Change search
Refine search result
3456789 251 - 300 of 418
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 251.
    Mogren, Lars
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Löfström, Charlotta
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Alsanius, Beatrix
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Håll bevattningsrören rena2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 252. Mollbrink, Johanna
    et al.
    Danielsson-Tham (Intervjuobjekt), Marie-Louise
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Livet efter Stutis –: livmedelshygien2015In: Bladmagen, ISSN 0282-3926, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 16-16Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 253.
    Moore, Jason W.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Environmental crises and the metabolic rift in world-historical perspective2000In: Organization & environment, ISSN 1086-0266, E-ISSN 1552-7417, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 123-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article proposes a new theoretical framework to study the dialectic of capital and nature over the longue durée of world capitalism. The author proposes that today’s global ecological crisis has its roots in the transition to capitalism during the long sixteenth century. The emergence of capitalism marked not only a decisive shift in the arenas of politics, economy, and society, but a fundamental reorganization of world ecology, characterized by a “metabolic rift,” a progressively deepening rupture in the nutrient cycling between the country and the city. Building upon the historical political economy of Marx, Foster, Arrighi, and Wallerstein, the author proposes a new research agenda organized around the concept of systemic cycles of agro-ecological transformation. This agenda aims at discerning the ways in which capitalism’s relationship to nature developed discontinuously over time as recurrent ecological crises have formed a decisive moment of world capitalist crisis, forcing successive waves of restructuring over long historical time.

  • 254.
    Morrell, J. M.
    et al.
    Division of Reproduction, Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Johannisson, A.
    Division of Reproduction, Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Developmental Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Effect of Osmolarity and Density of Colloid Formulations on the Outcome of SLC-Selection of Stallion Spermatozoa2011In: ISRN Veterinary Science, ISSN 2090-4452, E-ISSN 2090-4460, Vol. 2011, article id 128984Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The osmolarity and density of colloids used to prepare spermatozoa for assisted reproduction may affect sperm quality in the resultant preparation. In this study, two osmolarities of Androcoll-E for single-layer or density gradient centrifugation of stallion spermatozoa were compared: “normal” (320 mOsm) or “high” (345 mOsm). Mean yields for the two centrifugation techniques did not differ between treatments or osmolarities (single layer centrifugation:30.19±16.9×106 and 25.8±18.5×106 spermatozoa; density gradient centrifugation: 31.84±19.7×106 and 26.46±20.0×106 spermatozoa respectively for the two osmolarities). However, use of the high osmolarity colloid for single layer centrifugation increased the proportion of morphologically normal spermatozoa (𝑃<.05). Therefore, increasing the osmolarity of the colloid formulation may be beneficial for processing ejaculates containing a high proportion of abnormal spermatozoa by SLC. Reducing the density of the colloid used for the SLC substantially increased the yield of motile spermatozoa compared to the normal density colloid (mean ± SD: 72.6±28.9×106 versus 28.9±24.7×106), while also prolonging sperm survival by 24 hours compared to the uncentrifuged ejaculate. This increased yield may render Single Layer Centrifugation practical for use in the field.

  • 255.
    Morrell, J. M.
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Clin Sci, Box 7054, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Nongbua, T.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Clin Sci, Box 7054, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Valeanu, S.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Clin Sci, Box 7054, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Lundstedt-Enkel, Katrin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Edman, A.
    Viking Genet, Ornsro, Skara, Sweden..
    Johannisson, A.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Clin Sci, Box 7054, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Bull breed affects which parameters of sperm quality are indicative of fertility2016In: Animal Reproduction Science, ISSN 0378-4320, E-ISSN 1873-2232, Vol. 169, p. 112-113Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 256.
    Munoz-Fuentes, Violeta
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics.
    Forsberg, Catharina Linde
    Vila, Carles
    Morrell, Jane M.
    Single-layer centrifugation separates spermatozoa from diploid cells in epididymal samples from gray wolves, Canis lupus (L.)2014In: Theriogenology, ISSN 0093-691X, E-ISSN 1879-3231, Vol. 82, no 5, p. 773-776Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sperm samples may be used for assisted reproductive technologies (e.g., farmed or endangered species) or as a source of haploid DNA or sperm-specific RNA. When ejaculated spermatozoa are not available or are very difficult to obtain, as is the case for most wild endangered species, the epididymides of dead animals (e.g., animals that have been found dead, shot by hunters or poachers, or that that require euthanasia in zoological collections) can be used as a source of sperm. Such epididymal sperm samples are usually contaminated with cellular debris, erythrocytes, leukocytes, and sometimes also bacteria. These contaminants may be sources of reactive oxygen species that damage spermatozoa during freezing or contribute undesired genetic material from diploid cells. We used single-layer centrifugation through a colloid formulation, Androcoll-C, to successfully separate wolf epididymal spermatozoa from contaminating cells and cellular debris in epididymal samples harvested from carcasses. Such a procedure may potentially be applied to epididymal sperm samples from other species.

  • 257.
    Mustafa, Mudassir Imran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Design Principles for Data Export: Action Design Research in U-CARE2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, we report the findings of designing data export functionality in Uppsala University Psychosocial Care Program (U-CARE) at Uppsala University. The aim of this thesis was to explore the design space for generic data export functionality in data centric clinical research applications for data analysis. This was attained by the construction and evaluation of a prototype for a data-centric clinical research application. For this purpose Action Design Research (ADR) was conducted, situated in the domain of clinical research. The results consist of a set of design principles expressing key aspects needed to address when designing data export functionality. The artifacts derived from the development and evaluation process each one constitutes an example of how to design for data export functionality of this kind.

  • 258.
    Mörner, Torsten
    et al.
    National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Beasley, Val
    University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
    22. Monitoring for Diseases in Wildlife Populations2012In: Ecology and Animal Health / [ed] Leif Norrgren and Jeffrey Levengood, Uppsala: Baltic University Press , 2012, 1, p. 186-190Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 259. Nilsson, A
    et al.
    Ahman, B
    Norberg, H
    Redbo, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Comparative Medicine.
    Eloranta, E
    Olsson, K
    Activity and heart rate in semi-domesticated reindeer during adaptation to emergency feeding2006In: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 88, no 1-2, p. 116-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although reindeer are well adapted to limited food resources during winter, semi-domesticated reindeer are regularly fed when snow conditions are bad in order to prevent starvation. Feeding sometimes results in health problems and loss of animals. This study was made to assess if activity pattern in reindeer could be used as a tool for the reindeer herder in early detection of animals that are not adapting to feeding. The frequency of 10 behavioural categories was recorded in five groups of penned, eight-month-old, female semi-domesticated reindeer. Three reindeer per group were fitted with heart rate monitors. Lying was the most frequent behaviour, whilst there were few cases of agonistic behaviour. Heart rate varied during the day, with peaks during feeding and low heart rates in the early morning. Restricted feed intake resulted in more locomotion and seeking but less ruminating compared to feeding ad libitum. This was followed by a generally lower heart rate in reindeer in the restricted groups compared to controls. Subsequent feeding with different combinations of lichens, silage and pellets ad libitum resulted initially in significantly more of the animals lying curled up, compared to controls, combined with increased heart rates. As the experiment continued the general activity pattern, as well as the heart rate, gradually became more similar in all groups. Lying curled was the behavioural indicator most consistently affected by feed deprivation and adaptation to feeding and may thus be a useful indicator to distinguish individual reindeer that are not adjusting to feeding.

  • 260.
    Nilsson, Anders S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Phage therapy-constraints and possibilities2014In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 119, no 2, p. 192-198Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rise of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains, causing intractable infections, has resulted in an increased interest in phage therapy. Phage therapy preceded antibiotic treatment against bacterial infections and involves the use of bacteriophages, bacterial viruses, to fight bacteria. Virulent phages are abundant and have proven to be very effective in vitro, where they in most cases lyse any bacteria within the hour. Clinical trials on animals and humans show promising results but also that the treatments are not completely effective. This is partly due to the studies being carried out with few phages, and with limited experimental groups, but also the fact that phage therapy has limitations in vivo. Phages are large compared with small antibiotic molecules, and each phage can only infect one or a few bacterial strains. A very large number of different phages are needed to treat infections as these are caused by genetically different strains of bacteria. Phages are effective only if enough of them can reach the bacteria and increase in number in situ. Taken together, this entails high demands on resources for the construction of phage libraries and the testing of individual phages. The effectiveness and host range must be characterized, and immunological risks must be assessed for every single phage.

  • 261.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Physical activity assessed by accelerometry in children2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Physical activity (PA) is likely to constitute an important aspect of health-related behaviour in growing children. However, the knowledge on levels and patterns of PA in children is limited, due to the difficulty of precisely measuring this complex behaviour in normal daily living. Information on variables that significantly contributes to the variability in PA patterns is warranted as it may inform strategies for promoting physically active lifestyles in school-age youth. The overall purpose of the present studies was to increase the knowledge about the use of accelerometry when assessing PA in children, and examine sources of variability in objectively assessed PA behaviour in children. The study samples included 1954 nine- and 15-year-old children from four geographical locations in Europe (Norway, Denmark, Estonia and Portugal), and additionally 16 Swedish seven-year-old boys and girls. PA was assessed by the MTI accelerometer during free-living conditions, including both weekdays and weekend days. A part of the PA assessment was conducted using different time sampling intervals (epochs). Predictions of estimates of daily energy expenditure from accelerometer output were calculated using previously published equations. Potential correlates of PA behaviour were assessed by self-report. The main findings were; a) the epoch setting had a significant effect when interpreting time spent at higher intensities of PA in young children, b) predicted energy expenditure differed substantially between equations, c) between- and within-day differences in overall levels of PA, time spent at moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity and time spent sedentary differed between age, gender and geographical location, d) outdoor play and sports participation were differentially associated with objectively measured PA in 9- and 15-year-old children. It is concluded that the sporadic nature of children’s physical activity require very short epoch settings for detecting high intensity PA, and that different published equations for estimations of daily energy expenditure cannot be used interchangeably. The interpretations of average energy expenditure from available equations should be made with caution. Based on a large sample of children of different ages, weekend days and leisure time during weekdays seem appropriate targets when promoting PA in order to increase the proportion of children achieving current recommendations on health enhancing PA. Further, significant correlates of PA behaviour dependent on age group are presented, which should be considered when planning interventions for promoting PA in school-age youth.

  • 262.
    Nilsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Adamo, Hanibal
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Bergh, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Halin Bergström, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Inhibition of Lysyl Oxidase and Lysyl Oxidase-Like Enzymes Has Tumour-Promoting and Tumour-Suppressing Roles in Experimental Prostate Cancer2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, article id 19608Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lysyl oxidase (LOX) and LOX-like (LOXL) enzymes are key players in extracellular matrix deposition and maturation. LOX promote tumour progression and metastasis, but it may also have tumour-inhibitory effects. Here we show that orthotopic implantation of rat prostate AT-1 tumour cells increased LOX and LOXLs mRNA expressions in the tumour and in the surrounding non-malignant prostate tissue. Inhibition of LOX enzymes, using Beta-aminopropionitrile (BAPN), initiated before implantation of AT-1 cells, reduced tumour growth. Conversely, treatment that was started after the tumours were established resulted in unaffected or increased tumour growth. Moreover, treatment with BAPN did not suppress the formation of spontaneous lymph node metastases, or lung tumour burden, when tumour cells were injected intravenously. A temporal decrease in collagen fibre content, which is a target for LOX, was observed in tumours and in the tumour-adjacent prostate tissue. This may explain why early BAPN treatment is more effective in inhibiting tumour growth compared to treatment initiated later. Our data suggest that the enzymatic function of the LOX family is context-dependent, with both tumour-suppressing and tumour-promoting properties in prostate cancer. Further investigations are needed to understand the circumstances under which LOX inhibition may be used as a therapeutic target for cancer patients.

  • 263.
    Nilsson, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the East of Östergötland, East County Primary Health Care.
    Chest pain and ischemic heart disease: Diagnosis and management in primary health care2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims. In patients consulting for chest pain, it is of great importance to evaluate the possibility of ischemic heart disease (IHD). The aims in this thesis were to investigate the accuracy of the general practitioners’ clinical assessments and the applicability of exercise testing and myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) in patients consulting for chest pain in primary care.

    Statins are known to prevent IHD. A further aim was therefore to investigate if a relation could be detected on a population basis between the use of statins and the morbidity of acute myocardial infarction (AMI).

    Methods. All patients from 20 to 79 years, consulting for a new episode of chest pain in three primary health care centres, were included during almost two years from 1998 to 2000. The patients were managed according to the clinical evaluation. The presence of IHD was excluded either by clinical examination only, or if stable IHD was in question, by exercise testing and if the exercise test was inconclusive by an additional MPS. If unstable IHD or myocardial infarction was suspected, referral for emergency hospital examination was made.

    Correlations between statin sales and the morbidity of AMI in Sweden’s municipalities were analysed in an ecological, register based study. Adjustment was made for sales of antidiabetics, socio-economic deprivation indexes and geographic coordinates.

    Results. Consultations for chest pain represented 1.5% of all consultations in the ages 20 to 79 and were made by 554 patients. In 281 patients IHD was excluded by clinical examination only. In 208 patients stable IHD and in 65 unstable IHD was in question. Four patients (1.4%) evaluated as not having IHD, were diagnosed with angina pectoris or AMI within three months. Exercise testing was performed in 191 patients and revealed no IHD in 134 and IHD in 14 patients. In 43 patients the exercise test results were equivocal. Thirty-nine of these patients underwent MPS, which showed no IHD in 20 and IHD in 19 of the patients.

    In a follow up almost six years later, neither mortality rate nor prevalence of IHD differed significantly between the 384 study patients evaluated not to have IHD and the population controls.

    Statin sales and AMI-incidence or mortality showed no strong associations from 1998 to 2002.

    Conclusions.

    ·Primary care is an appropriate level of care for ruling out IHD as the cause of chest pain, with sufficient safety and for diagnostics of stable IHD.

    ·Exercise testing and myocardial perfusion scintigraphy are useful procedures when investigating chest pain patients in primary care.

    ·The results indicate that preventive measures other than increased statin treatment should be considered to further decrease AMI-morbidity.

  • 264.
    Nilsson, Torbjörn K.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Böttiger, Anna K.
    Henriquez, Patricia
    Serra Majem, Lluis
    MTHFR polymorphisms and serum cobalamin affect plasma homocysteine concentrations differentially in females and males2014In: Molecular Medicine Reports, ISSN 1791-2997, E-ISSN 1791-3004, Vol. 10, no 5, p. 2706-2712Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A total of 523 subjects (297 females and 226 males) from the Canary Islands Nutrition Study (ENCA) were studied in order to examine the effect of the MTHFR 677C>T, 1298A>C and 1793G>A polymorphisms, adjusted for age, serum (5)-folate and S-cobalamin levels, on total plasma homocysteine concentrations (tHcy). Genotyping was performed with Pyrosequencing(R) technology. The MTHFR 677T-allele was associated with increased tHcy concentrations only in males (P=0.005). The MTHFR 1298C-allele was found to be associated with higher tHcy levels but similarly, only in males (P=0.025). The MTHFR 1793A-allele was associated with decreased tHcy concentrations in the younger males (P=0.042). A haplotype-based approach was marginally superior in explaining the genetic interaction of the MTHFR polymorphisms on tHcy plasma levels (R-2 0.352 vs. 0.342 for a simple genotype-based approach). A nutrigenetic interaction between the MTHFR 677C>T genotype and S-cobalamin on tHcy levels was demonstrated in both genders. The increase in tHcy was more pronounced with decreasing S-cobalamin quintiles in 677TT homozygotes (P=0.005 for males and P=0.015 for females) than with decreasing S-folate quintiles (P for trend not significant). It was concluded that gene-nutrient interactions may differ depending on the sex and age of the subjects. The transferability of gene-nutrient interactions from one community to others may therefore be limited not only by different food patterns but also by different ages, genders and genotype distributions.

  • 265.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The concept of animal welfare: a philosopher’s view2009In: Welfare of Production Animals: Assessment and Management of Risks / [ed] Frans J.M Smulders and Bo Algers, Wageningen: Wageningen Academic Publishers , 2009, 1, p. 29-44Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book, the fifth in the series 'Food Safety Assurance and Veterinary Public Health', has been conceived by a total of 33 internationally recognised experts from 11 different countries in Europe and from the USA, Canada and Australia, with backgrounds ranging from veterinary medicine, animal science, biology and microbiology to psychology, philosophy and ethics. It provides an up-to-date overview of the science of animal welfare and its assessment, of options for the assessment and management of risks for the welfare of production animals, and of the ramifications these may have for the safety of foods of animal origin.This Volume is targeted at veterinary practitioners, official veterinarians in a control function, animal and food scientists, welfare scientists, students in animal welfare, auditing and inspection officials and risk managers at all levels of animal production.Other publications in the Food Safety Assurance and Veterinary Public Health series are: * Volume 1. Food safety assurance in the pre-harvest phase * Volume 2. Safety assurance during food processing * Volume 3. Risk management strategies: monitoring and surveillance * Volume 4. Towards a risk-based chain control

  • 266. Nordengrahn, Ann
    et al.
    Gustafsdottir, Sigrun M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Ebert, Katja
    Reid, Scott M.
    King, Donald P.
    Ferris, Nigel P.
    Brocchi, Emiliana
    Grazioli, Santina
    Landegren, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Merza, Malik
    Evaluation of a novel proximity ligation assay for the sensitive and rapid detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus2008In: Veterinary Microbiology, ISSN 0378-1135, E-ISSN 1873-2542, Vol. 127, no 3-4, p. 227-236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel proximity ligation assay (PLA) using a pan-serotype reactive monoclonal antibody was developed and evaluated for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in clinical samples collected from field cases of disease. The FMDV-specific PLA was found to be 100 times more sensitive for virus detection than the commonly used antigen capture-ELISA (AgELISA). As few as five TCID50 were detected in individual assays, which was comparable with the analytical sensitivity of real-time RT-PCR. Although this assay was capable of detecting diverse isolates from all seven FMDV serotypes, the diagnostic sensitivity of the PLA assay was lower than real-time RT-PCR mainly due to a failure to detect some SAT 1, SAT 2 and SAT 3 FMDV strains. In conclusion, this new PLA format has high analytical sensitivity for the detection of FMDV in clinical samples and may prove valuable as a rapid and simple tool for use in FMD diagnosis.

  • 267. Nordstoga, K.
    et al.
    Sorby, R.
    Olivecrona, Gunilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Physiological chemistry.
    Smith, A. J.
    Christophersen, B.
    Pancreatitis in Hyperlipemic Mink (Mustela vison)2012In: Veterinary pathology, ISSN 0300-9858, E-ISSN 1544-2217, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 557-561Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In both man and animals, inflammatory changes in the pancreas often occur with disturbances in lipid metabolism, including hypertriglyceridemia and an excess of free fatty acids. Hyperlipoproteinemia type I is a human condition caused by a deficiency of lipoprotein lipase. A similar metabolic disturbance that occurs in mink is of considerable comparative interest, as it is also followed by pancreatitis. Pancreatic lesions in hyperlipoproteinemic mink included overt variably sized nodules with hemorrhage and necrosis. These lesions began as intralobular necrosis of exocrine cells and progressed to total lobular destruction, with eventual involvement of interlobular tissue. Remnants of epithelial cells and lipid-filled macrophages were seen in necrotic areas, along with other types of inflammatory cells scattered in a lipid-rich exudate. Granulation tissue developed rapidly in necrotic areas. Additional observations included ductal proliferation, replacement of epithelial cells with fat, and mural arterial thickening, most conspicuously with vacuolated cells and endothelial proliferation. Extravasation of lipid-rich plasma is thought to be a major intensifier of the inflammatory response.

  • 268.
    Norman Haldén, Anna
    et al.
    Institutionen för biomedicin och veterinär folkhälsovetenskap, Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Arnoldsson, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Mattsson, A.
    Institutionen för biomedicin och veterinär folkhälsovetenskap; Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Ullerås, E.
    Institutionen för biomedicin och veterinär folkhälsovetenskap, Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Sturve, J.
    Zoologiska institutionen, Göteborgs universitet.
    Norrgren, Leif
    Institutionen för biomedicin och veterinär folkhälsovetenskap, Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Retention and maternal transfer of brominated dioxins in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and effects on reproduction, aryl hydrocarbon receptor-regulated genes, and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity2011In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 102, no 3-4, p. 150-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Brominated dioxins have recently been detected in Baltic Sea biota. Due to their similarities to the highly toxic chlorinated dioxins, concern has been raised about their potential biological effects. The present study investigated retention and effects of brominated dioxins in adult zebrafish, as well as maternal transfer and effects on offspring. We exposed adult zebrafish for nine weeks via feed to 2,3,7,8-tetrabromodibenzo-p-dioxin (TBDD) or to a mixture of brominated dioxins (Baltic Sea mixture), which was designed to reflect relative concentrations found in Baltic Sea biota. We studied spawning success, gonad morphology, hepatic vitellogenin gene expression, and offspring early life-stage development to investigate effects on zebrafish reproduction. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity and hepatic expression of a number of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)-regulated genes were studied to investigate if the brominated dioxins can activate gene transcription through the AHR pathway in zebrafish. In addition, glutathione reductase activity and expression of genes involved in adaptive responses to intracellular stress were studied to investigate potential stress effects of brominated dioxins. After nine weeks of exposure, all brominated dioxins spiked to the feed were detected in female fish and transferred to eggs. Exposure to the Baltic Sea mixture and TBDD clearly induced AHR-regulated genes and EROD activity. Exposure to TBDD reduced spawning success, altered ovarian morphology and reduced hepatic vitellogenin gene expression, which implies that TBDD has a similar effect pattern as the chlorinated analogue. Overall, our results show that dietary exposure to sublethal concentrations of brominated dioxins may impair reproductive physiology in fish and induce AHR-regulated genes. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 269.
    Norrgren, Leif
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Levengood, JeffreyUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
    Ecology and animal health2012Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 270.
    Norén, Torbjörn
    Örebro University, Department of Clinical Medicine.
    Clostridium difficile: epidemiology and antibiotic resistance2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Clostridium difficile is a spore-forming toxin-producing intestinal bacterium abundant in soils and waters. This pathogen relies on increased growth by a disturbed intestinal microflora and the production of two cytotoxins, toxin A and toxin B, which may cause anything from mild self-limiting C. difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) to severe and fatal pseudomembranous colitis (PMC). Typically CDAD following antibiotic therapy is due either to overgrowth of endogenous C. difficile or through spores transmitted from the environment. The hospital setting provides frequent antibiotic use and the source of numerous infective spores from CDAD patients, the environment or nursing staff. Today we experience a 10-fold increase of incidence in the US and Canada (1991-2003) apparently due to a current epidemic C. difficile strain (NAP1/027). Current incidence from Canada is estimated to 156/100 000 compared to 50/100 000 in Sweden 1995.

    In the following thesis, investigations of CDAD in Örebro County in central Sweden resulted in the discovery an epidemic nosocomial C. difficile strain (SE17, serogroup C), found to be clindamycin-resistant. The majority of the isolates carried a gene (ermB) related to this resitance. We found an overall incidence during 1999-2000 of 97/100 000 or, if including recurrent episodes, 135/100 000 i.e. more than 100% increase since 1995. The incidence among hospitalized individuals was 1300-fold that in the community and 78% of episodes were classified as hospital-associated. This reflects a 37-fold difference in antibiotic consumption, as well as the predominance of the resistant SE17 hospital-associated strain (22% of hospital isolates compared to 6% of community isolates, p=0.008). Only 10% of the recurrent cases were found to be reinfections indicating that CDAD is mainly caused by endogenous strains and not by hospital transmission.

    Recent reports on failure of standard metronidazole therapy urge for alternative treatment agents and fusidic acid has been proven as effective in the treatment of CDAD. We could verify this, but in both treatment groups we found that persistence of C. difficile isolates post-treatment related to an increased risk of recurrent CDAD compared to the patients who were culture negative at follow-up (p=0.03). Most importantly, 55% of patients with follow-up isolates and who had been treated with fusidic acid, the strains had developed fusidic acid resistance. The corresponding pre-treatment identity of isolate genotype indicated selection of mutants. Relating to the known fusA resistance mechanism in Staphylococcus aureus we used the published sequence for this gene in Clostridium perfringens and found homologous fusA in the sequence of the referent strain C. difficile 630. Comparing fusA of the resistant mutants with the initial wild-type isolates, we identified novel mutations in fusA as the genetic key to fusidic acid resistance in C. difficile.

  • 271. Nyamwaya, Doris
    et al.
    Wang'ondu, Virginia
    Amimo, Joshua
    Michuki, George
    Ogugo, Moses
    Ontiri, Enoch
    Sang, Rosemary
    Lindahl, Johanna
    Grace, Delia
    Bett, Bernard
    Detection of West Nile virus in wild birds in Tana River and Garissa Counties, Kenya.2016In: BMC Infectious Diseases, ISSN 1471-2334, E-ISSN 1471-2334, Vol. 16, no 1, article id 696Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: West Nile fever virus is a zoonotic arboviral infection maintained in a sylvatic cycle involving mosquito vectors and birds. It is one the arboviruses whose geographical range is expanding because of climate and land use changes that enhance the densities of mosquitoes and promote mosquito-bird-human interactions. We carried out a survey to determine the reservoirs of WNV among wild birds in Tana River and Garissa counties, Kenya.

    METHODS: Blood samples were obtained from 361 randomly trapped wild birds. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), all samples were screened for WNV using gene specific primer sets amplifying a portion of the E region of the genome encoding the envelope protein.

    RESULTS: Sixty five (65) out of 361 birds screened tested positive for WNV on real-time PCR assay. Sequencing of the selected positive samples reveals that the isolated WNV were most closely related to strains isolated from China (2011). A regression analysis indicated that sampling location influenced the occurrence of WNV while species, age, weight and sex of the birds did not have any effect.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study provides baseline information on the existing circulation of WNV in this region among wild bird reservoirs that could spill over to the human population and points to the need for implementation of surveillance programs to map the distribution of the virus among reservoirs. Awareness creation about West Nile fever in this region is important to improve its detection and management.

  • 272.
    Nyman, Erika
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery.
    Guided Regeneration of the Human Skin: in vitro and in vivo studies2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Every day and in all parts of the world, humans experience different grades of wounding and tissue loss of the skin, thus initiating one of the most complex biological processes. Acute and chronic wounds, as well as the additional problem of skin scarring, involve not only great suffering for the patient but also extensive health care costs for the society. Although the wound-healing process is a wellstudied field much knowledge must be gained to unlock the door to regenerative pathways in humans.

    Epidermis heals by complete regeneration, but dermal and full thickness injuries heal with fibrosis and scar formation. In Papers I and II, we studied whether dermal scarring could be turned into regeneration by using two different types of threedimensional dermal scaffolds. In Paper I, we studied a solid scaffold made of poly(urethane urea), initially in vitro then followed by in vivo studies. In Paper II, we intradermally injected a liquid three-dimensional scaffold consisting of porous gelatin spheres in human healthy volunteers. Both materials showed ingrowth of functional fibroblasts and blood vessels and appeared to stimulate regeneration while slowly degrading. This finding could be of significant clinical importance, for example in burn wound care or after cancer surgery.

    In Papers III and IV, we wanted to study the effects of amniotic fluid and hyaluronic acid on adult wound healing, because early fetal wounds re-epithelialize rapidly and naturally heal dermis by regeneration without the need of a dermal scaffold. Amniotic fluid, naturally rich in hyaluronic acid, induced an accelerated reepithelialization of adult human wounds in vitro, and hyaluronic acid seemed to be important for this effect. Stimulation with exogenous hyaluronic acid in vivo induced accelerated re-epithelialization and an altered protein expression in healthy human volunteers. The inflammatory phase of wound healing, as measured by tissue viability imaging, was not affected by hyaluronic acid. Elucidating the effects of amniotic fluid and hyaluronic acid on the wound-healing process may allow improved treatment of wounds with impaired healing.

    Studies on finding new dermal scaffolds and studies on the positive effect of amniotic fluid or hyaluronic acid on the wound-healing process are two different ways of gaining insight that may lead to regeneration and improved wound healing for the patient.

  • 273.
    Nyman, Görel
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Marntell, Stina
    Edner, Anna
    Funkquist, Pia
    Morgan, Karin
    Hedenstierna, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Effect of sedation with detomidine and butorphanol on pulmonary gas exchange in the horse2009In: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, ISSN 1751-0147, E-ISSN 1751-0147, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 22-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Sedation with alpha2-agonists in the horse is reported to be accompanied by impairment of arterial oxygenation. The present study was undertaken to investigate pulmonary gas exchange using the Multiple Inert Gas Elimination Technique (MIGET), during sedation with the alpha2-agonist detomidine alone and in combination with the opioid butorphanol. METHODS: Seven Standardbred trotter horses aged 3-7 years and weighing 380-520 kg, were studied. The protocol consisted of three consecutive measurements; in the unsedated horse, after intravenous administration of detomidine (0.02 mg/kg) and after subsequent butorphanol administration (0.025 mg/kg). Pulmonary function and haemodynamic effects were investigated. The distribution of ventilation-perfusion ratios (VA/Q) was estimated with MIGET. RESULTS: During detomidine sedation, arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) decreased (12.8 +/- 0.7 to 10.8 +/- 1.2 kPa) and arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) increased (5.9 +/- 0.3 to 6.1 +/- 0.2 kPa) compared to measurements in the unsedated horse. Mismatch between ventilation and perfusion in the lungs was evident, but no increase in intrapulmonary shunt could be detected. Respiratory rate and minute ventilation did not change. Heart rate and cardiac output decreased, while pulmonary and systemic blood pressure and vascular resistance increased. Addition of butorphanol resulted in a significant decrease in ventilation and increase in PaCO2. Alveolar-arterial oxygen content difference P(A-a)O2 remained impaired after butorphanol administration, the VA/Q distribution improved as the decreased ventilation and persistent low blood flow was well matched. Also after subsequent butorphanol no increase in intrapulmonary shunt was evident. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study suggest that both pulmonary and cardiovascular factors contribute to the impaired pulmonary gas exchange during detomidine and butorphanol sedation in the horse.

  • 274.
    Näsberg, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Kvinnors upplevelser och behov av stöd vid hysterektomi: en litteraturstudie2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Hysterektomi är ett kirurgiskt ingrepp där man opererar bort livmodern på kvinnor där en genital rubbning uppkommit. Syftet med detta arbete var att ge en klarare bild om hur kvinnor upplever detta ingrepp samt hur vårdpersonalen skall bemöta och kunna ge kvinnan stöd om så skulle behövas. Syftet med studien var att genom en litteraturstudie belysa kvinnors upplevelser av hysterektomi samt behov av stöd. En systematisk litteraturstudie gjordes där tretton vetenskapliga studier har inkluderats. Resultatet presenteras i två huvudkategorier, kvinnors upplevelser vid hysterektomi samt kvinnors behov av stöd. Båda kategorierna innefattade underkategorier vilka var livskvalitet, sexualitet, stöd samt information. Resultatet visade på att större delen av kvinnorna som genomgått hysterektomi var nöjda med ingreppet, då ett stort handikapp de dragits med en lång tid lättade eller försvann helt. Kvinnorna saknade information om tiden efter operationen. Information har en stor betydelse av hur kvinnorna upplever hysterektomi. Sammanfattningsvis är det viktigt att sjukvårdspersonal har den kunskapen att ge rätt information vid rätt tillfälle. För att hjälpa de kvinnor som skall genomgå hysterektomi bör vårdpersonalen även kunna vara ett stöd, så att sjukhusvistelsen blir en god upplevelse för dessa kvinnor.

  • 275.
    Ohlund, M.
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, POB 7054, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Egenvall, A.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, POB 7054, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Fall, Tove
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular epidemiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Hansson-Hamlin, H.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, POB 7054, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Rocklinsberg, H.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Environm & Hlth, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Holst, B. S.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, POB 7054, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Environmental Risk Factors for Diabetes Mellitus in Cats2017In: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, ISSN 0891-6640, E-ISSN 1939-1676, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 29-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundDiabetes in cats resembles type 2 diabetes in people. The etiology is not fully understood, but both genetic and environmental factors are believed to contribute. ObjectivesTo assess the associations of environmental risk factors with diabetes in cats. AnimalsCats with a diagnosis of diabetes (n = 396) insured by a Swedish insurance company during years 2009-2013, and a control group (n = 1,670) matched on birth year. MethodsA web-based questionnaire was used in a case-control study. An invitation to participate was sent to owners of 1,369 diabetic cats and 5,363 control cats. The survey contained questions related to the cat's breed, age, sex, neutering status, body condition, housing, access to the outdoors, activity level, diet, eating behavior, feeding routine, general health, stressful events, other pets in the household, medications, and vaccination status. Data were analyzed by multiple logistic regression. ResultsResponse rate was 35% for the diabetic group and 32% for the control group. Indoor confinement, being a greedy eater, and being overweight were associated with an increased risk of diabetes. In cats assessed by owners as being normal weight, there was an association between eating predominantly dry food and an increased risk of diabetes (Odds ratio 3.8; 95% confidence intervals 1.3-11.2). Conclusions and Clinical ImportanceDry food is commonly fed to cats worldwide. The association found between dry food and an increased risk of diabetes in cats assessed as normal weight by owners warrants further attention.

  • 276.
    Ohlund, M.
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Fall, Tove
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular epidemiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Holst, B. Strom
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Hansson-Hamlin, H.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Bonnett, B.
    Int Partnership Dogs, Georgian Bluffs, ON, Canada..
    Egenvall, A.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Incidence of Diabetes Mellitus in Insured Swedish Cats in Relation to Age, Breed and Sex2015In: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, ISSN 0891-6640, E-ISSN 1939-1676, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 1342-1347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Diabetes mellitus ( DM) is a common endocrinopathy in cats. Most affected cats suffer from a type of diabetes similar to type 2 diabetes in humans. An increasing prevalence has been described in cats, as in humans, related to obesity and other lifestyle factors. Objectives: To describe the incidence of DM in insured Swedish cats and the association of DM with demographic risk factors, such as age, breed and sex. Animals: A cohort of 504,688 individual cats accounting for 1,229,699 cat- years at risk ( CYAR) insured by a Swedish insurance company from 2009 to 2013. Methods: We used reimbursed insurance claims for the diagnosis of DM. Overall incidence rates and incidence rates stratified on year, age, breed, and sex were estimated. Results: The overall incidence rate of DM in the cohort was 11.6 cases ( 95% confidence interval [ CI], 11.0- 12.2) per 10,000 CYAR. Male cats had twice as high incidence rate ( 15.4; 95% CI, 14.4- 16.4) as females ( 7.6; 95% CI, 6.9- 8.3). Domestic cats were at higher risk compared to purebred cats. A significant association with breed was seen, with the Burmese, Russian Blue, Norwegian Forest cat, and Abyssinian breeds at a higher risk compared to other cats. No sex predisposition was found among Burmese cats. Several breeds with a lower risk of DM were identified. Conclusions and clinical importance: Our results verify that the Burmese breed is at increased risk of developing DM. We also identified several previously unreported breeds with increased or decreased risk of DM.

  • 277.
    Olsson, Gustav
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Jegefalk, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Beta-alanin - aminosyran för styrketränande?2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka inverkan av två veckors supplementering med beta-alanin (BA) på styrkeuthålligheten hos styrketränande i åldern 18 till 30. Ger BA efter två veckors uppladdningsperiod en ergogen effekt på den dynamiska styrkeuthålligheten hos regelbundet styrketränande? Ger BA efter två veckors uppladdningsperiod en ergogen effekt på uthålligheten vid statisk kontraktion hos regelbundet styrketränande?

    Metod

    Studien genomfördes på 14 styrketränande friska män och kvinnor (7 män, 7 kvinnor) som delades in slumpvis i en placebogrupp (n=7) och en BA-grupp (n=7). Båda grupperna utförde tre tester. Ett förtest bestämde deltagarnas 10RM i bänkpress och benextension samt 1RM i bicepsflektion. Vid testillfälle 1 (T1) och testillfälle 2 (T2) utfördes i både bänkpress och benextension först ett arbete om 4 set 8 rep på 10RM med tre minuters vila mellan seten. Därefter, en minut efter fjärde setet, utfördes arbete till utmattning om 4 set på 70 % 10RM med en vila om 1 minut mellan var set. Totalt antal rep vid de 4 senare seten användes som jämförelsetal. Vid bicepsflektion utfördes isometriskt arbete till utmattning om 4 set på 70 % 1RM med1 minuts vila mellan var set. Tiden för det isometriska arbetet användes som jämförelsetal. Mellan T1 och T2 genomgick försökspersonerna 14 dagars supplementering med BA eller placebo. Dosen som erhölls var 6g ± 0,05g BA tillsammans med 6g ± 0,5g CHO i form av dextros eller, för placebogruppen, 12g ± 0,5g CHO. Varje dagsdos fördelades till 4 intag per dag i samband med måltid.

    Resultat

    Båda grupperna ökade sitt resultat vid T2 i de dynamiska övningarna. Ingen skillnad förelåg dock mellan placebogruppen och BA-gruppen vare sig i dynamisk- eller statisk uthållighet. Ingen signifikant ökning förelåg för vare sig BA- eller placebogruppen i statisk uthållighet.

    Slutsats

    Vår slutsats är att ingen ergogen effekt uppnås efter en 14 dagars supplementering med BA vid sådana styrketräningsmoment som detta experiment prövat.

  • 278.
    Olsson, Mia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Frankowiack, Marcel
    Tengvall, Katarina
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Roosje, Petra
    Fall, Tove
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular epidemiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Ivansson, Emma
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Bergvall, Kerstin
    Hansson-Hamlin, Helene
    Sundberg, Katarina
    Hedhammar, Ake
    Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Hammarstrom, Lennart
    The dog as a genetic model for immunoglobulin A (IgA) deficiency: Identification of several breeds with low serum IgA concentrations2014In: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, ISSN 0165-2427, E-ISSN 1873-2534, Vol. 60, no 3-4, p. 255-259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Immunoglobulin A (IgA) serves as the basis of the secretory immune system by protecting the lining of mucosal sites from pathogens. In both humans and dogs, IgA deficiency (IgAD) is associated with recurrent infections of mucosal sites and immune-mediated diseases. Low concentrations of serum IgA have previously been reported to occur in a number of dog breeds but no generally accepted cut-off value has been established for canine IgAD. The current study represents the largest screening to date of IgA in dogs in terms of both number of dogs (n = 1267) and number of breeds studied (n = 22). Serum IgA concentrations were quantified by using capture ELISA and were found to vary widely between breeds. We also found IgA to be positively correlated with age (p < 0.0001). Apart from the two breeds previously reported as predisposed to low IgA (Shar-Pei and German shepherd), we identified six additional breeds in which > 10% of all tested dogs had very low (<0.07 g/l) IgA concentrations (Hovawart, Norwegian elkhound, Nova Scotia duck tolling retriever, Bullterrier, Golden retriever and Labrador retriever). In addition, we discovered low IgA concentrations to be significantly associated with canine atopic dermatitis (CAD, p < 0.0001) and pancreatic acinar atrophy (PAA, p = 0.04) in German shepherds.

  • 279.
    Olsson, Mia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Meadows, Jennifer R. S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Truve, Katarina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Pielberg, Gerli Rosengren
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Puppo, Francesca
    Mauceli, Evan
    Quilez, Javier
    Tonomura, Noriko
    Zanna, Giordana
    Jose Docampo, Maria
    Bassols, Anna
    Avery, Anne C.
    Karlsson, Elinor K.
    Thomas, Anne
    Kastner, Daniel L.
    Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, The Linnaeus Centre for Bioinformatics.
    Webster, Matthew T.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Sanchez, Armand
    Hedhammar, Åke
    Remmers, Elaine F.
    Andersson, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Ferrer, Lluis
    Tintle, Linda
    Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    A Novel Unstable Duplication Upstream of HAS2 Predisposes to a Breed-Defining Skin Phenotype and a Periodic Fever Syndrome in Chinese Shar-Pei Dogs2011In: PLoS Genetics, ISSN 1553-7390, Vol. 7, no 3, p. e1001332-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hereditary periodic fever syndromes are characterized by recurrent episodes of fever and inflammation with no known pathogenic or autoimmune cause. In humans, several genes have been implicated in this group of diseases, but the majority of cases remain unexplained. A similar periodic fever syndrome is relatively frequent in the Chinese Shar-Pei breed of dogs. In the western world, Shar-Pei have been strongly selected for a distinctive thick and heavily folded skin. In this study, a mutation affecting both these traits was identified. Using genome-wide SNP analysis of Shar-Pei and other breeds, the strongest signal of a breed-specific selective sweep was located on chromosome 13. The same region also harbored the strongest genome-wide association (GWA) signal for susceptibility to the periodic fever syndrome (p(raw) = 2.3 x 10(-6), p(genome) = 0.01). Dense targeted resequencing revealed two partially overlapping duplications, 14.3 Kb and 16.1 Kb in size, unique to Shar-Pei and upstream of the Hyaluronic Acid Synthase 2 (HAS2) gene. HAS2 encodes the rate-limiting enzyme synthesizing hyaluronan (HA), a major component of the skin. HA is up-regulated and accumulates in the thickened skin of Shar-Pei. A high copy number of the 16.1 Kb duplication was associated with an increased expression of HAS2 as well as the periodic fever syndrome (p, < 0.0001). When fragmented, HA can act as a trigger of the innate immune system and stimulate sterile fever and inflammation. The strong selection for the skin phenotype therefore appears to enrich for a pleiotropic mutation predisposing these dogs to a periodic fever syndrome. The identification of HA as a major risk factor for this canine disease raises the potential of this glycosaminoglycan as a risk factor for human periodic fevers and as an important driver of chronic inflammation.

  • 280.
    Olsson, Ulf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Education in Arts and Professions. Yrkeskunnande och lärande.
    OM FRISKVÅRDSPEDAGOGIK I ARBETSLIVET.: EN O/RÄTTVIS BETRAKTELSE.1993Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I fokus för detta arbete står friskvård inom arbetslivet som pedagogisk praktik med hälsoprofilsbedömning, en metod för undersökning och påverkan av människors hälsostatus och hälsovanor, som konkret exempel. En bakgrund till detta är framväxten av insatser för folkhälsa och den ökade betoning av friskvård inom arbetslivet som skett inom såväl privat som offentlig sektor. Friskvård handlar om människors levnadsvanor när det gäller kost, motion, stress, alkohol, tobak m.m.

    Hälsoprofilsbedömning och friskvårdspedagogik inom arbetslivet ses här ur två olika perspektiv. Ur det ena perspektivet behandlas verksamheten på dess egna villkor - som en metod att inom ramen för arbetslivet få till stånd ner hälsosamma livsstilar genom kontrakt mellan självständiga parter. Det andra perspektivet kan ses som kritiskt granskande. Här ifrågasätts premissema för hälsoprofilsbedömningen utifrån begrepp som makt och disciplinering. En inspirationskälla har därvid bland annat Michel Foucaults arbeten varit. Som empiriskt material för analysen används två avhandlingar som presenterar hälsoprofilbedömningen som metod.

    Ur dessa båda perspektiv erhålles två olika betraktelser om hälsoprofilsbedömning och friskvårdspedagogik inom arbetslivet - en rättvis och en orättvis. På basis av en kritisk pragmatisk ansats diskuteras möjligheten till ett samtal baserad på relationen mellan de båda betrakelserna.

  • 281. Olsén, L.
    et al.
    Ingvast-Larsson, C.
    Bondesson, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry.
    Broström, H.
    Tjälve, H.
    Larsson, P.
    Cetirizine in horses: pharmacokinetics and effect of ivermectin pretreatment2007In: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, ISSN 0140-7783, E-ISSN 1365-2885, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 194-200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pharmacokinetics of the histamine H1-antagonist cetirizine and the effects of pretreatment with the antiparasitic macrocyclic lactone ivermectin on the pharmacokinetics of cetirizine were studied in horses. After oral administration of cetirizine at 0.2 mg/kg bw, the mean terminal half-life was 3.4 h (range 2.9–3.7 h) and the maximal plasma concentration 132 ng/mL (101–196 ng/mL). The time to reach maximal plasma concentration was 0.7 h (0.5–0.8 h). Ivermectin (0.2 mg/kg bw) given orally 1.5 h before cetirizine did not affect its pharmacokinetics. However, ivermectin pretreatment 12 h before cetirizine increased the area under the plasma concentration–time curve by 60%. The maximal plasma concentration, terminal half-life and mean residence time also increased significantly following the 12 h pretreatment. Ivermectin is an inhibitor of P-glycoprotein, which is a major drug efflux transporter in cellular membranes at various sites. The elevated plasma levels of cetirizine following the pretreatment with ivermectin may mainly be due to decreased renal secretion, related to inhibition of the P-glycoprotein in the proximal tubular cells of the kidney. The pharmacokinetic properties of cetirizine have characteristics which are suitable for an antihistamine, and this substance may be a useful drug in horses.

  • 282. Olsén, Lena
    et al.
    Bondesson, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Broström, Hans
    Olsson, Ulf
    Mazogi, Behnaz
    Sundqvist, Marie
    Tjälve, Hans
    Ingvast-Larsson, Carina
    Pharmacokinetics and effects of cetirizine in horses with insect bite hypersensitivity2011In: The Veterinary Journal, ISSN 0007-1935, E-ISSN 1879-3606, Vol. 187, no 3, p. 347-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Horses with insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) have difficulty in completely avoiding allergens, so effective treatment options are required. A randomised, placebo controlled and double blinded field study was conducted to determine the pharmacokinetics and efficacy in reducing dermatitis of the antihistamine cetirizine given orally at 0.4mg/kg twice daily for 3weeks. The influence of protection blankets and stabling were also investigated. The estimated maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) and trough plasma concentration of cetirizine were 135ng/mL and 18ng/mL, respectively. There was no difference in dermatitis reduction between the treatment and placebo groups (P=0.77). The findings indicated that cetirizine was of no apparent benefit in treating IBH at the dose rate tested. The use of blankets and stabling were shown to have favourable influence on the dermatitis (P<0.05) and may be the preferred options to prevent this condition.

  • 283. Olsén, Lena
    et al.
    Bondesson, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Broström, Hans
    Tjälve, Hans
    Ingvast-Larsson, Carina
    Cetirizine in horses: Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics following repeated oral administration2008In: The Veterinary Journal, ISSN 0007-1935, E-ISSN 1879-3606, Vol. 177, no 2, p. 242-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pharmacokinetics of the histamine HI-antagonist cetirizine and its effect on histamine-induced cutaneous wheal formation were studied in six healthy horses following repeated oral administration. After three consecutive administrations of cetirizine (0.2 mg/kg body weight, bw) every 12 h, the trough plasma concentration of cetirizine was 16 +/- 4 ng/mL (mean +/- SD) and the wheal formation was inhibited by 45 +/- 23%. After four additional administrations of cetirizine (0.4 mg/kg bw) every 12 h, the trough plasma concentration was 48 +/- 15 ng/mL and the wheal formation was inhibited by 68 +/- 11%. The terminal half-life was about 5.8 h. A pharmacokinetic/ pharmacodynamic link model showed that the maximal inhibition of wheal formation was about 95% and the EC50 about 18 ng/mL. It is concluded that cetirizine in doses of 0.2-0.4 mg/kg bw administered at 12 h intervals exhibits favourable pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties without causing visible side effects, and the drug may therefore be a useful antihistamine in equine medicine.

  • 284.
    Osbjer, K.
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Div Reprod, Dept Clin Sci, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Berg, M.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Biomed Sci & Vet Publ Hlth, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Sokerya, S.
    Ctr Livestock & Agr Dev, Phnom Penh, Cambodia..
    Chheng, K.
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Phnom Penh, Cambodia..
    San, S.
    Natl Inst Vet Res, Phnom Penh, Cambodia..
    Davun, H.
    Natl Inst Vet Res, Phnom Penh, Cambodia..
    Magnusson, U.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Div Reprod, Dept Clin Sci, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Zohari, S.
    Natl Vet Inst, Dept Microbiol, Ulls Vag 2B, SE-75189 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Influenza A Virus in Backyard Pigs and Poultry in Rural Cambodia2017In: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, ISSN 1865-1674, E-ISSN 1865-1682, Vol. 64, no 5, p. 1557-1568Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surveillance of influenza virus in humans and livestock is critical, given the worldwide public health threats and livestock production losses. Livestock farming involving close proximity between humans, pigs and poultry is often practised by smallholders in low-income countries and is considered an important driver of influenza virus evolution. This study determined the prevalence and genetic characteristics of influenza A virus (IAV) in backyard pigs and poultry in Cambodia. A total of 751 animals were tested by matrix gene-based rRT-PCR, and influenza virus was detected in 1.5% of sampled pigs, 1.4% of chickens and 1.0% of ducks, but not in pigeons. Full-length genome sequencing confirmed triple reassortant H3N2 in all IAV-positive pigs and various low pathogenic avian influenza subtypes in poultry. Phylogenetic analysis of the swine influenza viruses revealed that these had haemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes originating from human H3N2 viruses previously isolated in South-East Asia. Phylogenetic analysis also revealed that several of the avian influenza subtypes detected were closely related to internal viral genes from highly pathogenic H5N1 and H9N2 formerly sequenced in the region. High sequence homology was likewise found with influenza A viruses circulating in pigs, poultry and wild birds in China and Vietnam, suggesting transboundary introduction and cocirculation of the various influenza subtypes. In conclusion, highly pathogenic subtypes of influenza virus seem rare in backyard poultry, but virus reassortment, involving potentially zoonotic and pandemic subtypes, appears to occur frequently in smallholder pigs and poultry. Increased targeted surveillance and monitoring of influenza circulation on smallholdings would further improve understanding of the transmission dynamics and evolution of influenza viruses in humans, pigs and poultry in the Mekong subregion and could contribute to limit the influenza burden.

  • 285.
    Oscarsson, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Healthy women or risk patients?: Non-attendance in a cervical cancer screening program2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Women afflicted with cervical cancer who have the highest morbidity and mortality rates have been the least likely to be screened. The overall aim of this research project was to investigate non-attendance in a cervical cancer screening (CCS) program among women with no registered cervical smear during the previous five years. Both quantitative (I,III) and qualitative methods (II) as well as costeffectiveness analysis (IV) were used in this research project. In Kalmar County women (aged 23-65 years) are invited to CCS every third year. All cervical smears taken both in opportunistic and organised CCS are coordinated in a register called Sympathy. The coverage is 88.4 %. From Sympathy, a random sample of 400 women served as a study group and another 400 women as a control group (III,IV). From the study group, 133 women participated in study I and 14 women in study II. Data was collected by telephone interviews based on a questionnaire (I), qualitative face-to-face interviews (II), questionnaire, promotive efforts and outcome (III), costs and effectiveness (IV). Quantitative data was analysed by descriptive and analytic statistics (I,III), qualitative data was analysed by content analysis. In study IV, cost-effectiveness analysis was used.

    The women believed that CCS was a good idea for all other women, but tended to refer to various circumstances resulting in their own non-attendance. One of the most common reasons for non-attendance was the feeling of being healthy. The women prioritized family and work commitments, and the invitation to attend CCS was sometimes experienced as a stressful disturbance. The feeling of discomfort was related to the gynaecologic examination, or to health care visits in general (I,II). Of 133 women, 120 could consider having a cervical smear taken and their two most common requirements for doing so were to be assured they would be treated in a friendly way (19%) and to find a suitable time (18%) for having the cervical smear. Fifty women wanted to be helped to have a cervical smear taken. Promotive efforts ranged from making a simple telephone call to arranging an appointment time to a combination of promotive efforts including repeated encounters in order to create a trusting relationship with respect to taking the smear. In the study group, 29.5% (n=118) had a registered cervical smear at follow-up compared to 18.5% (n=74) in the control group, (p<0.001) (III). In the study group, the cost per cervical smear taken was 66.87 €, and in the control group it was 16.62 €. The incremental cost per additional cervical smear taken was 151.36 € (IV). In conclusion, women’s reasons for not attending CCS are complex and are influenced by both present and earlier circumstances. In settings with high coverage, further contact in order to promote women’s attendance at CCS seems to be associated with high costs in relation to the number of additional cervical smears taken.

  • 286. Pang, Jun-Feng
    et al.
    Klütsch, Cornelya
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Gene Technology.
    Zou, Xiao-Ju
    Zhang, Ai-bing
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Gene Technology.
    Luo, Li-Yang
    Angleby, Helen
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Gene Technology.
    Ardalan, Arman
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Gene Technology.
    Ekström, Camilla
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Gene Technology.
    Sköllermo, Anna
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Gene Technology.
    Lundeberg, Joakim
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Gene Technology.
    Matsumura, Shuichi
    Leitner, Thomas
    Zhang, Ya-Ping
    Savolainen, Peter
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Gene Technology.
    mtDNA Data Indicate a Single Origin for Dogs South of Yangtze River, Less Than 16,300 Years Ago, from Numerous Wolves2009In: Molecular biology and evolution, ISSN 0737-4038, E-ISSN 1537-1719, Vol. 26, no 12, p. 2849-2864Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is no generally accepted picture of where, when, and how the domestic dog originated. Previous studies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have failed to establish the time and precise place of origin because of lack of phylogenetic resolution in the so far studied control region (CR), and inadequate sampling. We therefore analyzed entire mitochondrial genomes for 169 dogs to obtain maximal phylogenetic resolution and the CR for 1,543 dogs across the Old World for a comprehensive picture of geographical diversity. Hereby, a detailed picture of the origins of the dog can for the first time be suggested. We obtained evidence that the dog has a single origin in time and space and an estimation of the time of origin, number of founders, and approximate region, which also gives potential clues about the human culture involved. The analyses showed that dogs universally share a common homogenous gene pool containing 10 major haplogroups. However, the full range of genetic diversity, all 10 haplogroups, was found only in southeastern Asia south of Yangtze River, and diversity decreased following a gradient across Eurasia, through seven haplogroups in Central China and five in North China and Southwest (SW)Asia, down to only four haplogroups in Europe. The mean sequence distance to ancestral haplotypes indicates an origin 5,400-16,300 years ago (ya) from at least 51 female wolf founders. These results indicate that the domestic dog originated in southern China less than 16,300 ya, from several hundred wolves. The place and time coincide approximately with the origin of rice agriculture, suggesting that the dogs may have originated among sedentary hunter-gatherers or early farmers, and the numerous founders indicate that wolf taming was an important culture trait.

  • 287.
    Pelander, Lena
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Häggström, Jens
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Syme, Harriet
    Department of Clinical Science and Services, The Royal Veterinary College, Hertfordshire, United Kingdom.
    Elliott, Jonathan
    Department of Comparative Biomedical Sciences, The Royal Veterinary College, London, United Kingdom..
    Heiene, Reidun
    ABC Dyreklinikk Lillehammer AS, Hamarvegen 68A, 26 13 Lillehammer, Norway..
    Ljungvall, Ingrid
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Comparison of the diagnostic value of symmetric dimethylarginine, cystatin C, and creatinine for detection of decreased glomerular filtration rate in dogs.2019In: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, ISSN 0891-6640, E-ISSN 1939-1676Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Early detection of decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in dogs is challenging. Current methods are insensitive and new biomarkers are required.

    OBJECTIVE: To compare overall diagnostic performance of serum symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) and serum cystatin C to serum creatinine, for detection of decreased GFR in clinically stable dogs, with or without chronic kidney disease (CKD).

    ANIMALS: Ninety-seven client-owned dogs: 67 dogs with a diagnosis or suspicion of CKD and 30 healthy dogs were prospectively included.

    METHODS: Prospective diagnostic accuracy study. All dogs underwent physical examination, systemic arterial blood pressure measurement, urinalysis, hematology and blood biochemistry analysis, cardiac and urinary ultrasound examinations, and scintigraphy for estimation of glomerular filtration rate (mGFR). Frozen serum was used for batch analysis of SDMA and cystatin C.

    RESULTS: The area under the curve of creatinine, SDMA, and cystatin C for detection of an mGFR <30.8 mL/min/L was 0.98 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.93-1.0), 0.96 (95% CI, 0.91-0.99), and 0.87 (95% CI, 0.79-0.93), respectively. The sensitivity of both creatinine and SDMA at their prespecified cutoffs (115 μmol/L [1.3 mg/dL] and 14 μg/dL) for detection of an abnormal mGFR was 90%. The specificity was 90% for creatinine and 87% for SDMA. When adjusting the cutoff for cystatin C to correspond to a diagnostic sensitivity of 90% (0.49 mg/L), specificity was lower (72%) than that of creatinine and SDMA.

    CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Overall diagnostic performance of creatinine and SDMA for detection of decreased mGFR was similar. Overall diagnostic performance of cystatin C was inferior to both creatinine and SDMA.

  • 288. Perez-Cornago, Aurora
    et al.
    Appleby, Paul N.
    Pischon, Tobias
    Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Olsen, Anja
    Overvad, Kim
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Kuehn, Tilman
    Boeing, Heiner
    Steffen, Annika
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Lagiou, Pagona
    Kritikou, Maria
    Krogh, Vittorio
    Palli, Domenico
    Sacerdote, Carlotta
    Tumino, Rosario
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas
    Agudo, Antonio
    Larranaga, Nerea
    Molina-Portillo, Elena
    Barricarte, Aurelio
    Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores
    Ramon Quiros, J.
    Stattin, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology. Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Häggström, Christel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biobank Research. Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Wareham, Nick
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Schmidt, Julie A.
    Gunter, Marc
    Freisling, Heinz
    Aune, Dagfinn
    Ward, Heather
    Riboli, Elio
    Key, Timothy J.
    Travis, Ruth C.
    Tall height and obesity are associated with an increased risk of aggressive prostate cancer: results from the EPIC cohort study2017In: BMC Medicine, ISSN 1741-7015, E-ISSN 1741-7015, Vol. 15, article id 115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The relationship between body size and prostate cancer risk, and in particular risk by tumour characteristics, is not clear because most studies have not differentiated between high-grade or advanced stage tumours, but rather have assessed risk with a combined category of aggressive disease. We investigated the association of height and adiposity with incidence of and death from prostate cancer in 141,896 men in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Methods: Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). After an average of 13.9 years of follow-up, there were 7024 incident prostate cancers and 934 prostate cancer deaths. Results: Height was not associated with total prostate cancer risk. Subgroup analyses showed heterogeneity in the association with height by tumour grade (P-heterogeneity = 0.002), with a positive association with risk for high-grade but not low-intermediate-grade disease (HR for high-grade disease tallest versus shortest fifth of height, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.18-2.03). Greater height was also associated with a higher risk for prostate cancer death (HR = 1.43, 1.14-1.80). Body mass index (BMI) was significantly inversely associated with total prostate cancer, but there was evidence of heterogeneity by tumour grade (P-heterogeneity = 0.01; HR = 0.89, 0.79-0.99 for low-intermediate grade and HR = 1.32, 1.01-1.72 for high-grade prostate cancer) and stage (P-heterogeneity = 0.01; HR = 0.86, 0.75-0.99 for localised stage and HR = 1.11, 0.92-1.33 for advanced stage). BMI was positively associated with prostate cancer death (HR = 1.35, 1.09-1.68). The results for waist circumference were generally similar to those for BMI, but the associations were slightly stronger for high-grade (HR = 1.43, 1.07-1.92) and fatal prostate cancer (HR = 1.55, 1.23-1.96). Conclusions: The findings from this large prospective study show that men who are taller and who have greater adiposity have an elevated risk of high-grade prostate cancer and prostate cancer death.

  • 289.
    Persson, Johanna
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Hälsoundervisning: Elevers syn på hälsa inom ämnet Idrott och hälsa2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Fler unga människor än någonsin är idag överviktiga och stress och stressrelaterade symptom drabbar idag allt fler unga. Därför är det viktigt att unga människor får kunskaper om hur de på bästa sätt kan ta hand om sig själva.

     Syftet med detta arbete är att undersöka hur elever som läser gymnasiets kurs Idrott och hälsa A ser på den hälsoundervisning de får.

    Detta är relevant för alla som arbetar som idrott och hälsa lärare för att kunna hitta en jämkning mellan kursplan och elevernas tankar och förkunskaper.

     Genom intervjuer och fokusintervjuer kom jag fram till att eleverna vill lära sig mer om stress och hur man hanterar stress samt om kost. Eleverna tycker däremot att idrottsläraren inte är rätt person att lära ut kunskaper om tobak.

  • 290.
    Peterson, Gunnel
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Neck muscle function in individuals with persistent pain and disability after whiplash injury2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Neck pain and disability are common after whiplash injury. One year after the accident up to 50 % still have symptoms called whiplash associated disorders (WAD). Despite decades of research the cause of persistent pain and disability are largely unknown and effective treatment and diagnostic tools are lacking. Altered neck muscle function may cause pain and disability, and real-time non-invasive methods that investigate both superficial and deep neck muscle function need to be evaluated.

    Aim: The general aim of the work presented in this thesis was to investigate mechanical neck muscle function and evaluate effects of three different exercise interventions related to neck muscle function in individuals with persistent pain and disability after whiplash injury.

    Method: The thesis comprised two studies, reported in four papers. Study A was a prospective randomized controlled trail with 216 participants. The effects of three exercise interventions; neck-specific exercises, neck-specific exercises with behavioral approach and prescription of physical activity were evaluated. Neck muscle endurance, perceived pain following testing, kinesiophobia and satisfaction with treatment were compared between the three groups (paper I). Study B was an experimental case-control study with participants consecutively recruited from the randomized controlled trial. Deformation and deformation rates in the neck muscles were investigated with real-time ultrasound imaging during ten repetitive arm elevations (paper II-IV). To investigate ventral neck muscles, 26 individuals with WAD were compared with 26 healthy controls (paper II). The dorsal neck muscles were investigated in paper III, including 40 individuals with WAD and 40 controls. In total 46 individuals, 23 with WAD and 23 healthy controls were included in paper IV to develop ventral neck muscle interaction models.

    Results: Paper I: Participants in the two neck-specific exercise groups (with and without behavioral approach) showed increased dorsal neck muscle endurance (p = 0.003), decreased pain intensity following testing (p = 0.04) and were more satisfied with treatment (p < 0.001) than participants in the prescribed physical activity group. Kinesiophobia did not significantly differ between groups (p > 0.12).

    Paper II: Deformation and deformation rate showed linear positive relationship between ventral muscle pairs in healthy controls, especially between superficial and deep neck muscles. This relationship was weaker or absent in the WAD group.

    Paper III: The WAD group had higher deformation rates in the deepest dorsal neck muscles during the first and tenth (only women) arm elevations compared to the control group (p < 0.04). Women in the WAD group showed a weaker linear relationship between the two deepest dorsal neck muscles compared to women in the control group.

    Paper IV: The results revealed two different ventral neck muscle models in individuals with WAD and healthy controls (R2Y = 0.72, Q2Y = 0.59). The models were capable to detect different neck muscle interplay in people with WAD.

    Conclusion: Neck-specific exercise intervention with or without a behavioral approach appears to improve neck muscle endurance in individuals with persistent WAD. Decreased pain after the neck muscle endurance test also suggests improved tolerance of load in these two groups. Altered mechanical neck muscle function was revealed in individuals with WAD indicating decreased muscular support for maintain a stable cervical spine during repetitive arm elevations. The results show great promise for improved diagnosis of neck muscle function in WAD.

  • 291.
    Pettigrew, James E.
    et al.
    University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
    Baker, Rodney B.
    North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA.
    27. Health Management with Reduced Use of Antibiotics in Pig Production2012In: Ecology and Animal Health / [ed] Leif Norrgren and Jeffrey Levengood, Uppsala: Baltic University Press , 2012, 1, p. 214-221Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 292. Pfeffer, Martin
    et al.
    Modlmaier, Michael
    Lundström, Jan O.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Lack of Evidence for the Presence of Mosquito-Borne Arboviruses in the Upper Rhine Valley, Germany, in 1999 to 20002010In: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, ISSN 0095-1137, E-ISSN 1098-660X, Vol. 48, no 9, p. 3457-3458Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 293.
    Piehl, Lidia L
    et al.
    Cátedra de Física and Instituto de Bioquímica y Medicina Molecular, IBIMOL (UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Fischman, M Laura
    Laboratorio de Calidad Seminal y Criopreservación de Gametas, Cátedra de Física Biológica, INITRA, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Hellman, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Cisale, Humberto
    Laboratorio de Calidad Seminal y Criopreservación de Gametas, Cátedra de Física Biológica, INITRA, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Miranda, Patricia V
    Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental-CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Boar seminal plasma exosomes: Effect on sperm function and protein identification by sequencing.2013In: Theriogenology, ISSN 0093-691X, E-ISSN 1879-3231, Vol. 79, no 7, p. 1071-1082Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mammalian seminal plasma contains membranous vesicles (exosomes), with a high content of cholesterol and sphingomyelin and a complex protein composition. Their physiological role is uncertain because sperm stabilization and activation effects have been reported. To analyze a putative modulatory role for semen exosomes on sperm activity in the boar, the effects of these vesicles on several sperm functional parameters were examined. Additionally, boar exosome proteins were sequenced and their incorporation into sperm was explored. Boar sperm were incubated under conditions that induce capacitation, manifested as increased tyrosine phosphorylation, cholesterol loss and greater fluidity in apical membranes, and the ability to undergo the lysophosphatidylcholine-induced acrosome reaction. After establishing this cluster of capacitation-dependent functional parameters, the effect produced by exosomes when present during or after sperm capacitation was analyzed. Exosomes inhibited the capacitation-dependent cholesterol efflux and fluidity increase in apical membranes, and the disappearance of a 14-kD phosphorylated polypeptide. In contrast, the acrosome reaction (spontaneous and lysophosphatidylcholine-induced) was not affected, and sperm binding to the oocyte zona pellucida was reduced only when vesicles were present during gamete coincubation. Liposomes with a lipid composition similar to that present in exosomes mimicked these effects, except the one on zona pellucida binding. Interaction between exosomes and sperm was confirmed by transfer of aminopeptidase activity. In addition, the major exosome protein, identified as actin, appeared to associate with sperm after coincubation. Exosome composition had a predominance for structural proteins (actin, plastin, ezrin, and condensin), enzymes, and several porcine seminal plasma-specific polypeptides (e.g., spermadhesins). Transfer of proteins from exosome to sperm and their ability to block cholesterol efflux supports a direct interaction between these vesicles and sperm, whereas inhibition of some capacitation-dependent features suggests a stabilizing function for exosomes in boar semen.

  • 294.
    Pujato, N.
    et al.
    Univ Nacl Litoral, Fac Bioquim & Ciencias Biol, Santa Fe, Argentina.
    Camussone, C. M.
    Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina;INTA, Estn Expt Agr Rafaela, Santa Fe, Argentina.
    Renna, M. S.
    Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina;Univ Nacl Litoral, Fac Ciencias Vet, Esperanza, Santa Fe, Argentina.
    Perrig, M. S.
    Univ Nacl Litoral, Fac Bioquim & Ciencias Biol, Santa Fe, Argentina;Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.
    Morein, B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine, Clinical Virology.
    Calvinho, L. F.
    INTA, Estn Expt Agr Rafaela, Santa Fe, Argentina;Univ Nacl Litoral, Fac Ciencias Vet, Esperanza, Santa Fe, Argentina.
    Marcipar, I. S.
    Univ Nacl Litoral, Fac Bioquim & Ciencias Biol, Santa Fe, Argentina;Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.
    Evaluation of the humoral immune response to a multicomponent recombinant vaccine against S-aureus in healthy pregnant heifers2018In: The Veterinary Journal, ISSN 1090-0233, E-ISSN 1532-2971, Vol. 235, p. 47-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Staphylococcus aureus is a worldwide pathogen that causes mastitis in dairy herds. Shortcomings in control programs have encouraged the development of vaccines against this pathogen. This study evaluated the vaccine candidate VacR, which included recombinant S. aureus protein clumping factor A (rClf), fibronectin binding protein A (rFnBP) and hemolysin beta (rBt), formulated with a novel immune-stimulating complex. Comparisons were made between healthy pregnant heifers that received either VacR (n = 8; VacR group) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) plus adjuvant (control group) SC in the supramammary lymph node area on days 45 and 15 before the expected calving date. Blood and foremilk samples were collected from 7 to 60 days post-calving. After calving, heifers in the VacR group produced higher total IgG (IgG(total)) titers against each component, in both serum (rBt, 3.4 x 10(5); rClf, 3.1 x 10(5); rFnBP, 2.3 x 10(5)) and milk (rBt, 2.6 x 10(4); rClf, 1.3 x 10(4); rFnBP, 1.1 x 10(4)), than control heifers (P < 0.0001). There were increased concentrations of IgG(1), and IgG(2) in VacR group (P < 0.05), in both serum and milk. Humoral responses remained high throughout the period most susceptible to intramammary infections (P < 0.01). Antibodies produced against S. aureus rClf and rFnBP reduced bacterial adherence to fibronectin and fibrinogen by 73% and 67%, respectively (P < 0.001). Milk antibodies against these adhesins inhibited S. aureus invasion of a mammary epithelial cell line (MAC-T), resulting in 15.7% of bacteria internalized (P < 0.0001). There was an approximately 6-fold reduction in the hemolysis titer for the native hemolysin in the VacR group compared to the control group (P < 0.0001) and a significantly increase in the proportion of positive neutrophils (VacR, 29.7%; PBS, 13.1%) and the mean fluorescent index (VacR, 217.4; PBS, 152.6; P < 0.01) in the VacR group. The results suggest that VacR is a valuable vaccine candidate against S. aureus infections, and merits further field trials and experimental challenges. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 295.
    Rahman, Mozibur
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Effects of neuroactive steroids on the recombinant GABAA receptor in Xenopus oocyte2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Neuroactive steroids represent a class of both synthetic and naturally occurring steroids that have an effect on neural function. In addition to classical genomic mechanism by the hormones progesterone, deoxycorticosterone and testosterone 3α-OH metabolites of these hormones enhance GABAA receptor through rapid non-genomic mechanism. The site(s) of action of these neuroactive steroids namely 3α-OH-5α-pregnan-20 one, (3α,5α)-3,21-deoxycorticosterone(3α5α-THDOC) and 5α androstane-3α,17β-diol on GABAA receptor are distinct from that of benzodiazepines and barbiturate binding sites. The modulation site(s) has a well-defined structure activity relationship with a 3α-hydroxy and a 20-ketone configuration in the pregnane molecule required for agonistic action. Pregnenolone sulfate is a noncompetitive GABAA receptor antagonist and inhibit GABA activated Cl- current in an activation dependant manner. 3β-hydroxy A-ring reduced pregnane steroids are also GABAA receptor antagonist and inhibit GABAA receptor function and its potentiation induced by their 3α-diesteromers in a noncompetitive manner.

    Aim: The aim was to investigate if the effect of GABA, pentobarbital antagonism by bicuculline and if the effect of GABA-agonist and antagonist neuroactive steroids including pregnenolone sulfate is dependant on the α-subunits of GABAA receptor. Furthermore, the studies aimed at investigating the binding site of pregnenolone sulfate and if its effect is dependent on γ-subunit. In addition, the inhibitory effect of pregnenolone sulfate and 3β-hydroxy steroids has been characterized. We also wanted to investigate if the neuroactive steroids effect vary between the human and rat recombinant α1β2γ2L receptors and between the long (L) and short (S) variants of γ2-subunit.

    Method: Experiments were performed by the two electrodes voltage-clamp technique using oocytes of Xenopus laevis expressed with recombinant GABAA receptors containing α1, α4 or α5, β2, γ2L and γ2S-subunits.

    Results: There was no difference between the α1, α4 and α5-containing subunits regarding GABA and pentobarbital inhibition by bicuculline. GABA-activated current in the binary αβ was potent than that of ternary αβγ receptor. Unlike Zn2+ effect, inhibition by pregnenolone sulfate on the GABAA receptor is not dependant on the γ-subunit. It is likely that the 2’ residue closest to the N-terminus of the protein at M2 helix on both α1 and β2 subunit are critical to the inhibitory actions of PS and the function of Cl- channels. Point mutation at M2 helix of the β2-subunit (b2A252S) can dramatically reduce the inhibitory effect of PS on the GABAA receptors without affecting the inhibitory properties of 3β-hydroxysteroids. Agonist and antagonist steroids also varied in their efficacy between the human and rat α1β2γ2L receptor. Neuroactive steroids also showed difference between human γ2L and γ2S-containing receptor.

    Conclusions: GABA and pentobarbital antagonism by bicuculline is not dependant on α-subunit. Pregnenolone sulfate binding site is different from that of Zn2+. 3β-hydroxysteroids and pregnenolone sulfate inhibit GABAA receptor through different mechanisms. Neuroactive steroids also differ between species and between the long and short variant of γ- subunit.

  • 296.
    Redmalm, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Djur i bur även i hyllade djurparker2012In: Djurens Rätt, ISSN 0345-2409, no 1, p. 36-37Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 297.
    Renström, Frida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Fat cell insulin resistance: an experimental study focusing on molecular mechanisms in type 2 diabetes2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present thesis was to further increase our understanding of mechanisms contributing to and maintaining cellular insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes (T2D). For this reason, the effects of high glucose and insulin levels on glucose transport capacity and insulin signaling, with emphasis on insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) were assessed in fat cells. Altered levels of IRS-1 have previously been observed in adipose tissue from insulin-resistant and T2D subjects.

    A high glucose level (≥15 mM) for 24 h exerted only a minor impairment on glucose transport capacity in human adipocytes, as opposed to rat adipocytes. However, when combined with a high insulin level (104 µU/ml), basal and insulin-stimulated glucose transport was significantly impaired in both human and rat adipocytes. This was associated with a depletion of IRS-1 and IRS-2 protein levels in rat adipocytes, as a result of post-translational changes and altered gene transcription, respectively. In human adipocytes was only IRS-1 protein levels reduced. The high glucose/high insulin setting achieved maximal impairment of glucose transport within 6 h. Subsequent incubations of rat adipocytes under physiological conditions could partially restore insulin sensitivity. Interestingly, in both human and rat fat cells, decreased levels of IRSs occurred after the establishment of impaired glucose transport, suggesting that the observed depletion of IRSs is a consequence rather than a cause of insulin resistance. Nonetheless, IRS depletion is likely to further aggravate insulin resistance.

    Tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 upon insulin stimulation activates the signaling pathway that mediates glucose transport. Pre-treatment of human adipocytes with high glucose and insulin levels was not associated with any alterations in the total IRS-1 Tyr612 phosphorylation following 10 min insulin stimulation. However, a significant increase in basal Tyr612 phosphorylation was observed. Furthermore, a rise in basal IRS-1 Ser312 phosphorylation was found. This is associated with reduced IRS-1 function and is considered to target IRS-1 to degradation pathways, and thus could potentially explain the observed decrease in IRS-1 protein levels. Our results imply an enhanced activation of insulin’s negative-feedback control mechanism that inhibit IRS-1 function. This could potentially have contributed to the observed impairment of insulin action on glucose transport in these cells. Accordingly, we have also shown that the downstream activation of protein kinase B upon insulin-stimulation is significantly impaired in human adipocytes exposed to the high glucose/high insulin setting, indicating a defect in the signaling pathway mediating glucose transport.

    We also investigated whether there are humoral factors in the circulation of T2D patients that contribute to peripheral insulin resistance. Human adipocytes cultured for 24 h in medium supplemented with 25% serum from T2D subjects, as compared to serum from non-diabetic subjects, displayed significantly reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake capacity. The effect could neither be attributed to glucose, insulin, FFA, TNF-α or IL-6 levels in the serum, but other circulating factor(s) seem to be of importance.

    In conclusion, chronic conditions of elevated glucose and/or insulin levels all impair insulin action on glucose turnover, but to different extents. A clear distinction between rat and human fat cells in the response to these different milieus was also observed. Alterations in the function of the key insulin signaling protein IRS-1 might be involved in the mechanisms underlying the impaired glucose uptake capacity. IRS-1 reduction however, occurs after but probably aggravates the existing insulin resistance. The effects of high glucose and/or insulin levels may be of importance in T2D, but additional novel factors present in the circulation of T2D patients seem to contribute to cellular insulin resistance.

  • 298. Riihimäki, Miia
    et al.
    Raine, Amanda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    Elfman, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Pringle, John
    Markers of respiratory inflammation in horses in relation to seasonal changes in air quality in a conventional racing stable2008In: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research-Revue Canadienne de Recherche Veterinaire, ISSN 0830-9000, Vol. 72, no 5, p. 432-439Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Airborne factors in a conventionally managed racing stable and markers of pulmonary inflammation in the stabled horses were investigated on 3 occasions at 6-month intervals, including 2 winter periods and the intervening summer period. The stable measurements included inside and outside ambient temperature and relative humidity, levels of total and respirable dust, endotoxin, and 1,3-beta-glucan. Horses (n = 12) were examined in detail clinically as well as by endoscopy, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cytology, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of BAL-cells for IL-6 and IL-10 mRNA. Indoor measurements showed low dust levels irrespective of season. Inhalable dust, as well as 1,3-beta-glucan, were higher during the winter stabling period, whereas endotoxin levels were higher during summer. Complete data from all sampling occasions to be used for further evaluation was obtained for only 8 of the horses. There was a trend for elevation of BAL neutrophils in the horses during winter stabling that coincided with a 3.7-fold increased expression of IL-6 mRNA in BAL cells (P = 0.014). Compared to summer sampling, IL-10 mRNA expression was significantly upregulated in only 1 of the winter sampling occasions, implicating influence on immune regulation by factor/s apart from seasonal differences. Our findings suggest up-regulation of innate immunity in the airways of stabled horses; in particular involving IL-6 in association with mild elevations in respirable dust, 1,3-beta-glucan, and/or cold ambient air. However, given that this study was observational, other unmeasured environmental factors associated with winter stabling need to be considered.

  • 299.
    Rising, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anat Physiol & Biochem, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Div Neurogeriatr, Ctr Alzheimer Res, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc NVS, S-14157 Huddinge, Sweden..
    Cederlund, Ella
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Biochem & Biophys MBB, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Palmberg, Carina
    Karolinska Inst, Ctr Prote Karolinska PKKI, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Uhlhorn, Henrik
    Natl Vet Inst SVA, Dept Pathol & Wildlife Dis, S-75189 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Gaunitz, Stefan
    Karolinska Inst, Div Neurogeriatr, Ctr Alzheimer Res, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc NVS, S-14157 Huddinge, Sweden..
    Nordling, Kerstin
    Karolinska Inst, Div Neurogeriatr, Ctr Alzheimer Res, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc NVS, S-14157 Huddinge, Sweden..
    Agren, Erik
    Natl Vet Inst SVA, Dept Pathol & Wildlife Dis, S-75189 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Ihse, Elisabet
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical and experimental pathology.
    Westermark, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Tjernberg, Lars
    Karolinska Inst, Div Neurogeriatr, Ctr Alzheimer Res, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc NVS, S-14157 Huddinge, Sweden..
    Jornvall, Hans
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Biochem & Biophys MBB, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Johansson, Jan
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anat Physiol & Biochem, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Div Neurogeriatr, Ctr Alzheimer Res, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc NVS, S-14157 Huddinge, Sweden..
    Westermark, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical and experimental pathology.
    Systemic AA amyloidosis in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes)2017In: Protein Science, ISSN 0961-8368, E-ISSN 1469-896X, Vol. 26, no 11, p. 2312-2318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis occurs spontaneously in many mammals and birds, but the prevalence varies considerably among different species, and even among subgroups of the same species. The Blue fox and the Gray fox seem to be resistant to the development of AA amyloidosis, while Island foxes have a high prevalence of the disease. Herein, we report on the identification of AA amyloidosis in the Red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Edman degradation and tandem MS analysis of proteolyzed amyloid protein revealed that the amyloid partly was composed of full-length SAA. Its amino acid sequence was determined and found to consist of 111 amino acid residues. Based on inter-species sequence comparisons we found four residue exchanges (Ser31, Lys63, Leu71, Lys72) between the Red and Blue fox SAAs. Lys63 seems unique to the Red fox SAA. We found no obvious explanation to how these exchanges might correlate with the reported differences in SAA amyloidogenicity. Furthermore, in contrast to fibrils from many other mammalian species, the isolated amyloid fibrils from Red fox did not seed AA amyloidosis in a mouse model.

  • 300.
    Roasto, Mati
    et al.
    Estonian University of Life Sciences, Tartu, Estonia.
    Hörman, Ari
    Estonian University of Life Sciences, Tartu, Estonia.
    Hänninen, Marja-Liisa
    University of Helsinki.
    26. Antimicrobial Resistance: a Food Safety Perspective2012In: Ecology and Animal Health / [ed] Leif Norrgren and Jeffrey Levengood, Uppsala: Baltic University Press , 2012, 2, p. 212-213Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
3456789 251 - 300 of 418
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf