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  • 251.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Reconceptualising the Gender of Fitness Doping: Performing and Negotiating Masculinity through Drug-Use Practices2015In: Social Sciences, ISSN 2076-0760, E-ISSN 2076-0760, Vol. 4, p. 546-562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses self-portrayals and gender constructions among Swedish male bodybuilders who are engaged in fitness doping. The empirical material comes from a larger ethnographic investigation into gym culture. The results show that there is a strong propensity to conform with particular gender fantasies that rests heavily on a binary understanding of gendered, doped bodies. However, this storyline does not apprehend the entire self-presentation of the analysed drug users. Negotiations and inclusive subversions of traditional gender norms are also expressed. For example, the narratives show how the use of performance-enhancing substances makes it possible for (heterosexual) men to approach, touch and express feelings of desire towards other men and their bodies. As such, this practice can be viewed as a contestation of hegemonic gender values, in which masculinity and fitness doping are detached from a quite heterosexist understanding, and turned into a symbolic world of homoerotic pleasure.

  • 252.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Smärta, pump och förkroppsligade läroprocesser på gymmet2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 253.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Steroider på nätet: Att använda sociala medier för att diskutera och legitimera dopning2016In: Presented at: DrogFOKUS 2016, nationell konferens om alkohol, narkotika, dopning och tobak, 13-20 Oktober, 2016, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sociala medier och olika internetforum har blivit en del av en ny självhjälpskultur där människor anonymt kan legitimera och diskutera sina erfarenheter av att använda prestationshöjande substanser(PED). Användarna är medvetna om att de riskerar sin egen hälsa men töjer på gränserna för att nå uppsatta mål.

  • 254.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    The Global Gym2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 255.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Danielsson, Tom
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Elitmotionärens vardag - familjeliv, tidspussel och extremidrott2016In: Idrottsforskning, E-ISSN 2002-3944, no 18 majArticle in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att kombinera vardagen som elitmotionär med ett fungerande familjeliv är ingen enkel ekvation. Uppoffringar, glädje, dåligt samvete och glada hejarop är en del av vardagen. Men på vems villkor och bekostnad formas egentligen elitmotionärens livsstil?

  • 256.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Henning, April Dawn
    Glocal fitness doping: Policy, practice and prevention in the United States and Sweden2018In: Performance Enhancement & Health, E-ISSN 2211-2669Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 257.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    Extreme Sports, Extreme Bodies: Gender, Identities & Bodies in Motion2019Book (Refereed)
  • 258.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg.
    Female Fitness in the Blogosphere: Gender, Health, and the Body2013In: SAGE Open, ISSN 2158-2440, E-ISSN 2158-2440, Vol. 3, no July-September, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes self-portrayals and gender constructions among female personal trainers within an Internet-mediated framework of fitness culture. The empirical material comes from a close examination of three strategically selected blogs. The result shows that some of the blogs clearly build upon what Connell calls emphasized femininity, as a means of legitimizing and constructing appropriate female fitness. In addition, there are also tendencies of sexualization in text and imagery present. As such, these self-representations are framed within a cultural history of body fitness dominated by stereotypical ways of perceiving masculinity and femininity. However, this does not capture the entire presentation of the self among the analyzed fitness bloggers. The blogs also point in the direction of ongoing negotiations and subversions of traditional gender norms. Among other things, they show how irony and humor are used as a means of questioning normative gender constructions while empowering female fitness and bodyliness.

  • 259.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    Fitnessrevolutionen: Kropp, hälsa och gymkulturens globalisering2015Book (Other academic)
  • 260.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg.
    From exercise to "exertainment": Body techniques and body philosophies within a differentiated fitness culture2015In: Scandinavian Sport Studies Forum, ISSN 2000-088X, E-ISSN 2000-088X, Vol. 6, p. 27-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on two highly influential body techniques used in contemporary gym and fitness culture, namely bodybuilding and group fitness activities. The paper presents detailed self-portraits of two highly esteemed and well-known individuals representing each of these spheres of exercise. Both body techniques have their roots in physical culture. However, whereas bodybuilding goes back to the historical roots of European physical culture developed during the 19th century, Les Mills group fitness activities are a more recent phenomenon, with roots in aerobics and in the fitness culture developed during the 1960s. The case stories are read as both portraits of individuals and histories of two different forms of body techniques and philosophies of the body, and the analysis suggests that the narratives are to be understood in relation to historical changes in how society is organised and what this implies in terms of national and global demands for specific bodies.

  • 261.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg.
    Gender, Fitness Doping and the Genetic Max: The Ambivalent Construction of Muscular Masculinities in an Online Community2016In: Social Sciences, ISSN 2076-0760, E-ISSN 2076-0760, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 1-13, article id 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is based on written accounts posted on an online forum called Flashback.The purpose of the study was to explore how participants in this community negotiated themeanings of fitness doping and how such negotiations could be understood in terms of masculinity.The findings indicate that the Internet community studied in this article can be read as an example ofa transformational process in which ordinary rules are questioned and partly put out of play. In theworld of the bodybuilder, the marginal masculinity is, in certain senses, dominant. On the one hand,achieving a muscular and well-trained body is regarded as a core aspect of manhood within thecommunity. Marginal masculinity is thus momentarily transformed into dominant and hegemonicmasculinity. On the other hand, however, the findings also indicate that a drug-using, muscularmasculinity is constructed in negotiation with other central masculine ideals, such as the employableman and the responsible father. Found within the community is a complex and dynamic interplaybetween intersecting discourses of manhood.

  • 262.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg.
    Glocalised fitness: the franchising of a physical movement, fitness professionalism and gender2018In: Leisure/ Loisir, ISSN 1492-7713, E-ISSN 2151-2221, p. 1-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this study is on the development of a globalised and localised gym and fitness culture. The article takes its point of departure from three distinct levels. These are (1) organisational aspects of the culture, (2) fitness professionals’ individual trajectories, and (3) national variations and gender regimes. The findings indicate that fitness professionalism is emerging as an uncertain profession. On the one hand there are international accreditation systems that aim to ensure the status of these professionals. On the other hand, there are simultaneous tendencies towards devaluation of the status of fitness professionals, on a global level. Partly, this can be related to the standardisation of training programmes, as well as the connectedness between the service industry and feminised gender regimes. In conclusion, the globalisation of fitness is a highly gendered process, involving national body ideals and cultural variations in how fitness professionals are valued and perceived locally.

  • 263.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Gymkulturen balanserar på könsgränserna2014In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 4, p. 29-33Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Synen på relationen mellan kroppar och könsidentiteter varierar över tid inom gymkulturen. I dag finns en längtan efter tydliga skillnader mellan könen. Men spännvidden är stor mellan de som vill utmana och överskrida gränser, och de som försöker upprätthålla strikta normativa ideal.

  • 264.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg.
    Negotiating violence: mixed martial arts as a spectacle and sport2018In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on qualitative interviews with Mixed martial arts (MMA) athletes and stakeholders, this study aims to investigate the relationship between, on the one hand, MMA as a spectacle and imaginary world, and on the other, the fighters’ experiences of violence, pain and ‘the real’. Analytically, we are influenced by the literature on the spectacle and on hyperreality. The results show that athletes’ negotiations concerning the sport largely connect to a particular way of approaching violence – culturally and in terms of physical experience. On the one hand, there is a desire to portray MMA as a civilized and regulated sport. The athletes develop different strategies by which to handle or renegotiate the physical force and violence in the cage. On the other hand, however, the fighters’ bodily control and management of their fear sometimes breaks down. When the spectacle of the octagon becomes ‘real’, the legitimacy of the sport is questioned.

  • 265.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg.
    Online Doping2015In: Paper presented at the Journal of youth studies conference, March 30-April 1, 2015, Copenhagen, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, but also internationally, official regimes and public health organizations conduct fairly comprehensive anti-doping measures. As a consequence, numerous ‘new’ ways to learn about and access these types of drugs have emerged. Social media and different Internet forums, for example, have become part of a new self-help culture in which mainly young people anonymously can approach these substances, discuss their experiences of using them, and minimize the possibility of encounters with the police. What we see today is the development of new doping trajectories. This presentation is based on a ethnographical inspired research project that focuses on how the use of performance- and image-enhancing drugs (PED) is perceived and negotiated socially in the context of an Internet-mediated and online community called Flashback. The results of the study are in accordance with similar studies on Internet bodybuilding communities. That is, even though the community members to a certain degree are aware of the risks and health costs of this kind of physical regime, the gains of using PED clearly dominate the discussions. Adding to this research, the results also indicate that in the imaginary world of online bodybuilding a number of ideas about the ‘genetic max’, as well as the ultimate possibility of exceeding one’s limits, and creating something special and extra-ordinary, circulate. These stories confirm in many ways the legitimate mission of searching for the ultimate bodybuilding adventure, using different means and methods to transcend the limits of the self/body.

  • 266.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg.
    Online doping: The new self-help culture of ethnopharmacology2016In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 19, no 7, p. 957-972Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, but also internationally, official regimes and public health organizations conduct fairly comprehensive antidoping measures. As a consequence, numerous ‘new’ ways to learn about and access these types of drugs have emerged. Social media and different internet forums, for example, have become part of a new self-help culture in which people can anonymously approach these substances, discuss their experiences of using them and minimize the possibility of encounters with the police. This article focuses on how the use of performance- and image-enhancing drugs (PED) is perceived and negotiated socially in the context of an internet-mediated and online community calledFlashback. The results are in accordance with similar studies on internet bodybuilding communities. That is, even though the participants to a certain degree are aware of the risks and health costs of this kind of physical regime, the gains of using PED clearly dominate the discussions. Adding to this research, this article found that in the imaginary world of online bodybuilding a number of ideas about the ‘genetic max’, as well as the ultimate possibility of exceeding one’s limits, and creating something special and extraordinary, circulate. These stories confirm in many ways the legitimate mission of searching for the ultimate bodybuilding adventure, using different means and methods to transcend the limits of the self/body.

  • 267.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    The Fitness Revolution: Historical Transformations in the Global Gym and Fitness Culture.2014In: Sport Science Review, ISSN 2066-8732, Vol. XXIII, no 3-4, p. 91-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, fitness gyms and private health clubs are a huge global business. Fitness has turned into a folk movement, but not one comparable to the old 20th-century movements, often connected to national sentiments, but instead a highly individualized preoccupation. In this article the historical development of modern gym and fitness culture is described and an analytically developed approach to the understanding of the emergence of this multi-billion-dollar phenomenon is developed. The analysis suggest that the techniques, tools, and physical exercises used today in gyms all over the world are the results of a physical culture developed and refined during the 20th century. The body ideals, exercises, techniques, and the pedagogy of fitness have become an increasingly international enterprise. A tentative analysis of the globalization of gym and fitness culture is developed and presented. Three important and decisive phases in the globalization of gym and fitness culture are identified and analyzed.

  • 268.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg.
    The Global Gym: Gender, Health and Pedagogies2014Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both by participating in the everyday life of fitness professionals, gym-goers and bodybuilders, and by analyzing fitness blogs and other sources, The Global Gym explores fitness centres as sites of learning. The authors examine the kind of learning processes that take place within the gym and the wider fitness industry, and investigate how knowledge is acquired, negotiated and embodied by different agents operating within this context. Beyond this, the book also addresses the construction of gender within fitness culture. Many images of the body beautiful and perfect body ideals are manufactured and sold on a global commercial market. Jesper Andreasson and Thomas Johansson illustrate various extant modes of learning by asking how physical, psychological and cultural knowledge about health and the body is incorporated into people's (gender) identity in a local, national and global gym and fitness context.

  • 269.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    The Global Gym: Gender, Health and Pedagogies2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 270.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    Göteborgs universitet.
    The Health Guru: Masculinity and Fitness Coaching in the Blogosphere2013In: Journal of Men's Studies, ISSN 1060-8265, E-ISSN 1933-0251, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 277-290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Through a close study of blogs, where male fitness experts share their expertise, this article analyses how masculinity are framed within the Internet-mediated context of the fitness culture. This is done against the background of Connell's theory of masculinity, and recent critiques of the concept of hegemony. Through an in-depth analysis of three blogs, we get a complex and contradictory image of the different forms of masculinity portrayed in these blogs and in fitness culture at large. The texts and imagery on the blogs clearly exceeds the criteria/limits of traits and norms traditionally considered male or female. In doing so, the may contribute to an increased acceptance for, for example, gay identities and other submissive masculinities.

  • 271.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg.
    The new fitness geography: the globalisation of Japanese gym and fitness culture2017In: Leisure Studies, ISSN 0261-4367, E-ISSN 1466-4496, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 383-394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a minor case study of the local fitness culture scene in Tokyo, Japan, this exploratory and qualitative article aims to discuss and analyse the consequences of globalisation of fitness culture. The article focuses particularly on how fitness culture is negotiated in Japanese society – at a national, local and subjective level, and in relation to attempts to uniformly rationalise and standardise gym and fitness culture. The results indicate that the fitness geography is changing, and through the establishment of a globalised fitness culture, Japanese youth are following in the footsteps of many other countries. However, this does not mean that we are witnessing a homogenisation process, or a completely McDonaldised version of fitness culture in Japan. Instead, this cultural phenomenon is shaped and formed in particular ways, pointing towards certain strong national sentiments concerning body ideals, views on gender and exercise and relaxation. For example, the cuteness ideal has a strong influence on the way young women talk about and perceive body ideals and corporeal performances in Japan.

  • 272.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    Triathlon Bodies in Motion: Reconceptualizing Feelings of Pain, Nausea and Disgust in the Ironman Triathlon2018In: Body & Society, ISSN 1357-034X, E-ISSN 1460-3632Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 273.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg.
    Danielsson, Tom
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Becoming an Ironman triathlete: Extreme exercise, gender equality and the family puzzle2018In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 21, no 9, p. 1351-1363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Departing from a qualitative research approach, this article focuses on Swedish amateur Ironman triathletes and their family life. The purpose of the paper is to investigate how an elite amateur lifestyle is upheld and balanced with the demands of a sustainable family and social life. The results indicate that the process of becoming and staying an Ironman creates tensions in intimate relationships, making it hard to bring the family life puzzle together. Although the participants interviewed often talk about family life in terms of sharing things fairly equally, in terms of gender equity and involved parenthood, this seemingly is not always an easy ideal to fulfil in practice. On a broader cultural level, these findings can thus be contextualized in relation to discourses associated with the gendering of families and functions, and, of course, the gender of sport and performance.

  • 274.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg.
    Mattsson, Christer
    From subcultures to common culture: Bodybuilders, skinheads and the normalization of the marginal2016In: Nordic Youth Research Symposium (NYRIS), Youth Moves. Voices, Spaces, Subjectivities. Trollhättan, Sweden, 15-17 june, 2016 / [ed] Emma Sorbring, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using bodybuilding and skinheads/neo-Nazis as two rather diverse examples of subcultures, this study is a theoretical exploration of our understanding of the concept of subculture and common culture. The aim is to explore how the concept of subculture can be used in relation to processes of normalization and marginalisation. The focus is on the historical, symbolic and biographical relation between the subculture and the subcultural response, and socio-political transformations in society and culture. We are interested in understanding the processes in which for example bodybuilding has moved back and forth between a subcultural position and more common fitness culture, over time. As a parallel to this, we are also interested in how subcultures centred on skinheads, neo-Nazis and right-wing extremists influence and are connected to more general political transformations and opinions in contemporary society, blurring the distinction between subculture and common culture. The results indicate a complex relation between subcultures and the mainstreaming of certain values, opinions and practices. Deviance is sometimes, over time, renegotiated within common culture, turned into normality , and whereas extreme parts and contents of subcultures may be toned down in this process, core points and values may be extracted and generalized. Bodybuilding is for example transformed into fitness, but the core values of hard bodies, muscle training, health and asceticism are highly present in fitness culture, as well as in more common and dominant socio-cultural patterns. In a similar vein, the core values and sentiments in skinhead and right-wing subcultures xenophobia and nationalism are today becoming a part of the political culture in many European countries.

  • 275.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Tugetam, Åsa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Bergman, Patrick
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Keeping Death at Bay through Health Negotiation: Older Adults' Understanding of Health and Life within Gym and Fitness Culture2016In: Activities, Adaptation & Aging, ISSN 0192-4788, E-ISSN 1544-4368, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 200-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses older adults’ trajectories leading to membership in a gym, and the ways in which they negotiate their self-understanding, aging, and health in this context. Emanating from an ethnographic study, the arguments are based on a constructionist approach. The results show that older adults’ decision to start going to a gym should be understood in relation to an individualized health care system in Swedish society and as a means of negotiating deteriorating health, retirement, lost body capacity, and the meaning of becoming old. The physical activities carried out and the social relationships developed in these contexts are used to construct an empowered self-understanding prepared to challenge the “stiffness” of the dying body.

  • 276.
    Andrén, Henrik
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Education.
    Eriksson, Jonas
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Education.
    Sport manager: en kartläggning av rollen inom golf och ishockey2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Att det har hänt väldigt mycket inom idrotten sedan dess start vet vi, men frågan är hur idrotten kommer att utvecklas i framtiden? Ett begrepp som blivit alltmer modernt inom svensk idrott på senare år är Sport management. Med tanke på att management eller sport inte är några nya företeelser så är sport management eller management of sport heller inga nya företeelser. För flera tusen år sedan anordnades matcher och tävlingar som arrangerades av managers. Idag har kommersialiseringen och professionaliseringen ökat och vuxit sig allt starkare inom den nationella idrottssektorn. Detta har bidragit till att större krav och ansvar lagts på de människor som har i uppgift att handha och organisera idrott.

    I detta examensarbete har vi valt att titta närmare på vilka kompetenser, arbetsuppgifter samt personlighetsegenskaper som kännetecknar dagens sport manager inom idrotterna golf och ishockey. För att få fram en bra bild av hur sport managers arbetar, vilka kompetenser de besitter och hur de uppfattas som personer väcktes tanken om att genomföra en enkätundersökning parallellt med intervjuer av ett antal större golf- och ishockeyföreningar. Utifrån denna fundering kontaktades respektive golf- och ishockeyförenings ordförande för att kunna uppfylla följande syfte:

    Syftet med detta examensarbete är att kartlägga vilka kompetenser, arbetsuppgifter, personlighetsegenskaper som kännetecknar en sport manager inom svenska golf-, respektive ishockeyföreningar idag. Dessutom är syftet att undersöka hur dessa föreningar gått tillväga då de anställt sin/sina sport managers.

    Svaren som gavs ledde till en god och stabil grund för att kunna ställas i relation till de teorier som vi valt att basera examensarbetet på. Vi sammanställde resultaten utifrån enkäterna och intervjuerna i ett statistikprogram för att kunna urskilja likheter och olikheter mellan de olika respondenternas svar.

    Resultaten visar att golf och ishockeyklubbarna valt att anställa en eller flera sport managers för att kunna utveckla föreningen och dess verksamhet. Studien visar också på att ledarskap och strategi är de mest efterfrågade kompetenser hos en sport manager samt att de personlighetsegenskaper som karaktäriserar en framgångsrik ledare kan urskönjas i dagens sport manager inom golf och ishockey. Studien visar till sist att golfklubbarna valt att annonsera ut sina lediga tjänster i betydligt högre omfattning än vad ishockeyklubbarna gjort.

  • 277.
    Andrén, Magnus
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Education.
    Lyyski, Jani
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Education.
    ”Jaha, vad skall vi hitta på idag? Och kanske något annat imorgon?” : En kvalitativ studie av idrottsföreningars arbete med vision, verksamhetsidé och mål2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract summary

    _____________________________________________________________________

    Author: Magnus Andrén and Jani Lyyski

    Title: Vision, company idea & goal – A qualitative study of two sport fraternities

    Växjö university Pages: 96

    _____________________________________________________________________

    Contents

    The purpose of this rapport is to study the terms of strategy within vision, company idea, and goal. To critically survey the work of sport fraternities with these terms; to suggest development possibilities with the chosen terms.

    The following questions have been the foundation to be able to reach the purpose:

    • What theories are active with the terms vision, company idea and goal?

    • How do the sport fraternities work with these terms?

    o How are the terms formed?

    o How are these terms being implemented?

    o How do you get the terms to pervade thru the company?

    • What are the differences/similarities between the literature and the work of the sport fraternities with the terms vision, company idea and goal?

    • How can the sport fraternities develop these terms and get them to work in their company?

    The rapport is written within the frame of Coaching and Sport Management at Växjö university, and is aimed for sport fraternities that are pursuing to either find a tool to get the company towards a common goal, or to create an interesting argument among the chosen terms within the strategy. Furthermore, we feel that the rapport in first hand will focus on the boards and committees of fraternities, and in second hand also the individual member.

    The study begins with a problem formula, where we present our hypostasis of sport fraternities who does not work actively enough with the strategy terms. It ends with what methods will work, which is the basis for the rapport. Relevant literature and theories are presented in relationship to sport fraternities in the next chapter.

    The result shows us that sport fraternities use the terms randomness, inactive, on different levels, and without profiling. Since we got these results, we feel that sport fraternities need to develop these strategies to be able to meet the future demands on a sport fraternity. In the final discussion we give suggestions on development possibilities for these terms, for sport fraternities to use.

    _____________________________________________________________________

  • 278.
    Anens, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiotherapy.
    Emtner, Margareta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiotherapy. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory Medicine and Allergology.
    Hellström, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiotherapy.
    Exploratory Study of Physical Activity in Persons With Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease2015In: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0003-9993, E-ISSN 1532-821X, Vol. 96, no 2, p. 260-268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To explore and describe the perceived facilitators and barriers to physical activity, and to examine the physical activity correlates in people with Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease. Design: Cross-sectional survey study. Setting: Community-living subjects. Participants: Swedish people with CMT disease (N=44; men, 54.5%; median age, 59.5y [interquartile range, 45.3-64.8y]). Interventions: Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures: The survey included open-ended questions and standardized self-reported scales measuring physical activity, fatigue, activity limitation, self-efficacy for physical activity, fall-related self-efficacy, social support, and enjoyment of physical activity. Physical activity was measured by the Physical Activity Disability Survey-Revised. Results: Qualitative content analysis revealed that personal factors such as fatigue, poor balance, muscle weakness, and pain were important barriers for physical activity behavior. Facilitators of physical activity were self-efficacy for physical activity, activity-related factors, and assistive devices. Multiple regression analysis showed that self-efficacy for physical activity (beta=.41) and fatigue (beta=-.30) explained 31.8% of the variation in physical activity (F-2,F-40=10.78, P=.000). Conclusions: Despite the well-known benefits of physical activity, physical activity in people with CMT disease is very sparsely studied. These new results contribute to the understanding of factors important for physical activity behavior in people with CMT disease and can guide health professionals to facilitate physical activity behavior in this group of patients. (C) 2015 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine

  • 279.
    Angelin, Mathias
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Hallor, Anton
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Kan koffein innan träning förbättra den aeroba prestationen över tid?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion

    : För att prestera väl inom en uthållighetsbaserad idrott krävs en hög aerob förmåga. För att öka den aeroba prestationen krävs träning, vilket har varit känt länge. Att maximera effekten av träningen är av stort intresse hos de allra flesta idrottare. Forskare studerar hela tiden nya tekniker för att försöka optimera ökningar i den aeroba prestationen. Koffein ökar akut tiden till utmattning vid given belastning, men frågan kvarstår om koffein även skulle kunna öka den aeroba prestationen över tid.

    Syfte

    : Att undersöka den långvariga effekten vid intag av 5mg/kg kroppsvikt koffein innan högintensiva intervallpass över tid på den aeroba prestationen hos motionslöpare.

    Metod:

    En randomiserad mellangrupps-studie med 5mg/kg kroppsvikt koffein och placebo. 16 deltagare (3 kvinnor och 13 män; medelvärde ± SD, 42 ± 8 år, VO2max: 47,6 ± 6,6 ml/kg/min) deltog i studien. Pre- och post-tester gjordes för VO2max och 3km löpning. Intervention bestod av två högintensiva löp-pass per vecka med intag av antingen koffein eller placebo 30–60 minuter innan träning. Borgskalan (6–20) användes som mått på ansträngning under intervaller. För att beräkna skillnader mellan grupper användes oparat t-test mellan grupper samt parat t-test inom grupp. Signifikansnivån sattes till P <0,05.

    Resultat

    : Ingen signifikant skillnad i delta(Δ) uppmättes mellan Δkoffein och Δplacebo i någon av mätningarna. Signifikant förbättring i tid på 3km löpning (P <0,05) för båda grupper, signifikant förbättring i VO2max för placebogrupp.

    Slutsats

    : Intag av 5mg/kg kroppsvikt koffein 30–60 minuter innan 2 högintensiva intervallpass/vecka har ej ytterligare effekt på den aeroba prestationen jämfört med placebo över en sex veckor lång intervention.

  • 280.
    Anna, Johansson
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Faktorer som motiverar till fysisk aktivitet - en litteraturöversikt.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 281.
    Anselmius, Johan
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Kaloriförbrukning vid AVG-utövande: En kvantitativ studie angående fysisk påfrestning2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    AbstraktInledning Det råder en omfattande hälsoproblematik idag och fysisk inaktivitet är en bidragande orsak. Stillasittandet har ökat i västvärlden och för att fånga även dessa individer erbjuder Tv-spelsmarknaden fysiskt aktiva spel. Handkontroll och stillasittande byts ut mot individens kroppsrörelser. Det finns till och med spel som räknar individens kaloriförbrukning under spelets gång.Syfte Syftet med studien är att se om det råder en signifikant skillnad gällande kaloriförbrukning mellan Your shape och indirekt kalorimetri samt hur Your shape förhåller sig mot Nintendo Wii boxing utifrån de fysiologiska variabler hjärtfrekvens och kaloriförbrukning.Metod En experimentell studiedesign genomfördes på 12 deltagare (7 kvinnor och 5 fem män med en medelvärdeskaraktärisering på 22.2 år, 67,9 kg, 171,3 cm och 23,0 BMI) med hjälp av indirekt kalorimetri i form av en portabel Oxycon Mobile Pro. VO2 och HF uppmättes under testet för att därefter räkna ut testpersonernas kaloriförbrukning. Spelkonsolen bestod av Microsoft xbox 360 med tillhörande kinect samt AVG-spelet Your shape. Av de fyra träningspassen som Your shape erbjuder valdes konditionsboxning ut till denna studie. Den statistiska beräkningen sattes till P = 0.05 och ett parat T-test genomfördes i SPSS.Resultat En signifikant skillnad existerade (P = 0.03) gällande kaloriförbrukning mellan Your shape och Oxycon Mobile Pro. Medelvärdet för testet gällande tid var 32 min och Your shape resulterade i ett medelvärdet på 139.7 kcal och Oxycon Mobile Pro 157.8. En skillnad på 12 %. Your shape underestimerar kaloriförbrukningen jämfört mot Oxycon Mobile Pro.Your shape redovisade högre resultat för både kcal/min och HF jämfört mot Nintendo Wii boxing.Slutsats Det finns en signifikant skillnad mellan Your shape och Oxycon Mobile Pro, nämligen en underskattning från Your shape med 12 %. Vilket ger en god uppskattning av kalorimätaren. Your shape är ett modernare AVG-spel jämfört mot Wii boxing men kräver liknande fysisk påfrestning.

  • 282.
    Anselmius, Johan
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Milton, Ludvig
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Expand A Lung: Ett träningsverktyg för andningsmuskulaturen?2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

     Abstrakt

     

    Syfte:

    Syftet var att undersöka om prestation och uthålligheten hade förbättrats vid användandet av Expand a lung.

     

    Metod:

    En intervention genomfördes på sju testpersoner (4 kvinnor & 3 män) som använde Expand a lung under fjorton dagar, som jämfördes mot en kontrollgrupp på fyra testpersoner (2 kvinnor & 2 män). Testpersonerna genomförde två tester, med en intervall på fjorton dagar. I undersökningen figurerade 4 kvinnor och 3 män (ålder: 22.7 ± 2, vikt: 68.5 ± 10, längd: 175.1 ± 8.5) i experimentgruppen. 2 kvinnor och 2 män (ålder: 22.5 ± 1.5, vikt: 69 ± 9, längd: 170.7 ± 5.5) ingick i kontrollgruppen. Hjärtfrekvens, respiratoriska kvoten och blodlaktat uppmättes med hjälp utav Jaeger Oxycon Pro och lungvolym (SVC & FEV1) uppmättes med hjälp av Spirare SPS 310.

     

    Resultat:

    Ingen signifikant skillnad existerade inom grupperna. Experimentgruppen: SVC före x 4.73, SVC efter x 4,77. FEV1 före x 4.31, FEV1 efter x 4.29, HF (vid OBLA) före x 156, HF efter 155, RQ (vid OBLA) före x 1.04, RQ efter 1.05. Kontrollgruppen: SVC före x 4.98, SVC efter x 4.95. FEV1 före 4.48, FEV1 efter x 4.49, HF (vid OBLA) före x 165, HF efter 163, RQ (vid OBLA) före x 0.99, RQ efter x 1.00. Det som gick att urskilja var att det fanns skillnader på individnivå.

     

    Diskussion:

    Vår undersökning visade ingen signifikant skillnad på gruppnivå efter 14 dagars användande av Expand a lung. Dock fanns det skillnader på individnivå. Detta resultat kan bland annat bero på för kort träningsperiod och för få deltagare. Om Expand a lung kan förbättra prestationen vid träning under längre tid kan vi inte uttala oss om utan krävs vidare forskning.

     

    Nyckelord:

    Expand a lung, andningsmuskulaturträning, laktat, lungvolym.

    Inledning:

    Det existerar träningsredskap som utlovar en ökning gällande prestation och uthållighet, i träningssammanhang, av människans andningsmuskulatur. Träningsredskapen isolerade träningen till att bara sätta andningsmuskulaturen i arbete. Expand a lung var en av dessa nya, mer obeprövade, träningsredskap som utlovade en förbättrad prestation och uthållighet vid ett frekvent användande. Samtidigt visade en befintlig del av forskning att det indirekt inte gick att träna andningsmuskulaturen. Vi påträffade aldrig granskade vetenskaplig forskning som kunde fastställa vad Expand a lung utlovade.

  • 283.
    Aphram, Petra
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kaldoyo, Patricia
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    "Vi kan prata om ALLT mellan himmel och jord": Elitidrottande kvinnors upplevda relation till sin manliga tränare2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka hur elitidrottande kvinnor upplevde relationen till sin tränare. Mer specifikt hur idrottarna upplever dimensionerna 1) samspel, 2) förståelse, 3) närhet och 4) engagemang till sin tränare.

    Metod

    Studien baseras på semistrukturerade intervjuer med fyra elitidrottande kvinnor i åldrarna 18-25 år. Två av idrottarna ägnade sig åt en individuell idrott (tennis) och två ägnade sig åt en lagidrott (fotboll). I studien besvarades studiens frågeställningar med hjälp av 3+1C modellen som är ett teoretiskt underlag att analysera tränar-idrottarerelationen.

    Resultat

    Samtliga idrottare upplevde att de fyra dimensionerna var viktiga för att få relationen med tränaren att fungera. Samtliga idrottare nämnde att samspel var grunden i relationen, förståelse i relationen handlade om att anpassa sig efter varandras behov, engagemang var viktig framförallt från tränarens sida och närhet byggdes upp med hjälp av att hitta förtroende och tillit för varandra.

    Slutsats Vårt resultat visar att relationen till tränaren är en viktig faktor för att båda parter ska må bra, hur relationen till tränaren är visade sig i studien vara avgörande för både den personliga och idrottsliga utvecklingen hos idrottaren. Det är inte bara upplevelsen av de fyra dimensionerna som är avgörande för hur relationen ska fungera, utan studien visade att det är många andra faktorer också som påverkar kvalitén på relationen till tränaren.

  • 284.
    Appelqvist, Emma
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Fysiska aktivitetens påverkan på hälsorelaterad livskvalitet hos äldre2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 285. Apple, F.S
    et al.
    Tesch, P.A
    CK and LD isozymes in human single muscle fibers in trained athletes1989In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 66, no 6, p. 2717-2720Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 286.
    Apro, William
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Moberg, Marcus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    High intensity interval cycling performed prior to resistance exercise stimulates autophagy signaling2016In: Conference program & abstracts, 2016, p. 84-84Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 287.
    Apro, William
    et al.
    Swedish Sch Sport & Hlth Sci, Astrand Lab, SE-11486 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Moberg, Marcus
    Swedish Sch Sport & Hlth Sci, Astrand Lab, SE-11486 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hamilton, D. Lee
    Univ Stirling, Hlth & Exercise Sci Res Grp, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish Sch Sport & Hlth Sci, Astrand Lab, SE-11486 Stockholm, Sweden.
    van Hall, Gerrit
    Univ Copenhagen, Rigshosp, Dept Biomed Sci, DK-1168 Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish Sch Sport & Hlth Sci, Astrand Lab, SE-11486 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Resistance exercise-induced S6K1 kinase activity is not inhibited in human skeletal muscle despite prior activation of AMPK by high-intensity interval cycling2015In: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0193-1849, E-ISSN 1522-1555, Vol. 308, no 6, p. E470-E481Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Combining endurance and strength training in the same session has been reported to reduce the anabolic response to the latter form of exercise. The underlying mechanism, based primarily on results from rodent muscle, is proposed to involve AMPK-dependent inhibition of mTORC1 signaling. This hypothesis was tested in eight trained male subjects who in randomized order performed either resistance exercise only (R) or interval cycling followed by resistance exercise (ER). Biopsies taken from the vastus lateralis before and after endurance exercise and repeatedly after resistance exercise were assessed for glycogen content, kinase activity, protein phosphorylation, and gene expression. Mixed muscle fractional synthetic rate was measured at rest and during 3 h of recovery using the stable isotope technique. In ER, AMPK activity was elevated immediately after both endurance and resistance exercise (similar to 90%, P < 0.05) but was unchanged in R. Thr(389) phosphorylation of S6K1 was increased severalfold immediately after exercise (P < 0.05) in both trials and increased further throughout recovery. After 90 and 180 min recovery, S6K1 activity was elevated (similar to 55 and similar to 110%, respectively, P < 0.05) and eukaryotic elongation factor 2 phosphorylation was reduced (similar to 55%, P < 0.05) with no difference between trials. In contrast, markers for protein catabolism were differently influenced by the two modes of exercise; ER induced a significant increase in gene and protein expression of MuRF1 (P < 0.05), which was not observed following R exercise only. In conclusion, cycling-induced elevation in AMPK activity does not inhibit mTOR complex 1 signaling after subsequent resistance exercise but may instead interfere with the hypertrophic response by influencing key components in protein breakdown.

  • 288.
    Apró, William
    et al.
    Swedish Sch Sport & Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Rooyackers, Olav
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish Sch Sport & Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Is leucine induced p70S6 kinase phosphorylation following resistance exercise dependent on elevated phenylalanine levels in human skeletal muscle?2010In: The FASEB Journal, ISSN 0892-6638, E-ISSN 1530-6860, Vol. 24, p. lb273-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the specific role of

    leucine in the stimulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin

    signalling pathway. Six male subjects performed four heavy

    resistance exercise sessions, each separated by approximately one

    week. Subjects were randomly supplemented with one of four

    drinks: placebo (flavored water), leucine or essential amino acids

    (EAA) with and without leucine. Immediately following each

    exercise session, four subjects were infused with a flooding dose of

    L-[2H5] phenylalanine (Inf) while two subjects served as controls

    (Ctrl). Muscle biopsies were taken before and one hour after

    exercise. In the Ctrl group, resistance exercise resulted in a

    substantial increase (45-fold) in p70 kinase phosphorylation

    when all EAA were ingested, whereas ingestion of leucine alone

    had no greater effect than that of placebo. In the Inf group,

    however, ingestion of leucine alone and EAA increased p70

    phosphorylation to a similar extent (35-fold). The divergent

    signalling response in the two groups suggests that leucine alone is

    insufficient to increase p70

    phosphorylation. Indeed, in the Inf

    group, there was a strong correlation (r=0.91) between

    p70 phosphorylation and the product of muscle leucine and

    phenylalanine levels. These results suggest that the stimulatory

    effect of leucine on p70 phosphorylation is dependent on

    elevated muscle phenylalanine levels. Supported by the Swedish

    National Centre for Research in Sports

     

  • 289.
    Apró, William
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Moberg, Marcus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Amino Acid-induced S6K1 Activity In Human Skeletal Muscle Is Mediated By Increased mTor/Rheb Interaction: 128 June 1, 11: 15 AM - 11: 30 AM.2016In: Medicine And Science In Sports And Exercise 2016 May; Vol. 48 (5S Suppl 1), pp. 17., 2016, Vol. 48, no 5S Suppl 1, p. 17-17Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cell culture studies have shown that amino acids activate mTORC1 signaling by increasing the interaction between mTOR and its essential activator Rheb. However, the existence of this mechanism in human skeletal muscle remains to be determined.

    PURPOSE: To determine if increased mTORC1 signaling in response to amino acids in human skeletal muscle is due to an increased interaction between mTOR and Rheb.

    METHODS: Eight well trained men performed resistance exercise on two separate occasions. In connection with the exercise, subjects were supplemented with flavored water (Pla) and essential amino acids (EAA) in a double-blind, randomized cross-over design. Muscle biopsies were taken in the vastus lateralis muscle before, immediately after and 90 and 180 min post exercise. Activity of the mTORC1 pathway was assessed by a radiolabeled in-vitro kinase assay for its immediate downstream target S6K1. Protein-protein interactions were determined by western blot following co-immunoprecipitation of mTOR with Rheb. Co-immunoprecipitation was performed on pooled muscle samples from three of the eight subjects.

    RESULTS: Activity of S6K1 remained unchanged immediately after exercise in both trials. However, at 90 min post exercise, S6K1 activity increased by approximately 2- and 8-fold (p<0.05) from baseline the Pla and EAA trials, respectively. At the 180 min time point, S6K1 activity remained elevated in both trials being approx. 3-fold higher in the Pla trial and 5-fold higher (p<0.05) in the EAA trial. The fold-change in mTOR and Rheb interaction largely resembled the activity pattern of S6K1 in both trials; in the Pla trial the fold-change was 0.9, 1.3 and 1.4 while in the EAA trial the fold-change was 1.6, 2.9 and 1.9 immediately after, 90 min after and 180 min after exercise, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: The large increase in S6K1 activity following EAA intake appears to be mediated by an increased interaction between mTOR and its proximal activator Rheb. This is the first time this mechanism has been demonstrated in human skeletal muscle.

  • 290.
    Apró, William
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Moberg, Marcus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Amino Acid-induced S6K1 Activity in Human Skeletal Muscle is Mediated By Increased mTor/Rheb Interaction: 128 June 1, 11: 15 AM - 11: 30 AM2016In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 48, no 5 Suppl 1, p. 17-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cell culture studies have shown that amino acids activate mTORC1 signaling by increasing the interaction between mTOR and its essential activator Rheb. However, the existence of this mechanism in human skeletal muscle remains to be determined.

    PURPOSE: To determine if increased mTORC1 signaling in response to amino acids in human skeletal muscle is due to an increased interaction between mTOR and Rheb.

    METHODS: Eight well trained men performed resistance exercise on two separate occasions. In connection with the exercise, subjects were supplemented with flavored water (Pla) and essential amino acids (EAA) in a double-blind, randomized cross-over design. Muscle biopsies were taken in the vastus lateralis muscle before, immediately after and 90 and 180 min post exercise. Activity of the mTORC1 pathway was assessed by a radiolabeled in-vitro kinase assay for its immediate downstream target S6K1. Protein-protein interactions were determined by western blot following co-immunoprecipitation of mTOR with Rheb. Co-immunoprecipitation was performed on pooled muscle samples from three of the eight subjects.

    RESULTS: Activity of S6K1 remained unchanged immediately after exercise in both trials. However, at 90 min post exercise, S6K1 activity increased by approximately 2- and 8-fold (p<0.05) from baseline the Pla and EAA trials, respectively. At the 180 min time point, S6K1 activity remained elevated in both trials being approx. 3-fold higher in the Pla trial and 5-fold higher (p<0.05) in the EAA trial. The fold-change in mTOR and Rheb interaction largely resembled the activity pattern of S6K1 in both trials; in the Pla trial the fold-change was 0.9, 1.3 and 1.4 while in the EAA trial the fold-change was 1.6, 2.9 and 1.9 immediately after, 90 min after and 180 min after exercise, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: The large increase in S6K1 activity following EAA intake appears to be mediated by an increased interaction between mTOR and its proximal activator Rheb. This is the first time this mechanism has been demonstrated in human skeletal muscle.

  • 291.
    Arastoo-Pour, Danial
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Hur påverkar effekten av styrkan och dragfrekvensen vid ett 1000 m roddmaskinstest?2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Rowing is a sport dependent on high endurance capacity, where most of the large muscles in the body are used, the three energy systems are involved and the body is in need of a large amount of energy. Concept 2 rowing ergometers is a sport of itself but is performed mostly during the winter season for outdoor rowers to see the performance and do physiological tests. The purpose of this project was to see if there is any correlation between stroke rate, average power, 1RM deadlift and finishing time on 1000 m rowing machine performance, for 9 adult male rowers. The correlation was studied with linear regression analysis.

       The hypothesis was that lower rate leads to higher mean power in each stroke and higher stroke rate leads to lower power in each stroke.

       The results showed no correlation between stroke rate, heavier weight lifted in deadlift and finishing time. Where a lower stroke rate and higher mean effect lead to a lower finishing time, p and r2 value for the correlation between time and stroke rate was 0.109 for r2 and p=0.385, p=0.210 and r2 value 0.214 for the correlation between time and deadlift, for the correlation between time and mean effect, the r2 value was 0.75 and p=0.0025, which indicate a strong correlation.

           It is more benefit if one row with higher force on the rowing machine than rowing on the water. Further, the results show that it is an advantage if the rowers train more strength, because more power leads to a more powerful stroke and lower time.

  • 292.
    Ardern, Clare
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. La Trobe Univ, Australia.
    Ekas, Guri Ranum
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Norway; Norwegian Sch Sport Sci, Norway; Univ Oslo, Norway.
    Grindem, Hege
    Norwegian Sch Sport Sci, Norway.
    Moksnes, Havard
    Norwegian Sch Sport Sci, Norway.
    Anderson, Allen
    Tennessee Orthopaed Alliance, TN USA.
    Chotel, Franck
    Hop Femme Mere Enfant, France.
    Cohen, Moises
    Univ Fed Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Forssblad, Magnus
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Ganley, Theodore J.
    Childrens Hosp Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.
    Feller, Julian A.
    Epworth Healthcare, Australia; La Trobe Univ, Australia.
    Karlsson, Jon
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kocher, Mininder S.
    Boston Childrens Hosp, MA USA; Harvard Med Sch, MA USA.
    LaPrade, Robert F.
    Steadman Philippon Res Inst, CO USA; Steadman Clin, CO USA.
    McNamee, Michael
    Swansea Univ, Wales.
    Mandelbaum, Bert
    Santa Monica Orthopaed and Sports Med Grp, CA USA.
    Micheli, Lyle
    Boston Childrens Hosp, MA USA; Harvard Med Sch, MA USA; Micheli Ctr Sports Injury Prevent, MA USA.
    Mohtadi, Nicholas G. H.
    Univ Calgary, Canada.
    Reider, Bruce
    Univ Chicago, IL 60637 USA.
    Roe, Justin P.
    North Sydney Orthopaed and Sports Med Ctr, Australia.
    Seil, Romain
    Ctr Hosp Luxembourg, Luxembourg; Luxembourg Inst Hlth, Luxembourg.
    Siebold, Rainer
    Ruprecht Karls Univ Heidelberg, Germany; ATOS Klin, Germany.
    Silvers-Granelli, Holly J.
    FIFA Med Ctr Excellence, CA USA.
    Soligard, Torbjorn
    Int Olymp Comm, Switzerland; Univ Calgary, Canada.
    Witvrouw, Erik
    Univ Ghent, Belgium.
    Engebretsen, Lars
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Norway; Norwegian Sch Sport Sci, Norway; Univ Oslo, Norway; Int Olymp Comm, Switzerland.
    Prevention, diagnosis and management of paediatric ACL injuries2018In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 52, no 20, p. 1297-1298Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 293.
    Ardern, Clare
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Aspetar Orthopaed and Sports Medical Hospital, Qatar; La Trobe University, Australia.
    Glasgow, Philip
    Sport Northern Ireland Sports Institute, North Ireland; University of Ulster, North Ireland.
    Schneiders, Anthony
    Central Queensland University, Australia.
    Witvrouw, Erik
    Aspetar Orthopaed and Sports Medical Hospital, Qatar; University of Ghent, Belgium.
    Clarsen, Benjamin
    Norwegian School Sports Science, Norway; Olymp Elite Sports Program Olympiatoppen, Norway.
    Cools, Ann
    University of Ghent, Belgium.
    Gojanovic, Boris
    Hop La Tour, Switzerland; Lausanne University of and Hospital, Switzerland.
    Griffin, Steffan
    University of Birmingham, England.
    Khan, Karim M.
    University of British Columbia, Canada.
    Moksnes, Havard
    Norwegian School Sports Science, Norway; Olymp Elite Sports Program Olympiatoppen, Norway.
    Mutch, Stephen A.
    SPACE Clin, Scotland; Murrayfield Stadium, Scotland.
    Phillips, Nicola
    Cardiff University, Wales.
    Reurink, Gustaaf
    Sports Phys Grp, Netherlands.
    Sadler, Robin
    Manchester City Football Club, England.
    Gravare Silbernagel, Karin
    University of Delaware, DE USA.
    Thorborg, Kristian
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wangensteen, Arnlaug
    Aspetar Orthopaed and Sports Medical Hospital, Qatar; Norwegian School Sports Science, Norway.
    Wilk, Kevin E.
    Champ Sports Med, AL USA.
    Bizzini, Mario
    Schulthess Clin, Switzerland.
    2016 Consensus statement on return to sport from the First World Congress in Sports Physical Therapy, Bern2016In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 50, no 14, p. 853-864Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deciding when to return to sport after injury is complex and multifactorial-an exercise in risk management. Return to sport decisions are made every day by clinicians, athletes and coaches, ideally in a collaborative way. The purpose of this consensus statement was to present and synthesise current evidence to make recommendations for return to sport decision-making, clinical practice and future research directions related to returning athletes to sport. A half day meeting was held in Bern, Switzerland, after the First World Congress in Sports Physical Therapy. 17 expert clinicians participated. 4 main sections were initially agreed upon, then participants elected to join 1 of the 4 groups-each group focused on 1 section of the consensus statement. Participants in each group discussed and summarised the key issues for their section before the 17-member group met again for discussion to reach consensus on the content of the 4 sections. Return to sport is not a decision taken in isolation at the end of the recovery and rehabilitation process. Instead, return to sport should be viewed as a continuum, paralleled with recovery and rehabilitation. Biopsychosocial models may help the clinician make sense of individual factors that may influence the athletes return to sport, and the Strategic Assessment of Risk and Risk Tolerance framework may help decision-makers synthesise information to make an optimal return to sport decision. Research evidence to support return to sport decisions in clinical practice is scarce. Future research should focus on a standardised approach to defining, measuring and reporting return to sport outcomes, and identifying valuable prognostic factors for returning to sport.

  • 294. Ardern, Clare L.
    et al.
    Österberg, Annika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning i Sörmland (CKFD).
    Tagesson, Sofi
    Gauffin, Hakan
    Webster, Kate E.
    Kvist, Joanna
    The impact of psychological readiness to return to sport and recreational activities after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction2014In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 48, no 22, p. 1613-U50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background This cross-sectional study aimed to examine whether appraisal of knee function, psychological and demographic factors were related to returning to the preinjury sport and recreational activity following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Method 164 participants completed a questionnaire battery at 1-7 years after primary ACL reconstruction. The battery included questionnaires evaluating knee self-efficacy, health locus of control, psychological readiness to return to sport and recreational activity, and fear of reinjury; and self-reported knee function in sport-specific tasks, knee-related quality of life and satisfaction with knee function. The primary outcome was returning to the preinjury sport or recreational activity. Results At follow-up, 40% (66/164) had returned to their preinjury activity. Those who returned had more positive psychological responses, reported better knee function in sport and recreational activities, perceived a higher knee-related quality of life and were more satisfied with their current knee function. The main reasons for not returning were not trusting the knee (28%), fear of a new injury (24%) and poor knee function (22%). Psychological readiness to return to sport and recreational activity, measured with the ACL-Return to Sport after Injury scale (was most strongly associated with returning to the preinjury activity). Age, sex and preinjury activity level were not related. Conclusions Less than 50% returned to their preinjury sport or recreational activity after ACL reconstruction. Psychological readiness to return to sport and recreation was the factor most strongly associated with returning to the preinjury activity. Including interventions aimed at improving this in postoperative rehabilitation programmes could be warranted to improve the rate of return to sport and recreational activities.

  • 295. Arkkukangas, Marina
    et al.
    Söderlund, Anne
    Eriksson, Staffan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Uppsala Univ, Ctr Clin Res Sormland, Eskilstuna, Sweden; Uppsala Univ, Dept Neurosci, Physiotherapy, Sweden.
    Johansson, Ann-Christin
    One-year adherence to the Otago Exercise Program with or without motivational interviewing in community-dwelling older adults2018In: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, ISSN 1063-8652, E-ISSN 1543-267X, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 390-395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated if behavioral factors, treatment with behavioral support, readiness to change, fall self-efficacy, and activity habits could predict long-term adherence to an exercise program. Included in this study were 114 community-dwelling older adults who had participated in one of two home-based exercise interventions. Behavioral factors associated with adherence to the exercise program over 52 weeks were analyzed. The behavioral factors, specifically activity habits at baseline, significantly predicted adherence to the exercise program, with an odds ratio = 3.39, 95% confidence interval [1.38, 8.32], for exercise and an odds ratio = 6.11, 95% confidence interval [2.34, 15.94], for walks. Being allocated to a specific treatment including motivational interviewing was also significantly predictive: odds ratio = 2.47, 95% confidence interval [1.11, 5.49] for exercise adherence. In conclusion, activity habits and exercise in combination with motivational interviewing had a significant association with adherence to the exercise program at a 1-year follow-up.

  • 296.
    Arlasjö, Lisa
    Stockholm University of the Arts, Dance Pedagogy Department.
    Stretching: en jämförande studie av dess användning i dansundervisning och aktuell forskning2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Whether stretching should be used in conjunction with exercise is a much debated subject. Stretching has in a large part of dance training received a major stronghold. Recent research has shown that some forms of stretching can reduce performance. The purpose of this study is to compare the current research regarding stretching and how stretching is used in dance teaching. Based on the questions:

    - What does the current research say about the effects of static and dynamic stretching?

    - Which approach to stretching does a chosen group of dance pedagogues in Sweden have?

    - What are the similarities and differences regarding stretching in current research and in the chosen group of dance pedagogues?

     

    This is examined by doing a research review of stretching, a questionnaire survey for dance pedagogues and by doing a content analysis of this material, and finally a comparison of those results. Research and dance pedagogues agree about the positive effects of dynamic stretching and disagree when it comes to the effects of static stretching. Research agrees that it is negative for performance, while many dance pedagogues mean it is positive for performance. Just as the research results the dance pedagogues disagree about the effects of stretching. But generally, research do not consider stretching to be needed as much as dance pedagogues do.

  • 297.
    Arlegui, Leigh
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Changes in Anaerobic Sprint Performance, Perceived Muscle Soreness and Sleep Quality after Wearing Compression Garments during Recovery from a Strength Training Workout2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Compression garments are elastic, body-tight pieces of clothing with different pressure gradients used as a recovery method after exercise, such as strength training. Compression garments have increased in popularity within recreational and elite athletes as it is believed that they promote a reduction of muscle soreness and inflammation, which in turn may enhance performance. However, the exact physiological, psychological and performance enhancing effects of compression garments after recovery still remain unknown. Aim: To investigate whether female and male recreational athletes wearing full leg customised compression garments for at least 15 hours following a personalised strength training workout leads to an improvement in anaerobic sprint cycling performance as well as a reduction of perceived muscle soreness. Additionally a sleep quality assessment was conducted to assess the effects of the garments during sleep. Methods: Thirteen male and female subjects took part of a cross-over, randomised, controlled study. Subjects performed the first set of tests including Wingate anaerobic sprint test followed by their personalised strength training workout, after which they recovered with Compression Garments (CGS) or without compression garments (CON). They then returned 24hrs later to perform the second set of tests. Ten days later the same procedure was conducted however the other recovery method was used. Results: No significantdifferences were found between CGS and CON for the Wingate anaerobic test performance. Perceived muscle soreness was lower when subjects wore the garments and they felt better recovered 24hrs post-intervention compared to the CON condition. Some aspects of sleep were affected by wearing the compression garments during sleep however it was unclear whether this had an impact on performance. Conclusion: Recovering with customised full leg compression garments did not promote an improvement of physiological power performance 24 hours after a personalised strength training workout session. However perceived muscle soreness was reduced and the perception of recovery improved. The compression garments caused some sleep disturbances as subjects rated that they were too warm, suggesting a possible drawback of recovering with garments if worn during sleep.

  • 298.
    Armour, Kathleen
    et al.
    School of Sport, Exercise & Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Chambers, Fiona
    Sports Studies and Physical Education, School of Education, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Makopoulou, Kyriaki
    School of Sport, Exercise & Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.
    What is ‘effective’ CPD for contemporary physical education teachers?: A Deweyan framework2017In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 22, no 7, p. 799-811Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is widely argued that continuing professional development (CPD) for physical education (PE) teachers is important, yet questions remain about ‘effective’ CPD. We consider these questions afresh from a Deweyan perspective. An overview of the CPD/PE-CPD literature reveals conflicting positions on teachers as learners. Considering the nature of contemporary PE, and the learning needs of teachers, we argue that a different model of PE-CPD is required to reflect the dynamic nature of contemporary practice. We propose John Dewey's classic concept of ‘education as growth’ to underpin a new conceptual framework for the design, delivery and evaluation of PE-CPD. We argue that ‘effective’ PE-CPD will not be found in formal policies, structures and processes, however, well-intentioned, unless it (i) focuses on the dazzling complexity of the learning process, (ii) prioritises context and contemporary challenges; (iii) bridges research/theory–practice in innovative ways; and (iv) nurtures the career-long growth of PE teachers.

  • 299. Armstrong, Neil
    et al.
    Tomkinson, Grant R.
    Ekelund, Ulf
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Aerobic fitness and its relationship to sport, exercise training and habitual physical activity during youth2011In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 45, no 11, p. 849-858Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim To analyse aerobic fitness and its relationship with sport participation, exercise training and habitual physical activity (HPA) during youth. Methods Studies were located through computer searches of Medline, SPORT Discus and personal databases. Systematic reviews of time trends in aerobic fitness/performance, and exercise training and peak oxygen uptake (peak VO(2)) are reported. Results Peak VO(2) increases with age and maturation. Boys' peak VO(2) is higher than girls'. Despite data showing a decrease in performance test estimates of aerobic fitness there is no compelling evidence to suggest that young people have low levels of peak VO(2) or that it is declining over time. The primary time constant of the VO(2) kinetics response to moderate and heavy intensity exercise slows with age and the VO(2) kinetics response to heavy intensity exercise is faster in boys. There is a negative correlation between lactate threshold as a percentage of peak VO(2) and age but differences related to maturation or sex remain to be proven. Young athletes have higher peak VO(2), a faster primary time constant and accumulate less blood lactate at the same relative exercise intensity than their untrained peers. Young people can increase their peak VO(2) through exercise training but a meaningful relationship between aerobic fitness and HPA has not been demonstrated. Conclusions During youth the responses of the components of aerobic fitness vary in relation to age, maturation and sex. Exercise training will enhance aerobic fitness but a relationship between young people's current HPA and aerobic fitness remains to be proven.

  • 300.
    Arndt, Toni
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Barfota eller rejäl stötdämpning – vilka löparskor är bäst?2016In: Idrottsforskning, ISSN 2002-3944, article id 18 majArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Kraftig dämpning i våra löparskor skulle minska skadorna. Men att stötarna i nedslaget är ett problem har svagt stöd i forskningen. Är det då bättre att springa i minimalistiska skor eller helt barfota? Vad ska motionären välja?

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