och informationssökning tillämpas i undervisningen i grundskolans tidiga år.2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Source criticism and information literacy is a major part of the knowledge and skills needed in a digital era and therefore an important component in the revise of the Swedish curriculum of the compulsory school (Skolverket, 2018a) that targets the digitalization of the Swedish school system. Thus’, previous studies show that less education is provided for pupils in compulsory school in the subject of source criticism and information literacy, than in any other grade. The purpose of this study is to get additional insight in the education of source criticism and information literacy in compulsory school. We chose to study the teachers’ interpretations of the subject and how they implement the subject into their own classroom. Therefore, we have chosen a qualitative approach with a pragmatic perspective. Through a survey and multiple semi-structured interviews, we have been able to inquire about the reasonings of 38 compulsory school teachers. The teachers in this study view source criticism and information literacy as a natural part of their daily teaching and as an important societal based knowledge or ability in a digital society. A subject that is both important to introduce in pre-school and should be included in every school subject. Yet the teachers express a need for competence development as a result of an uncertainty with the didactic features of the pupils’ education. Factual texts and discussions held with the whole class, in the classroom, is therefore the most common approach regardless of grade. The school library is not seen as a resource for learning about source criticism and information literacy. The subject tends to get lower priority compared to other subjects due to the lack of time in both planning and teaching-hours and also due to the lack of digital tools available.

  • 270.
    Berglund, Shashi-Rekha
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences.
    Enable Emergent Literacy by Including ICT in Preschool class: A socio cultural approach to ensure a positive learning atmosphere2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A comparative study between old school which is considered to be boring and out of context by (many student) to new school of teaching where divers IT and ICT gadgets are used and their implications in creating a positive teacher student relationship from the very start to promote emergent literacy within preschool class.

    This ethnographic study examines how two preschool class teachers incorporate both old and new methods to create interest for learning and meaningfulness among their students in accordance with the national goals for education and lifelong learning. How does IT and ICT promote teaching and learning in preschool class? In what ways do teachers incorporate into classroom experiences? What are the group dynamics between teacher- student, and student- and their peers during a classroom scenario with the conventional paper and pen and technological aid?  With these central questions the study was conducted as an participant observation which resulted in preschool class children find it lot easier to communicate not only with teachers but also with their classmates during classroom activities where IT and ICT is incorporated than when teachers take on the role what they call old school which tends to become one-sided. 

    The results show that creating meaningfulness among ones students is largely based upon the teachers own interest in the focus group. From a socio-cultural perspective, it is evident that terms such as interaction, meaningfulness, symbols and artifacts become central. Results from the study shows even though many in-service teachers and principals are very much for including IT and ICT as teaching resource. Ambiguity of national norms and goals when we talk of preschool classes in the nation could be one the many reasons why they fail to meet their students expectations and demands. This in turn could be one of the considerable reasons for the depression in high school students failing to meet the national educational standards.

  • 271.
    Bergman, Therese
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    Att skriva ett kurskompendium för tätkontroll och läcksökning.2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

     

     

    SAMMANFATTNING

    Lackage fran en komponent i form av vatska eller gas ar ett ofta underskattat problem som kan ge

    upphov till samre produktkvalitet, energiforluster och i slutandan ge ekonomiska konsekvenser om

    lackaget blir for stort. Det finns dessutom en miljo- och halsorisk om en produkt eller komponent

    lacker ut storre mangder kemikalier eller metaller. Kan lackaget minskas finns med andra ord stora

    vinster att hamta.

    Nolek AB bygger instrument for att hitta lackage, lacksokning, och mata lackage, tatkontroll.

    Foretaget arrangerar utbildningar for sina kunder men har tidigare inte haft nagot uppdaterat

    material for detta andamal. Syftet med examensarbetet ar att producera delar till ett nytt

    utbildningspaket inom tatkontroll, lacksokning och provtryckning samt att undersoka teorier for

    skrivande av pedagogiska texter. Arbetets resultat utgors av ett kurskompendium samt en

    PowerPoint-presentation kopplad till kompendiet. Malgrupperna for kurskompendiet ar kursledare,

    nyanstallda pa Nolek samt foretagets kunder.

    Tathet ar ett relativt begrepp och det gar inte att bevisa en obefintlig lacka. Grunden for en

    tatkontroll ar tatkravet, vilket tydligt maste definiera lackagets storsta tillatna mangd per tidsenhet.

    Ur tatkravet ska det aven framga vilket medium kontrollen utfors i, vilket provtryck som anvands

    samt vid vilken temperatur som provningen sker. Vid tatkontrollen, som genomfors med lamplig

    metod utifran det satta tatkravet, gors en provning av om komponenten lacker mer eller mindre an

    tatkravet. Teoretiska kunskaper om tryck, gas och stromningslara ar centrala for att kunna avgora

    vad som ar ett godtagbart lackage eller for att forsta varfor ett visst utslag erhalls pa instrumentet.

    Provtryckning innebar ett test av hallfastigheten hos en komponent eller en produkt. Det finns ett

    flertal forordningar och direktiv som maste foljas vid provtryckning.

    Ett kurskompendium ar en pedagogisk text. Olika texter lases pa olika satt och lamnar olika stort

    utrymme for lasarens egna tolkningar. En pedagogisk text ska lamna ett mindre tolkningsutrymme

    at lasaren an vad den skonlitterara texten gor. Forfattaren av en pedagogisk text har pa forhand en

    uppfattning om vilka specifika saker mottagaren ska fa ut av sin lasning.

    Den pedagogiska texten ska vara beskrivande och maste struktureras utifran pedagogiska krav sa

    att fakta och forklaringar blir relativt enkla och gripbara for lasaren. Genom att forfattaren skriver

    enkelt, konkret och anvander rikt med exempel kan texten uppfattas som begriplig, personligt

    lonande och betydelsefull for mottagaren. Forfattarens tankar ska formedlas till lasaren samtidigt

    som lasaren stimuleras till att sjalv tanka vidare.

    ABSTRACT

    Leakage from an object or component is a common and often underestimated problem which can

    generate inferior quality of the product, loss of energy and eventually generate economical

    consequences if the leakage becomes too large. There also exists an environmental hazard and

    health risk if a product or component is leaking substantial amounts of chemicals or metals.

    Therefore there are great profits to gain if a possibility to minimize the leakage exists.

    Nolek AB assembles instruments for finding leakage, leak detection, and measure leakage, leak

    testing. The company arranges educations for their customers, but hasn’t had any updated material

    for doing this. The aim of this master thesis is to produce a compendium that explains leak testing,

    leak detection and proof testing, to produce a PowerPoint-presentation and to inquire into theories

    for writing pedagogical papers. The target groups for the compendium are course leaders, newly

    employed personnel at Nolek and the company’s customers.

    Density is a relative concept and it is not possible to prove a leak which does not exist. The base for

    leak testing is the density demands, which has to clearly define the leakage’s greatest quantity that

    is allowed per time unit. The density demands must also tell which medium, which pressure and

    which temperature that is being used for the testing. The testing is being carried out with a suitable

    method according to the density demands by deciding whether the component is leaking more or

    less than the density demands. Theoretical knowledge about pressure, gas and currents are central

    for determining what an acceptable leakage is or to understand why a certain deflection is shown on

    the instrument.

    Proof testing is a test of the strength of a component or a product. There exists multiple regulations

    that has to be considered when proof testing.

    A course compendium is a pedagogical text. Different texts are being read in different ways and

    leaves different room for the reader’s own interpretations. A pedagogical text should leave less

    room for interpretations than a fiction text. The author of a pedagogical text has a pre-defined

    opinion of what the reader is going to achieve by reading the text.

    The pedagogical text is supposed to be descriptive and has to be structured on the basis of

    pedagogical demands in order to make facts and explanations simple and tangible for the reader.

    When the author is writing in a simple and concrete fashion and uses a lot of examples, the text can

    be sensed as understandable, personally profitable and significant for the receiver. The thoughts of

    the author are supposed to be conveyed to the reader at the same time as the reader are being

    stimulated to think even further unaided.

  • 272.
    Bergmo-Prvulovic, Ingela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Demographic changes and the need for later career opportunities2017In: Adult Education Discourses, ISSN 2084-2740, no 18, p. 187-206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores previous research about extended working lives and later careers, as consequences of demographic changes alongside with a changing working life. Issues and themes visible in recent research on midlife and older adults’ careers opportunities are explored. A traditional literature review is conducted, in which peer reviewed articles on midlife and older adults’ careers issues and opportunities in an extended and changing working life are localized and downloaded as material for this study. This paper presents an analysis of empirical material downloaded from the Academic Search Elite database. The process of locating material from databases resulted in 141 articles selected for a deeper screening. Among these, 63 were finally selected as empirical material for analysis. Initially, the content of each article was identified, mapped, coded and categorized with content analysis as the basic method. The codes and categories with same or similar content were then brought together, and resulted in five overall themes: the need for all-age-career guidance services, career issues among certain professions, immigrants’ career paths, later careers and factors of well-being, and longitudinal correlations between early life conditions and late career. These themes are then discussed in terms of perspectives and interests that seem to dominate, and possible gaps and challenges for future research are also discussed.

  • 273.
    Bergmo-Prvulovic, Ingela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell. Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Sundelin, Åsa
    Tracing the Framing on Learning Dimensions in Career Guidance Practice2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Under the umbrella of lifelong learning strategies, career guidance has received increased attention as part of such strategies. In Sweden, educational and vocational guidance is regarded as an educational practice. Nevertheless, by bringing together results from two different studies, a paradox regarding learning dimensions in career counselling is disclosed. Swedish guidance counsellors neither describe themselves or their professional practice in educational or pedagogical terms. At the same time, a study of career conversations with young migrants reveal the educational function as essential and that guidance counsellors clearly are supporting learning processes. The paradox discloses that the professional language of guidance counsellors seems to be insufficient in terms of learning dimensions in career guidance practice. Developing a theoretical framework and professional language for learning dimensions in counselling processes is therefore an urgent issue. By relating the results from the above mentioned two studies to the triangular model of learning developed by Knud Illeris, this paper seeks to discuss and trace a framing on learning dimensions in career guidance.  

  • 274.
    Bergmo-Prvulovic, Ingela
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Sundelin, Åsa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Tracing the Framing on Learning Dimensions in Career Guidance Practice2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Under the umbrella of lifelong learning strategies, career guidance has received increased attention as part of such strategies. In Sweden, educational and vocational guidance is regarded as an educational practice. Nevertheless, by bringing together results from two different studies, a paradox regarding learning dimensions in career counselling is disclosed. Swedish guidance counsellors neither describe themselves or their professional practice in educational or pedagogical terms. At the same time, a study of career conversations with young migrants reveal the educational function as essential and that guidance counsellors clearly are supporting learning processes. The paradox discloses that the professional language of guidance counsellors seems to be insufficient in terms of learning dimensions in career guidance practice. Developing a theoretical framework and professional language for learning dimensions in counselling processes is therefore an urgent issue. By relating the results from the above mentioned two studies to the triangular model of learning developed by Knud Illeris, this paper seeks to discuss and trace a framing on learning dimensions in career guidance.  

  • 275.
    Bergner, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE).
    Waardahl, Erica
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE).
    Interprofessionell kommunikation: En undersökning om kommunikationsvägar ochkunskapsutbyte mellan kompetensområdeni uppdraget Ostlänken.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The project Ostlänken is part of the single largest investment for Swedish infrastructure in modern times, a new double track high-speed railway between Järna and Linköping. It will provide new capacity to the railway system and off load existing traffic and thus enlarge the region. Sweco's task is to deliver a time- and economically efficient solution that is both secure, environmentally- and socially sustainable. To achieve this, Sweco's organization is divided into the three areas plan, environment and technology. Each of which is responsible for developing railway plans, environmental impact assessment and system documents.

    The purpose of the study is to analyze how communication and knowledge exchange between the areas environment and technology are experienced and put into practice. A further aim is to put the results of the study in relation to Sweco's internal project- and control documents for communication and knowledge and experience transfer, in order to further visualize strengths and improvement areas in terms of communication within the assignment Ostlänken.

    Collected material from a questionnaire survey, interviews and focus discussions has been compiled using a thematic analysis. The results showed that the use of communication means varies within the assignment. Many people experience a large flow of information, partly as a result of the high meeting frequency. There is an experienced knowledge gap between the main areas, but also between the different technical areas of expertise where it is sometimes hard to see each other's needs and prerequisites.

    Based on theories from organizational pedagogy, the study shows the importance of taking responsibility for the individual learning in the forms of active listening and reflection on ones frame of reference and how it relates to others. But also the importance of taking responsibility for others' learning in terms of how to express one self and sharing relevant information. Some of the areas that could benefit the organization's development are clear and detailed meeting agendas, mentoring to orient new employees in the project, recurrent opportunities for reflection on the workflow and continuous work to make sure that the word is evenly distributed at meetings. The study further shows that to fulfill the overall project objectives, individual endeavor is required in order to become an expert in the project itself, and also that each area of expertise may take place in decision-making processes. By not considering learning as a natural part of the workflow, but merely striving for progress in terms of productivity, there is a risk that this will happen at the expense of the organization's development in the longer term.

  • 276.
    Bergnéhr, Disa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten..
    Att handleda en doktorand - en relationell balansgång som fordrar flexibilitet och struktur2013In: Högre Utbildning, ISSN 2000-7558, E-ISSN 2000-7558, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 173-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Handledning är av central betydelse för en doktorands arbete och genomströmning. I föreliggande studie granskas kriterier för att handledningen ska uppnå hög kvalitet. Frågorna som står i fokus är: Vad karaktäriserar bra handledning, och hur kan handledningens kvalitet värderas och stärkas? Diskussionen baserar på tidigare forskning, styrdokument och intervjuer med några erfarna handledare. Resultaten tyder på att strukturellt och formaliserat stöd i forskningsmiljön såväl som vid handledningsträffarna gynnar handledningens kvalitet och doktorandens möjligheter att vid disputation nå examensmålen. Handledaren behöver vara flexibel och reflexiv i sitt förhållningssätt, eftersom doktoranders behov och förutsättningar skiljer sig och också förändras under utbildningens gång. Samtidigt behöver handledaren förhålla sig till olika krav, vilka kan skapa dilemman och leda till en svår balansgång i handledningen. Viktigt är att handledaren tar ansvar för att handledningen och relationen fungerar väl för samtliga inblandade parter, och uppmuntrar till samtal om problem och svårigheter när de uppstår. Samtidens krav på effektivitet och genomströmning fordrar arbetsplatsens och kollegiets stöd i handledningen, med ett kollektivt ansvar för doktorandens utbildning och utveckling.

  • 277.
    Bergnéhr, Disa
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Att handleda en doktorand - en relationell balansgång som fordrar flexibilitet och struktur2013In: Högre Utbildning, ISSN 2000-7558, E-ISSN 2000-7558, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 173-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Handledning är av central betydelse för en doktorands arbete och genomströmning. I föreliggande studie granskas kriterier för att handledningen ska uppnå hög kvalitet. Frågorna som står i fokus är: Vad karaktäriserar bra handledning, och hur kan handledningens kvalitet värderas och stärkas? Diskussionen baserar på tidigare forskning, styrdokument och intervjuer med några erfarna handledare. Resultaten tyder på att strukturellt och formaliserat stöd i forskningsmiljön såväl som vid handledningsträffarna gynnar handledningens kvalitet och doktorandens möjligheter att vid disputation nå examensmålen. Handledaren behöver vara flexibel och reflexiv i sitt förhållningssätt, eftersom doktoranders behov och förutsättningar skiljer sig och också förändras under utbildningens gång. Samtidigt behöver handledaren förhålla sig till olika krav, vilka kan skapa dilemman och leda till en svår balansgång i handledningen. Viktigt är att handledaren tar ansvar för att handledningen och relationen fungerar väl för samtliga inblandade parter, och uppmuntrar till samtal om problem och svårigheter när de uppstår. Samtidens krav på effektivitet och genomströmning fordrar arbetsplatsens och kollegiets stöd i handledningen, med ett kollektivt ansvar för doktorandens utbildning och utveckling.

  • 278.
    Bergqvist, Jenny
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science.
    Johansson, Annika
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science.
    Makter, normer och den goda samhällsmedborgaren: Konstruktioner av barn i leksituationer2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med vår studie är att synliggöra vilka diskurser som uppstår när pedagoger analyserarbarns relationer i leken genom stimulated recall. Avsikten med stimulated recall är att närma osshur pedagoger i förskolans verksamhet pratar om barns relationer. Detta är relevant då vi avseratt öppna upp för det förgivettagna om barns relationer, samt beskriva förskolan som samhällelig institution och huruvida det kan vara en bidragande orsak till hur pedagoger konstruerar ”barn”. Forskningsfrågorna vi utgår ifrån: Vad beskriver pedagogerna i leksituationen som utspelas? Vilka normer framträder om barns relationer i pedagogernas samtal? Studiens utgångspunkt är socialkonstuktionistiskt perspektiv med diskursanalys somanalysverktyg från Foucaults beskrivning kring hur människan konstruerar makt och språkligapraktiker. Vi använde oss av fokusgruppsintervju i kombination med metoden stimulated recallför att besvara studiens forskningsfrågor. Studien genomfördes på en förskola i Sverige under ett tillfälle med fem pedagoger. Resultatet av vår studie är att pedagogernas tal präglas förskolan som institution, läroplanen för förskolan 1998, rev. 10 och av ett sociokulturellt perspektiv. Detta syntes när pedagogerna konstruerade ”barnen” som samspelande, kommunicerande, hänsynstagande och ledande. Vår slutsats är att förskolan, med utgångspunkt i läroplanen för förskolan 1998, rev. 10, kan ses som en samhällelig institution där pedagogerna ska bidra till att barnen utvecklas till ansvarstagande medborgare i samhället.

  • 279.
    Bergqvist, Johanna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Texten i musiken där kan man hitta matematiken: En studie om matematiska begrepp i sångtexter i förskolan2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is about what kind of mathematics children in preschool encounter in song lyrics. The study has focused on what kind of knowledge preschool teachers think that the song lyrics conveys and how much they use music during the day. In the study three qualitative interviews were conducted with teachers at different preschools, and nine lyrics were analyzed. The research questions are:

    What mathematical concepts do children meet in song lyrics in preschool? What knowledge do teachers say they believe that the song lyrics convey to the children?How much do the teachers use music and song in their work?

    To find out what kind of mathematics there was in the music, lyrics were analyzed and different “categories” were found. These were: spatial perception, time, weight and length, shape and numbers. From the interviews it was concluded that teachers believe children learn very much when they sing. All teachers agreed that children can learn language and maths from song. The study concluded that in the preschool groups where the interviewed teachers work they sing every day, both spontaneously and according to schedule.

  • 280.
    Bergqvist, Lovisa
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Lugner, Anna
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Lek I ur och skur: Barns tankar om sin lek i en "I ur och skur verksamhet"2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund:

    Utomhusvistelse och utomhuspedagogik spelar viktiga roller i förskolans vardag. Utevistelsen och utomhuspedagogiken är ett alternativ och ett komplement till de traditionella inomhusmiljöerna på förskolan. Pedagogiska aktiviteter och fri lek kan med fördel växlas mellan inomhus- och utomhusmiljöer för att ge olika sinnliga upplevelser. Utomhusmiljöer och naturmiljöer kan erbjuda autentiska lärmiljöer och inspirera till lek. "I ur och skur" är ett koncept från Friluftsfrämjandet där förskole-, skol- och fritidshemsverksamhet bedrivs utomhus och med betoning på friluftsliv. Hur påverkar utomhusvistelsen barns lek och hur pratar barn om sin lek i en verksamhet med daglig vistelse i en rik naturmiljö? Skiljer det sig mellan barnens lek inomhus och utomhus?

    Syfte:

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur barn på en "I Ur och Skur verksamhet" upplever och skildrar sin lek. Särskilt fokus riktar vi mot hur utevistelsen och utomhuspedagogiken, som präglar en "I ur och skur verksamhet", kan ha inverkan på barnens lek. Studien ämnar att ge en närmare förståelse för barnens perspektiv på sin lek utomhus/inomhus på en "I Ur och Skur verksamhet".

    Metod:

    Vi har valt att använda oss av en kvalitativ forskningsmetod. Inledningsvis observerade vi en barngrupp på sammanlagt 30 barn under en dag i verksamheten. Vi skapade två intervjugrupper bestående av sex barn vardera. Vi genomförde intervjuerna med dessa två grupper.

    Resultat:

    Vår studie har visat att barnens lek skiljer sig mer beroende på barnens ålder och utveckling än om leken sker inomhus eller utomhus. Utomhusmiljön och inomhusmiljön ger olika förutsättningar för leken. Vi upplever under studien att de äldre barnen i högre utsträckning leker roll- och fantasilek som i sin tur gynnas mer av utomhusmiljön därför att den kan erbjuda utrymme och stimulera eller inspirera till kreativitet. De yngre barnen i verksamheten leker i större utsträckning ensamlek eller parallellek/bredvidlek och tycks även fokusera mer på lekmaterial för att inspireras till lek. De yngre barnens lek blir därför påverkar av att det finns olika lekmaterial utomhus än inomhus

  • 281.
    Bergstedt, Bosse
    Linköping University, Department of Education and Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Den livsupplysande texten: En läsning av N.F.S. Grundtvigs pedagogiska skrifter1998Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    N F S Grundtvig, 1783-1872, was the founder of the folkhögskola, ("Folk High School", Residential colleges of general, liberal education for adolescents and adults), but he also was a pastor, a poet, and a historian. The dissertation presents an overview of Grundtvig's pedagogical thoughts, including his ideas of both the folkhögskola and a Nordic University. The dissertation's main purpose is to clarify the meaning of the concept of livsupplysning (Life enlightenment).

    Grundtvig's point of departure is his view that life is embedded in the spoken word of dialogues, songs, folk tales, folk songs and proverbs. What, then, constitutes a Text that Enlightens Life? What are its characteristics? What is its nature? How is it composed? On the basis of deconstructive reading, some of Grundtvig's central pedagogical texts are interpreted. The dissertation demonstrates what characterizes a Text that Enlightens Life, and how Grundtvig uses different rhetoric patterns to express what is meant by Life Enlightenment.

    The reading brings forward the two strategies of Reversal and Dislocation. The Reversal clarifies the three fundamental opposites Life and Death, Light and Darkness, Truth and Lie. The Dislocation strategy indicates the need to create maximal växelverkan (interaction, interchange). The outcome is a text built upon ambiguity and pluralism. These are also fundamental in Grundtvig's pedagogy, striving to engender a deep understanding of the meaning of Life Enlightenment.

  • 282.
    Bergström, Lisa
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Det fria skolvalet: En litteraturstudie om valfrihetsreformen och den likvärdiga skolan2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 283.
    Bergström, Malin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    Levin, Fanny
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    En studie om förskollärares syn på stress hos barn.2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 284.
    Berlin, Johan
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Book Review | Alvesson, Mats., Sveningsson, Stefan (2008). Changing organizational culture: cultural change work in progress. London: Routledge2011In: Management Learning, ISSN 1350-5076, E-ISSN 1461-7307, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 224-226Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 285.
    Berlitz, Fanny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Soulaka, Nataline
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hur andraspråkselever tar sig an problemlösningsuppgifter: Svårigheter i utförandet av problemlösningsuppgifter för andraspråkselever och vilka stöd de kan få för att öka förståelsen2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att ta reda på vilka svårigheter som kan uppstå i problemlösning för elever som har svenska som andraspråk. För att ta reda på detta ställdes frågorna: “vilka svårigheter stöter elever med utländsk bakgrund på vid problemlösningsuppgifter?”  samt “vilket stöd kan de eleverna få i sitt lärande?” För att kunna svara på frågeställningarna utfördes en systematisk litteraturstudie och 12 artiklar har granskats och analyserats. När resultaten av artiklarna sammanställdes kunde vi komma fram till att det oftast handlar om en svårighet och att det finns fler sätt att stötta eleverna i utvecklingen. Det är huvudsakligen språkliga problem som eleverna stöter på, med detta menas både förståelse för enstaka ord och förståelsen av sammanhanget i uppgiften. Vad det gäller stöd beskrivs det främst fyra riktlinjer man kan förhålla sig till; 1) språkligt stöd, 2) laborativt material, 3) tydliga instruktioner och 4)  strategier och kontexten i uppgiften.

  • 286.
    Bern, Caroline
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Bedömning av kompetens i tekniska karriärspår: En fallstudie om hur föreställningar om kompetens, kompetensbedömning och karriär påverkar organisationers möjlighet att skapa inkludering och mångfald2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Having a diverse workforce has become an important issue in today’s organizations in order to capture a wide range of competence, skills and abilities. Today many companies encourage work with diversity and inclusion since they argue that it increases creativity and, in extent, company profit. However, many companies struggle to manage such work in a successful way. A method of creating the prerequisites for diversity and inclusion is to study the perception of competence and assessment processes. Assessment of competence is, for example, the basis for decision making in career advancement. The assessment requires one to decide on what competence is and in turn who is competent. The complexity of the concept of competence and norms being a part of the assessment process complicates such decisions. As an attempt to ensure that competence is assessed objectively, many companies apply different formalized procedures for inclusion and diversity work. This study aims to provide a deeper understanding of how career, assessment of competence and formalized procedures interact.

    A case study has been carried out in an engineering industry, which is referred to in the report as Organization A. The purpose of the study was to examine how formalized technical careers affect organizations' ability to create inclusion and diversity, based on perceptions of competence, competence assessment and career. To fulfil the purpose, the following two questions were stated.

    1. How are technical careers structured?
    2. What conditions do technical careers create for equal assessment of competence?

    In the study, a technical career path has been investigated within Organization A. The thesis is part of a MSc in Engineering and Education at KTH. The engineering part of the work is reflected in the technical point of view of the work where an organization with technology-intensive activities has been placed in focus. The educational part of my degree is applied by relating the organization's technical career paths to similar organizations in education, discussing similarities and differences in assessment processes. In order to answer the research questions, interviews with employees and focus groups with managers within Organization A have been conducted. The study shows how technical careers are organized based on formal and informal structures related to assessment of competence and norms affecting assessment processes. The observed technical career path within Organization A is based on an informal pyramid structure that allows for subjective perceptions of the purpose and goals of the career. This enables a view of employees' different capabilities to reach higher levels and is therefore problematized from a diversity and inclusion perspective.

    The assessment criteria of the career path provide room for interpretation and there is no education or support for managers how the criteria should be interpreted and applied. It is a result of a lack of management required to ensure that the career process is used the intended way. The shortcoming contributes to the fact that norms and prejudices can continue to influence the assessment process. The organization's implemented diversity and inclusion work provide some management but is done without caution. Processes of change requires follow-up and evaluation which is lacking. The organization can learn from what in learning research is addressed as formative assessment. The study shows a shortcoming in all three key parts included in formative assessment. Based on stated conclusions, recommendations are given to Organization A to question the purpose of the pyramid structure and to apply clearer management in terms of education and forums for collaboration. Additionally, recommendations are given for how the organization can apply formative assessment in career assessment processes.

  • 287.
    Berndtsson, Ina
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Nursing.
    Stoma therapist education on internet2008In: Proceedings with congress programme, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet is a good help and save time in the daily work for most of us registrar nurses. In the stoma therapist (ET) education where students often live in different places, is internet education a good alternative. In a digital classroom as community on internet the student collect tasks, send answers, have contact with the teacher and other students in the course. It is like a classroom and with a webb camera or video a lesson can be hold. The lessons can also be prerecorded so the students can look on it any time. The big different and advantage from a real classroom this community is opened 24 hours a day. Advantage and another positive effect is that student and teacher can communicate and answer the task when it suites them best.

    To participants an internet course does not mean less work, all communications must be written and read. This will take more time then verbally communication. One important thing, all communication is written, so it hade to be clear to avoid misunderstanding. To learn and understand each other the student and teacher have to have a two way communication.

    The practical educations can the students carry through on the hospital in the home city with support from the local ET- nurse and the practical examination can be done with instruction from the ET- course. When the students report the examination paper to other students they have to comment and discuss the result in the community. All students most give written comments and ask questions to the other students. The student can not “be seated” quiet, all comments and answers has to be documented. All students become attend.

    The stoma therapist education in a community on internet has great opportunities and is a good alternative.

  • 288.
    Bernhard, Dörte
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Andersson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Adult Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Swedish Folk High Schools and Inclusive Education2017In: Nordic Studies in Education, ISSN 1891-5914, E-ISSN 1891-5949, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 87-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on Swedish folk high schools’ participants with disabilities, and their learning environment within adult education. Facilitating factors are presented and discussed, as well as developmental factors regarding the adjustment of the learning environment. The basis for this empirical study is data from Statistics Sweden and a self-designed online questionnaire with respondents representing the folk high schools (N=212). Theoretical reference is given to concepts such as adult education and inclusive education. The results show there are an increased number of participants with disabilities in Swedish folk high schools. Furthermore, the study emphasizes the meaning of pedagogics with a personalized, individualized approach, and highlights a need for further education of adult educators about disability. The conclusion is that a stronger inclusive-education perspective with focus on learners’ diversity reflects only one side of practice, as this practice is also challenged by welfare system-steered processes that may conflict with an ideal of adult education as empowerment.

  • 289.
    Bernhard, Jonte
    et al.
    Department of Science and Technology, Linköping University, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Carstensen, Anna-Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Davidsen, Jacob
    Department of Communication and Psychology, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Ryberg, Thomas
    Department of Communication and Psychology, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Practical Epistemic Cognition in a Design Project--Engineering Students Developing Epistemic Fluency2019In: IEEE Transactions on Education, ISSN 0018-9359, E-ISSN 1557-9638Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contribution: This paper reports engineering students' practical epistemic cognition by studying their interactional work in situ. Studying "epistemologies in action'' the study breaks away from mainstream approaches that describe this in terms of beliefs or of stage theories.

    Background: In epistemology, knowledge is traditionally seen as "justified true belief'', neglecting knowledge related to action. Interest has increased in studying the epistemologies people use in situated action, and their development of epistemic fluency. How appropriate such approaches are in engineering and design education need further investigation.

    Research Questions: 1) How do students in the context of a design project use epistemic tools in their interactional work? and 2) What are the implications of the findings in terms of how students' cognitive and epistemological development could be conceptualized?

    Methodology: A collaborative group of six students were video recorded on the 14th day of a fifth-semester design project, as they were preparing for a formal critique session. The entire, almost 6 h, session was recorded by four video cameras mounted in the design studio, with an additional fifth body-mounted camera. The video data collected was analyzed using video ethnographic, conversation analysis, and embodied interaction analysis methods.

    Findings: The results show that the students use a wealth of bodily material resources as an integral and seamless part of their interactions as epistemic tools, in their joint production of understanding and imagining. The analysis also suggests that students' epistemological and cognitive development, individually and as a group, should be understood in terms of developing "epistemic fluency.'' 

  • 290.
    Bernhardsson, Lennarth
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    An eye for an I: a framework with focus on the integration of work and learning in higher education2018In: INTED 2018: Proceedings, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Higher education plays a new role in the society and the highly specialized labor market, and higher education institutes are expected to interact with and contribute to the surrounding society. University West in Sweden is since 2002 commissioned by the government to develop the pedagogical strategy called work-integrated learning (WIL) and WIL is the “trade mark” for the University. This means that pedagogical methods are based on WIL and that the faculty is working on further refinement and development in order to maximize the pedagogical gain offered by using the synergy between theory and practice.

    Work-integrated-learning activities are often implemented in a course as methods aligned to the learning outcomes regarding knowledge in the specific subject. However, another perspective is that the capacity to reflect and understand the integration of theory and practice could actually be a learning outcome in itself. From this perspective, it is vital to theoretically frame and formulate stringent learnings outcomes. To have a clear framework for this is important for curriculum design, course delivery and assessment, as well.

    In a self-evaluation conducted at the University, including focus groups with, both undergraduate and post graduate students, teachers, researchers and managers, a call for a framework has been expressed.

    In this conceptual paper, we propose a framework to support, design, delivery and assessment of work-integrated-learning progression, i.e. understanding of the integration between theory and practice. This framework is inspired by theories regarding constructive alignment [3], the SOLO taxonomy, agentic learning, SAMR-model and the RAT-model. RAT means Replacement, Amplifying and Replacement [4] while SAMR is the acronym for Substitution, Augmentation, Modification and Redefinition [5]. Our WIL-4U has also been inspired by SOLO taxonomy [6]

    In short, the framework for progression includes a progression from being descriptive regarding the observed practice, skills for comparing and evaluating practices, to be agentic in how theory and practice could be used in synergy for evolving, new theory and development of practice. Thereby, putting on eye on the “i” in WiL.

    Ultimately such a framework could support the progression of “WiL-understanding” through an educational program, and that students after graduation have developed readiness for “life-long-learning” and could be agentic at workplaces in the sense that practice and theory are used in synergy.

  • 291.
    Bernhardsson, Lennarth
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Willermark, Sara
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    "Just in Time": Tidig feedback för ökat lärande2018In: VILÄR Abstraktbok / [ed] Kristina Johansson, Trollhättan: Högskolan Väst , 2018, p. 7-7Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Genomströmning är ett begrepp som ofta används för att mäta hur lönsam en kursär för lärosätet. Det ger ett ekonomiskt mått på en kurs. Det är också ett mått på kvaliteten i studenternas arbeten. Ju bättre kvalitet och måluppfyllelse en inlämningsuppgift har desto större sannolikhet för ett godkänt betyg. Samtidigt kan det också ge en indikation på huruvida innehållet är svårt att ta till sig eller om kursmål är svåra att uppnå. Kursen Integritet och demokrati i Digitala Media vid Mediaavdelningen, Högskolan väst, har under flera år kämpat med relativt lågt antal godkända examinationsuppgifter vid första examinationstillfälle. Problemet diskuterades i lärarlaget och för att åtgärda problemet bestämde lärarna sig för att lämna feedback till studenterna i ett tidigare skede av kursen, med ett tydlig fokus på vad som behövde förbättras för att bli godkänd. Åtgärden resulterade i en ökad genomströmning och i denna text diskuteras vikten av att ge feedback i tid. Metoden för iterativ feedback ser vi också kan användas vid utbildningstillfällen där arbetsintegrerat lärande är ett kursmål.

  • 292.
    Bernhardsson, Patrik
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Bernhardsson, Lennarth
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Personal Learning Environment For Learning After University2018In: INTED 2018: Proceedings, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is becoming increasingly common for universities and schools to use some form of digital system between teachers and students. They usually use a Learning Management System (LMS). Watson [1] discusses the concept and systems used today and believes that the intentions with LMS are good but they lack valuable functions. They have most often been used to distribute instructions to students. It is a unified information that applies to all participants and is not in any way individualized or gives the individual student the unique support that may be needed for a good learning environment.

    Learning in the digital era requires new skills focusing on different digital artefacts [2]. Learning is also a lifelong process that not only happens in an institutional context. Learning takes place in both formal and informal contexts. Learning and work-related activities are connected today, and education needs to be shaped to support a continued process even after completion of formal learning [3].

    Instead of standardized one-way solutions for transferring instructions, in which is the way many LMS are used, students should during their time at the college learn tools that support learning and communication with others. By using the tools used in working life during the study time, the boundary is blurred between the school's LMS and tools commonly used in working life. [3]. Many LMS used in higher education is not used in business and the skills gained by students through LMS cannot easily be transformed into knowledge of the tools that companies use. By introducing tools that are widely used in business, students can create their own set of tools for communication, project management and information retrieval. The tools can then contribute to encouraging their own critical search of information based on which they can shape their unique knowledge and to act as an "agentic learner" [4]. The use of an LMS that students cannot use after completing studies does not give the same opportunities for continued learning as a set of ‘open tools’. They need to create a Personal Learning Environment (PLE) so that they can then continue to use same tools after completed studies. [5]

    Richards et al [6] describes a driven student as an "agentic learner". A self-employed individual with both pleasure and ability to learn as such can determine what needs to be learned from knowledge goals in a syllabus related to the individual's existing knowledge. In order to become such a driven student, a larger "toolbox" for learning is needed than a standardized LMS solution often offers.

    It is not new tools within LMS, adjustments and minor changes, which are needed. It is a whole new perspective where the focus is shifted from LMS to PLE. It is difficult to create understanding among students how tools locked in an LMS provide knowledge for an upcoming work life. A whole new set of tools is needed or what is described as a system change by Reigeluth [7]. A whole new perspective on what tools that support lifelong learning and not only university studies. Since the LMS is connected to the university the LMS is closed for external access and the student cannot access it after they leave the University.

    In this paper we discuss, based on a theoretical perspective, whether open cloud-based tools can form the student's PLE to replace the university's LMS.

  • 293.
    Bernström, Josefin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Stigsson, Jessica
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Nätkränkningar: Interventioner och relationer i skolan2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a systematic literature review over 12 peer reviewed articles regarding the topiccyberbullying. The purpose of this study is to summarise and critically discuss different interventions and preventions used to tackle cyberbullying in school environments.Interventions and preventions will be analysed from a relational perspective. The articles are sorted and discussed in four relevant categories. These are: Netiquette, building relationships, Learning through role models, antibullying programs. The study found that the foundation of most successful interventions against cyberbullying is healthy relationships between students and school staff. The result showed that based on meaningful relationships, successful interventions and preventions can be formed and used in school. It is important to acknowledge that not a single intervention can solve a complex problem like cyberbullying, but instead there is a need for a combination of different interventions and more knowledge about the phenomena cyberbullying.

  • 294.
    Berntsdotter, Matilda
    et al.
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Sundqvist, Linn
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Förskollärarens syn på sin kompetens inom bild och bildskapande.: En kvalitativ studie ur ett sociokulturellt perspektiv.2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine the preschool teachers' view of their competence in art and art creation, as well as the competence they consider that a preschool teacher should have and how competence can develop. In this study, we define competence as something you own in the practice of preschool education and that preschool teachers can meet the challenges that the profession requires. Competence is about being able to carry out an action in practice, and in this study, the expression summarizes what a person can in the field of art and art creation. Our study addresses the following questions; how do preschool teachers perceive their competence in art and art creation? What do the preschool teachers think they need in competence in art and art creation? What role do preschool teachers play in promoting their own and children's competence development in art and art creation? Four preschool teachers and a teacher for elementary school's older years who worked in preschool since her education was interviewed with a qualitative interviewing method from a sociocultural perspective. The results show that the competencies that preschoolers apprehend is competence that includes material knowledge, the ability to link activities with curriculum and theories, and to make it a fun-filled activity for the children. In order to develop their competence, the result shows that they use continuous education and collegial learning and in interaction with children.

  • 295.
    Berntson, Martin
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Disciplinary Research.
    Kyrkohistoria som en del av religionskunskapsämnets identitet - Reflektioner över läroplan och tillämpning2014In: 14 röster kring samhällsstudier och didaktik / [ed] Hans Albin Larsson, Jönköping: Samhällsstudier & Didaktik , 2014, p. 15-53Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 296.
    Berntzen, Agnes
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, School Based Research, Literacy Research.
    Läsförståelse: En kvalitativ studie om sex lärares beskrivningar av läsförståelseundervisningen i årskurs 1 och 22018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Undersökningar från PISA visar att läsförståelsen i Sverige har varit dalande i flera år. Densenaste undersökningen från 2015 visar dock motsatt resultat. Syftet med dennakvalitativa studie är att ta reda på hur lärare arbetar medläsförståelseundervisning. Forskningsfrågorna i studien är Vad beskriverlärare utifrån sina egna erfarenheter är betydelsefulla inslag i undervisningenför elevers läsförståelseutveckling? Hur utmanar och stöttar lärarna enskildaelever i läsförståelseutvecklingen?  Studien grundar sig på den sociokulturellateorin och beskriver att elevers läsförståelseutveckling sker i ettsocialt samspel, när lärare vägleder, stöttar och utmanar eleverna. Resultatetvisar att högläsning, grupparbete och att motivera eleven är betydelsefullainslag i undervisningen. Elever stöttas med hjälp av olika redskap såsomdigitala enheter eller läshjälp från läraren.

  • 297.
    Bertilsson, Britta
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Samverkan- en bro mellan skola och hem: en kvalitativ undersökning om hur samverkan mellan skola och hem fungerar i en kommun i årskurserna 7-9 2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte är att få en ökad förståelse kring hur skola och hem i årskurs 7-9 samverkar samt vilka hinder och möjligheter rektorer uppfattar att samverkan kan ha. För att ta reda på detta användes gruppintervju som metod som och innefattar tre rektorers åsikter och tankar kring samverkan. De teoretiska perspektiv som studien utgår från är Erikson s (2004) fyra principer om samverkan mellan skola och det sociokulturella perspektivet. Eriksons (2004) fyra principer beskriver olika sätt att se på samverkan mellan skola och hem. Sammanfattningsvis visade resultatet att skolorna i undersökningen använder sig av två kategorier av samverkansformer: planerade- och oplanerade samverkansformer. De planerade samverkansformerna förekommer kontinuerligt under läsåret och är väl planerade innan de utförs. De oplanerade formerna används för att kontakta hemmet kring specifika händelser kring elevern. Främst ses samverkan som en möjlighet att ge hemmen en positiv syn av skolan som de i sin tur kan förmedla vidare till sina barn. Resultatet visarde att det finns en del hinder med samverkan., Eexempelvis har skola och hem olika syn på hur skolrelaterade situationer bör hanteras.  Även tiden visar sig vara en negativ faktor. Föräldrarna har idag inte tid att delta i möten som inte enbart berör deras barn.

  • 298.
    Bertilsson, Emelie
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science.
    Knutsson, Anna
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science.
    Hur gör jag för att lära dig läsa, så att du ska kunna läsa för att lära?: - en kvalitativ intervjustudie av sex lärares undervisning i läsförståelse2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att ta del av den erfarenhet som lärare har kring hur de bedriver undervisningen i läsförståelse. Studien är en kvalitativ intervjustudie, där sex lärare som är aktiva i verksamheten intervjuades. Resultatet av intervjuerna visade att lärarna kommunicerar att desynliggör strategier för eleverna och sedan vägleder dem i användningen. Det framkom även att lärarna använder sig av högläsning för att bredda elevernas ordförråd samt att de kommunicerar attde tar till vara på elevernas förförståelse och arbetar utifrån den, vilket förenklar förståelseprocessen. Lärarna belyser vikten av att samtala , då synliggörs det om eleven skapat förståelse för innehållet och strategin. Texten och nivån på texten påverkar elevens engagemang, vilket i sin tur påverkar utvecklingen av läsförmågan. Under studiens arbetsgång har det synliggjorts att lärarna kommunicerar att de bedriver en läsförståelseundervisning som har en balans mellan innehåll och strategi. En medveten läsförståelseundervisning är relativt nytt för lärare i verksamheten. För att få en god kvalité på undervisningen bör mer forskning bedrivas i svenska skolor. En framtida forskning kan vara att genomföra en aktionsforskning för att undersöka om lärarna har en balans mellan strategi och innehåll i läsförståelseundervisning i samtliga ämnen i skolan.

  • 299.
    Bertilsson, Frida
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stenlund, Tova
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The Testing Effect and Its Relation to Working Memory Capacity and Personality Characteristics2017In: Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology, ISSN 1945-8959, E-ISSN 1810-7621, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 241-259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Retrieval practice is known to lead to better retention of a to-be-learned material than restudy (i.e., the testing effect). However, few studies have investigated retrieval practice in relation to working memory capacity (WMC) and personality characteristics such as grittiness (Grit) and need for cognition (NFC). In two experiments, we examined retrieval practice and restudy of Swahili–Swedish word pairs in relation to individual differences in Grit and NFC. In Experiment 1, using a between-subjects design, a significant main effect of retention interval was qualified by a Group × Retention Interval interaction. However, there were no effects of Grit or NFC. In Experiment 2, a within-subjects design was used, and a measure of WMC was included. The analyses revealed a testing effect; but again, WMC, Grit, and NFC were not significantly associated with performance. These results indicate that retrieval practice levels out the playing field regarding WMC, NFC, and Grit.

  • 300.
    Bertram, Carol
    et al.
    University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
    Christiansen, Iben
    University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
    Mukeredzi, Tabitha
    University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
    Exploring the complexities of describing foundation phase teachers' professional knowledge base2015In: South African Journal of Childhood Education, ISSN 2223-7674, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 169-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to engage with the complexities of describing teachers' professional knowledge and eventually also their learning through written tests. The bigger research aim is to describe what knowledge foundation phase teachers acquired during their two years of study towards the Advanced Certificate of Teaching (ACT). We designed a written test to investigate the professional knowledge that teachers bring with them when they enrol for the ACT, with the aim of comparing their responses to the same test two years later, when they had completed the programme. The questionnaire included questions on teachers' content knowledge; their pedagogical content knowledge (in particular, teachers' knowledge about learner misconceptions, stages of learning, and ways of engaging these in making teaching decisions); and their personal knowledge (such as their beliefs about how children learn and barriers to learning). It spanned the fields of literacy in English and isiZulu, numeracy, and general pedagogy. Eighty-six foundation phase teachers enrolled for the ACT at the University of KwaZulu-Natal completed the questionnaire, and their responses pointed us to further methodological issues. We discuss the assumptions behind the design of the test/ questionnaire, the difficulties in formulating relevant questions, and the problems of 'accessing' specific elements of teacher knowledge through this type of instrument. Our process shows the difficulties both in constructing questions and in coding the responses, in particular concerning the pedagogical content knowledge component for teachers from Grade R to Grade 3.

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