Change search
Refine search result
3456789 251 - 300 of 435
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 251.
    Lönnqvist, Susanna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Applications of human skin in vitro2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Chronic wounds are a substantial problem in today’s health care and place significant strains on the patient. Successful modelling of the wound healing process is pivotal for the advancement of wound treatment research. Wound healing is a dynamic and multifactorial process involving all constituents of the skin. The progression from haemostasis and inflammation to proliferation of epidermal  keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts, and final scar maturation can be halted and result in a chronic wound that fails to re-epithelialise. The wound healing process constitutes an example of dynamic reciprocity in tissue where cellular changes take place on cues from the extracellular matrix and vice versa when tissue homeostasis is disturbed. The extracellular matrix provides a structural context for the resident cells and the epidermal keratinocytes, and a functioning interplay between the two tissue compartments is crucial for successful wound healing to take place. Work included in this thesis has applied viable human full thickness skin in vitro to investigate the re-epithelialisation process and barrier function of intact skin.The use of full thickness skin in vitro can take into account the contextual aspect of the process where the epidermal keratinocytes are activated and obtain a migratory phenotype, and are continuously dependent on the cues from the extracellular matrix and support of the dermis. When utilising skin for studies on re-epithelialisation, circular standardised full thickness wounds were created and cultured  for up to four weeks in tissue culture. In paper I, the organisation of a thick neoepidermis was investigated in the in vitro wound healing model when resident cells were provided with a porous suspended three dimensional gelatin scaffold. In paper II we investigated the use of a fluorescent staining conventionally used for proliferation studies to facilitate the tracing of transplanted epidermal cells in in vitro  wounds, in order to improve and expand the use of the model. In paper III the model was utilised to investigate the treatment approach of acidification of wounds to evaluate the suitability of such intervention in regards to keratinocyte function and re-epithelialisation. Studies on re-epithelialisation with the aid of the in vitro wound healing model provided insight in neoepidermal structure with porous gelatin scaffolding in the wound, a novel methodological approach to tracing cells and response to constrained wound healing environment. In paper IV, intact human skin was evaluated for modelling the cytotoxic response after exposure to a known irritant compound. To study barrier function, intact skin was exposed to irritants by restricting exposure topically, and full thickness skin in vitro was found suitable for modelling cytotoxicity responses. Employing human full thickness skin in vitro makes use of the actual target tissue of interest with epidermal and dermal cells, and full barrier function.

  • 252.
    Magnusson, Ulf
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    21. Overview of Infectious Diseases and the Wildlife-Livestock Interface2012In: Ecology and Animal Health / [ed] Leif Norrgren and Jeffrey Levengood, Uppsala: Baltic University Press , 2012, 1, p. 183-185Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 253. Makita, Kohei
    et al.
    Sina, Sylvie Kouamé
    Lindahl, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Desissa, Fanta
    Computation of Risk Assessment Modelling2019In: Encyclopedia of Food Security and Sustainability: Volume 3: Sustainable Food Systems and Agriculture / [ed] David Barling, Jessica Fanzo, Elsevier, 2019, p. 371-380Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The demand for risk assessment to evaluate the safety of foods is increasing in low and middle income countries, but almost no textbook on risk assessment modelling for informal market is available. This chapter introduces practical steps for the risk assessors to tackle with such a situation.

  • 254. Mansa, S.
    et al.
    Palmér, E.
    Grondahl, C.
    Lonaas, L.
    Nyman, Görel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Long-term treatment with carprofen of 805 dogs with osteoarthritis2007In: The Veterinary Record, ISSN 0042-4900, E-ISSN 2042-7670, Vol. 160, no 13, p. 427-430Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pain-relieving effect of carprofen and tolerance to the drug were investigated in 805 dogs that were lame as a result of osteoarthritis. The dogs were of different breeds, ages and bodyweights and of both sexes, and were selected from 51 veterinary clinics. Each dog was treated orally by its owner with 4 mg/kg carprofen for 84 consecutive days. Twenty-four dogs were removed from the study because of side effects, and 55 left the study for reasons unrelated to the treatment. The condition of the dogs and the benefit of the treatment were evaluated by the veterinary surgeons and the owners after 14 days, and at the end of the period of treatment, when 194 of the dogs (26-7 per cent) were no longer lame, and 357 (49-2 per cent) had improved. The period for which the dogs had been lame before entering the study significantly (P < 0.01) affected the results and the rate of improvement. Too much exercise during the 84 days of treatment caused some dogs to relapse.

  • 255. Mared, Malin
    et al.
    Catchpole, Brian
    Kämpe, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Fall, Tove
    Evaluation of circulating concentrations of glucose homeostasis biomarkers, progesterone, and growth hormone in healthy Elkhounds during anestrus and diestrus2012In: American Journal of Veterinary Research, ISSN 0002-9645, E-ISSN 1943-5681, Vol. 73, no 2, p. 242-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate whether circulating concentrations of biomarkers of glucose homeostasis, progesterone, and growth hormone in healthy female Elkhounds differ during diestrus and anestrus and to compare those findings with data from dogs of other breeds.

    Animals: 22 healthy female dogs of Elkhound breeds (known to have a high incidence of diestrus-associated diabetes mellitus) and 18 healthy female non-Elkhound dogs.

    Procedures: For each dog, a blood sample (12 mL) was collected once during anestrus and once 2 to 8 weeks after cessation of estrual bleeding. Serum or whole blood samples were analyzed for glucose, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, C-peptide, fructosamine, and glycated hemoglobin A1c concentrations. Homeostasis model assessments (HOMAs) of pancreatic beta-cell function and insulin secretion were calculated.

    Results: In Elkhounds, C-peptide concentration and the HOMA for beta-cell function (markers of insulin secretion) were higher in samples obtained during diestrus, compared with findings in samples obtained during anestrus. The HOMA for insulin sensitivity was lower (albeit not significantly) during diestrus than it was during anestrus in Elkhounds. Markers of insulin secretion and sensitivity were similar during anestrus and diestrus in the dogs of other breeds. Serum progesterone concentrations were greater during diestrus than during anestrus in Elkhounds and non-Elkhound dogs. All other variables did not differ between diestrus and anestrus within or between the 2 breed groupings.

    Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: Results provided evidence that circulating insulin concentrations during diestrus are higher than those during anestrus in Elkhounds, which could contribute to development of diestrus-associated diabetes mellitus.

  • 256. Marincevic-Zuniga, Yanara
    et al.
    Zachariadis, Vasilios
    Cavelier, Lucia
    Castor, Anders
    Barbany, Gisela
    Forestier, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Medical and Clinical Genetics.
    Fogelstrand, Linda
    Heyman, Mats
    Abrahamsson, Jonas
    Lonnerholm, Gudmar
    Nordgren, Ann
    Syvanen, Ann-Christine
    Nordlund, Jessica
    PAX5-ESRRB is a recurrent fusion gene in B-cell precursor pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia2016In: Haematologica, ISSN 0390-6078, E-ISSN 1592-8721, Vol. 101, no 1, p. E20-E23Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 257.
    Martínez-Pastor, Felipe
    et al.
    Department of Molecular Biology (Cell Biology), Universidad de León, Spain; INDEGSAL, Universidad de León, León, Spain.
    Álvarez, Mercedes
    INDEGSAL, Universidad de León, León, Spain; Department of Medicine, Surgery and Veterinary Anatomy, Universidad de León, León, Spain.
    Guerra, Camino
    Department of Animal Health and Anatomy, Veterinary Faculty, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Chamorro, César A
    Department of Medicine, Surgery and Veterinary Anatomy, Universidad de León, León, Spain; Department of Animal Health and Anatomy, Veterinary Faculty, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Anel-López, Luis
    INDEGSAL, Universidad de León, León, Spain; Department of Medicine, Surgery and Veterinary Anatomy, Universidad de León, León, Spain.
    de Paz, Paulino
    Department of Molecular Biology (Cell Biology), Universidad de León, Spain; INDEGSAL, Universidad de León, León, Spain.
    Anel, Luis
    INDEGSAL, Universidad de León, León, Spain; Department of Medicine, Surgery and Veterinary Anatomy, Universidad de León, León, Spain.
    Alvarez-Rodriguez, Manuel
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. INDEGSAL, Universidad de León, León, Spain; Department of Animal Health and Anatomy, Veterinary Faculty, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Extender osmolality, glycerol and egg yolk on the cryopreservation of epididymal spermatozoa for gamete banking of the Cantabric Chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica parva)2019In: Theriogenology, ISSN 0093-691X, E-ISSN 1879-3231, Vol. 125, p. 109-114, article id S0093-691X(18)30573-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Germplasm banking is a key technology enabling the ex-situ conservation of wild species. However, cryopreservation protocols must be tested to assure the applicability of the banked material. The objective of this study was defining a range of parameters for the composition of a semen extender for Cantabrian chamois epididymal spermatozoa (post-mortem collection). The freezing extender was based in a TES-Tris-fructose buffer, modifying its composition in three experiments: Osmolality of the buffer (320, 380 or 430 mOsm/kg, 8% glycerol, 15% egg yolk), glycerol (4 or 8%, 430 mOsm/kg, 15% egg yolk), egg yolk (10 or 15%, 430 mOsm/kg, 4% glycerol). Sperm was extended at 100 mill. spermatozoa/ml, cooled at 5 °C and frozen at -20 °C/min. Sperm quality was assessed pre and post-thawing (CASA, HOS test, abnormal forms, cytoplasmic droplets, and viability and acrosomal damage by flow cytometry). Freezability was good overall, with total motility of 65.5% ± 2.4 initial and 55.8% ± 2.4 post-thawing. The extenders affected the post-thaw sperm quality marginally. Whereas osmolalities and glycerol concentrations seemed not to differ, 430 mOsm/kg and 4% glycerol might be preferred. Egg yolk concentrations only differed on sperm velocity (VCL: 84.0 ± 6.7 μm/s in 10% vs. 70.7 ± 6.2 μm/s in 15%, P < 0.05). Our results suggest a good cryotolerance of chamois epididymal spermatozoa, with a preferred extender composition of hyperosmotic buffer, glycerol in the 4% range and lower egg yolk (10% range) than other ruminants.

  • 258.
    Mascher, Henrik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Tannerstedt, Jörgen
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Nya aspekter på aminosyrors roll i den muskulära anpassningen till träning2006In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 56-60Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattningsvis kan sägas att tillgängligheten av protein/aminosyror är nödvändig för den muskulära anpassningen till träning vid både styrke- och uthållighetsträning. Betydligt fler studier har undersökt effekterna på styrketräning, men vid båda typer av träning är dock kunskaperna om de bakomliggande mekanismerna ännu så länge små. Genom den omfattande forskning som pågår inom området kommer med all säkerhet de molekylära och cellulära förändringar som sker i samband med träning att kartläggas inom en relativt snar framtid. Därmed öppnas nya möjligheter att förbättra och optimera träningen, t.ex. genom kombination av olika typer av aktiviteter (uthållighet och styrketräning). Denna kunskap är också avgörande för att förstå och eventuellt kunna påverka träningseffekten genom förändringar i nutritionens sammansättning.

  • 259. McGreevy, Paul Damien
    et al.
    Sundin, Maria
    Karlsteen, Magnus
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Ternström, Johanna
    Hawson, Lesley
    Richardsson, Helena
    McLean, Andrew N
    Problems at the human: horse interface and prospects for smart textile solutions2014In: Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research, ISSN 1558-7878, E-ISSN 1878-7517, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 34-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The significant potential for so-called “smart textiles” in the design of the next generation of devices that measure pressure, tension, moisture, and heat at the humanehorse interface is discussed in this article. Research techniques from theoretical and experimental physics laboratories, combined with wireless technology, can be readily adapted to measure and store metrics for numerous variables in equine structure and function. Activities, such as breathing, the extension and flexion of joints, limb kinematics, and cardiac function, can be logged as indicators of physiological and behavioral conditioning (training). Such metrics may also, one day, support veterinary diagnostics but also play a role in safeguarding sporthorse welfare, especially in elite contexts where the horse may be pushed to its functional limits. As such, they are likely to emerge as an area of great interest to equitation and welfare scientists. It is important to note that smart textiles sense and react to exogenous stimuli via integrated sensors. So, beyond the equitation science laboratory, the emergence of polymers and smart materials may enhance the effectiveness of, or challenge us to completely rethink, traditional items of saddlery, thus improving equitation. The integration of smart textiles in all sorts of extant and emergent equipment for everyday equestrians could, in the future, lead to equipment that responds appropriately to the demands of equitation in its various forms. Rethinking equitation through physics and the use of smart textiles seems to have merit in that it is a novel means of both investigating and addressing problems that compromise the welfare and performance of horses. The purpose of this article is to envision the use of smart textiles in research, clinical, equestrian, and horse care contexts.

  • 260.
    Mellroth, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology.
    Peptidoglycan Recognition Proteins: Major Regulators of Drosophila Immunity2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    All eukaryotic organisms have an innate immune system characterized by germ-line encoded receptors and effector molecules, which mediate detection and clearance of microbes such as bacteria, fungi, and parasites. VertebrateDrosophila as a genetically tractable organism with a

    This thesis concerns the peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP) gene family in the fruit fly. The family consists of thirteen genes, of which a few have been reported to be part of the signaling pathways that regulates immune

    Data presented show that the putative receptors have affinity for peptidoglycan, but not for lipopolysaccharide, or the fungal cell wall polymer beta-glucan. PGRP-SA, receptor of the Toll pathway, has a preference for

    In a search for novel PGRP receptors I found two PGRP proteins that instead displayed enzymatic activity towards peptidoglycan. They are of the N-actylmuramoyl L-alanine amidase type, which degrades peptidoglycan by splittingStaphylococcus aureus peptidoglycan looses its immune elicitor capacity. This is in contrast to lysozyme-degraded peptidoglycan, which isDrosophila PGRPs to be potential enzymes. PGRP-SB1 is the other enzymatic PGRP described within this thesis. It has a moreBacillus megaterium.

    In conclusion, receptor PGRP proteins binds bacterial peptidoglycan and triggers immune gene pathways and enzymatic PGRPs have the capacity to reduce the elicitor property of peptidoglycan.

  • 261.
    Midhagen, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Endocrinology and Gastroenterology.
    Adult Coeliac Disease in Clinical Practice2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Coeliac disease (CD) is considered to be the result of a complex interplay of intrinsic (genetic) factors and variable extrinsic (environmental) factors. The complex background of CD explains its wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. For a very long time CD was considered more or less a disease of childhood, which was extremely rare in adults. Nowadays we know that CD is one of the most common food intolerance disorders.

    An epidemiological study of CD in a geographically defined area of Sweden (Paper1) showed a prevalence of 95.5/ 100 000 inhabitants. Among the associated diseases an especially high incidence of associated thyroid disease, 10.8% was observed.

    In a fifteen-year cohort follow up study of all CD-patients residing in the counties of Örebro and Linköping (Paper 2) the total mortality was increased with 38% (SMR 1.38 95% C.I. 0.31-0.83). This was mainly explained by a 48% increased death rate in ischemic heart disease, significant in patients over 65 years (SMR 1.58 95% C.I. 1.00-2.06). However, there was a 47 % lower risk of all malignancies (SIR 0.53 95% C.I. 0.31-0.83).

    A cohort of 22 consecutively biopsy-proven adult CD patients (Paper 3), were followed in respect of antibody titres from diagnosis and after 1, 3, 6, and 12 months on a gluten free diet (GFD). All antibody titres fell sharply within one month. Thus excluding a CD diagnosis serologically on a patient who has initiated a GFD by herself is not to recommend.

    In another cohort with CD patients (Paper IV) who were diagnosed 8-12 years earlier recommended and who were recommended, the reliability of diet history, serological and biochemical markers to predict the appearance of the small intestinal mucosa were analysed (Paper IV). The history of a strict GFD gave a predictive value of 88% of a mucosa in remission. The values of serological tests (AGA, EmA and tTG) to predict a mucosa in remission were 93% for all.

    In CD patients in remission gastro-intestinal symptoms were evaluated with the GSRS questionnaire. Subjects with CD reported significantly more GI-symptoms than a general population sample (p<0.01). This was particularly true for women with CD who scored worse than female controls .By contrast men with CD reported no more symptoms than male controls.

  • 262.
    Miller, Philip S.
    et al.
    International Union for Conservation of Nature, Apple Valley, MN, USA.
    Citino, Scott
    White Oak Conservation Center, Yulee, FL, US.
    2. Facilitating Recovery of Threatened and Endangered Species2012In: Ecology and Animal Health / [ed] Leif Norrgren and Jeffrey Levengood, Uppsala: Baltic University Press , 2012, 1, p. 29-38Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 263.
    Mogren, Lars
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Löfström, Charlotta
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Alsanius, Beatrix
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Håll bevattningsrören rena2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 264. Mollbrink, Johanna
    et al.
    Danielsson-Tham (Intervjuobjekt), Marie-Louise
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Livet efter Stutis: livmedelshygien2015In: Bladmagen, ISSN 0282-3926, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 16-16Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 265.
    Moore, Jason W.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Environmental crises and the metabolic rift in world-historical perspective2000In: Organization & environment, ISSN 1086-0266, E-ISSN 1552-7417, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 123-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article proposes a new theoretical framework to study the dialectic of capital and nature over the longue durée of world capitalism. The author proposes that today’s global ecological crisis has its roots in the transition to capitalism during the long sixteenth century. The emergence of capitalism marked not only a decisive shift in the arenas of politics, economy, and society, but a fundamental reorganization of world ecology, characterized by a “metabolic rift,” a progressively deepening rupture in the nutrient cycling between the country and the city. Building upon the historical political economy of Marx, Foster, Arrighi, and Wallerstein, the author proposes a new research agenda organized around the concept of systemic cycles of agro-ecological transformation. This agenda aims at discerning the ways in which capitalism’s relationship to nature developed discontinuously over time as recurrent ecological crises have formed a decisive moment of world capitalist crisis, forcing successive waves of restructuring over long historical time.

  • 266.
    Morrell, J. M.
    et al.
    Division of Reproduction, Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Johannisson, A.
    Division of Reproduction, Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Developmental Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Effect of Osmolarity and Density of Colloid Formulations on the Outcome of SLC-Selection of Stallion Spermatozoa2011In: ISRN Veterinary Science, ISSN 2090-4452, E-ISSN 2090-4460, Vol. 2011, article id 128984Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The osmolarity and density of colloids used to prepare spermatozoa for assisted reproduction may affect sperm quality in the resultant preparation. In this study, two osmolarities of Androcoll-E for single-layer or density gradient centrifugation of stallion spermatozoa were compared: “normal” (320 mOsm) or “high” (345 mOsm). Mean yields for the two centrifugation techniques did not differ between treatments or osmolarities (single layer centrifugation:30.19±16.9×106 and 25.8±18.5×106 spermatozoa; density gradient centrifugation: 31.84±19.7×106 and 26.46±20.0×106 spermatozoa respectively for the two osmolarities). However, use of the high osmolarity colloid for single layer centrifugation increased the proportion of morphologically normal spermatozoa (𝑃<.05). Therefore, increasing the osmolarity of the colloid formulation may be beneficial for processing ejaculates containing a high proportion of abnormal spermatozoa by SLC. Reducing the density of the colloid used for the SLC substantially increased the yield of motile spermatozoa compared to the normal density colloid (mean ± SD: 72.6±28.9×106 versus 28.9±24.7×106), while also prolonging sperm survival by 24 hours compared to the uncentrifuged ejaculate. This increased yield may render Single Layer Centrifugation practical for use in the field.

  • 267.
    Morrell, J. M.
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Clin Sci, Box 7054, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Nongbua, T.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Clin Sci, Box 7054, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Valeanu, S.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Clin Sci, Box 7054, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Lundstedt-Enkel, Katrin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Edman, A.
    Viking Genet, Ornsro, Skara, Sweden..
    Johannisson, A.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Clin Sci, Box 7054, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Bull breed affects which parameters of sperm quality are indicative of fertility2016In: Animal Reproduction Science, ISSN 0378-4320, E-ISSN 1873-2232, Vol. 169, p. 112-113Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 268.
    Munoz-Fuentes, Violeta
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics.
    Forsberg, Catharina Linde
    Vila, Carles
    Morrell, Jane M.
    Single-layer centrifugation separates spermatozoa from diploid cells in epididymal samples from gray wolves, Canis lupus (L.)2014In: Theriogenology, ISSN 0093-691X, E-ISSN 1879-3231, Vol. 82, no 5, p. 773-776Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sperm samples may be used for assisted reproductive technologies (e.g., farmed or endangered species) or as a source of haploid DNA or sperm-specific RNA. When ejaculated spermatozoa are not available or are very difficult to obtain, as is the case for most wild endangered species, the epididymides of dead animals (e.g., animals that have been found dead, shot by hunters or poachers, or that that require euthanasia in zoological collections) can be used as a source of sperm. Such epididymal sperm samples are usually contaminated with cellular debris, erythrocytes, leukocytes, and sometimes also bacteria. These contaminants may be sources of reactive oxygen species that damage spermatozoa during freezing or contribute undesired genetic material from diploid cells. We used single-layer centrifugation through a colloid formulation, Androcoll-C, to successfully separate wolf epididymal spermatozoa from contaminating cells and cellular debris in epididymal samples harvested from carcasses. Such a procedure may potentially be applied to epididymal sperm samples from other species.

  • 269. Musk, G. C.
    et al.
    Kershaw, H.
    Tano, Krister
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Otorhinolaryngology.
    Niklasson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Otorhinolaryngology.
    von Unge, M.
    Dilley, R. J.
    Reactions to Gudair® vaccination identified in sheep used for biomedical research2019In: Australian Veterinary Journal, ISSN 0005-0423, E-ISSN 1751-0813, Vol. 97, no 3, p. 56-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Case report: We report Gudair (R) vaccination (against ovine Johne's disease, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis) site reactions in sheep used as a surgical model in biomedical research and discuss the actual and potential impact these lesions may have on surgical procedures, particularly in otology. Nine female Merino-cross sheep (Ovis aries) were enrolled in a project designed to investigate the healing capabilities of the malleus bone in the middle ear. The sheep were 12-18 months of age. Eight sheep had lesions near the base of the right ear that were discovered when surgery was performed. The size of the lesions varied and all lesions had a thick capsule containing various amount of caseous material. Two lesions had a draining tract where purulent material was apparent at the lowest point. The prescapular lymph nodes were not palpable in any of the sheep. Aerobic growth of various organisms was reported from four sheep lesions when the purulent material was transferred to a broth media. Histopathological examination revealed intralesional Mycobacteria and focal caseous necrosis or granulomatous dermatitis and cellulitis in seven of the eight lesions. Mild necrotising to granulomatous dermatitis and cellulitis was described in the lesion where organisms were not found. Conclusions: The lesions were confirmed at the end of the study to be associated with the vaccination and did not cause any known adverse effects on the research. However, it is important to acknowledge the risk of contamination these lesions could have on a sterile surgical site.

  • 270.
    Mustafa, Mudassir Imran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Design Principles for Data Export: Action Design Research in U-CARE2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, we report the findings of designing data export functionality in Uppsala University Psychosocial Care Program (U-CARE) at Uppsala University. The aim of this thesis was to explore the design space for generic data export functionality in data centric clinical research applications for data analysis. This was attained by the construction and evaluation of a prototype for a data-centric clinical research application. For this purpose Action Design Research (ADR) was conducted, situated in the domain of clinical research. The results consist of a set of design principles expressing key aspects needed to address when designing data export functionality. The artifacts derived from the development and evaluation process each one constitutes an example of how to design for data export functionality of this kind.

  • 271.
    Mörner, Torsten
    et al.
    National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Beasley, Val
    University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
    22. Monitoring for Diseases in Wildlife Populations2012In: Ecology and Animal Health / [ed] Leif Norrgren and Jeffrey Levengood, Uppsala: Baltic University Press , 2012, 1, p. 186-190Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 272.
    Navarrete, Maylin G.
    et al.
    Department of Animal Prevention, Veterinary Medicine College, Agrarian University of Habana, Mayabeque, Cuba.
    Cordeiro, Matheus D.
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Veterinary Institute, Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Br 465, km 7, Seropedica, Rio de Janeiro 23897-000, Brazil.
    Silva, Claudia B.
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Veterinary Institute, Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Br 465, km 7, Seropedica, Rio de Janeiro 23897-000, Brazil.
    Massard, Carlos Luiz
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Veterinary Institute, Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Br 465, km 7, Seropedica, Rio de Janeiro 23897-000, Brazil.
    López, Eugenio R.
    Department of Animal Prevention, Veterinary Medicine College, Agrarian University of Habana, Mayabeque, Cuba.
    Rodríguez, Julio César A.
    Department of Animal Prevention, Veterinary Medicine College, Agrarian University of Habana, Mayabeque, Cuba.
    Ribeiro, Carla C.D.U.
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Veterinary Institute, Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Br 465, km 7, Seropedica, Rio de Janeiro 23897-000, Brazil.
    Fonseca Rodriguez, Osvaldo
    National Centre for Animal and Plant Health (CENSA), OIE Collaborating Centre for Disaster Risk Reduction in Animal Health, San José de las Lajas, Mayabeque, Cuba.
    Fonseca, Adivaldo H.
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Veterinary Institute, Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Br 465, km 7, Seropedica, Rio de Janeiro 23897-000, Brazil.
    Serological and molecular diagnosis of Ehrlichia canis and associated risk factors in dogs domiciled in western Cuba2018In: Veterinary Parasitology: Regional Studies and Reports, ISSN 2405-9390, Vol. 14, p. 170-175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ehrlichia canis is a rickettsia transmitted by the tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, and is the causative agent of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME). In Cuba, the first diagnosis of CME was made in 2001, but few studies have since investigated this disease locally. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of E. canis in dogs domiciled in four municipalities within the western region of Cuba and determine the associated risk factors. Blood was drawn from 378 selected dogs living in four municipalities in two provinces of western Cuba. From the total number of samples, 206 plasma samples were selected to perform an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect antibodies against E. canis. Using the original 378 samples of extracted DNA, a nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) was performed to amplify a specific fragment of the 16S rRNA gene of E. canis. Analysis of the 206 plasma samples revealed a total of 162 animals that were seropositive for E. canis (78.64%) with a density index between 109.5 and 970.7. In contrast, 179 samples were positive based on the nPCR assay (47.35%). As well, there was a high concordance (kappa = 0.7), calculated through the Kappa index, between the animals found to be positive based on nPCR and those determined based on ELISA. The analysis of risk factors showed that residing in the municipality of Boyeros in addition to having a history of infestation by ticks increases the probability of having a positive result based on nPCR.

  • 273. Nilsson, A
    et al.
    Ahman, B
    Norberg, H
    Redbo, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Comparative Medicine.
    Eloranta, E
    Olsson, K
    Activity and heart rate in semi-domesticated reindeer during adaptation to emergency feeding2006In: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 88, no 1-2, p. 116-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although reindeer are well adapted to limited food resources during winter, semi-domesticated reindeer are regularly fed when snow conditions are bad in order to prevent starvation. Feeding sometimes results in health problems and loss of animals. This study was made to assess if activity pattern in reindeer could be used as a tool for the reindeer herder in early detection of animals that are not adapting to feeding. The frequency of 10 behavioural categories was recorded in five groups of penned, eight-month-old, female semi-domesticated reindeer. Three reindeer per group were fitted with heart rate monitors. Lying was the most frequent behaviour, whilst there were few cases of agonistic behaviour. Heart rate varied during the day, with peaks during feeding and low heart rates in the early morning. Restricted feed intake resulted in more locomotion and seeking but less ruminating compared to feeding ad libitum. This was followed by a generally lower heart rate in reindeer in the restricted groups compared to controls. Subsequent feeding with different combinations of lichens, silage and pellets ad libitum resulted initially in significantly more of the animals lying curled up, compared to controls, combined with increased heart rates. As the experiment continued the general activity pattern, as well as the heart rate, gradually became more similar in all groups. Lying curled was the behavioural indicator most consistently affected by feed deprivation and adaptation to feeding and may thus be a useful indicator to distinguish individual reindeer that are not adjusting to feeding.

  • 274.
    Nilsson, Anders S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Phage therapy-constraints and possibilities2014In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 119, no 2, p. 192-198Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rise of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains, causing intractable infections, has resulted in an increased interest in phage therapy. Phage therapy preceded antibiotic treatment against bacterial infections and involves the use of bacteriophages, bacterial viruses, to fight bacteria. Virulent phages are abundant and have proven to be very effective in vitro, where they in most cases lyse any bacteria within the hour. Clinical trials on animals and humans show promising results but also that the treatments are not completely effective. This is partly due to the studies being carried out with few phages, and with limited experimental groups, but also the fact that phage therapy has limitations in vivo. Phages are large compared with small antibiotic molecules, and each phage can only infect one or a few bacterial strains. A very large number of different phages are needed to treat infections as these are caused by genetically different strains of bacteria. Phages are effective only if enough of them can reach the bacteria and increase in number in situ. Taken together, this entails high demands on resources for the construction of phage libraries and the testing of individual phages. The effectiveness and host range must be characterized, and immunological risks must be assessed for every single phage.

  • 275.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Physical activity assessed by accelerometry in children2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Physical activity (PA) is likely to constitute an important aspect of health-related behaviour in growing children. However, the knowledge on levels and patterns of PA in children is limited, due to the difficulty of precisely measuring this complex behaviour in normal daily living. Information on variables that significantly contributes to the variability in PA patterns is warranted as it may inform strategies for promoting physically active lifestyles in school-age youth. The overall purpose of the present studies was to increase the knowledge about the use of accelerometry when assessing PA in children, and examine sources of variability in objectively assessed PA behaviour in children. The study samples included 1954 nine- and 15-year-old children from four geographical locations in Europe (Norway, Denmark, Estonia and Portugal), and additionally 16 Swedish seven-year-old boys and girls. PA was assessed by the MTI accelerometer during free-living conditions, including both weekdays and weekend days. A part of the PA assessment was conducted using different time sampling intervals (epochs). Predictions of estimates of daily energy expenditure from accelerometer output were calculated using previously published equations. Potential correlates of PA behaviour were assessed by self-report. The main findings were; a) the epoch setting had a significant effect when interpreting time spent at higher intensities of PA in young children, b) predicted energy expenditure differed substantially between equations, c) between- and within-day differences in overall levels of PA, time spent at moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity and time spent sedentary differed between age, gender and geographical location, d) outdoor play and sports participation were differentially associated with objectively measured PA in 9- and 15-year-old children. It is concluded that the sporadic nature of children’s physical activity require very short epoch settings for detecting high intensity PA, and that different published equations for estimations of daily energy expenditure cannot be used interchangeably. The interpretations of average energy expenditure from available equations should be made with caution. Based on a large sample of children of different ages, weekend days and leisure time during weekdays seem appropriate targets when promoting PA in order to increase the proportion of children achieving current recommendations on health enhancing PA. Further, significant correlates of PA behaviour dependent on age group are presented, which should be considered when planning interventions for promoting PA in school-age youth.

  • 276.
    Nilsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Adamo, Hanibal
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Bergh, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Halin Bergström, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Inhibition of Lysyl Oxidase and Lysyl Oxidase-Like Enzymes Has Tumour-Promoting and Tumour-Suppressing Roles in Experimental Prostate Cancer2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, article id 19608Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lysyl oxidase (LOX) and LOX-like (LOXL) enzymes are key players in extracellular matrix deposition and maturation. LOX promote tumour progression and metastasis, but it may also have tumour-inhibitory effects. Here we show that orthotopic implantation of rat prostate AT-1 tumour cells increased LOX and LOXLs mRNA expressions in the tumour and in the surrounding non-malignant prostate tissue. Inhibition of LOX enzymes, using Beta-aminopropionitrile (BAPN), initiated before implantation of AT-1 cells, reduced tumour growth. Conversely, treatment that was started after the tumours were established resulted in unaffected or increased tumour growth. Moreover, treatment with BAPN did not suppress the formation of spontaneous lymph node metastases, or lung tumour burden, when tumour cells were injected intravenously. A temporal decrease in collagen fibre content, which is a target for LOX, was observed in tumours and in the tumour-adjacent prostate tissue. This may explain why early BAPN treatment is more effective in inhibiting tumour growth compared to treatment initiated later. Our data suggest that the enzymatic function of the LOX family is context-dependent, with both tumour-suppressing and tumour-promoting properties in prostate cancer. Further investigations are needed to understand the circumstances under which LOX inhibition may be used as a therapeutic target for cancer patients.

  • 277.
    Nilsson, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the East of Östergötland, East County Primary Health Care.
    Chest pain and ischemic heart disease: Diagnosis and management in primary health care2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims. In patients consulting for chest pain, it is of great importance to evaluate the possibility of ischemic heart disease (IHD). The aims in this thesis were to investigate the accuracy of the general practitioners’ clinical assessments and the applicability of exercise testing and myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) in patients consulting for chest pain in primary care.

    Statins are known to prevent IHD. A further aim was therefore to investigate if a relation could be detected on a population basis between the use of statins and the morbidity of acute myocardial infarction (AMI).

    Methods. All patients from 20 to 79 years, consulting for a new episode of chest pain in three primary health care centres, were included during almost two years from 1998 to 2000. The patients were managed according to the clinical evaluation. The presence of IHD was excluded either by clinical examination only, or if stable IHD was in question, by exercise testing and if the exercise test was inconclusive by an additional MPS. If unstable IHD or myocardial infarction was suspected, referral for emergency hospital examination was made.

    Correlations between statin sales and the morbidity of AMI in Sweden’s municipalities were analysed in an ecological, register based study. Adjustment was made for sales of antidiabetics, socio-economic deprivation indexes and geographic coordinates.

    Results. Consultations for chest pain represented 1.5% of all consultations in the ages 20 to 79 and were made by 554 patients. In 281 patients IHD was excluded by clinical examination only. In 208 patients stable IHD and in 65 unstable IHD was in question. Four patients (1.4%) evaluated as not having IHD, were diagnosed with angina pectoris or AMI within three months. Exercise testing was performed in 191 patients and revealed no IHD in 134 and IHD in 14 patients. In 43 patients the exercise test results were equivocal. Thirty-nine of these patients underwent MPS, which showed no IHD in 20 and IHD in 19 of the patients.

    In a follow up almost six years later, neither mortality rate nor prevalence of IHD differed significantly between the 384 study patients evaluated not to have IHD and the population controls.

    Statin sales and AMI-incidence or mortality showed no strong associations from 1998 to 2002.

    Conclusions.

    ·Primary care is an appropriate level of care for ruling out IHD as the cause of chest pain, with sufficient safety and for diagnostics of stable IHD.

    ·Exercise testing and myocardial perfusion scintigraphy are useful procedures when investigating chest pain patients in primary care.

    ·The results indicate that preventive measures other than increased statin treatment should be considered to further decrease AMI-morbidity.

  • 278.
    Nilsson, Torbjörn K.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Böttiger, Anna K.
    Henriquez, Patricia
    Serra Majem, Lluis
    MTHFR polymorphisms and serum cobalamin affect plasma homocysteine concentrations differentially in females and males2014In: Molecular Medicine Reports, ISSN 1791-2997, E-ISSN 1791-3004, Vol. 10, no 5, p. 2706-2712Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A total of 523 subjects (297 females and 226 males) from the Canary Islands Nutrition Study (ENCA) were studied in order to examine the effect of the MTHFR 677C>T, 1298A>C and 1793G>A polymorphisms, adjusted for age, serum (5)-folate and S-cobalamin levels, on total plasma homocysteine concentrations (tHcy). Genotyping was performed with Pyrosequencing(R) technology. The MTHFR 677T-allele was associated with increased tHcy concentrations only in males (P=0.005). The MTHFR 1298C-allele was found to be associated with higher tHcy levels but similarly, only in males (P=0.025). The MTHFR 1793A-allele was associated with decreased tHcy concentrations in the younger males (P=0.042). A haplotype-based approach was marginally superior in explaining the genetic interaction of the MTHFR polymorphisms on tHcy plasma levels (R-2 0.352 vs. 0.342 for a simple genotype-based approach). A nutrigenetic interaction between the MTHFR 677C>T genotype and S-cobalamin on tHcy levels was demonstrated in both genders. The increase in tHcy was more pronounced with decreasing S-cobalamin quintiles in 677TT homozygotes (P=0.005 for males and P=0.015 for females) than with decreasing S-folate quintiles (P for trend not significant). It was concluded that gene-nutrient interactions may differ depending on the sex and age of the subjects. The transferability of gene-nutrient interactions from one community to others may therefore be limited not only by different food patterns but also by different ages, genders and genotype distributions.

  • 279.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The concept of animal welfare: a philosopher’s view2009In: Welfare of Production Animals: Assessment and Management of Risks / [ed] Frans J.M Smulders and Bo Algers, Wageningen: Wageningen Academic Publishers , 2009, 1, p. 29-44Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book, the fifth in the series 'Food Safety Assurance and Veterinary Public Health', has been conceived by a total of 33 internationally recognised experts from 11 different countries in Europe and from the USA, Canada and Australia, with backgrounds ranging from veterinary medicine, animal science, biology and microbiology to psychology, philosophy and ethics. It provides an up-to-date overview of the science of animal welfare and its assessment, of options for the assessment and management of risks for the welfare of production animals, and of the ramifications these may have for the safety of foods of animal origin.This Volume is targeted at veterinary practitioners, official veterinarians in a control function, animal and food scientists, welfare scientists, students in animal welfare, auditing and inspection officials and risk managers at all levels of animal production.Other publications in the Food Safety Assurance and Veterinary Public Health series are: * Volume 1. Food safety assurance in the pre-harvest phase * Volume 2. Safety assurance during food processing * Volume 3. Risk management strategies: monitoring and surveillance * Volume 4. Towards a risk-based chain control

  • 280. Nordengrahn, Ann
    et al.
    Gustafsdottir, Sigrun M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Ebert, Katja
    Reid, Scott M.
    King, Donald P.
    Ferris, Nigel P.
    Brocchi, Emiliana
    Grazioli, Santina
    Landegren, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Merza, Malik
    Evaluation of a novel proximity ligation assay for the sensitive and rapid detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus2008In: Veterinary Microbiology, ISSN 0378-1135, E-ISSN 1873-2542, Vol. 127, no 3-4, p. 227-236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel proximity ligation assay (PLA) using a pan-serotype reactive monoclonal antibody was developed and evaluated for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in clinical samples collected from field cases of disease. The FMDV-specific PLA was found to be 100 times more sensitive for virus detection than the commonly used antigen capture-ELISA (AgELISA). As few as five TCID50 were detected in individual assays, which was comparable with the analytical sensitivity of real-time RT-PCR. Although this assay was capable of detecting diverse isolates from all seven FMDV serotypes, the diagnostic sensitivity of the PLA assay was lower than real-time RT-PCR mainly due to a failure to detect some SAT 1, SAT 2 and SAT 3 FMDV strains. In conclusion, this new PLA format has high analytical sensitivity for the detection of FMDV in clinical samples and may prove valuable as a rapid and simple tool for use in FMD diagnosis.

  • 281. Nordstoga, K.
    et al.
    Sorby, R.
    Olivecrona, Gunilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Physiological chemistry.
    Smith, A. J.
    Christophersen, B.
    Pancreatitis in Hyperlipemic Mink (Mustela vison)2012In: Veterinary pathology, ISSN 0300-9858, E-ISSN 1544-2217, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 557-561Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In both man and animals, inflammatory changes in the pancreas often occur with disturbances in lipid metabolism, including hypertriglyceridemia and an excess of free fatty acids. Hyperlipoproteinemia type I is a human condition caused by a deficiency of lipoprotein lipase. A similar metabolic disturbance that occurs in mink is of considerable comparative interest, as it is also followed by pancreatitis. Pancreatic lesions in hyperlipoproteinemic mink included overt variably sized nodules with hemorrhage and necrosis. These lesions began as intralobular necrosis of exocrine cells and progressed to total lobular destruction, with eventual involvement of interlobular tissue. Remnants of epithelial cells and lipid-filled macrophages were seen in necrotic areas, along with other types of inflammatory cells scattered in a lipid-rich exudate. Granulation tissue developed rapidly in necrotic areas. Additional observations included ductal proliferation, replacement of epithelial cells with fat, and mural arterial thickening, most conspicuously with vacuolated cells and endothelial proliferation. Extravasation of lipid-rich plasma is thought to be a major intensifier of the inflammatory response.

  • 282.
    Norman Haldén, Anna
    et al.
    Institutionen för biomedicin och veterinär folkhälsovetenskap, Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Arnoldsson, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Mattsson, A.
    Institutionen för biomedicin och veterinär folkhälsovetenskap; Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Ullerås, E.
    Institutionen för biomedicin och veterinär folkhälsovetenskap, Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Sturve, J.
    Zoologiska institutionen, Göteborgs universitet.
    Norrgren, Leif
    Institutionen för biomedicin och veterinär folkhälsovetenskap, Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Retention and maternal transfer of brominated dioxins in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and effects on reproduction, aryl hydrocarbon receptor-regulated genes, and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity2011In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 102, no 3-4, p. 150-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Brominated dioxins have recently been detected in Baltic Sea biota. Due to their similarities to the highly toxic chlorinated dioxins, concern has been raised about their potential biological effects. The present study investigated retention and effects of brominated dioxins in adult zebrafish, as well as maternal transfer and effects on offspring. We exposed adult zebrafish for nine weeks via feed to 2,3,7,8-tetrabromodibenzo-p-dioxin (TBDD) or to a mixture of brominated dioxins (Baltic Sea mixture), which was designed to reflect relative concentrations found in Baltic Sea biota. We studied spawning success, gonad morphology, hepatic vitellogenin gene expression, and offspring early life-stage development to investigate effects on zebrafish reproduction. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity and hepatic expression of a number of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)-regulated genes were studied to investigate if the brominated dioxins can activate gene transcription through the AHR pathway in zebrafish. In addition, glutathione reductase activity and expression of genes involved in adaptive responses to intracellular stress were studied to investigate potential stress effects of brominated dioxins. After nine weeks of exposure, all brominated dioxins spiked to the feed were detected in female fish and transferred to eggs. Exposure to the Baltic Sea mixture and TBDD clearly induced AHR-regulated genes and EROD activity. Exposure to TBDD reduced spawning success, altered ovarian morphology and reduced hepatic vitellogenin gene expression, which implies that TBDD has a similar effect pattern as the chlorinated analogue. Overall, our results show that dietary exposure to sublethal concentrations of brominated dioxins may impair reproductive physiology in fish and induce AHR-regulated genes. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 283.
    Norrgren, Leif
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Levengood, JeffreyUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
    Ecology and animal health2012Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 284.
    Norén, Torbjörn
    Örebro University, Department of Clinical Medicine.
    Clostridium difficile: epidemiology and antibiotic resistance2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Clostridium difficile is a spore-forming toxin-producing intestinal bacterium abundant in soils and waters. This pathogen relies on increased growth by a disturbed intestinal microflora and the production of two cytotoxins, toxin A and toxin B, which may cause anything from mild self-limiting C. difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) to severe and fatal pseudomembranous colitis (PMC). Typically CDAD following antibiotic therapy is due either to overgrowth of endogenous C. difficile or through spores transmitted from the environment. The hospital setting provides frequent antibiotic use and the source of numerous infective spores from CDAD patients, the environment or nursing staff. Today we experience a 10-fold increase of incidence in the US and Canada (1991-2003) apparently due to a current epidemic C. difficile strain (NAP1/027). Current incidence from Canada is estimated to 156/100 000 compared to 50/100 000 in Sweden 1995.

    In the following thesis, investigations of CDAD in Örebro County in central Sweden resulted in the discovery an epidemic nosocomial C. difficile strain (SE17, serogroup C), found to be clindamycin-resistant. The majority of the isolates carried a gene (ermB) related to this resitance. We found an overall incidence during 1999-2000 of 97/100 000 or, if including recurrent episodes, 135/100 000 i.e. more than 100% increase since 1995. The incidence among hospitalized individuals was 1300-fold that in the community and 78% of episodes were classified as hospital-associated. This reflects a 37-fold difference in antibiotic consumption, as well as the predominance of the resistant SE17 hospital-associated strain (22% of hospital isolates compared to 6% of community isolates, p=0.008). Only 10% of the recurrent cases were found to be reinfections indicating that CDAD is mainly caused by endogenous strains and not by hospital transmission.

    Recent reports on failure of standard metronidazole therapy urge for alternative treatment agents and fusidic acid has been proven as effective in the treatment of CDAD. We could verify this, but in both treatment groups we found that persistence of C. difficile isolates post-treatment related to an increased risk of recurrent CDAD compared to the patients who were culture negative at follow-up (p=0.03). Most importantly, 55% of patients with follow-up isolates and who had been treated with fusidic acid, the strains had developed fusidic acid resistance. The corresponding pre-treatment identity of isolate genotype indicated selection of mutants. Relating to the known fusA resistance mechanism in Staphylococcus aureus we used the published sequence for this gene in Clostridium perfringens and found homologous fusA in the sequence of the referent strain C. difficile 630. Comparing fusA of the resistant mutants with the initial wild-type isolates, we identified novel mutations in fusA as the genetic key to fusidic acid resistance in C. difficile.

  • 285. Nyamwaya, Doris
    et al.
    Wang'ondu, Virginia
    Amimo, Joshua
    Michuki, George
    Ogugo, Moses
    Ontiri, Enoch
    Sang, Rosemary
    Lindahl, Johanna
    Grace, Delia
    Bett, Bernard
    Detection of West Nile virus in wild birds in Tana River and Garissa Counties, Kenya.2016In: BMC Infectious Diseases, ISSN 1471-2334, E-ISSN 1471-2334, Vol. 16, no 1, article id 696Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: West Nile fever virus is a zoonotic arboviral infection maintained in a sylvatic cycle involving mosquito vectors and birds. It is one the arboviruses whose geographical range is expanding because of climate and land use changes that enhance the densities of mosquitoes and promote mosquito-bird-human interactions. We carried out a survey to determine the reservoirs of WNV among wild birds in Tana River and Garissa counties, Kenya.

    METHODS: Blood samples were obtained from 361 randomly trapped wild birds. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), all samples were screened for WNV using gene specific primer sets amplifying a portion of the E region of the genome encoding the envelope protein.

    RESULTS: Sixty five (65) out of 361 birds screened tested positive for WNV on real-time PCR assay. Sequencing of the selected positive samples reveals that the isolated WNV were most closely related to strains isolated from China (2011). A regression analysis indicated that sampling location influenced the occurrence of WNV while species, age, weight and sex of the birds did not have any effect.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study provides baseline information on the existing circulation of WNV in this region among wild bird reservoirs that could spill over to the human population and points to the need for implementation of surveillance programs to map the distribution of the virus among reservoirs. Awareness creation about West Nile fever in this region is important to improve its detection and management.

  • 286.
    Nyman, Erika
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery.
    Guided Regeneration of the Human Skin: in vitro and in vivo studies2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Every day and in all parts of the world, humans experience different grades of wounding and tissue loss of the skin, thus initiating one of the most complex biological processes. Acute and chronic wounds, as well as the additional problem of skin scarring, involve not only great suffering for the patient but also extensive health care costs for the society. Although the wound-healing process is a wellstudied field much knowledge must be gained to unlock the door to regenerative pathways in humans.

    Epidermis heals by complete regeneration, but dermal and full thickness injuries heal with fibrosis and scar formation. In Papers I and II, we studied whether dermal scarring could be turned into regeneration by using two different types of threedimensional dermal scaffolds. In Paper I, we studied a solid scaffold made of poly(urethane urea), initially in vitro then followed by in vivo studies. In Paper II, we intradermally injected a liquid three-dimensional scaffold consisting of porous gelatin spheres in human healthy volunteers. Both materials showed ingrowth of functional fibroblasts and blood vessels and appeared to stimulate regeneration while slowly degrading. This finding could be of significant clinical importance, for example in burn wound care or after cancer surgery.

    In Papers III and IV, we wanted to study the effects of amniotic fluid and hyaluronic acid on adult wound healing, because early fetal wounds re-epithelialize rapidly and naturally heal dermis by regeneration without the need of a dermal scaffold. Amniotic fluid, naturally rich in hyaluronic acid, induced an accelerated reepithelialization of adult human wounds in vitro, and hyaluronic acid seemed to be important for this effect. Stimulation with exogenous hyaluronic acid in vivo induced accelerated re-epithelialization and an altered protein expression in healthy human volunteers. The inflammatory phase of wound healing, as measured by tissue viability imaging, was not affected by hyaluronic acid. Elucidating the effects of amniotic fluid and hyaluronic acid on the wound-healing process may allow improved treatment of wounds with impaired healing.

    Studies on finding new dermal scaffolds and studies on the positive effect of amniotic fluid or hyaluronic acid on the wound-healing process are two different ways of gaining insight that may lead to regeneration and improved wound healing for the patient.

  • 287.
    Nyman, Görel
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Marntell, Stina
    Edner, Anna
    Funkquist, Pia
    Morgan, Karin
    Hedenstierna, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Effect of sedation with detomidine and butorphanol on pulmonary gas exchange in the horse2009In: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, ISSN 1751-0147, E-ISSN 1751-0147, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 22-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Sedation with alpha2-agonists in the horse is reported to be accompanied by impairment of arterial oxygenation. The present study was undertaken to investigate pulmonary gas exchange using the Multiple Inert Gas Elimination Technique (MIGET), during sedation with the alpha2-agonist detomidine alone and in combination with the opioid butorphanol. METHODS: Seven Standardbred trotter horses aged 3-7 years and weighing 380-520 kg, were studied. The protocol consisted of three consecutive measurements; in the unsedated horse, after intravenous administration of detomidine (0.02 mg/kg) and after subsequent butorphanol administration (0.025 mg/kg). Pulmonary function and haemodynamic effects were investigated. The distribution of ventilation-perfusion ratios (VA/Q) was estimated with MIGET. RESULTS: During detomidine sedation, arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) decreased (12.8 +/- 0.7 to 10.8 +/- 1.2 kPa) and arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) increased (5.9 +/- 0.3 to 6.1 +/- 0.2 kPa) compared to measurements in the unsedated horse. Mismatch between ventilation and perfusion in the lungs was evident, but no increase in intrapulmonary shunt could be detected. Respiratory rate and minute ventilation did not change. Heart rate and cardiac output decreased, while pulmonary and systemic blood pressure and vascular resistance increased. Addition of butorphanol resulted in a significant decrease in ventilation and increase in PaCO2. Alveolar-arterial oxygen content difference P(A-a)O2 remained impaired after butorphanol administration, the VA/Q distribution improved as the decreased ventilation and persistent low blood flow was well matched. Also after subsequent butorphanol no increase in intrapulmonary shunt was evident. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study suggest that both pulmonary and cardiovascular factors contribute to the impaired pulmonary gas exchange during detomidine and butorphanol sedation in the horse.

  • 288.
    Näsberg, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Kvinnors upplevelser och behov av stöd vid hysterektomi: en litteraturstudie2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Hysterektomi är ett kirurgiskt ingrepp där man opererar bort livmodern på kvinnor där en genital rubbning uppkommit. Syftet med detta arbete var att ge en klarare bild om hur kvinnor upplever detta ingrepp samt hur vårdpersonalen skall bemöta och kunna ge kvinnan stöd om så skulle behövas. Syftet med studien var att genom en litteraturstudie belysa kvinnors upplevelser av hysterektomi samt behov av stöd. En systematisk litteraturstudie gjordes där tretton vetenskapliga studier har inkluderats. Resultatet presenteras i två huvudkategorier, kvinnors upplevelser vid hysterektomi samt kvinnors behov av stöd. Båda kategorierna innefattade underkategorier vilka var livskvalitet, sexualitet, stöd samt information. Resultatet visade på att större delen av kvinnorna som genomgått hysterektomi var nöjda med ingreppet, då ett stort handikapp de dragits med en lång tid lättade eller försvann helt. Kvinnorna saknade information om tiden efter operationen. Information har en stor betydelse av hur kvinnorna upplever hysterektomi. Sammanfattningsvis är det viktigt att sjukvårdspersonal har den kunskapen att ge rätt information vid rätt tillfälle. För att hjälpa de kvinnor som skall genomgå hysterektomi bör vårdpersonalen även kunna vara ett stöd, så att sjukhusvistelsen blir en god upplevelse för dessa kvinnor.

  • 289.
    Ohlund, M.
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, POB 7054, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Egenvall, A.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, POB 7054, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Fall, Tove
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular epidemiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Hansson-Hamlin, H.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, POB 7054, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Rocklinsberg, H.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Environm & Hlth, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Holst, B. S.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, POB 7054, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Environmental Risk Factors for Diabetes Mellitus in Cats2017In: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, ISSN 0891-6640, E-ISSN 1939-1676, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 29-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundDiabetes in cats resembles type 2 diabetes in people. The etiology is not fully understood, but both genetic and environmental factors are believed to contribute. ObjectivesTo assess the associations of environmental risk factors with diabetes in cats. AnimalsCats with a diagnosis of diabetes (n = 396) insured by a Swedish insurance company during years 2009-2013, and a control group (n = 1,670) matched on birth year. MethodsA web-based questionnaire was used in a case-control study. An invitation to participate was sent to owners of 1,369 diabetic cats and 5,363 control cats. The survey contained questions related to the cat's breed, age, sex, neutering status, body condition, housing, access to the outdoors, activity level, diet, eating behavior, feeding routine, general health, stressful events, other pets in the household, medications, and vaccination status. Data were analyzed by multiple logistic regression. ResultsResponse rate was 35% for the diabetic group and 32% for the control group. Indoor confinement, being a greedy eater, and being overweight were associated with an increased risk of diabetes. In cats assessed by owners as being normal weight, there was an association between eating predominantly dry food and an increased risk of diabetes (Odds ratio 3.8; 95% confidence intervals 1.3-11.2). Conclusions and Clinical ImportanceDry food is commonly fed to cats worldwide. The association found between dry food and an increased risk of diabetes in cats assessed as normal weight by owners warrants further attention.

  • 290.
    Ohlund, M.
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Fall, Tove
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular epidemiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Holst, B. Strom
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Hansson-Hamlin, H.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Bonnett, B.
    Int Partnership Dogs, Georgian Bluffs, ON, Canada..
    Egenvall, A.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Incidence of Diabetes Mellitus in Insured Swedish Cats in Relation to Age, Breed and Sex2015In: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, ISSN 0891-6640, E-ISSN 1939-1676, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 1342-1347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Diabetes mellitus ( DM) is a common endocrinopathy in cats. Most affected cats suffer from a type of diabetes similar to type 2 diabetes in humans. An increasing prevalence has been described in cats, as in humans, related to obesity and other lifestyle factors. Objectives: To describe the incidence of DM in insured Swedish cats and the association of DM with demographic risk factors, such as age, breed and sex. Animals: A cohort of 504,688 individual cats accounting for 1,229,699 cat- years at risk ( CYAR) insured by a Swedish insurance company from 2009 to 2013. Methods: We used reimbursed insurance claims for the diagnosis of DM. Overall incidence rates and incidence rates stratified on year, age, breed, and sex were estimated. Results: The overall incidence rate of DM in the cohort was 11.6 cases ( 95% confidence interval [ CI], 11.0- 12.2) per 10,000 CYAR. Male cats had twice as high incidence rate ( 15.4; 95% CI, 14.4- 16.4) as females ( 7.6; 95% CI, 6.9- 8.3). Domestic cats were at higher risk compared to purebred cats. A significant association with breed was seen, with the Burmese, Russian Blue, Norwegian Forest cat, and Abyssinian breeds at a higher risk compared to other cats. No sex predisposition was found among Burmese cats. Several breeds with a lower risk of DM were identified. Conclusions and clinical importance: Our results verify that the Burmese breed is at increased risk of developing DM. We also identified several previously unreported breeds with increased or decreased risk of DM.

  • 291.
    Olsson, Gustav
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Jegefalk, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Beta-alanin - aminosyran för styrketränande?2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka inverkan av två veckors supplementering med beta-alanin (BA) på styrkeuthålligheten hos styrketränande i åldern 18 till 30. Ger BA efter två veckors uppladdningsperiod en ergogen effekt på den dynamiska styrkeuthålligheten hos regelbundet styrketränande? Ger BA efter två veckors uppladdningsperiod en ergogen effekt på uthålligheten vid statisk kontraktion hos regelbundet styrketränande?

    Metod

    Studien genomfördes på 14 styrketränande friska män och kvinnor (7 män, 7 kvinnor) som delades in slumpvis i en placebogrupp (n=7) och en BA-grupp (n=7). Båda grupperna utförde tre tester. Ett förtest bestämde deltagarnas 10RM i bänkpress och benextension samt 1RM i bicepsflektion. Vid testillfälle 1 (T1) och testillfälle 2 (T2) utfördes i både bänkpress och benextension först ett arbete om 4 set 8 rep på 10RM med tre minuters vila mellan seten. Därefter, en minut efter fjärde setet, utfördes arbete till utmattning om 4 set på 70 % 10RM med en vila om 1 minut mellan var set. Totalt antal rep vid de 4 senare seten användes som jämförelsetal. Vid bicepsflektion utfördes isometriskt arbete till utmattning om 4 set på 70 % 1RM med1 minuts vila mellan var set. Tiden för det isometriska arbetet användes som jämförelsetal. Mellan T1 och T2 genomgick försökspersonerna 14 dagars supplementering med BA eller placebo. Dosen som erhölls var 6g ± 0,05g BA tillsammans med 6g ± 0,5g CHO i form av dextros eller, för placebogruppen, 12g ± 0,5g CHO. Varje dagsdos fördelades till 4 intag per dag i samband med måltid.

    Resultat

    Båda grupperna ökade sitt resultat vid T2 i de dynamiska övningarna. Ingen skillnad förelåg dock mellan placebogruppen och BA-gruppen vare sig i dynamisk- eller statisk uthållighet. Ingen signifikant ökning förelåg för vare sig BA- eller placebogruppen i statisk uthållighet.

    Slutsats

    Vår slutsats är att ingen ergogen effekt uppnås efter en 14 dagars supplementering med BA vid sådana styrketräningsmoment som detta experiment prövat.

  • 292.
    Olsson, Mia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Frankowiack, Marcel
    Tengvall, Katarina
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Roosje, Petra
    Fall, Tove
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular epidemiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Ivansson, Emma
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Bergvall, Kerstin
    Hansson-Hamlin, Helene
    Sundberg, Katarina
    Hedhammar, Ake
    Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Hammarstrom, Lennart
    The dog as a genetic model for immunoglobulin A (IgA) deficiency: Identification of several breeds with low serum IgA concentrations2014In: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, ISSN 0165-2427, E-ISSN 1873-2534, Vol. 60, no 3-4, p. 255-259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Immunoglobulin A (IgA) serves as the basis of the secretory immune system by protecting the lining of mucosal sites from pathogens. In both humans and dogs, IgA deficiency (IgAD) is associated with recurrent infections of mucosal sites and immune-mediated diseases. Low concentrations of serum IgA have previously been reported to occur in a number of dog breeds but no generally accepted cut-off value has been established for canine IgAD. The current study represents the largest screening to date of IgA in dogs in terms of both number of dogs (n = 1267) and number of breeds studied (n = 22). Serum IgA concentrations were quantified by using capture ELISA and were found to vary widely between breeds. We also found IgA to be positively correlated with age (p < 0.0001). Apart from the two breeds previously reported as predisposed to low IgA (Shar-Pei and German shepherd), we identified six additional breeds in which > 10% of all tested dogs had very low (<0.07 g/l) IgA concentrations (Hovawart, Norwegian elkhound, Nova Scotia duck tolling retriever, Bullterrier, Golden retriever and Labrador retriever). In addition, we discovered low IgA concentrations to be significantly associated with canine atopic dermatitis (CAD, p < 0.0001) and pancreatic acinar atrophy (PAA, p = 0.04) in German shepherds.

  • 293.
    Olsson, Mia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Meadows, Jennifer R. S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Truve, Katarina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Pielberg, Gerli Rosengren
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Puppo, Francesca
    Mauceli, Evan
    Quilez, Javier
    Tonomura, Noriko
    Zanna, Giordana
    Jose Docampo, Maria
    Bassols, Anna
    Avery, Anne C.
    Karlsson, Elinor K.
    Thomas, Anne
    Kastner, Daniel L.
    Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, The Linnaeus Centre for Bioinformatics.
    Webster, Matthew T.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Sanchez, Armand
    Hedhammar, Åke
    Remmers, Elaine F.
    Andersson, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Ferrer, Lluis
    Tintle, Linda
    Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    A Novel Unstable Duplication Upstream of HAS2 Predisposes to a Breed-Defining Skin Phenotype and a Periodic Fever Syndrome in Chinese Shar-Pei Dogs2011In: PLoS Genetics, ISSN 1553-7390, Vol. 7, no 3, p. e1001332-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hereditary periodic fever syndromes are characterized by recurrent episodes of fever and inflammation with no known pathogenic or autoimmune cause. In humans, several genes have been implicated in this group of diseases, but the majority of cases remain unexplained. A similar periodic fever syndrome is relatively frequent in the Chinese Shar-Pei breed of dogs. In the western world, Shar-Pei have been strongly selected for a distinctive thick and heavily folded skin. In this study, a mutation affecting both these traits was identified. Using genome-wide SNP analysis of Shar-Pei and other breeds, the strongest signal of a breed-specific selective sweep was located on chromosome 13. The same region also harbored the strongest genome-wide association (GWA) signal for susceptibility to the periodic fever syndrome (p(raw) = 2.3 x 10(-6), p(genome) = 0.01). Dense targeted resequencing revealed two partially overlapping duplications, 14.3 Kb and 16.1 Kb in size, unique to Shar-Pei and upstream of the Hyaluronic Acid Synthase 2 (HAS2) gene. HAS2 encodes the rate-limiting enzyme synthesizing hyaluronan (HA), a major component of the skin. HA is up-regulated and accumulates in the thickened skin of Shar-Pei. A high copy number of the 16.1 Kb duplication was associated with an increased expression of HAS2 as well as the periodic fever syndrome (p, < 0.0001). When fragmented, HA can act as a trigger of the innate immune system and stimulate sterile fever and inflammation. The strong selection for the skin phenotype therefore appears to enrich for a pleiotropic mutation predisposing these dogs to a periodic fever syndrome. The identification of HA as a major risk factor for this canine disease raises the potential of this glycosaminoglycan as a risk factor for human periodic fevers and as an important driver of chronic inflammation.

  • 294.
    Olsson, Ulf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Education in Arts and Professions. Yrkeskunnande och lärande.
    OM FRISKVÅRDSPEDAGOGIK I ARBETSLIVET.: EN O/RÄTTVIS BETRAKTELSE.1993Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I fokus för detta arbete står friskvård inom arbetslivet som pedagogisk praktik med hälsoprofilsbedömning, en metod för undersökning och påverkan av människors hälsostatus och hälsovanor, som konkret exempel. En bakgrund till detta är framväxten av insatser för folkhälsa och den ökade betoning av friskvård inom arbetslivet som skett inom såväl privat som offentlig sektor. Friskvård handlar om människors levnadsvanor när det gäller kost, motion, stress, alkohol, tobak m.m.

    Hälsoprofilsbedömning och friskvårdspedagogik inom arbetslivet ses här ur två olika perspektiv. Ur det ena perspektivet behandlas verksamheten på dess egna villkor - som en metod att inom ramen för arbetslivet få till stånd ner hälsosamma livsstilar genom kontrakt mellan självständiga parter. Det andra perspektivet kan ses som kritiskt granskande. Här ifrågasätts premissema för hälsoprofilsbedömningen utifrån begrepp som makt och disciplinering. En inspirationskälla har därvid bland annat Michel Foucaults arbeten varit. Som empiriskt material för analysen används två avhandlingar som presenterar hälsoprofilbedömningen som metod.

    Ur dessa båda perspektiv erhålles två olika betraktelser om hälsoprofilsbedömning och friskvårdspedagogik inom arbetslivet - en rättvis och en orättvis. På basis av en kritisk pragmatisk ansats diskuteras möjligheten till ett samtal baserad på relationen mellan de båda betrakelserna.

  • 295. Olsén, L.
    et al.
    Ingvast-Larsson, C.
    Bondesson, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry.
    Broström, H.
    Tjälve, H.
    Larsson, P.
    Cetirizine in horses: pharmacokinetics and effect of ivermectin pretreatment2007In: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, ISSN 0140-7783, E-ISSN 1365-2885, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 194-200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pharmacokinetics of the histamine H1-antagonist cetirizine and the effects of pretreatment with the antiparasitic macrocyclic lactone ivermectin on the pharmacokinetics of cetirizine were studied in horses. After oral administration of cetirizine at 0.2 mg/kg bw, the mean terminal half-life was 3.4 h (range 2.9–3.7 h) and the maximal plasma concentration 132 ng/mL (101–196 ng/mL). The time to reach maximal plasma concentration was 0.7 h (0.5–0.8 h). Ivermectin (0.2 mg/kg bw) given orally 1.5 h before cetirizine did not affect its pharmacokinetics. However, ivermectin pretreatment 12 h before cetirizine increased the area under the plasma concentration–time curve by 60%. The maximal plasma concentration, terminal half-life and mean residence time also increased significantly following the 12 h pretreatment. Ivermectin is an inhibitor of P-glycoprotein, which is a major drug efflux transporter in cellular membranes at various sites. The elevated plasma levels of cetirizine following the pretreatment with ivermectin may mainly be due to decreased renal secretion, related to inhibition of the P-glycoprotein in the proximal tubular cells of the kidney. The pharmacokinetic properties of cetirizine have characteristics which are suitable for an antihistamine, and this substance may be a useful drug in horses.

  • 296. Olsén, Lena
    et al.
    Bondesson, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Broström, Hans
    Olsson, Ulf
    Mazogi, Behnaz
    Sundqvist, Marie
    Tjälve, Hans
    Ingvast-Larsson, Carina
    Pharmacokinetics and effects of cetirizine in horses with insect bite hypersensitivity2011In: The Veterinary Journal, ISSN 0007-1935, E-ISSN 1879-3606, Vol. 187, no 3, p. 347-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Horses with insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) have difficulty in completely avoiding allergens, so effective treatment options are required. A randomised, placebo controlled and double blinded field study was conducted to determine the pharmacokinetics and efficacy in reducing dermatitis of the antihistamine cetirizine given orally at 0.4mg/kg twice daily for 3weeks. The influence of protection blankets and stabling were also investigated. The estimated maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) and trough plasma concentration of cetirizine were 135ng/mL and 18ng/mL, respectively. There was no difference in dermatitis reduction between the treatment and placebo groups (P=0.77). The findings indicated that cetirizine was of no apparent benefit in treating IBH at the dose rate tested. The use of blankets and stabling were shown to have favourable influence on the dermatitis (P<0.05) and may be the preferred options to prevent this condition.

  • 297. Olsén, Lena
    et al.
    Bondesson, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Broström, Hans
    Tjälve, Hans
    Ingvast-Larsson, Carina
    Cetirizine in horses: Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics following repeated oral administration2008In: The Veterinary Journal, ISSN 0007-1935, E-ISSN 1879-3606, Vol. 177, no 2, p. 242-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pharmacokinetics of the histamine HI-antagonist cetirizine and its effect on histamine-induced cutaneous wheal formation were studied in six healthy horses following repeated oral administration. After three consecutive administrations of cetirizine (0.2 mg/kg body weight, bw) every 12 h, the trough plasma concentration of cetirizine was 16 +/- 4 ng/mL (mean +/- SD) and the wheal formation was inhibited by 45 +/- 23%. After four additional administrations of cetirizine (0.4 mg/kg bw) every 12 h, the trough plasma concentration was 48 +/- 15 ng/mL and the wheal formation was inhibited by 68 +/- 11%. The terminal half-life was about 5.8 h. A pharmacokinetic/ pharmacodynamic link model showed that the maximal inhibition of wheal formation was about 95% and the EC50 about 18 ng/mL. It is concluded that cetirizine in doses of 0.2-0.4 mg/kg bw administered at 12 h intervals exhibits favourable pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties without causing visible side effects, and the drug may therefore be a useful antihistamine in equine medicine.

  • 298.
    Osbjer, K.
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Div Reprod, Dept Clin Sci, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Berg, M.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Biomed Sci & Vet Publ Hlth, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Sokerya, S.
    Ctr Livestock & Agr Dev, Phnom Penh, Cambodia..
    Chheng, K.
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Phnom Penh, Cambodia..
    San, S.
    Natl Inst Vet Res, Phnom Penh, Cambodia..
    Davun, H.
    Natl Inst Vet Res, Phnom Penh, Cambodia..
    Magnusson, U.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Div Reprod, Dept Clin Sci, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Zohari, S.
    Natl Vet Inst, Dept Microbiol, Ulls Vag 2B, SE-75189 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Influenza A Virus in Backyard Pigs and Poultry in Rural Cambodia2017In: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, ISSN 1865-1674, E-ISSN 1865-1682, Vol. 64, no 5, p. 1557-1568Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surveillance of influenza virus in humans and livestock is critical, given the worldwide public health threats and livestock production losses. Livestock farming involving close proximity between humans, pigs and poultry is often practised by smallholders in low-income countries and is considered an important driver of influenza virus evolution. This study determined the prevalence and genetic characteristics of influenza A virus (IAV) in backyard pigs and poultry in Cambodia. A total of 751 animals were tested by matrix gene-based rRT-PCR, and influenza virus was detected in 1.5% of sampled pigs, 1.4% of chickens and 1.0% of ducks, but not in pigeons. Full-length genome sequencing confirmed triple reassortant H3N2 in all IAV-positive pigs and various low pathogenic avian influenza subtypes in poultry. Phylogenetic analysis of the swine influenza viruses revealed that these had haemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes originating from human H3N2 viruses previously isolated in South-East Asia. Phylogenetic analysis also revealed that several of the avian influenza subtypes detected were closely related to internal viral genes from highly pathogenic H5N1 and H9N2 formerly sequenced in the region. High sequence homology was likewise found with influenza A viruses circulating in pigs, poultry and wild birds in China and Vietnam, suggesting transboundary introduction and cocirculation of the various influenza subtypes. In conclusion, highly pathogenic subtypes of influenza virus seem rare in backyard poultry, but virus reassortment, involving potentially zoonotic and pandemic subtypes, appears to occur frequently in smallholder pigs and poultry. Increased targeted surveillance and monitoring of influenza circulation on smallholdings would further improve understanding of the transmission dynamics and evolution of influenza viruses in humans, pigs and poultry in the Mekong subregion and could contribute to limit the influenza burden.

  • 299.
    Oscarsson, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Healthy women or risk patients?: Non-attendance in a cervical cancer screening program2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Women afflicted with cervical cancer who have the highest morbidity and mortality rates have been the least likely to be screened. The overall aim of this research project was to investigate non-attendance in a cervical cancer screening (CCS) program among women with no registered cervical smear during the previous five years. Both quantitative (I,III) and qualitative methods (II) as well as costeffectiveness analysis (IV) were used in this research project. In Kalmar County women (aged 23-65 years) are invited to CCS every third year. All cervical smears taken both in opportunistic and organised CCS are coordinated in a register called Sympathy. The coverage is 88.4 %. From Sympathy, a random sample of 400 women served as a study group and another 400 women as a control group (III,IV). From the study group, 133 women participated in study I and 14 women in study II. Data was collected by telephone interviews based on a questionnaire (I), qualitative face-to-face interviews (II), questionnaire, promotive efforts and outcome (III), costs and effectiveness (IV). Quantitative data was analysed by descriptive and analytic statistics (I,III), qualitative data was analysed by content analysis. In study IV, cost-effectiveness analysis was used.

    The women believed that CCS was a good idea for all other women, but tended to refer to various circumstances resulting in their own non-attendance. One of the most common reasons for non-attendance was the feeling of being healthy. The women prioritized family and work commitments, and the invitation to attend CCS was sometimes experienced as a stressful disturbance. The feeling of discomfort was related to the gynaecologic examination, or to health care visits in general (I,II). Of 133 women, 120 could consider having a cervical smear taken and their two most common requirements for doing so were to be assured they would be treated in a friendly way (19%) and to find a suitable time (18%) for having the cervical smear. Fifty women wanted to be helped to have a cervical smear taken. Promotive efforts ranged from making a simple telephone call to arranging an appointment time to a combination of promotive efforts including repeated encounters in order to create a trusting relationship with respect to taking the smear. In the study group, 29.5% (n=118) had a registered cervical smear at follow-up compared to 18.5% (n=74) in the control group, (p<0.001) (III). In the study group, the cost per cervical smear taken was 66.87 €, and in the control group it was 16.62 €. The incremental cost per additional cervical smear taken was 151.36 € (IV). In conclusion, women’s reasons for not attending CCS are complex and are influenced by both present and earlier circumstances. In settings with high coverage, further contact in order to promote women’s attendance at CCS seems to be associated with high costs in relation to the number of additional cervical smears taken.

  • 300. Pang, Jun-Feng
    et al.
    Klütsch, Cornelya
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Gene Technology.
    Zou, Xiao-Ju
    Zhang, Ai-bing
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Gene Technology.
    Luo, Li-Yang
    Angleby, Helen
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Gene Technology.
    Ardalan, Arman
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Gene Technology.
    Ekström, Camilla
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Gene Technology.
    Sköllermo, Anna
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Gene Technology.
    Lundeberg, Joakim
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Gene Technology.
    Matsumura, Shuichi
    Leitner, Thomas
    Zhang, Ya-Ping
    Savolainen, Peter
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Gene Technology.
    mtDNA Data Indicate a Single Origin for Dogs South of Yangtze River, Less Than 16,300 Years Ago, from Numerous Wolves2009In: Molecular biology and evolution, ISSN 0737-4038, E-ISSN 1537-1719, Vol. 26, no 12, p. 2849-2864Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is no generally accepted picture of where, when, and how the domestic dog originated. Previous studies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have failed to establish the time and precise place of origin because of lack of phylogenetic resolution in the so far studied control region (CR), and inadequate sampling. We therefore analyzed entire mitochondrial genomes for 169 dogs to obtain maximal phylogenetic resolution and the CR for 1,543 dogs across the Old World for a comprehensive picture of geographical diversity. Hereby, a detailed picture of the origins of the dog can for the first time be suggested. We obtained evidence that the dog has a single origin in time and space and an estimation of the time of origin, number of founders, and approximate region, which also gives potential clues about the human culture involved. The analyses showed that dogs universally share a common homogenous gene pool containing 10 major haplogroups. However, the full range of genetic diversity, all 10 haplogroups, was found only in southeastern Asia south of Yangtze River, and diversity decreased following a gradient across Eurasia, through seven haplogroups in Central China and five in North China and Southwest (SW)Asia, down to only four haplogroups in Europe. The mean sequence distance to ancestral haplotypes indicates an origin 5,400-16,300 years ago (ya) from at least 51 female wolf founders. These results indicate that the domestic dog originated in southern China less than 16,300 ya, from several hundred wolves. The place and time coincide approximately with the origin of rice agriculture, suggesting that the dogs may have originated among sedentary hunter-gatherers or early farmers, and the numerous founders indicate that wolf taming was an important culture trait.

3456789 251 - 300 of 435
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf