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  • 251. Airaksinen, Eija
    et al.
    Wahlin, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Kognitiv psykologi.
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Low episodic memory performance as a premorbid marker of depression:: Evidence from a 3-year follow-up2007In: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, Vol. 115, no 6, p. 458-465Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To examine low episodic memory scores as a potential risk factor for depression.

    Method: A population-based sample of non-depressed individuals (20–64 years) were re-examined 3 years after an initial screening (n ¼ 708). At baseline, information on episodic memory scores, demographic and socioeconomic factors, alcohol use and anxiety diagnoses was collected. The data for depression diagnoses were collected at both baseline and follow-up.

    Results: Logistic regressions, conducted on three separate study groups that were defined according to three assessments of episodic memory (i.e. free + cued recall, free recall, cued recall) among individuals who scored in the 25 lowest or highest percentiles in the memory tests, revealed that low episodic memory performance defined as the sum of free and cued recalls of organizable words constitutes a risk of depression diagnosis 3 years later.

    Conclusion: Low episodic memory performance predated depressive diagnosis and might be considered as a premorbid marker of depression.

  • 252. Airaksinen, Eija
    et al.
    Wahlin, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Cognitive and social functioning in recovery from depression: Results from a population-based three-year follow-up2006In: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, Vol. 96, no 1-2, p. 107-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This study prospectively examined cognitive and social functioning in recovery from depression using participants sampled from the general population. Method: Seventy-six depressed persons fulfilling (n=41) and not fulfilling (n=35) the criteria for DSM-IV depression at a threeyear follow-up were compared with respect to episodic memory performance and social functioning at baseline (T1), at follow-up (T2) and change across time. Results: The groups did not differ in episodic memory performance either at T1, T2 or in residual change. However, the groups differed in social functioning at T2 and in residual change indicating improved social functioning in the recovered group. Limitation: The absence of a healthy control group at follow-up. Conclusion: Despite the symptomatic improvement and improved social functioning, cognitive functioning does not follow this general recovery trend, at least not in the three-year interval examined.

  • 253.
    Aita, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ardizzone, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Vilka faktorer påverkar Generation Y:s arbetsmotivation?2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det sker förändringar på arbetsmarknaden samtidigt som det sker ett generationsskifte. En ny generation – Generation Y – har gjort sitt intåg. Hur denna generation ser på sin arbetsmotivation och vilka faktorer de drivs av var utgångspunkten för denna studie. I studien deltog tio individer anställda inom en säljorganisation, där data samlades in med kvalitativa intervjuer. Genom en blandning av induktiv och deduktiv tematisk analys framkom ett resultat där åtta faktorer synliggjordes. Resultatet visade att den viktigaste motivationsfaktorn var behovet av arbetskollegor. Dessutom belystes vikten av ett tillgängligt ledarskap. Det framkom även att motivationen i stort påverkades av yttre faktorer såsom materiella och verbala belöningar, men också genom prestationen för att erhålla resultat. Att arbeta mot mål samt att utmanas och utvecklas var också betydelsefullt för motivationen. Samtidigt var behovet av frihet och kreativitet centralt. Dessa faktorer diskuterades utifrån olika motivationsteorier med vidare reflektioner om huruvida dessa är typiska för Generation Y.

  • 254.
    Aittamaa, Lina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ek, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    "Det är väl mest jag själv som är problemet"Berättelser om nedstämdhet2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskare har påpekat vikten av att förstå erfarenheter av att vara deprimerad eller nedstämd. I linje med detta syftade denna studie till att undersöka och belysa upplevelser av och reflektioner kring vardagen som nedstämd. Vidare var syftet att visa på kulturella resurser (diskurser) som finns tillgängliga för att berätta om en vardag som nedstämd. Vi genomförde halvstrukturerade intervjuer med personer som sökt till ett behandlingsprogram för depression, och som därmed definierat sig själva som nedstämda. Vi analyserade 28 intervjuer med hjälp av tematisk analys och diskursanalytiska metoder. Vi fann att informanterna använde sig av åtminstone fem olika typer av förklaringar som kretsade kring tidiga erfarenheter, personlighet, livskris, eget ansvar och biologi. Vidare fann vi att berättelserna kring nedstämdheten på flera sätt kunde beröra hur levnadssituationen hos informanterna såg ut. Ofta var dock levnadssituationen på samma gång helt frånvarande när det kom till att förklara nedstämdheten. Vårt resultat visade att individfokuserade diskurser var dominerande för att berätta om nedstämdhet, medan diskurser med fokus på yttre omständigheter, exempelvis livssituation, var marginaliserade.

  • 255.
    Ajdahi, Sami
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hansson, Erik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stolthet-statusmodellen och attityder till utbildning: En kvantitativ studie om hur gymnasielevers upplevelser av stolthet och social status korrelerar med deras attityder till utbildning2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research by Cheng, Tracy and Henrich (2010) has identified relationships betweentwo facets of pride and two different strategies to attain social status. These relationships havebeen conceptualized to a pride-status model. The model has been tested on an Americanpopulation and only in one study has it been tested in a Swedish context. Moreover, there areno previous studies on the possible relationship between the pride-status model and positiveattitudes towards post-secondary education. Therefore, the purposes of this study were toinvestigate if the pride-status model is valid on a Swedish population and investigate how thedifferent status strategies and facets of pride relate to positive attitudes towards post-secondary education. In order to examine this, a convenience sample consisting of 609students in high school preparing for post-secondary education rated subjective experiences offacets of pride, social status strategies and attitudes towards post-secondary education. Thestudents’ ratings were correlated with each other and the difference between the correlationswas examined. The findings show that the pride-status model is partly valid on a Swedishpopulation and that the status strategies correlated significantly with positive attitudes towardspost-secondary education. The facets of pride were significantly correlated with positiveattitudes towards post-secondary education to some extent. Possible explanations of thefindings are discussed together with a methodology discussion and proposals for futureresearch within the area of the pride-status model and attitudes towards education.

  • 256.
    Akbarian, Anahita
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Azhmi, Roya
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Derestey Deim, Irene
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    ”Såna är dom!”: En socialpsykologisk studie om skillnader mellan unga killars och tjejers stereotypa tänkande och fördomar.2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The way man divides his thoughts and sorts them into different boxes, is a cognitive activity which works alike for every person. We split peoplesexterior attributes and characteristic qualities into stereotypes or prejudicemind patterns and treat them along those.

    This study examines through a qualitative method what twelve respondents (six women and six men) between the ages 16-21, think about “intense” conceptions, which may show stereotype or prejudice ways of thinking. There spondents have been chosen regardless ethnic or economic background andare all enrolled in an upper secondary school located centrally in a Swedish big city.

    The purpose is to find out if there are any differences between how some young men and some young women spontaneously think in stereotypical orprejudice patterns. The result is interpreted on the basis of the social cognitive perspective and from out of theories about how people create schemes andprototypes to separate individuals and groups from each other.

    This study suggests that men more easily express their stereotypes and prejudice, while women more often seem to be careful with their stereotypes and prejudice, and end up redefining them. Further in the discussion, aspects involving how the society, if not becoming aware of stereotypes and prejudice, can affect the people representing those stereotypes.

  • 257.
    Akkanen, Anita
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Sundström, Malin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Effekter av en idrottspsykologisk utbildningsintervention för friidrottstränare: med fokus på tränares förhållningssätt och ungdomars motivation och upplevelse av tävlingsnervositet2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Aim: Since there is a lack of research based educational interventions concerning the relationship between coaches and young athletes, the aim of this study was to implement and examine the effects of sport psychology intervention for coaches in a track and field club. The research questions were: What are the effects of an educational intervention for coaches, with focus on a motivational climate, on: A) the coaches´ coaching approach B) their athletes´ goal orientation and C) their athletes´ perceived competitive anxiety?

    Method: The coach education stretched over two months and consisted of four two-hour lessons with focus on motivational climate, goal orientation and sport anxiety. Six coaches (three females, three males), aged 38-52 (M=44.33 years, SD=4.84) and their 59 athletes (27 males and 32 females) aged 12-14 (M=13.10 years, SD=0.82), participated in the study. A control group of 35 athletes (10 males and 25 females), of the same age (M=13.46 years, SD=0.70) and with similar demographic data, was also recruited. Potential effects of the intervention on the coaches and athletes were captured by measuring key constructs twice (pre-/post-test). Measures included a study-specific motivational climate questionnaire for the coaches and two validated questionnaires for athletes: the Achievement Goal Scale for Youth Sports (AGSYS; Cumming, Smith, Smoll & Grossbard 2008) and Sport Anxiety Scale-2 (SAS-2; Smith, Smoll, Cumming & Grossbard 2006). Descriptive statistics, repeated ANOVA and repeated MANOVA were used to analyze the data.

    Results: The analyses showed that the participating coaches experienced positive behavioral changes among themselves regarding support of autonomy, belonging, competence, and encouragement to task orientation, five months after the intervention had taken place (F (1, 5) = 6.49, p < .051,  = .56). The analyses did not reveal any statistically significant changes concerning neither the athletes´ goal orientation nor sport anxiety over time or compared to the control group.

    Conclusions:The study indicates a continuous need for longitudinal research based sport psychology interventions, especially towards individual sports since they, in many ways, differ from team sports. Future studies ought to complement with qualitative measurements which can bring deeper understanding of how, when and why changes occur. Despite loss effects in the athletes, the coaches´ perceived behavioral changes in themselves indicate that educational interventions are worthwhile in the long run.

     

    Key words: coaches, competitive anxiety, motivation, motivational climate interventions, youth

  • 258.
    Akob, Maher
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Centrala motiv till att arbeta i brottsofferjouren2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Intresset för ideellt arbete har ökat drastiskt de senaste åren. Brottsofferjouren är inget undantag; verksamheten fyller en medmänsklig funktion, det vill säga att lyssna. Rapport från brottsofferjouren visar på en konstant ökning av antalet vittnesstöd/stödpersoner. Syftet med uppsatsen var att ge inblick i blivande och verksamma vittnesstöds/stödpersonens livsvärld och ge en förståelse av de centrala motiven till att de arbetar i brottsofferjouren. Genom induktiv tematisk analys analyserades nio intervjuer. Resultatet visade att besvikelsen på samhället, bristen på meningsfull sysselsättning och sociala kontakter, ett hjälpbehov, personliga erfarenheter samt glädje kan vara motiv bakom det ideella arbetet i brottsofferjouren.

  • 259.
    Akrami, N
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Social categories and stereotypes: A case of intimacy?2003Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    In Study 1, stereotypic knowledge about the social category immigrants and its subcategories was examined and related to participants’ degree of explicit prejudice. Study 2 examined differences in implicit prejudice (negative evaluations of outgroups) as

  • 260.
    Akrami, N
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ekehammar, B
    Category and stereotype activation revisited2002In: Poster presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Savannah, GA, USA. January, 31 - february 2,, 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Study 1, we examined the knowledge of cultural stereotypes of immigrants and the national/ethnic categories associated with immigrants among high- and low-prejudice participants (N = 230). Stereotype priming occurs when a stereotypical word (e.g., lazy

  • 261.
    Akrami, N
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ekehammar, B
    Personality and Prejudice: A Person-centered versus a Variable-centered Approach2002In: In Rammstedt B; Riemann R (Eds.) 11th European Conference on Personality, Jena, Germany, June 21-25, 2002, Conference Program and Abstracts, Papst Science Publishers: Lengerich , 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Is there a relationship between people’s personalities and their degree of prejudice? This issue was studies using a variable-centered (the most often used method) and a person-centered statistical approach (not so often applied). The variable-centered ap

  • 262.
    Akrami, N
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ekehammar, B
    Araya, T
    Classical and modern racial prejudice: a study of attitudes toward immigrants in Sweden2000In: European Journal of Social Psychology, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 521-532Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In two studies we develop and validate a Classical-overt or direct-and a Modern-covert or subtle-Racial Prejudice Scale, concerning attitudes toward immigrants, for a Swedish (Scandinavian) context. Further, we examine whether these two forms of prejudice

  • 263.
    Akrami, Nazar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Decomposing prejudice: Identifying the basis of personality-prejudice relations2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: In two studies, aimed to examine the concept of generalized prejudice and the relationship between personality and prejudice, we found that attitudes toward various national and ethnic groups including a fictitious, an unknown, and a well-known group were significantly correlated (Study 1, N = 113). In Study 2 (N = 861), we found significant intercorrelations between four types of prejudice. More important, we made a theoretical and a statistical distinction between an abstract and a group-specific component of prejudice and found that personality variables explained a substantial proportion of the variance of the abstract part but a very small share of the group-specific component. The findings support the existence of a generalized prejudice tendency and a substantial relationship between personality and prejudice, and show that personality is related to prejudice at an abstract rather than specific level. The outcome is discussed in the light of the personality and social psychological explanations of prejudice.

  • 264.
    Akrami, Nazar
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Prejudice: The Interplay of Personality, Cognition, and Social Psychology2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Three main theoretical approaches to the study of the causation of prejudice can be distinguished within psychological research. The cognitive approach suggests that prejudice is a function of cognitive processes where stereotypic information about social groups, stored in memory, is automatically activated and affects people’s judgements and behavior toward members of the target group. The personality approach suggests that prejudice is a function of people’s personality characteristics. Finally, the social psychological approach emphasizes people’s group membership and group identification as the as major source of causation.

    Previous research has almost entirely focused on only one approach of causation at a time. The focus has also shifted periodically – with attention paid to one approach at each period of time. The present thesis is an attempt to integrate these approaches and suggests an integrative model where the relative contribution of each approach could be assessed. The underlying assumption is that all three approaches are meaningful and that prejudice is a complex phenomenon that is best explained by taking into account all approaches jointly.

    Examining the cognitive approach, Paper I revealed that people are knowledgeable of the cultural stereotypes and that stereotypic information is automatically activated and affects people’s judgments. Paper II (and Paper III) supported the personality approach and revealed that prejudice is highly related to primary personality characteristics and, in line with a central idea in this approach, different types of prejudice (ethnic prejudice, sexism, homophobia, and prejudice toward disabled people) are highly correlated. The results of Paper III revealed the importance of group membership and group identification, supporting the social psychology approach.

    The findings are discussed in relation to previous research and the necessity to integrate various approaches and disciplines to explain psychological phenomena in general and prejudice in particular. Also, implications of the findings for prejudice prevention are discussed.

  • 265.
    Akrami, Nazar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Category and Stereotype Activation Revisited: The Intimate Relation between Category and Stereotypes2004In: The 6th European Social Cognition Network Meeting, Lisboa, Portugal, 2004Conference paper (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    In Study 1 (N = 230), we found that the participants’ explicit prejudice was not related to their knowledge of cultural stereotypes of immigrants in Sweden, and that they associated the social category immigrants with the same national/ethnic categories. In Study 2 (N = 88), employing the category and stereotype words obtained in Study 1 as primes, we examined whether participants with varying degrees of explicit prejudice differed in their automatic stereotyping and implicit prejudice when primed with category or stereotypical words. In accord with our hypothesis, and contrary to previous findings, the results showed that people’s explicit prejudice did not affect their automatic stereotyping and implicit prejudice, neither in the category nor stereotype activation condition. Study 3 (N = 62), employing category priming using facial photographs of Swedes and Immigrants as primes, showed that participants’ implicit prejudice was not moderated by their explicit prejudice. The outcome is discussed in relation to previous research, the distinction between category and stereotype activation, and in terms of the associative strength between a social category and its related stereotypes.

  • 266.
    Akrami, Nazar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ethnic Prejudice: The Explanatory Power of Personality and Social Psychology2005In: the Conference on Personality, Group and Social Psychology, 2005, p. 7-20Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 267.
    Akrami, Nazar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Prejudice: A question of personality or social psychology, or both?2005In: International Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0020-7594, Vol. 39, no 5-6, p. 380-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper focuses on the personality and the social psychology approaches to explaining prejudice. In Study 1, examining the relation between Big-Five basic personality and generalised prejudice (a factor based on ethnic prejudice, sexism, homophobia, and negative attitudes to mentally disabled people), we found Openness to experience and Agreeableness to be the only basic personality variables to be related to generalised prejudice. In Study 2, in addition to basic personality and generalised prejudice we included Social Dominance Orientation (SDO) and Right-Wing Authoritarianism (RWA) and examined various causal models of the relationships among these variables. The best-fitting causal model showed that basic personality had no direct effect on generalised prejudice but an indirect effect transmitted through RWA and SDO. Study 3 examined whether prejudice (sexism) is better explained by personality variables (Big-Five, SDO, and RWA) or social group membership (gender). Based on the outcome of Study 2, causal models were proposed and tested. The results showed that the best causal model to explain prejudice was the one that included the personality as well as social group membership variables. This outcome, also supported by multiple regression analyses, suggests that an integration of the personality and the social psychology approaches to explaining prejudicial beliefs would be the best option. The findings in the three studies are discussed against the background of recent research based on the personality and social psychology approaches to the study of prejudice.

  • 268.
    Akrami, Nazar
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Prejudice: a reflection of core personality?2012In: The psychology of prejudice: interdisciplinary perspectives on contemporary issues / [ed] Dale W. Russell and Cristel Antonia Russell, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2012, p. 39-50Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Book description: Is prejudice hard-wired or socially acquired? Is stigmatising the Other inevitable? Do we purposefully draw on stereotypes to provoke prejudice from others? Can we confront and correct our biases? From the judicial system to the marketplace, from women's intentional self-sexualisation to prison exonerees' stigma-by-association, this book offers a compelling and wide-ranging discussion and review of the latest scientific evidence of what prejudice is, how it emerges, what it does, and how the discrimination and stigma that ensue can be reduced.

  • 269.
    Akrami, Nazar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Right-wing authoritarianism and social dominance orientation: Their roots in big five personality factors and facets2006In: Journal of Individual Differences, Vol. 27, p. 117-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extending previous research on the relation of Big-Five personality with right-wing authoritarianism and social dominance orientation, we examined the relationships of Big Five facet scores rather than factor scores. The results (N = 332) of stepwise regression analyses showed that Openness to Experience was the only significant predictor of RWA on factor level, whereas Values and Ideas were significant predictors on facet level. A similar analysis of SDO showed that Agreeableness and Openness to Experience contributed significantly to the prediction on factor level, whereas Tender-Mindedness and Values were the best significant predictors on facet level. The prediction based on facet scores showed to be more accurate that the prediction based on factor scores. A random split of the sample confirmed the robustness of the findings. The results are discussed against the background of the personality and the social psychology approaches to explaining individual differences in prejudice.

  • 270.
    Akrami, Nazar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Araya, Tadesse
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Category and stereotype activation revisited2006In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 47, no 6, p. 513-522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Study 1 (N = 230), we found that the participants' explicit prejudice was not related to their knowledge of cultural stereotypes of immigrants in Sweden, and that they associated the social category immigrants with the same national/ethnic categories. In Study 2 (N= 88), employing the category and stereotype words obtained in Study 1 as primes, we examined whether participants with varying degrees of explicit prejudice differed in their automatic stereotyping and implicit prejudice when primed with category or stereotypical words. In accord with our hypothesis, and contrary to previous findings, the results showed that people's explicit prejudice did not affect their automatic stereotyping and implicit prejudice, neither in the category nor stereotype priming condition. Study 3 (N = 62), employing category priming using facial photographs of Swedes and immigrants as primes, showed that participants' implicit prejudice was not moderated by their explicit prejudice. The outcome is discussed in relation to the distinction between category and stereotype priming and in terms of the associative strength between a social category and its related stereotypes.

  • 271.
    Akrami, Nazar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Bergh, Robin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Decomposing prejudice: Identifying the basis of personality-prejudice relations2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 272.
    Akrami, Nazar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Bergh, Robin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Decomposing prejudice: Identifying the Basis of Personality-Prejudice Relations2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 273.
    Akrami, Nazar
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bergh, Robin
    Uppsala University.
    Generalized Prejudice: Common and Specific Components2011In: Psychological Science, ISSN 0956-7976, E-ISSN 1467-9280, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 57-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research examined the personality-prejudice relationship and whether personality and social psychological factors predict different aspects of prejudice. We proposed a distinction between a common component of prejudice that is mainly explained by personality and a specific component mainly explained by situational and group-specific variables. Whereas the former consists of the shared variance of prejudice toward different targets, the latter taps the variance that is unique to a certain type of prejudice. Statistically separating the two components of prejudice toward four target groups, we found that personality variables (Agreeableness and Openness to Experience) explained a substantial portion of the variance of the common but a small share of the specific component. We also found group membership (gender) to be more closely associated with the specific than the common component of sexism. The results support our proposed distinction and suggest that personality and social psychological variables explain distinct aspects of prejudice.

  • 274.
    Akrami, Nazar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Bergh, Robin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Generalized prejudice: Common and specific components2011In: Psychological Science, ISSN 0956-7976, E-ISSN 1467-9280, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 57-59Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 275.
    Akrami, Nazar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bergh, Robin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Dahlstrand, Elisabet
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Malmsten, Sanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Prejudice: the person in the situation2009In: journal of Research in Personality, ISSN 0092-6566, E-ISSN 1095-7251, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 890-897Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In two experimental studies, we created situational conditions (social norm and social threat) that altered the level of expressed prejudice in two different directions (decrease or increase). Then, we examined the stability of the relation between personality and prejudice across conditions and found that personality variables were related to prejudice in a similar way regardless of variations in prejudice level and situations. Thus, whereas situational factors affect the level of people's prejudice, personality factors stand for the rank-order stability of prejudice. The outcome is discussed in relation to the current debate on whether prejudice is best explained by personality or situational factors.

  • 276. Akrami, Nazar
    et al.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Yang-Wallentin, Fan
    Personality and Social Psychology Factors Explaining Sexism2011In: Journal of Individual Differences, ISSN 1614-0001, E-ISSN 2151-2299, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 153-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has almost exclusively examined sexism (negative attitudes toward women) from either a personality or a social-psychology perspective. In two studies (N = 379 and 182, respectively), we combine these perspectives and examine whether sexism is best explained by personality (Big-Five factors, social dominance orientation, and right-wing authoritarianism) or by social-psychological (group membership and group identification) variables - or by a combination of both approaches. Causal modeling and multiple regression analyses showed that, with the present set of variables, sexism was best explained by considering the combined influence of both personality- and social-psychology constructs. The findings imply that it is necessary to integrate various approaches to explain prejudice.

  • 277.
    Akrami, Nazar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Yang-Wallentin, Fan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Personality and Social Psychology Factors Explaining Sexism2011In: Journal of Individual Differences, ISSN 1614-0001, E-ISSN 2151-2299, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 153-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has almost exclusively examined sexism (negative attitudes toward women) from either a personality or a social-psychology perspective. In two studies (N = 379 and 182, respectively), we combine these perspectives and examine whether sexism is best explained by personality (Big-Five factors, social dominance orientation, and right-wing authoritarianism) or by social-psychological (group membership and group identification) variables - or by a combination of both approaches. Causal modeling and multiple regression analyses showed that, with the present set of variables, sexism was best explained by considering the combined influence of both personality- and social-psychology constructs. The findings imply that it is necessary to integrate various approaches to explain prejudice.

  • 278.
    Akrami, Nazar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hedlund, Lars-Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Personality scale response latencies as self-schema indicators: The inverted-U effect revisited2007In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 611-618Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In two studies, we examined the relationship between participants’ responses to the items in the NEO-PI Big Five personality inventory and their response latencies to the same items. Extending previous research, we used polynomial regression analysis to examine if the relation between participants’ position on each of the Big Five factors and their average response latencies (regarded as self-schema indicators) across items on the same factors is characterised by a curvilinear (inverted-U) trend or not. The analyses in both studies yielded consistent support for a quadratic (curvilinear) relation between personality scores and response latencies for all Big Five factors. Those scoring high or low on a factor responded faster than those scoring around the mean, which lends support to the notion that the relation between personality scores and response latencies is characterised by an inverted-U effect. The results are discussed in the light of previousattempts to examining the inverted-U effect as self-schema evidence. Further, we discuss the potential of using response latency data to improve precision in personality assessment and prediction.

  • 279.
    Aktaş, Vezir
    Hacettepe University.
    Genç akademisyenlerin yeni kurulan psikoloji bölümlerinde karşılaşabilecekleri sorunlar ve çözüm önerileri (The Problems And Solutions Suggestions That The Young Academicians From Recently Established Psychology Departments May Face)2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 280.
    Aktaş, Vezir
    et al.
    Hacettepe University.
    Cirhinlioğlu, Fatma
    Özkan, Bengi Öner
    Türk örnekleminde avukat olan ile olmayanların adalete ve Türkiye’deki hukuk sistemine ilişkin sosyal temsilleri (Social representations of justice system among lawyers vs. non lawyers in a Turkish sample)2004In: Hacettepe Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi (Hacettepe University-Journal of Faculty of Letters), ISSN 1301-5737, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 61-80Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 281.
    Aktaş, Vezir
    et al.
    Hacettepe University.
    Coştur, Recai
    Sorumluluk Yüklemesi Çerçevesinde Öfke ve Sempati Duyguları ile Yardım Etme ve Saldırganlık Davranışları (Judgments of Responsibility, Feelings of Anger/Sympathy and Social Conduct of Help-giving and Aggression)2007In: Türk Psikoloji Dergisi (Turkish Journal of Psychology), Vol. 22, no 59, p. 15-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study was aimed to test in the domains of prosocial (help giving) and antisocial (aggression) behavior in a Turkish sample, consisting of 887 Hacettepe University students (463 males and 424 females). The results revealed that the social conduct theory within the perspective of judgments of responsibility was partially confirmed in the Turkish sample. The findings implied that both the help giving and the aggressive behaviors could be taken into consideration in the same conceptual framework. Generally, the expected cognition-emotion-behavior sequence was observed; hence, the attributional thoughts of responsibility/controllability determined the emotional reactions of anger and sympathy and these emotional reactions, in turn, directly influenced helping and aggressive behaviors. Indeed, for aggression, the results also indicated that cognitions of perceived controllability had only an indirect effect on aggressive behavior mediated by the emotions of anger and sympathy; there was no direct influence of cognitions on behavioral reactions. Hence, the results partially confirmed the cognition-emotion-behavior theory of social conduct for aggression in which an additional direct influence of cognitions on behavioral reactions was also present as postulated by Weiner (1995). On the other hand, for help giving, the findings were consistent with the literature confirming the theory which proposed that thoughts determined the feelings of anger and sympathy and these feelings, in turn, determined the actions.

  • 282.
    Aktaş, Vezir
    et al.
    Hacettepe University.
    Deniz, Şahin
    Hacettepe University.
    Aydın, Orhan
    Hacettepe University.
    Saldırgan Olan ve Olmayan Çocuklarda Düşmanca Niyet Yükleme Yanlılığının Cinsiyete Bağlı Olarak İncelenmesi (Hostile attributional bias in aggressive and nonaggressive children)2005In: Türk Psikoloji Dergisi (Turkish Journal of Psychology), ISSN 1300-4433, Vol. 20, no 55, p. 43-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the hostile attributional biases of aggressive and nonaggressive boys and girls among primary school children. The status of aggressiveness was assessed with a peer nomination instrument for a sample of 529 (230 girls and 293 boys) fifth grade children. Participants were presented with 11 ambiguous pictures with negative outcomes. For each picture a questionnaire with multiple choice answers was administered to measure the child's tendency to attribute personal/impersonal causality, positive/negative intentions and hostile attributional bias. A 2 (aggressive/nonaggressive) x 2 (sex) ANOVA was used to analyse the data. Results indicated that aggressive children attributed more personal causality, negative intentions to the ambiguous negative outcomes represented in the pictures than to the nonaggressive children. In relation to different forms of aggression such as physical, passive and the verbal, the findings showed some variability. Physically aggressive children displayed more hostile attribution than the nonaggressive ones. On the other hand, the form of passive aggressiveness was not significant in relation to the aggressiveness/nonaggressiveness status. On verbal aggression form, aggressive children indicated a propensity toward hostile attribution when compared to the nonaggressive types. A main effect of sex was obtained; boys attributed more personal causality, more negative intention and hostile attributional bias when compared to girls. All of the results were in line with literature.

  • 283.
    Aktaş, Vezir
    et al.
    Hacettepe University.
    Güvenç, Gülden
    Kız ve erkek ergenlerde saldırgan ve olumlu sosyal davranışlar ile yaş, ilişkisel bağlam ve kişiler-arası duyarlılık arasındaki ilişkiler (Relations Between Age, Parental and Peer Attachment, Interpersonal Reactivity, Aggressive and Prosocial Behavior of Adolescents)2006In: Hacettepe Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi (Hacettepe University-Journal of Faculty of Letters), Vol. 23, no 2, p. 233-264Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 284.
    Aktaş, Vezir
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Tepe, Yeliz Kındap
    Cumhuriyet UniversitySivasTurkey.
    Persson, Roland S.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Investigating Turkish university students’ attitudes towards refugees in a time of Civil War in neighboring Syria2018In: Current psychology (New Brunswick, N.J.), ISSN 1046-1310, E-ISSN 1936-4733Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thousands of refugees have immigrated to Turkey because of the current Civil War in neighboring Syria. This is causing tensions between refugees and locals. These increasingly negative attitudes towards the incoming victims of conflict are of particular interest. The present study, therefore, aimed at determining the premises of the emergence of such negative attitudes. The research sample consisted of university students who all studied at various faculties at Cumhuriyet University in the Turkish province of Sivas. Data were collected by the Attitude Scale Towards Refugees, the Patriotism Attitude Scale, the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, and the Cirhinlioğlu Religiosity Scale. Data were analyzed by Independent Sample t-tests as well as using Stepwise Regression Analyses. Results showed that the feeling of empathy correlated negatively with negative attitudes towards refugees, while blind patriotism, religiosity, and having nationalist/conservative orientations, correlated positively. Men were found to be more negative than women. The feeling of empathy was the most prominent factor in predicting the nature of attitudes towards refugees. Religious doctrine and distancing oneself from conservative and patriotic perspectives appeared to be effective in potentially preventing the development of negative attitudes. In conclusion, research results are discussed in the light of relevant literature.

  • 285.
    Akterhag Lyxell, Kajsa
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Att åka berg-och-dalbana utan säkerhetsbälte: Upplevelser av att leva tillsammans med en partner med bipolär sjukdom2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bipolär sjukdom är en kronisk psykiatrisk sjukdom som karaktäriseras av kraftiga affektiva svängningar. Att vara nära anhörig och informell vårdgivare till en person med bipolär sjukdom associeras med en påtaglig börda. Rapporter visar att 46% av informella vårdgivare uppvisar depressiv problematik. Studiens syfte var att undersöka hur partners till personer med bipolär sjukdom upplever sin livssituation. En inledande öppen enkät identifierade urvalet som bestod av sex personer. I steg två genomfördes semistrukturerade djupintervjuer med deltagarna. Analysen visade fem teman: långsiktiga konsekvenser, emotionell och kommunikativ begränsning, egna känsloreaktioner, negativa och positiva beteenden samt framtidssyn. Resultatet visade en substantiell subjektiv samt objektiv börda upplevd av deltagarna, som oberoende av varandra delade samstämmiga känsloupplevelser och hur stigmatisering påverkade dem negativt i de copingstrategier de utvecklat med tiden. Studiens resultat bekräftar tidigare forskning men visade även på en brist på förståelse för gruppen.

  • 286.
    Al Azawei, Shaimah Jasem
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    The roles that cultural identity and type of school plays for ethnic harassment om immigrant youths2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is about the roles that the cultural background and type of schools play for being exposed to ethnic harassment as an immigrant. I use data from a longitudinal study called the Seven Schools Project at Örebro University. The participants were 1602 youths, 760 boys and 838 girls, and these participants were between 13-16 years of age (grades 7 through 9 in the Swedish comprehensive schools). The most important finding in this study was that the association between cultural identity and being exposed to ethnic harassment depended on the type of school the immigrants attended to. In schools with few immigrants, immigrant youths seemed to differentiate between their original cultural identity and a Swedish identity, and in these schools exposure to ethnic harassment was higher if the youths adopted a traditional cultural identity. In schools with many immigrants, by contrast, youths did not seem to differentiate between the original cultural and a Swedish identity. In these schools, it did not matter what cultural identity the students had -  they were both related to higher ethnic harassment. Finally, I found no differences between the genders with regard to exposure to ethnic harassment.

  • 287.
    Al, Cicek
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    En psykometrisk utvärdering av det arbetspsykologiska testet Predicting Job Performance2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett psykologiskt test används främst inom utbildningssammanhang och kliniska sammanhang, men även inom rekrytering, urval och organisationsutveckling. Det finns idag ett flertal personlighets- och begåvningstest som mäter olika aspekter som kan vara relevanta för en organisation. Predicting Job Performance, PJP, som har sin utgångspunkt i femfaktormodellen, är utvecklat av Psykologiförlaget AB och består av två delar som mäter olika dimensioner av personlighet och begåvning. I denna studie har psykometriska beräkningar utförts för att utvärdera instrumentets reliabilitet samt validitet, främst genom test-retest-metoden. Undersökningsdeltagare var 49 psykologistudenter vid Stockholms Universitet. Majoriteten av skalorna var starkt positivt korrelerade med varandra och uppvisade en tillfredsställande reliabilitet. Resultatet av test-retest-undersökningen visade att de båda delarna av PJP hade tillförlitlig reliabilitet gällande precision och stabilitet över tid. Korrelation mellan personlighetsdelen och kapacitetsdelen undersöktes och visade på god divergent validitet mellan de två deltesterna. Även inlärningsförmågan på den tillhörande kapacitetsdelen undersöktes och visade signifikant inlärning mellan testtillfällena. PJP uppvisar sammantaget på goda psykometriska egenskaper.

  • 288.
    Al, Cicek
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    En turkisk version av det arbetspsykologiska testet Predicting Job Performance2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Personlighetstest avser att mäta olika personlighetsdrag, olika egenskaper som formar individens personlighet. Personlighetstestet Predicting Job Performance, PJP, bygger på den så kallade ”femfaktormodellen” inom personlighetspsykologin och på studier av hur generell problemlösnings-förmåga påverkar arbetsprestation. PJP är ett arbetspsykologiskt instrument för användning i urval av arbetssökande. I föreliggande studie har personlighets-delen i PJP översatts till turkiska med syftet att utforska en turkisk version av instrumentets reliabilitet samt begrepps-validitet. Undersökningsdeltagare var 71 turkisktalande personer bosatta i Sverige och 10 turkisktalande personer bosatta i Istanbul. Resultaten har jämförts med tre andra länder, Sverige, Norge och Finland. Resultatet visar att den turkiska versionen har tillfredsställande inre konsistens (Cronbach alpha) men att de antagna oberoende skalorna är högt korrelerade med varandra. En faktoranalys visar att den antagna faktorstrukturen inte går att replikera i denna studies urval. Den turkiska versionen av instrumentet bör utvärderas ytterligare för att kunna användas vid urvalssammanhang.

  • 289.
    Al jaderi, Maryam
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Ungdomars sociala relationer på internet och i verkligheten2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 290.
    Al Nima, Ali
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg.
    Rosenberg, Patricia
    Archer, Trevor
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science. Univ Gothenburg, Dept Psychol, S-40020 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Garcia, Danilo
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg.
    Anxiety, Affect, Self-Esteem, and Stress: Mediation and Moderation Effects on Depression2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 9, p. e73265-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Mediation analysis investigates whether a variable (i.e., mediator) changes in regard to an independent variable, in turn, affecting a dependent variable. Moderation analysis, on the other hand, investigates whether the statistical interaction between independent variables predict a dependent variable. Although this difference between these two types of analysis is explicit in current literature, there is still confusion with regard to the mediating and moderating effects of different variables on depression. The purpose of this study was to assess the mediating and moderating effects of anxiety, stress, positive affect, and negative affect on depression. Methods: Two hundred and two university students (males = 93, females = 113) completed questionnaires assessing anxiety, stress, self-esteem, positive and negative affect, and depression. Mediation and moderation analyses were conducted using techniques based on standard multiple regression and hierarchical regression analyses. Main Findings: The results indicated that (i) anxiety partially mediated the effects of both stress and self-esteem upon depression, (ii) that stress partially mediated the effects of anxiety and positive affect upon depression, (iii) that stress completely mediated the effects of self-esteem on depression, and (iv) that there was a significant interaction between stress and negative affect, and between positive affect and negative affect upon depression. Conclusion: The study highlights different research questions that can be investigated depending on whether researchers decide to use the same variables as mediators and/or moderators.

  • 291.
    Alaa Josef, Dilan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Rahman, Sivan
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Upplevd arbetsmotivation och arbetstillfredsställelse: Skiljer sig upplevelsen beroende på kön och ålder?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Tidigare studier har visat att kvinnor upplever högre arbetstillfredsställelse än män samt att äldre medarbetare är mer motiverade till arbete än yngre. Syftet med denna undersökning var att undersöka om det fanns några skillnader mellan anställdas upplevda arbetsmotivation och arbetstillfredsställelse beroende på deras kön och ålder. Deltagare var 97 anställda från tre olika arbetsplatser som utgjordes av en grundskola, ett industriföretag samt en bilfirma i södra Sverige. 53 av deltagarna var män och 44 kvinnor. Åldersgrupperna bestod av 48 yngre (18-40 år) och 49 äldre (41-65 år) deltagare. Arbetsmotivation mättes med Basic Psychological Needs Scales och bestod av delskalorna autonomi, kompetens och samhörighet. Arbetstillfredsställelse mättes med Minnesota Job Satisfaction Questionnaire och i form av inre, yttre samt generell tillfredsställelse. Resultatet visade signifikanta skillnader mellan åldersgrupperna gällande både arbetsmotivation och arbetstillfredsställelse men inga signifikanta skillnader mellan män och kvinnor.

  • 292.
    Alabaf, Setareh
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology,Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gillberg, Christopher
    University of Gothenburg, Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology,Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lundström, Sebastian
    University of Gothenburg, Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology,Gothenburg, Sweden. Center for Ethics, Law and Mental health (CELAM), Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lichtenstein, Paul
    Karolinska Institute, Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kerekes, Nora
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Råstam, Maria
    University of Gothenburg, Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Gothenburg, Sweden. Lund University, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Lund, Sweden..
    Anckarsäter, Henrik
    University of Gothenburg, Center for Ethics, Law and Mental health (CELAM), Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Correction to: Physical health in children with neurodevelopmental disorders.2019In: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 96-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake in Fig. 2 part labels, the label "d" was incorrectly labelled as "c" and the subsequent labels should be corrected as d, e, and f. The corrected Fig. 2 is given below.

  • 293.
    Alabaf, Setareh
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gillberg, Christopher
    University of Gothenburg, Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lundström, Sebastian
    University of Gothenburg, Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Gothenburg, Sweden. Center for Ethics, Law and Mental health (CELAM), Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lichtenstein, Paul
    Karolinska Institute, Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kerekes, Nora
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Råstam, Maria
    University of Gothenburg, Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Gothenburg, Sweden. Lund University, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Lund, Sweden.
    Anckarsäter, Henrik
    University of Gothenburg, Center for Ethics, Law and Mental health (CELAM), Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Physical health in children with neurodevelopmental disorders.2019In: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 83-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With increasing numbers of children being diagnosed with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) attention has been drawn to these children's physical health. We aimed to identify the prevalence of defined physical problems (epilepsy, migraine, asthma, cancer, diabetes, psoriasis, lactose intolerance, celiac disease, diarrhea, constipation, daytime enuresis, encopresis) in a nationwide population of 9- and 12-year-old twins subdivided into those with and without indications of NDDs. Parents of 28,058 twins participated in a well-validated telephone interview regarding their children's mental health and answered questions about their physical problems. The results indicate a high rate of physical problems in children with NDDs, particularly in those with indications of the presence of combinations of several NDDs.

  • 294.
    Alaceva, Carolina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Rusu, Lazar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Barriers in achieving business/IT alignment in a large Swedish company: What we have learned?2015In: Computers in human behavior, ISSN 0747-5632, E-ISSN 1873-7692, Vol. 51, p. 715-728Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are still many organizations that face difficulties in achieving business/IT alignment. Prior research has focused on the positive impact of alignment on overall business performance, while the barriers in achieving business/IT alignment were largely unexplored, especially in regards to the social dimension that refers to the people involved in alignment. Therefore this research is focusing on identifying and investigating the barriers that inhibit achieving social dimension of business/IT alignment in large organizations. A case study is conducted in one of the largest Swedish companies. The data is collected through seven semi-structured interviews, field-notes and the use of company's documents that were thematically analyzed. The research presents a unique case of 19 business/IT alignment barriers of social dimension that have been limited so far and which contribute to the business/IT alignment field. The main findings showed that low understanding of counterpart's environment; poor communication; unclear specifications; limited cooperation and lack of mutual commitment and support inhibits the achievement of alignment between business and IT domains on the social dimension. The results could support the researchers to further elaborate frameworks on how to mitigate social barriers in order to achieve a better business/IT alignment. Besides, the discussed barriers can be of practical use for other organizations trying to achieve business/IT alignment with a focus on the social dimension.

  • 295. Alaerts, Maaike
    et al.
    Ceulemans, Shana
    Forero, Diego
    Moens, Lotte N.
    De Zutter, Sonia
    Heyrman, Lien
    Lenaerts, An-Sofie Lenaerts
    Norrback, Karl-Fredrik
    Umeå universitet.
    Goossens, Dirk
    De Rijk, Peter
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet.
    Del-Favero, Jurgen
    Detailed analysis of the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) shows no association with bipolar disorder in the Northern Swedish population2009In: American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, ISSN 1552-4841, Vol. 150B, no 4, p. 585-592Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Through active reuptake of serotonin into presynaptic neurons, the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) plays an important role in regulating serotonin concentrations in the brain, and it is the site of binding for tricyclic antidepressants and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Therefore it has been hypothesized that this transporter is involved in the etiology of bipolar (BP) disorder. Inconsistent association study results for the SLC6A4 gene encoding 5-HTT reported in literature emphasize the need for more systematic and detailed analyses of this candidate gene. We performed an extensive analysis of SLC6A4 on DNA of 254 BPI patients and 364 control individuals from a Northern Swedish isolated population. This analysis consisted of a HapMap LD-based association study including three widely investigated polymorphisms (5-HTTVNTR, 5-HTTLPR, and rs3813034), a copy-number variation (CNV) analysis and a mutation analysis of the complete coding sequence and the 3'-UTR of SLC6A4. No single marker showed statistically significant association with BPI, nor did any of the haplotypes. In the mutation analysis 13 novel variants were detected, including 2 amino acid substitutions M389V and 1587L, but these are probably not implicated in risk for BP. No deletions or duplications were detected in the CNV analysis. We conclude that variation in the SLC6A4 gene or its regulatory regions does not contribute to the susceptibility for BP disorder in the Northern Swedish population.

  • 296. Alaerts, Maaike
    et al.
    Ceulemans, Shana
    Forero, Diego
    Moens, Lotte N.
    De Zutter, Sonia
    Heyrman, Lien
    Lenaerts, An-Sofie
    Norrback, Karl-Fredrik
    De Rijk, Peter
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Goossens, Dirk
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Del-Favero, Jurgen
    Support for NRG1 as a Susceptibility Factor for Schizophrenia in a Northern Swedish Isolated Population2009In: Archives of General Psychiatry, ISSN 0003-990X, E-ISSN 1538-3636, Vol. 66, no 8, p. 828-837Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Neuregulin 1 (NRG1), a growth factor involved in neurodevelopment, myelination, neurotransmitter receptor expression, and synaptic plasticity, first joined the list of candidate genes for schizophrenia when a 7-marker haplotype at the 5' end of the gene (Hap(ICE)) was shown to be associated with the disorder in the Icelandic population. Since then, more genetic and functional evidence has emerged, which supports a role for NRG1 in the development of schizophrenia.

    Objective: To determine the contribution of NRG1 to susceptibility for schizophrenia in a northern Swedish isolated population.

    Design: Detailed linkage disequilibrium (LD)-based patient- control association study. This is the first study to type and analyze the 7 Hap(ICE) markers and a set of 32 HapMap tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that represents variants with a minor allele frequency of at least 1% and fully characterizes the LD structure of the 5' part of NRG1.

    Setting: Outpatient and inpatient hospitals.

    Participants: A total of 486 unrelated patients with schizophrenia and 514 unrelated control individuals recruited from a northern Swedish isolated population.

    Main Outcome Measures: Association between markers and disease.

    Results: Analysis of the Hap(ICE) markers showed the association of a 7-marker and 2-microsatellite haplotype, different from the haplotypes associated in the Icelandic population and overrepresented in northern Swedish control individuals. Subsequently, a more detailed analysis that included all 37 genotyped SNPs was performed by investigating haplotypic association, dependent and independent of LD block structure. We found significant association with 5 SNPs located in the second intron of NRG1 (.007 <= P <= .04). Also, 2-, 3-, and 4-SNP windows that comprise these SNPs were associated (P < 3 x 10(-4)). One protective haplotype (0% vs 1.8%; P < 5 x 10(-5)) and 1 disease risk-causing haplotype (40.4% vs 34.9%, P=.02) were defined.

    Conclusion: The NRG1 gene contributes to the susceptibility for schizophrenia in the northern Swedish population.

  • 297.
    Alagic, Zlatan
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Högskolestudenters samband mellan self-efficacy och fysisk aktivitet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 298.
    Alaie, Iman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Behavioral activation: Distinctive features2010In: Clinical Psychologist, ISSN 1328-4207, E-ISSN 1742-9552, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 27-28Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 299.
    Alaie, Iman
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Frick, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Marteinsdottir, I
    Hartvig, P
    Tillfors, M
    Eriksson, E
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Serotonin Synthesis Rate and the Tryptophan Hydroxylase-2 G-703T Polymorphism in Social Anxiety Disorder2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 300.
    Alarcon, Soledad
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Hallberg, Emma
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Upplevelsen av ADHD-problematik: En jämförande studie om ungdomars och föräldrars perspektiv2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a well-known problem in adolescents. This study compares parents’ experiences of adolescents ADHD problems and adolescents own perceptions of themselves and their parents' reactions. Existing data from a research project were used where the participants were young people from 7

    th grade to 1 year of high school. The results showed that parents who give high estimates of their adolescents ADHD symptoms differ greatly from other parents both concerning the adolescent’s behavior and their own behavior. Adolescents differ in experienced of own behavior where adolescents with ADHD problems had difficulties. They differed, however not in the experiences of their parents' behaviors. The study found that parents and adolescents have different perspectives and that ADHD-related problems do not seem to be crucial to how adolescents experience their parents.

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