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  • 251.
    Andersson, Rebecca
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Resonemang omkring motivation: En undersökning av elitsatsande gymnasieelevers motivationsfaktorer i fotboll vid en NIU skola i Sverige.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: 

    Elite soccer in combination with education is a unique and demanding task. The path towards a glory career in sports takes hard mental and physical training. The objectives in this study are 6 elite focused high school students studying high school education programs in combination with football profile. They are 3 of each gender. The purpose of the study was to find out more about their perspective of motivation and what makes them keep going towards a career in football in beside their education.

    The study is of empiric hermeneutic survey used qualitative method and interviewing to collect data. The results have shown several patterns and similarities, also differences. They all see motivation as a mental force. They appreciate the social factors from parents through support and commitment in their football. Several of them found their interests in football through their parent’s interest in football. They are motivated by development and promotion in divisions. They are all experiencing a need of having fun towards their elite focused career. 

  • 252.
    Andersson, Robert
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Cedergren, Joakim
    Örebro University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Ishockeypublikens påverkan: "När det är bra tryck i arenan så är de ju som en sjätte spelare!"2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Titel: Ishockeypublikens påverkan – ”När det är bra tryck i arenan så är de ju som en sjätte spelare!” (Citatet i titeln är hämtat från intervjun med respondent 6)

    Nyckelord: Motivation, Självförtroende, Nervositet, Ängslan, Ishockeyspelare, Publikpåverkan.

    Till varje lag i elitserien finns det publik som vill stödja sitt lag. De använder sig utav olika metoder för att hjälpa sitt lag till framgång. Stödet från publiken påverkar naturligtvis spelarna men det finns en begränsad tidigare forskning som kan visa på vilket sätt de reagerar psykologiskt. Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur eltishockeyspelares motivation, självförtroende och ängslan/nervositet påverkas av publiken under matchdagar. Metoden som användes för att uppfylla detta syfte var en kvalitativ intervju. De som deltog i studien var sju stycken (ålder 19-34 år) manliga elitseriespelare i ishockey från två olika lag. Lagen som valdes ut är båda framgångsrika och har starka traditioner inom svensk ishockey. För att analysera intervjuerna så har dessa transkriberats. Resultatdelen presenterades i tre olika delar utifrån de tre teman som intervjuerna utgick ifrån. Det visade sig att alla de tillfrågade spelarna tycker att det är som roligast med ishockey när det är fullsatt i arenan. Då blir det en extra laddning i luften och spelarnas motivation höjs. Samtidigt bildas en form av nervositet hos spelarna eftersom de då förstår att matchen betyder något extra. En viss nervositet innan match gör oftast att spelarna presterar bättre. I diskussionen kopplades tidigare forskning ihop med studiens resultat och flera av dem styrktes då med hjälp av de tidigare studierna. Vi analyserade och använde egna reflektioner för att verkligen fördjupa vår förståelse för hur elitishockeyspelare påverkas av publiken.

  • 253.
    Andersson, Sofia
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Möjligheter till motivation för fysisk aktivitet: En interventionsstudie avsedd att motivera elever till fysisk aktivitet genom självbestämmande2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att under en femveckorsperiod undersöka möjligheterna till att förändra elevers motivation till fysisk aktivitet. Utifrån detta syfte formulerades följande frågeställning:

    • Vad sker med elevers motivation till fysisk aktivitet om den praktiska undervisningen utformas efter self-determination theory?

    För att utforma den praktiska undervisningen efter self-determination theory valdes Engstöms praktiker som en grund och stöttepelare i planeringen och genomförandet av lektionerna. Vilket gav en underliggande frågeställning till den ovanstående:

    - Vilka praktiker finns representerade i underökningsgruppen?

    Studien har genomförts på en högstadieskola i mellersta Sverige, där två klasser i årskurs (åk) 8 valdes ut att delta i studien. I undersökningsgruppen blev urvalet 14 elever och i kontrollgruppen 9 elever. Undersökningsgruppen genomförde en praktikenkät innan interventionen, vilken låg till grund i planeringen och genomförandet av lektionerna. De två klasserna genomförde en motivationsenkät före och efter interventionen för att mäta motivationsnivån. Resultatet av interventionsstudien visar att det skedde en viss förändring i de olika motivationsnivåerna. Det fanns dock ingen statistisk signifikant skillnad mellan test ett och test två på någon av motivationsnivåerna, varken hos undersökningsgrupp eller hos kontrollgrupp.

  • 254.
    Andersson, Stefan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Kuqi, Nepe
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Skolan - himmel eller helvete: en studie om elevers upplevelser av mobbning2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka elevers upplevelser av förekomsten avmobbning i skolan. Eftersom vi studerar till idrottslärare är därför ett delsyfte attundersöka elevers upplevelser av förekomsten av mobbning i omklädningsrumföre och efter en idrottslektion. Utöver detta undersöktes även skillnader mellanpojkar och flickors upplevelser av förekomsten av mobbning och kränkningarsamt elevers upplevelser om lärare agerade för att förebygga, åtgärda ochmotverka mobbning. Studien grundade sig på en enkätundersökning somgenomfördes på tre högstadieskolor där 221 elever i årskurs nio deltog varav 124var pojkar och 97 var flickor. Resultatet av studien visade att 7 % av elevernaupplevde sig vara utsatta för mobbning i omklädningsrummet och 7 % aveleverna upplevde sig vara utsatta för mobbning i andra situationer i skolan.Pojkar upplevde sig oftare vara utsatta och utsätta andra elever för fysiskakränkningar och mobbning än flickor, medan flickor upplevde sig oftare varautsatta för social mobbning än pojkar. Hälften av respondenterna i studien ansågatt det förekom mobbning i stort sett alltid eller ibland på deras skola medanhälften menade att mobbning förekom sällan eller aldrig på deras skola.Resultatet visade även att ungefär hälften av respondenterna ansåg att lärarna påskolorna i stort sett alltid eller ibland agerade mot mobbning och ungefär likamånga ansåg att lärarna aldrig eller sällan agerade mot mobbning.

  • 255.
    Andersson, Terese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Menstruationscykelns och p-pillers påverkan på den fysiska prestationsförmågan2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Effects of Menstrual Cycle and Oral Contraceptives on Sport Performance

    During the menstrual cycle, there is a variation of the female steriod hormones estrogen and progestogen. These hormones has mainly reproduktive functions, but do also affect other physiological systems, which may have an influence on athletic performance. The use of oral contraceptives among female athletes matches the use among the general population. There is a concern among female athletes and there coaches weather oral contraceptives can affect the performance. The purpose of this litterature review is to determine the effect of the menstrual cycle and the use of oral contraceptives on athletic performance. Most studies indicates that neither the aerobic performance or VO₂max changes during the mestrual cycle, but an increase in ventilation during the lutheal phase has been observed. In the lutheal phase, the body temperature is elevated, which can affect the performance negatively during physical activity in hot and humid conditions. Studies evaluating the anaerobic performance shows varied results, which can be explained by few study participants, different study designs and varying definitions of menstrual cycle phase. Some studies that have examined the strength variation have not seen any difference, and others have seen an advantage during the follicular phase, when it also seems to be beneficial to train more strength training to optimize training adaptation. The use of oral contraceptives can affect the body composition of female athletes. Fat mass and BMD can increase, and is seen mainly in athleteswith mestrual dysfunctions. This can be benificial for their health and decrease the risk of injury, but may decrease performace level. The effect of oral contraceptive administration on aerobic capacity, anaerobic capacity and strength are unclear and the research has come up with varying results. Future studies should investigate oneoral contraceptive pill formulation at a time, andalso compare different formulations, to determineif that affect performance in different ways.

    Key words: menstruation, oral contraceptives, female athlete, performance, hormones

  • 256.
    Andersson, Therese
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Törnhult, Jennifer
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    På blodigt allvar: En intervjustudie om amenorré bland lagidrottande kvinnor på elitnivå.2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Amenorré (menstruationsrubbningar och menstruationsbortfall) är ett allvarligt tillstånd som kan drabba kvinnor i fertil ålder. Amenorré är en av tre komponenter i den kvinnliga idrottstriaden, som länge ansågs som den största medicinska problematiken inom kvinnlig idrott. Konsekvenserna av amenorré kan vara infertilitet, benskörhet, fysisk- och psykisk ohälsa. Inom idrotten har namnet idrottsamenorré uppkommit. Detta på grund av ökad rapportering om amenorré drabbade kvinnor inom idrotten. Syftet med studien var att belysa kvinnliga elitidrottares tankar om amenorré. Studien baseras på sju kvalitativa intervjuer med elitidrottande kvinnor som är aktiva inom lagidrott. Intervjuerna grundades på en intervjuguide och inför intervjuerna genomfördes två pilotintervjuer. Studien visar att av de sju elitidrottande kvinnorna som deltog så har tre kvinnor personliga upplevelser av amenorré. Många av de resterande respondenterna hade upplevt amenorré hos någon närstående. De respondenter som själva varit drabbade hade under den aktuella sjukdomsperioden inte sökt hjälp. Vidare visar resultatet att informationen som kvinnliga elitidrottare får idag är otillräcklig eller i många fall obefintlig. Detta gäller som idrottskvinna men även som kvinna i samhället. Få respondenter upplevde att de fått information om amenorré utanför idrotten. Även informationen kring menstruation saknades inom idrotten och kunde också beskrivas som bristfällig i samhället. Respondenterna som deltog i studien hade många bra idéer och tankar om hur utveckling av informationsarbetet kunde se ut, både inom elitidrotten, ungdomsidrotten och i skolan.  Slutsatser som kan dras av studien är att relativt få av kvinnorna hade upplevelser av amenorré. Kvinnorna upplevde ett positivt samtalsklimat kring menstruation inom sina lag, vilket kan vara av stor vikt om man själv blir drabbad av amenorré. Informationen om amenorré inom elitidrotten ansågs bristfällig, vilket tidigare forskning bekräftar. Vidare belyser resultatet i studien hur arbetet kring informationsspridning skulle kunna se ut och hur respondenterna helst skulle motta informationen.

  • 257.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Between Performance and Beauty: Towards a sociological understanding of trajectories to drug use in a gym and bodybuilding context.2013In: Scandinavian Sport Studies Forum, ISSN 2000-088X, E-ISSN 2000-088X, Vol. 4, p. 69-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emanating from an ethnographic study of Swedish bodybuilders, this article aims to present a sociological understanding of various circumstances influencing the decision to begin taking performance-enhancing drugs. Theoretically, the research builds upon a constructionist approach, in which actors’ identity claims, the way they describe themselves and their group affiliation, are understood both as individual stories of identity construction and as discursive statements. The result shows that the willingness to perform, to focus on the body’s function, is a paradigmatic narrative being expressed throughout. As such, this performance oriented lifestyle can be related to traditional values saluted within organised sports and also understood as a fairly stable part of a hegemonic masculine construction. However, the results also show how the performance logic is entwined with a strong zest for bodily aesthetics. In the article, this cultural ambiguity is used as an analytical window through which one can see how different understandings of gender, health and doping continuously are socially negotiated in relation to contemporary fitness culture and public health organisations in Swedish society. By analysing doping trajectories in this way the article suggests that drug using practises could be understood as an activity performed along a continuum of cultural and societal (over-)conformity, rather than actions representing societal abnormality.

  • 258.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Fotbollens arbetarklass2010In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, no 4, p. 11-16Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kulturhistoriskt har fotboll dominerats av män och maskulinitet.

    Den manliga normen inom fotbollen tvingar spelare i damallsvenskan

    att anpassa sig och vänja sig vid begränsade resurser. De

    känner sig oönskade, går i opposition och utvecklar strategier för att

    distansera sig från den manliga dominansen.

  • 259.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    I viljan att prestera2011In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 8-12Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 260.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Muskler, maskulinitet och motionsdoping2018In: Idrottsforum.org/Nordic sport science forum, ISSN 1652-7224, no October 25Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 261.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Negotiating Manhood: Doping and the mainstreaming of online marginal masculinities2017In: Presented at: International Network for Doping Research (INDR), Aarhus, August 24-25, 2017. / [ed] Ask Vest Christiansson and John Gleaves, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 262.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Reconceptualising the gender of fitness doping: Performing and negotiating masculinity through drug-use practices2015In: Evaluating the Unintended Effects of Anti-Doping, 27-28 August, 2015 / [ed] Ask Vest Christiansen, John Gleaves, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 263.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Reconceptualising the Gender of Fitness Doping: Performing and Negotiating Masculinity through Drug-Use Practices2015In: Social Sciences, ISSN 2076-0760, E-ISSN 2076-0760, Vol. 4, p. 546-562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses self-portrayals and gender constructions among Swedish male bodybuilders who are engaged in fitness doping. The empirical material comes from a larger ethnographic investigation into gym culture. The results show that there is a strong propensity to conform with particular gender fantasies that rests heavily on a binary understanding of gendered, doped bodies. However, this storyline does not apprehend the entire self-presentation of the analysed drug users. Negotiations and inclusive subversions of traditional gender norms are also expressed. For example, the narratives show how the use of performance-enhancing substances makes it possible for (heterosexual) men to approach, touch and express feelings of desire towards other men and their bodies. As such, this practice can be viewed as a contestation of hegemonic gender values, in which masculinity and fitness doping are detached from a quite heterosexist understanding, and turned into a symbolic world of homoerotic pleasure.

  • 264.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Smärta, pump och förkroppsligade läroprocesser på gymmet2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 265.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Steroider på nätet: Att använda sociala medier för att diskutera och legitimera dopning2016In: Presented at: DrogFOKUS 2016, nationell konferens om alkohol, narkotika, dopning och tobak, 13-20 Oktober, 2016, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sociala medier och olika internetforum har blivit en del av en ny självhjälpskultur där människor anonymt kan legitimera och diskutera sina erfarenheter av att använda prestationshöjande substanser(PED). Användarna är medvetna om att de riskerar sin egen hälsa men töjer på gränserna för att nå uppsatta mål.

  • 266.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    The Global Gym2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 267.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Danielsson, Tom
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Elitmotionärens vardag - familjeliv, tidspussel och extremidrott2016In: Idrottsforskning, E-ISSN 2002-3944, no 18 majArticle in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att kombinera vardagen som elitmotionär med ett fungerande familjeliv är ingen enkel ekvation. Uppoffringar, glädje, dåligt samvete och glada hejarop är en del av vardagen. Men på vems villkor och bekostnad formas egentligen elitmotionärens livsstil?

  • 268.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Henning, April Dawn
    University of Stirling, UK.
    Glocal fitness doping: Policy, practice and prevention in the United States and Sweden2018In: Performance Enhancement & Health, E-ISSN 2211-2669Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Situated within a framework of a globalized gym and fitness culture, this paper aims to investigate and compare how fitness doping can be understood in relation to, and how it is affected by, different national and local contexts. Representing different forms of welfare state regimes, the comparative analysis focuses on policy, practice, and prevention in the United States and Sweden. The findings indicate, among other things, how national level policy and implementation reflect local priorities, understandings, and values. Sweden’s choices form a pattern reflecting the priority of protecting the collective good over individual pursuits. Conversely, that the U.S. does not police outside formally governed competitions in sports or in criminal contexts. Further, U.S. bodybuilders do not feel targeted for their appearance in the same ways, illustrating the priority of individual choice. Further, the paper discusses how each country implements anti-doping in ways consistent with global policies, but are also informed by various local understandings and values. This interplay between the supranational structures and locally diverse implementation is not only complex, but can seem contradictory as each locality partly remains within a global system of anti-doping in sport, and partly operates outside this context. We suggest glocal fitness doping needs to be understood as a process through which global ideals, organisations, and more contribute to influencing local and national prevention policies and cultures, and vice versa.

  • 269.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg.
    Bodybuilding and Fitness Doping in Transition: Historical Transformations and Contemporary Challenges2019In: Social Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-0760, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes and analyses the historical development of gym and fitness culture in general and doping use in this context in particular. Theoretically, the paper utilises the concept of subculture and explores how a subcultural response can be used analytically in relation to processes of cultural normalisation as well as marginalisation. The focus is on historical and symbolic negotiations that have occurred over time, between perceived expressions of extreme body cultures and sociocultural transformations in society—with a perspective on fitness doping in public discourse. Several distinct phases in the history of fitness doping are identified. First, there is an introductory phase in the mid-1950s, in which there is an optimism connected to modernity and thoughts about scientifically-engineered bodies. Secondly, in the 1960s and 70s, a distinct bodybuilding subculture is developed, cultivating previously unseen muscular male bodies. Thirdly, there is a critical phase in the 1980s and 90s, where drugs gradually become morally objectionable. The fourth phase, the fitness revolution, can be seen as a transformational phase in gym culture. The massive bodybuilding body is replaced with the well-defined and moderately muscular fitness body, but at the same time there are strong commercialised values which contribute to the development of a new doping market. Finally, it is possible to speculate on the development of a fifth phase, in which fitness doping is increasingly being filtered into mainstream gym and fitness culture, influencing the fitness doping demography.

  • 270.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg.
    Extreme Sports, Extreme Bodies: Gender, Identities & Bodies in Motion2019Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book investigates extreme sports, defined as sports in which athletes challenge and transgress societal perceptions of what is humanly possible to achieve, in terms of physical training and bodily development/performance. Situated within a growing body of literature analysing the impact of new training trends on an individual’s body, identity, lifestyle and perception of his/her social surroundings, Extreme Sports, Extreme Bodies focuses on the gendered and embodied experiences of bodybuilding, Ironman triathlon, and mixed martial arts.Through their ethnographic analysis, Andreasson and Johansson present a unique and updated account of the increasing phenomenon of extreme sports and extreme bodies in contemporary Western society, grounded in the sociology of sport, body studies and embodiment literature.

  • 271.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg.
    Female Fitness in the Blogosphere: Gender, Health, and the Body2013In: SAGE Open, ISSN 2158-2440, E-ISSN 2158-2440, Vol. 3, no July-September, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes self-portrayals and gender constructions among female personal trainers within an Internet-mediated framework of fitness culture. The empirical material comes from a close examination of three strategically selected blogs. The result shows that some of the blogs clearly build upon what Connell calls emphasized femininity, as a means of legitimizing and constructing appropriate female fitness. In addition, there are also tendencies of sexualization in text and imagery present. As such, these self-representations are framed within a cultural history of body fitness dominated by stereotypical ways of perceiving masculinity and femininity. However, this does not capture the entire presentation of the self among the analyzed fitness bloggers. The blogs also point in the direction of ongoing negotiations and subversions of traditional gender norms. Among other things, they show how irony and humor are used as a means of questioning normative gender constructions while empowering female fitness and bodyliness.

  • 272.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    Fitnessrevolutionen: Kropp, hälsa och gymkulturens globalisering2015Book (Other academic)
  • 273.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg.
    From exercise to "exertainment": Body techniques and body philosophies within a differentiated fitness culture2015In: Scandinavian Sport Studies Forum, ISSN 2000-088X, E-ISSN 2000-088X, Vol. 6, p. 27-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on two highly influential body techniques used in contemporary gym and fitness culture, namely bodybuilding and group fitness activities. The paper presents detailed self-portraits of two highly esteemed and well-known individuals representing each of these spheres of exercise. Both body techniques have their roots in physical culture. However, whereas bodybuilding goes back to the historical roots of European physical culture developed during the 19th century, Les Mills group fitness activities are a more recent phenomenon, with roots in aerobics and in the fitness culture developed during the 1960s. The case stories are read as both portraits of individuals and histories of two different forms of body techniques and philosophies of the body, and the analysis suggests that the narratives are to be understood in relation to historical changes in how society is organised and what this implies in terms of national and global demands for specific bodies.

  • 274.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg.
    Gender, Fitness Doping and the Genetic Max: The Ambivalent Construction of Muscular Masculinities in an Online Community2016In: Social Sciences, ISSN 2076-0760, E-ISSN 2076-0760, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 1-13, article id 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is based on written accounts posted on an online forum called Flashback.The purpose of the study was to explore how participants in this community negotiated themeanings of fitness doping and how such negotiations could be understood in terms of masculinity.The findings indicate that the Internet community studied in this article can be read as an example ofa transformational process in which ordinary rules are questioned and partly put out of play. In theworld of the bodybuilder, the marginal masculinity is, in certain senses, dominant. On the one hand,achieving a muscular and well-trained body is regarded as a core aspect of manhood within thecommunity. Marginal masculinity is thus momentarily transformed into dominant and hegemonicmasculinity. On the other hand, however, the findings also indicate that a drug-using, muscularmasculinity is constructed in negotiation with other central masculine ideals, such as the employableman and the responsible father. Found within the community is a complex and dynamic interplaybetween intersecting discourses of manhood.

  • 275.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg.
    Glocalised fitness: the franchising of a physical movement, fitness professionalism and gender2018In: Leisure/ Loisir, ISSN 1492-7713, E-ISSN 2151-2221, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 301-321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this study is on the development of a globalised and localised gym and fitness culture. The article takes its point of departure from three distinct levels. These are (1) organisational aspects of the culture, (2) fitness professionals’ individual trajectories, and (3) national variations and gender regimes. The findings indicate that fitness professionalism is emerging as an uncertain profession. On the one hand there are international accreditation systems that aim to ensure the status of these professionals. On the other hand, there are simultaneous tendencies towards devaluation of the status of fitness professionals, on a global level. Partly, this can be related to the standardisation of training programmes, as well as the connectedness between the service industry and feminised gender regimes. In conclusion, the globalisation of fitness is a highly gendered process, involving national body ideals and cultural variations in how fitness professionals are valued and perceived locally.

  • 276.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Gymkulturen balanserar på könsgränserna2014In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 4, p. 29-33Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Synen på relationen mellan kroppar och könsidentiteter varierar över tid inom gymkulturen. I dag finns en längtan efter tydliga skillnader mellan könen. Men spännvidden är stor mellan de som vill utmana och överskrida gränser, och de som försöker upprätthålla strikta normativa ideal.

  • 277.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg.
    Negotiating violence: mixed martial arts as a spectacle and sport2018In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on qualitative interviews with Mixed martial arts (MMA) athletes and stakeholders, this study aims to investigate the relationship between, on the one hand, MMA as a spectacle and imaginary world, and on the other, the fighters’ experiences of violence, pain and ‘the real’. Analytically, we are influenced by the literature on the spectacle and on hyperreality. The results show that athletes’ negotiations concerning the sport largely connect to a particular way of approaching violence – culturally and in terms of physical experience. On the one hand, there is a desire to portray MMA as a civilized and regulated sport. The athletes develop different strategies by which to handle or renegotiate the physical force and violence in the cage. On the other hand, however, the fighters’ bodily control and management of their fear sometimes breaks down. When the spectacle of the octagon becomes ‘real’, the legitimacy of the sport is questioned.

  • 278.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg.
    Online Doping2015In: Paper presented at the Journal of youth studies conference, March 30-April 1, 2015, Copenhagen, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, but also internationally, official regimes and public health organizations conduct fairly comprehensive anti-doping measures. As a consequence, numerous ‘new’ ways to learn about and access these types of drugs have emerged. Social media and different Internet forums, for example, have become part of a new self-help culture in which mainly young people anonymously can approach these substances, discuss their experiences of using them, and minimize the possibility of encounters with the police. What we see today is the development of new doping trajectories. This presentation is based on a ethnographical inspired research project that focuses on how the use of performance- and image-enhancing drugs (PED) is perceived and negotiated socially in the context of an Internet-mediated and online community called Flashback. The results of the study are in accordance with similar studies on Internet bodybuilding communities. That is, even though the community members to a certain degree are aware of the risks and health costs of this kind of physical regime, the gains of using PED clearly dominate the discussions. Adding to this research, the results also indicate that in the imaginary world of online bodybuilding a number of ideas about the ‘genetic max’, as well as the ultimate possibility of exceeding one’s limits, and creating something special and extra-ordinary, circulate. These stories confirm in many ways the legitimate mission of searching for the ultimate bodybuilding adventure, using different means and methods to transcend the limits of the self/body.

  • 279.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg.
    Online doping: The new self-help culture of ethnopharmacology2016In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 19, no 7, p. 957-972Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, but also internationally, official regimes and public health organizations conduct fairly comprehensive antidoping measures. As a consequence, numerous ‘new’ ways to learn about and access these types of drugs have emerged. Social media and different internet forums, for example, have become part of a new self-help culture in which people can anonymously approach these substances, discuss their experiences of using them and minimize the possibility of encounters with the police. This article focuses on how the use of performance- and image-enhancing drugs (PED) is perceived and negotiated socially in the context of an internet-mediated and online community calledFlashback. The results are in accordance with similar studies on internet bodybuilding communities. That is, even though the participants to a certain degree are aware of the risks and health costs of this kind of physical regime, the gains of using PED clearly dominate the discussions. Adding to this research, this article found that in the imaginary world of online bodybuilding a number of ideas about the ‘genetic max’, as well as the ultimate possibility of exceeding one’s limits, and creating something special and extraordinary, circulate. These stories confirm in many ways the legitimate mission of searching for the ultimate bodybuilding adventure, using different means and methods to transcend the limits of the self/body.

  • 280.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    The Fitness Revolution: Historical Transformations in the Global Gym and Fitness Culture.2014In: Sport Science Review, ISSN 2066-8732, Vol. XXIII, no 3-4, p. 91-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, fitness gyms and private health clubs are a huge global business. Fitness has turned into a folk movement, but not one comparable to the old 20th-century movements, often connected to national sentiments, but instead a highly individualized preoccupation. In this article the historical development of modern gym and fitness culture is described and an analytically developed approach to the understanding of the emergence of this multi-billion-dollar phenomenon is developed. The analysis suggest that the techniques, tools, and physical exercises used today in gyms all over the world are the results of a physical culture developed and refined during the 20th century. The body ideals, exercises, techniques, and the pedagogy of fitness have become an increasingly international enterprise. A tentative analysis of the globalization of gym and fitness culture is developed and presented. Three important and decisive phases in the globalization of gym and fitness culture are identified and analyzed.

  • 281.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg.
    The Global Gym: Gender, Health and Pedagogies2014Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both by participating in the everyday life of fitness professionals, gym-goers and bodybuilders, and by analyzing fitness blogs and other sources, The Global Gym explores fitness centres as sites of learning. The authors examine the kind of learning processes that take place within the gym and the wider fitness industry, and investigate how knowledge is acquired, negotiated and embodied by different agents operating within this context. Beyond this, the book also addresses the construction of gender within fitness culture. Many images of the body beautiful and perfect body ideals are manufactured and sold on a global commercial market. Jesper Andreasson and Thomas Johansson illustrate various extant modes of learning by asking how physical, psychological and cultural knowledge about health and the body is incorporated into people's (gender) identity in a local, national and global gym and fitness context.

  • 282.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    The Global Gym: Gender, Health and Pedagogies2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 283.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    Göteborgs universitet.
    The Health Guru: Masculinity and Fitness Coaching in the Blogosphere2013In: Journal of Men's Studies, ISSN 1060-8265, E-ISSN 1933-0251, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 277-290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Through a close study of blogs, where male fitness experts share their expertise, this article analyses how masculinity are framed within the Internet-mediated context of the fitness culture. This is done against the background of Connell's theory of masculinity, and recent critiques of the concept of hegemony. Through an in-depth analysis of three blogs, we get a complex and contradictory image of the different forms of masculinity portrayed in these blogs and in fitness culture at large. The texts and imagery on the blogs clearly exceeds the criteria/limits of traits and norms traditionally considered male or female. In doing so, the may contribute to an increased acceptance for, for example, gay identities and other submissive masculinities.

  • 284.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg.
    The new fitness geography: the globalisation of Japanese gym and fitness culture2017In: Leisure Studies, ISSN 0261-4367, E-ISSN 1466-4496, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 383-394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a minor case study of the local fitness culture scene in Tokyo, Japan, this exploratory and qualitative article aims to discuss and analyse the consequences of globalisation of fitness culture. The article focuses particularly on how fitness culture is negotiated in Japanese society – at a national, local and subjective level, and in relation to attempts to uniformly rationalise and standardise gym and fitness culture. The results indicate that the fitness geography is changing, and through the establishment of a globalised fitness culture, Japanese youth are following in the footsteps of many other countries. However, this does not mean that we are witnessing a homogenisation process, or a completely McDonaldised version of fitness culture in Japan. Instead, this cultural phenomenon is shaped and formed in particular ways, pointing towards certain strong national sentiments concerning body ideals, views on gender and exercise and relaxation. For example, the cuteness ideal has a strong influence on the way young women talk about and perceive body ideals and corporeal performances in Japan.

  • 285.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg.
    Triathlon Bodies in Motion: Reconceptualizing Feelings of Pain, Nausea and Disgust in the Ironman Triathlon2018In: Body & Society, ISSN 1357-034X, E-ISSN 1460-3632Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on the physical expressions and intensity of embodiment that occur in the Ironman Triathlon. More specifically, the study investigates the transformational bodily experiences taking place during Ironman competitions. Using an ethnographic approach, a total of 29 Ironman triathletes participated in the study (15 men and 14 women). Theoretically, the article focuses on how triathletes’ bodies ‘move’ between different forms of embodiment. The results show that, in the process of disciplining the body, the athletes reconceptualized feelings of pain, nausea and even disgust, making these emotionally expressive aspects of the corpus into a part of the experience and bending them towards the pleasure of reaching potential divinity. Situated in a long tradition of philosophical and sociological explorations of the transgressing and transcending body, the study interprets and understands the performing body as a site for change and utopian possibilities. Thus the study adds to existing debates on contemporary individuals’ exploration of the existential and corporeal dimensions of modernity.

  • 286.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg.
    Danielsson, Tom
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Becoming an Ironman triathlete: Extreme exercise, gender equality and the family puzzle2018In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 21, no 9, p. 1351-1363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Departing from a qualitative research approach, this article focuses on Swedish amateur Ironman triathletes and their family life. The purpose of the paper is to investigate how an elite amateur lifestyle is upheld and balanced with the demands of a sustainable family and social life. The results indicate that the process of becoming and staying an Ironman creates tensions in intimate relationships, making it hard to bring the family life puzzle together. Although the participants interviewed often talk about family life in terms of sharing things fairly equally, in terms of gender equity and involved parenthood, this seemingly is not always an easy ideal to fulfil in practice. On a broader cultural level, these findings can thus be contextualized in relation to discourses associated with the gendering of families and functions, and, of course, the gender of sport and performance.

  • 287.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg.
    Mattsson, Christer
    From subcultures to common culture: Bodybuilders, skinheads and the normalization of the marginal2016In: Nordic Youth Research Symposium (NYRIS), Youth Moves. Voices, Spaces, Subjectivities. Trollhättan, Sweden, 15-17 june, 2016 / [ed] Emma Sorbring, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using bodybuilding and skinheads/neo-Nazis as two rather diverse examples of subcultures, this study is a theoretical exploration of our understanding of the concept of subculture and common culture. The aim is to explore how the concept of subculture can be used in relation to processes of normalization and marginalisation. The focus is on the historical, symbolic and biographical relation between the subculture and the subcultural response, and socio-political transformations in society and culture. We are interested in understanding the processes in which for example bodybuilding has moved back and forth between a subcultural position and more common fitness culture, over time. As a parallel to this, we are also interested in how subcultures centred on skinheads, neo-Nazis and right-wing extremists influence and are connected to more general political transformations and opinions in contemporary society, blurring the distinction between subculture and common culture. The results indicate a complex relation between subcultures and the mainstreaming of certain values, opinions and practices. Deviance is sometimes, over time, renegotiated within common culture, turned into normality , and whereas extreme parts and contents of subcultures may be toned down in this process, core points and values may be extracted and generalized. Bodybuilding is for example transformed into fitness, but the core values of hard bodies, muscle training, health and asceticism are highly present in fitness culture, as well as in more common and dominant socio-cultural patterns. In a similar vein, the core values and sentiments in skinhead and right-wing subcultures xenophobia and nationalism are today becoming a part of the political culture in many European countries.

  • 288.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Tugetam, Åsa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Bergman, Patrick
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Keeping Death at Bay through Health Negotiation: Older Adults' Understanding of Health and Life within Gym and Fitness Culture2016In: Activities, Adaptation & Aging, ISSN 0192-4788, E-ISSN 1544-4368, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 200-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses older adults’ trajectories leading to membership in a gym, and the ways in which they negotiate their self-understanding, aging, and health in this context. Emanating from an ethnographic study, the arguments are based on a constructionist approach. The results show that older adults’ decision to start going to a gym should be understood in relation to an individualized health care system in Swedish society and as a means of negotiating deteriorating health, retirement, lost body capacity, and the meaning of becoming old. The physical activities carried out and the social relationships developed in these contexts are used to construct an empowered self-understanding prepared to challenge the “stiffness” of the dying body.

  • 289.
    Andrén, Henrik
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Education.
    Eriksson, Jonas
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Education.
    Sport manager: en kartläggning av rollen inom golf och ishockey2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Att det har hänt väldigt mycket inom idrotten sedan dess start vet vi, men frågan är hur idrotten kommer att utvecklas i framtiden? Ett begrepp som blivit alltmer modernt inom svensk idrott på senare år är Sport management. Med tanke på att management eller sport inte är några nya företeelser så är sport management eller management of sport heller inga nya företeelser. För flera tusen år sedan anordnades matcher och tävlingar som arrangerades av managers. Idag har kommersialiseringen och professionaliseringen ökat och vuxit sig allt starkare inom den nationella idrottssektorn. Detta har bidragit till att större krav och ansvar lagts på de människor som har i uppgift att handha och organisera idrott.

    I detta examensarbete har vi valt att titta närmare på vilka kompetenser, arbetsuppgifter samt personlighetsegenskaper som kännetecknar dagens sport manager inom idrotterna golf och ishockey. För att få fram en bra bild av hur sport managers arbetar, vilka kompetenser de besitter och hur de uppfattas som personer väcktes tanken om att genomföra en enkätundersökning parallellt med intervjuer av ett antal större golf- och ishockeyföreningar. Utifrån denna fundering kontaktades respektive golf- och ishockeyförenings ordförande för att kunna uppfylla följande syfte:

    Syftet med detta examensarbete är att kartlägga vilka kompetenser, arbetsuppgifter, personlighetsegenskaper som kännetecknar en sport manager inom svenska golf-, respektive ishockeyföreningar idag. Dessutom är syftet att undersöka hur dessa föreningar gått tillväga då de anställt sin/sina sport managers.

    Svaren som gavs ledde till en god och stabil grund för att kunna ställas i relation till de teorier som vi valt att basera examensarbetet på. Vi sammanställde resultaten utifrån enkäterna och intervjuerna i ett statistikprogram för att kunna urskilja likheter och olikheter mellan de olika respondenternas svar.

    Resultaten visar att golf och ishockeyklubbarna valt att anställa en eller flera sport managers för att kunna utveckla föreningen och dess verksamhet. Studien visar också på att ledarskap och strategi är de mest efterfrågade kompetenser hos en sport manager samt att de personlighetsegenskaper som karaktäriserar en framgångsrik ledare kan urskönjas i dagens sport manager inom golf och ishockey. Studien visar till sist att golfklubbarna valt att annonsera ut sina lediga tjänster i betydligt högre omfattning än vad ishockeyklubbarna gjort.

  • 290.
    Andrén, Magnus
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Education.
    Lyyski, Jani
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Education.
    ”Jaha, vad skall vi hitta på idag? Och kanske något annat imorgon?” : En kvalitativ studie av idrottsföreningars arbete med vision, verksamhetsidé och mål2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract summary

    _____________________________________________________________________

    Author: Magnus Andrén and Jani Lyyski

    Title: Vision, company idea & goal – A qualitative study of two sport fraternities

    Växjö university Pages: 96

    _____________________________________________________________________

    Contents

    The purpose of this rapport is to study the terms of strategy within vision, company idea, and goal. To critically survey the work of sport fraternities with these terms; to suggest development possibilities with the chosen terms.

    The following questions have been the foundation to be able to reach the purpose:

    • What theories are active with the terms vision, company idea and goal?

    • How do the sport fraternities work with these terms?

    o How are the terms formed?

    o How are these terms being implemented?

    o How do you get the terms to pervade thru the company?

    • What are the differences/similarities between the literature and the work of the sport fraternities with the terms vision, company idea and goal?

    • How can the sport fraternities develop these terms and get them to work in their company?

    The rapport is written within the frame of Coaching and Sport Management at Växjö university, and is aimed for sport fraternities that are pursuing to either find a tool to get the company towards a common goal, or to create an interesting argument among the chosen terms within the strategy. Furthermore, we feel that the rapport in first hand will focus on the boards and committees of fraternities, and in second hand also the individual member.

    The study begins with a problem formula, where we present our hypostasis of sport fraternities who does not work actively enough with the strategy terms. It ends with what methods will work, which is the basis for the rapport. Relevant literature and theories are presented in relationship to sport fraternities in the next chapter.

    The result shows us that sport fraternities use the terms randomness, inactive, on different levels, and without profiling. Since we got these results, we feel that sport fraternities need to develop these strategies to be able to meet the future demands on a sport fraternity. In the final discussion we give suggestions on development possibilities for these terms, for sport fraternities to use.

    _____________________________________________________________________

  • 291.
    Anens, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiotherapy.
    Emtner, Margareta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiotherapy. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory Medicine and Allergology.
    Hellström, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiotherapy.
    Exploratory Study of Physical Activity in Persons With Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease2015In: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0003-9993, E-ISSN 1532-821X, Vol. 96, no 2, p. 260-268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To explore and describe the perceived facilitators and barriers to physical activity, and to examine the physical activity correlates in people with Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease. Design: Cross-sectional survey study. Setting: Community-living subjects. Participants: Swedish people with CMT disease (N=44; men, 54.5%; median age, 59.5y [interquartile range, 45.3-64.8y]). Interventions: Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures: The survey included open-ended questions and standardized self-reported scales measuring physical activity, fatigue, activity limitation, self-efficacy for physical activity, fall-related self-efficacy, social support, and enjoyment of physical activity. Physical activity was measured by the Physical Activity Disability Survey-Revised. Results: Qualitative content analysis revealed that personal factors such as fatigue, poor balance, muscle weakness, and pain were important barriers for physical activity behavior. Facilitators of physical activity were self-efficacy for physical activity, activity-related factors, and assistive devices. Multiple regression analysis showed that self-efficacy for physical activity (beta=.41) and fatigue (beta=-.30) explained 31.8% of the variation in physical activity (F-2,F-40=10.78, P=.000). Conclusions: Despite the well-known benefits of physical activity, physical activity in people with CMT disease is very sparsely studied. These new results contribute to the understanding of factors important for physical activity behavior in people with CMT disease and can guide health professionals to facilitate physical activity behavior in this group of patients. (C) 2015 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine

  • 292.
    Angelin, Mathias
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Hallor, Anton
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Kan koffein innan träning förbättra den aeroba prestationen över tid?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion

    : För att prestera väl inom en uthållighetsbaserad idrott krävs en hög aerob förmåga. För att öka den aeroba prestationen krävs träning, vilket har varit känt länge. Att maximera effekten av träningen är av stort intresse hos de allra flesta idrottare. Forskare studerar hela tiden nya tekniker för att försöka optimera ökningar i den aeroba prestationen. Koffein ökar akut tiden till utmattning vid given belastning, men frågan kvarstår om koffein även skulle kunna öka den aeroba prestationen över tid.

    Syfte

    : Att undersöka den långvariga effekten vid intag av 5mg/kg kroppsvikt koffein innan högintensiva intervallpass över tid på den aeroba prestationen hos motionslöpare.

    Metod:

    En randomiserad mellangrupps-studie med 5mg/kg kroppsvikt koffein och placebo. 16 deltagare (3 kvinnor och 13 män; medelvärde ± SD, 42 ± 8 år, VO2max: 47,6 ± 6,6 ml/kg/min) deltog i studien. Pre- och post-tester gjordes för VO2max och 3km löpning. Intervention bestod av två högintensiva löp-pass per vecka med intag av antingen koffein eller placebo 30–60 minuter innan träning. Borgskalan (6–20) användes som mått på ansträngning under intervaller. För att beräkna skillnader mellan grupper användes oparat t-test mellan grupper samt parat t-test inom grupp. Signifikansnivån sattes till P <0,05.

    Resultat

    : Ingen signifikant skillnad i delta(Δ) uppmättes mellan Δkoffein och Δplacebo i någon av mätningarna. Signifikant förbättring i tid på 3km löpning (P <0,05) för båda grupper, signifikant förbättring i VO2max för placebogrupp.

    Slutsats

    : Intag av 5mg/kg kroppsvikt koffein 30–60 minuter innan 2 högintensiva intervallpass/vecka har ej ytterligare effekt på den aeroba prestationen jämfört med placebo över en sex veckor lång intervention.

  • 293.
    Anna, Johansson
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Faktorer som motiverar till fysisk aktivitet - en litteraturöversikt.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 294.
    Anselmius, Johan
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Kaloriförbrukning vid AVG-utövande: En kvantitativ studie angående fysisk påfrestning2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    AbstraktInledning Det råder en omfattande hälsoproblematik idag och fysisk inaktivitet är en bidragande orsak. Stillasittandet har ökat i västvärlden och för att fånga även dessa individer erbjuder Tv-spelsmarknaden fysiskt aktiva spel. Handkontroll och stillasittande byts ut mot individens kroppsrörelser. Det finns till och med spel som räknar individens kaloriförbrukning under spelets gång.Syfte Syftet med studien är att se om det råder en signifikant skillnad gällande kaloriförbrukning mellan Your shape och indirekt kalorimetri samt hur Your shape förhåller sig mot Nintendo Wii boxing utifrån de fysiologiska variabler hjärtfrekvens och kaloriförbrukning.Metod En experimentell studiedesign genomfördes på 12 deltagare (7 kvinnor och 5 fem män med en medelvärdeskaraktärisering på 22.2 år, 67,9 kg, 171,3 cm och 23,0 BMI) med hjälp av indirekt kalorimetri i form av en portabel Oxycon Mobile Pro. VO2 och HF uppmättes under testet för att därefter räkna ut testpersonernas kaloriförbrukning. Spelkonsolen bestod av Microsoft xbox 360 med tillhörande kinect samt AVG-spelet Your shape. Av de fyra träningspassen som Your shape erbjuder valdes konditionsboxning ut till denna studie. Den statistiska beräkningen sattes till P = 0.05 och ett parat T-test genomfördes i SPSS.Resultat En signifikant skillnad existerade (P = 0.03) gällande kaloriförbrukning mellan Your shape och Oxycon Mobile Pro. Medelvärdet för testet gällande tid var 32 min och Your shape resulterade i ett medelvärdet på 139.7 kcal och Oxycon Mobile Pro 157.8. En skillnad på 12 %. Your shape underestimerar kaloriförbrukningen jämfört mot Oxycon Mobile Pro.Your shape redovisade högre resultat för både kcal/min och HF jämfört mot Nintendo Wii boxing.Slutsats Det finns en signifikant skillnad mellan Your shape och Oxycon Mobile Pro, nämligen en underskattning från Your shape med 12 %. Vilket ger en god uppskattning av kalorimätaren. Your shape är ett modernare AVG-spel jämfört mot Wii boxing men kräver liknande fysisk påfrestning.

  • 295.
    Anselmius, Johan
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Milton, Ludvig
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Expand A Lung: Ett träningsverktyg för andningsmuskulaturen?2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

     Abstrakt

     

    Syfte:

    Syftet var att undersöka om prestation och uthålligheten hade förbättrats vid användandet av Expand a lung.

     

    Metod:

    En intervention genomfördes på sju testpersoner (4 kvinnor & 3 män) som använde Expand a lung under fjorton dagar, som jämfördes mot en kontrollgrupp på fyra testpersoner (2 kvinnor & 2 män). Testpersonerna genomförde två tester, med en intervall på fjorton dagar. I undersökningen figurerade 4 kvinnor och 3 män (ålder: 22.7 ± 2, vikt: 68.5 ± 10, längd: 175.1 ± 8.5) i experimentgruppen. 2 kvinnor och 2 män (ålder: 22.5 ± 1.5, vikt: 69 ± 9, längd: 170.7 ± 5.5) ingick i kontrollgruppen. Hjärtfrekvens, respiratoriska kvoten och blodlaktat uppmättes med hjälp utav Jaeger Oxycon Pro och lungvolym (SVC & FEV1) uppmättes med hjälp av Spirare SPS 310.

     

    Resultat:

    Ingen signifikant skillnad existerade inom grupperna. Experimentgruppen: SVC före x 4.73, SVC efter x 4,77. FEV1 före x 4.31, FEV1 efter x 4.29, HF (vid OBLA) före x 156, HF efter 155, RQ (vid OBLA) före x 1.04, RQ efter 1.05. Kontrollgruppen: SVC före x 4.98, SVC efter x 4.95. FEV1 före 4.48, FEV1 efter x 4.49, HF (vid OBLA) före x 165, HF efter 163, RQ (vid OBLA) före x 0.99, RQ efter x 1.00. Det som gick att urskilja var att det fanns skillnader på individnivå.

     

    Diskussion:

    Vår undersökning visade ingen signifikant skillnad på gruppnivå efter 14 dagars användande av Expand a lung. Dock fanns det skillnader på individnivå. Detta resultat kan bland annat bero på för kort träningsperiod och för få deltagare. Om Expand a lung kan förbättra prestationen vid träning under längre tid kan vi inte uttala oss om utan krävs vidare forskning.

     

    Nyckelord:

    Expand a lung, andningsmuskulaturträning, laktat, lungvolym.

    Inledning:

    Det existerar träningsredskap som utlovar en ökning gällande prestation och uthållighet, i träningssammanhang, av människans andningsmuskulatur. Träningsredskapen isolerade träningen till att bara sätta andningsmuskulaturen i arbete. Expand a lung var en av dessa nya, mer obeprövade, träningsredskap som utlovade en förbättrad prestation och uthållighet vid ett frekvent användande. Samtidigt visade en befintlig del av forskning att det indirekt inte gick att träna andningsmuskulaturen. Vi påträffade aldrig granskade vetenskaplig forskning som kunde fastställa vad Expand a lung utlovade.

  • 296.
    Aphram, Petra
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kaldoyo, Patricia
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    "Vi kan prata om ALLT mellan himmel och jord": Elitidrottande kvinnors upplevda relation till sin manliga tränare2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka hur elitidrottande kvinnor upplevde relationen till sin tränare. Mer specifikt hur idrottarna upplever dimensionerna 1) samspel, 2) förståelse, 3) närhet och 4) engagemang till sin tränare.

    Metod

    Studien baseras på semistrukturerade intervjuer med fyra elitidrottande kvinnor i åldrarna 18-25 år. Två av idrottarna ägnade sig åt en individuell idrott (tennis) och två ägnade sig åt en lagidrott (fotboll). I studien besvarades studiens frågeställningar med hjälp av 3+1C modellen som är ett teoretiskt underlag att analysera tränar-idrottarerelationen.

    Resultat

    Samtliga idrottare upplevde att de fyra dimensionerna var viktiga för att få relationen med tränaren att fungera. Samtliga idrottare nämnde att samspel var grunden i relationen, förståelse i relationen handlade om att anpassa sig efter varandras behov, engagemang var viktig framförallt från tränarens sida och närhet byggdes upp med hjälp av att hitta förtroende och tillit för varandra.

    Slutsats Vårt resultat visar att relationen till tränaren är en viktig faktor för att båda parter ska må bra, hur relationen till tränaren är visade sig i studien vara avgörande för både den personliga och idrottsliga utvecklingen hos idrottaren. Det är inte bara upplevelsen av de fyra dimensionerna som är avgörande för hur relationen ska fungera, utan studien visade att det är många andra faktorer också som påverkar kvalitén på relationen till tränaren.

  • 297.
    Appelqvist, Emma
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Fysiska aktivitetens påverkan på hälsorelaterad livskvalitet hos äldre2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 298. Apple, F.S
    et al.
    Tesch, P.A
    CK and LD isozymes in human single muscle fibers in trained athletes1989In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 66, no 6, p. 2717-2720Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 299.
    Apro, William
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Moberg, Marcus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    High intensity interval cycling performed prior to resistance exercise stimulates autophagy signaling2016In: Conference program & abstracts, 2016, p. 84-84Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 300.
    Apro, William
    et al.
    Swedish Sch Sport & Hlth Sci, Astrand Lab, SE-11486 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Moberg, Marcus
    Swedish Sch Sport & Hlth Sci, Astrand Lab, SE-11486 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hamilton, D. Lee
    Univ Stirling, Hlth & Exercise Sci Res Grp, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish Sch Sport & Hlth Sci, Astrand Lab, SE-11486 Stockholm, Sweden.
    van Hall, Gerrit
    Univ Copenhagen, Rigshosp, Dept Biomed Sci, DK-1168 Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish Sch Sport & Hlth Sci, Astrand Lab, SE-11486 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Resistance exercise-induced S6K1 kinase activity is not inhibited in human skeletal muscle despite prior activation of AMPK by high-intensity interval cycling2015In: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0193-1849, E-ISSN 1522-1555, Vol. 308, no 6, p. E470-E481Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Combining endurance and strength training in the same session has been reported to reduce the anabolic response to the latter form of exercise. The underlying mechanism, based primarily on results from rodent muscle, is proposed to involve AMPK-dependent inhibition of mTORC1 signaling. This hypothesis was tested in eight trained male subjects who in randomized order performed either resistance exercise only (R) or interval cycling followed by resistance exercise (ER). Biopsies taken from the vastus lateralis before and after endurance exercise and repeatedly after resistance exercise were assessed for glycogen content, kinase activity, protein phosphorylation, and gene expression. Mixed muscle fractional synthetic rate was measured at rest and during 3 h of recovery using the stable isotope technique. In ER, AMPK activity was elevated immediately after both endurance and resistance exercise (similar to 90%, P < 0.05) but was unchanged in R. Thr(389) phosphorylation of S6K1 was increased severalfold immediately after exercise (P < 0.05) in both trials and increased further throughout recovery. After 90 and 180 min recovery, S6K1 activity was elevated (similar to 55 and similar to 110%, respectively, P < 0.05) and eukaryotic elongation factor 2 phosphorylation was reduced (similar to 55%, P < 0.05) with no difference between trials. In contrast, markers for protein catabolism were differently influenced by the two modes of exercise; ER induced a significant increase in gene and protein expression of MuRF1 (P < 0.05), which was not observed following R exercise only. In conclusion, cycling-induced elevation in AMPK activity does not inhibit mTOR complex 1 signaling after subsequent resistance exercise but may instead interfere with the hypertrophic response by influencing key components in protein breakdown.

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