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  • 251. Belson, Brandt A.
    et al.
    Semeraro, Onofrio
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control.
    Rowley, Clarence W.
    Henningson, Dan Stefan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control.
    Feedback control of instabilities in the two-dimensional Blasius boundary layer: The role of sensors and actuators2013In: Physics of fluids, ISSN 1070-6631, E-ISSN 1089-7666, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 054106-1-054106-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze the effects of different types and positions of actuators and sensors on controllers' performance and robustness in the linearized 2D Blasius boundary layer. The investigation is carried out using direct numerical simulations (DNS). To facilitate controller design, we find reduced-order models from the DNS data using a system identification procedure called the Eigensystem Realization Algorithm. Due to the highly convective nature of the boundary layer and corresponding time delays, the relative position of the actuator and sensor has a strong influence on the closed-loop dynamics. We address this issue by considering two different configurations. When the sensor is upstream of the actuator, corresponding to disturbance-feedforward control, good performance is observed, as in previous work. However, feedforward control can be degraded by additional disturbances or uncertainties in the plant model, and we demonstrate this. We then examine feedback controllers in which the sensor is a short distance downstream of the actuator. Sensors farther downstream of the actuator cause inherent time delays that limit achievable performance. The performance of the resulting feedback controllers depends strongly on the form of actuation introduced, the quantities sensed, and the observability of the structures deformed by the controller's action. These aspects are addressed by varying the spatial distribution of actuator and sensor. We find an actuator-sensor pair that is well-suited for feedback control, and demonstrate that it has good performance and robustness, even in the presence of unmodeled disturbances.

  • 252.
    Ben Tahayekt Ben Tahaikt, Chaimaa
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    A secure user authentication scheme for critical mobile applications2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Smartphones have facilitated tasks in private and work life for its users. In business,

    employees often should manage sensitive data that unauthorised people cannot access,

    so some user authentication is needed to perform. Besides the normal user

    authentication, some employers give the right to access to the sensitive data only if the

    employees stay in specific locations. That makes sense for those businesses that have

    various construction sites and offices that are not necessarily located in the same

    geographical region. In those companies, the employees must be able to perform their

    tasks from different locations regardless of the available network infrastructure.

    To protect the data from intruders, this research presents a secure location-based user

    authentication scheme for mobile application that works offline. This research considers

    to enable access to the sensitive data using off-the-shelf mobile devices without adding

    any extra hardware and with no additional information from a fixed infrastructure. This

    Thesis firstly describes the architecture and attributes of the proposed solution. Then,

    the techniques used for the design and functionality of the solution are presented. The

    results of this study reveal that the proposed solution is more suitable for the

    applications that is used in outdoor locations. Finally, to alleviate the shortcoming of the

    presented technique for indoor locations, a new method has been discussed and tested.

    This report is a final Thesis in collaboration with SAAB. The purpose of this research is

    to examine the best way to protect sensitive data managed by the employees using their

    smartphones in different workplaces.

  • 253.
    Bengtson, Linnea
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Maria, Wahlberg
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Moa, Fjell
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Åtta faktorer kring nätverkande i framtiden: Ett avstamp i en innovationsprocess2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to examine the future of networking. Relations to other people are fundamental to building a network and previous research shows the importance of collaboration. An innovative perspective has characterised this study, where innovation means the process where ideas are translated into commercially viable products, processes and services. Through benchmarking including interviews, trend spotting, theory analysis and a workshop, eight elements were identified to be important in the future of networking. These elements are targeted advertising, true open innovation, strong ties, specific attraction, diversity, meetings, environment and gamification, which were the main focus of an idea generation session and a creative workshop. The discussion involves a paradox found between an increased demand of physical meetings and the fact that some participants are experiencing an overflow of meetings. The last part of the discussion concludes thoughts about the innovation process.

  • 254.
    Bengtsson, Katarina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Electrokinetic devices from polymeric materials2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There are multiple applications for polymers: our bodies are built of them, plastic bags and boxes used for storage are composed of them, as are the shells for electronics, TVs, computers, clothes etc. Many polymers are cheap, and easy to manufacture and process which make them suitable for disposable systems. The choice of polymer to construct an object will therefore highly influence the properties of the object itself. The focus of this thesis is the application of commonly used polymers to solve some challenges regarding integration of electrodes in electrokinetic devices and 3D printing.

    The first part of this thesis regards electrokinetic systems and the electrodes’ impact on the system. Electrokinetic systems require Faradaic (electrochemical) reactions at the electrodes to maintain an electric field in an electrolyte. The electrochemical reactions at the electrodes allow electron-to-ion transduction at the electrode-electrolyte interface, necessary to drive a current at the applied potential through the system, which thereby either cause flow (electroosmosis) or separation (electrophoresis). These electrochemical reactions at the electrodes, such as water electrolysis, are usually problematic in analytical systems and systems applied in biology. One solution to reduce the impact of water electrolysis is by replacing metal electrodes with electrochemically active polymers, e.g. poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). Paper 1 demonstrates that PEDOT electrodes can replace platinum electrodes in a gel electrophoretic setup. Paper 2 reports an all-plastic, planar, flexible electroosmotic pump which continuously transports water from one side to the other using potentials as low as 0.3 V. This electroosmotic pump was further developed in paper 3, where it was made into a compact and modular setup, compatible with commercial microfluidic devices. We demonstrated that the pump could maintain an alternating flow for at least 96 h, with a sufficient flow of cell medium to keep cells alive for the same period of time.

    The second part of the thesis describes the use of 3D printers for manufacturing prototypes and the material requirements for 3D printing. Protruding and over-hanging structures are more challenging to print using a 3D printer and usually require supporting material during the printing process. In paper 4, we showed that polyethylene glycol (PEG), in combination with a carbonate-based plasticizer, functions well as a 3D printable sacrificial template material. PEG2000 with between 20 and 30 wt% dimethyl carbonate or propylene carbonate have good shear-thinning rheology, mechanical and chemical stability, and water solubility, which are advantageous for a supporting material used in 3D printing.

    The advances presented in this thesis have solved some of the challenges regarding electrokinetic systems and prototype manufacturing. Hopefully this will contribute to the development of robust, disposable, low-cost, and autonomous electrokinetic devices.

  • 255.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Stefan, Ioana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Linköpings universitet.
    Open innovation - Comparing global and local approaches2014In: The 25th annual POMS conference, Atlanta, 9-12 May, 2014: Celebrating 25th Anniversary Conference : Online proceedings, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In spite of the growing interest in open innovation, one of the core questions that remain unanswered is how different kinds of openness affect innovation performance. Moreover, the impact of the geographical dispersion of partners also needs further investigation, while there is a tension between the motives for global search and the needs for proximity in innovation processes. In this paper we will research the relationship between openness and performance outcome in manufacturing companies when taking the localisation of partners into account. The study is based on survey data from 415 companies. The openness is defined by three dimensions: partner breadth, partner depth and phase depth. Performance is measured in terms of cost, risk and time-to-market, innovativeness and economic performance. The results of this study confirm and illustrate the localisation dilemma. For manufacturing companies using a global approach, it seems advisable to collaborate more intensively with a reduced number of partners. In contrast, the companies applying a more spatially balanced approach could collaborate with an increased number of partners and still be innovative and cost efficient. This implies that different localisation strategies for external partner collaborations require different integration approaches in order to be successful.

  • 256.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Stefan, Ioana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Linköpings universitet.
    Open innovation: Global or local?2014In: Proceedings of the 21th EurOMA conference, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 257.
    Bengtsson, Lukas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Brus, Robert
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    No Risk, No Reward: En studie över hur individens riskförståelse påverkar säkerhetsarbetet ombord2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 258.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå university.
    Eriksson, Jessica
    Umeå university.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Co-opetition dynamics: an outline for further inquiry2010In: Competitiveness Review: an international business journal, ISSN 1059-5422, E-ISSN 2051-3143, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 194-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to conceptually develop the understanding of co-opetition dynamics and to enhance the conceptual clarity of co-opetition by developing a definition based on previous research efforts. Design/methodology/approach - This conceptual paper integrates various approaches to the concept co-opetition into a definition that holds for co-opetitive interactions across multiple levels. Different co-opetitive interactions and the resulting dynamics are discussed by drawing upon competition and cooperation theories. The paper concludes with an agenda for further research on co-opetition dynamics. Findings - The paper outlines how different types of co-opetitive interactions result in archetypical situations where the dynamics of co-opetition are present as well as where the dynamics of co-opetition are missing due to a lack of balance between cooperation and competition. It notes four co-opetitive forces: over-embedding, distancing, confronting, and colluding. These four forces drive development towards situations without dynamics. Originality/value - This paper provides a conceptual understanding of co-opetition dynamics and will reveal that in order to adequately account for co-opetition dynamics, a definition of co-opetition must analytically separate the cooperative and the competitive interaction inherent in co-opetition.

  • 259.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå university.
    Eriksson, Jessica
    Umeå university.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Coopetition: new ideas for a new paradigm2010In: Coopetition Strategy: Winning Strategies for the 21st Century, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, Incorporated , 2010, p. 19-39Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 260.
    Berg Marklund, Björn
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Out of Context: Understanding the Practicalities of Learning Games2014In: DiGRA '14 - Proceedings of the 2014 DiGRA International Conference, Snowbird, UT: DiGRA , 2014, , p. 16Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to highlight the lack of studies examining the contexts in which learning games are used. Learning game research tends to focus heavily on the game artefact by examining how different types of designs foster both engagement and learning and how well the axiomatic definitions of good game design correspond to sound learning principles. While the dissection of the anatomy of games is important, there is an overabundance of studies on learning games as isolated systems at the expense of examinations of the constraints, possibilities, and requirements imposed by their real-world context of use. Learning games that are intended to work in formal settings like K-12 classrooms constitute systems that significantly differ from the traditional game scenarios between game artefacts and their players. As of yet few researchers have set out to survey these systems in their entirety. This paper presents a small literature review of learning game research that highlight the absence of studies focused on understanding the practicalities of the development and use of learning games. The paper also juxtaposes the results of the review with outcomes of a study conducted “within” the identified gap to present arguments for why the current lack of practical research is problematic. 

  • 261.
    Bergdahl, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    iipax WebDAV connector: An integration of the Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning protocol in a case management system2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Ida Infront AB is an IT company whose business is based on case management for both small and large organizations, mainly in the public sector. Ida Infront’s product iipax is a piece of software which manages cases. Users of iipax have a client that handles everything in a case in iipax. There is a growing interest in finding an external way to manage files in iipax. Therefore the purpose of this project is to use WebDAV, which is an extension to the HTTP protocol, to implement and evaluate a way of managing files in iipax remotely. I have created a server to which an external client can connect to browse the iipax structure. The server also makes it possible to open, move and create files within iipax. The conclusion of the project is that the server works satisfactorily and can serve as a basis to extend with greater functionality in the future.

  • 262.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hekkert, Marko
    Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Jacobsson, Staffan
    Chalmers tekniska högskola, Sweden.
    Markard, Jochen
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Truffer, Bernhard
    Eawag, Switzerland.
    TIS dynamics in technological, sectoral, political and geographical context: lessons for analysts2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper takes its departure in the criticism raised against the technological innovation system (TIS) literature in relation to the research field of socio-technical (sustainability) transitions for neglecting interactions between individual technologies and wider societal “contexts”. We first show that TIS studies have always considered various kinds of contextual systems, while also acknowledging that the TIS framework can be further strengthened by a more explicit conceptualization of TIS contexts and TIS-context interaction. We then propose a conceptual framework, which builds on the idea that TIS contexts could be seen as institutionally coherent structures that reside outside of the focal TIS. Four especially important types of context structures are identified and discussed: technological, sectoral, political and geographical. For each of these, we provide example of different ways in which each type of context can interact with a focal TIS and identify new questions that can be answered if analysts take the respective context more explicitly into account in TIS analyses. From the point of view of future research, this paper is a first step towards developing a framework for analyzing the interrelation between TIS dynamics and sectoral change and building a new TIS-based model of socio-technical transitions.

  • 263.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Onufrey, Ksenia
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Is one path enough? Multiple paths and path interaction as an extension of path dependency theory2014In: Industrial and Corporate Change, ISSN 0960-6491, E-ISSN 1464-3650, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 1261-1297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To explain the development of multi-technology companies and industries where several alternative technologies co-exist and interact over long periods, this article suggests an extension of path dependency theory by providing a conceptualization of the path notion that incorporates the theoretical possibility of multiple paths and path interaction. The conceptualization is applied to a patent study of three leading companies in the lighting industry: General Electric, Osram/Siemens, and Philips. The study shows technology development patterns that are characterized by strong persistence, both within each path and across the whole technology field. These results demonstrate that multiple technological paths can co-exist in companies and industries, characterized by simultaneous long-term presence of several technologies. In such cases, path interaction takes place both between co-existing paths and when new, radically different paths are created. Although further studies are needed to identify the underlying self-reinforcing mechanisms, there is a clear indication that technological path dependency is not restricted to unitary progression patterns, as implied by previous conceptualizations.

  • 264.
    Berggren, Caroline
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics.
    Asplund, Jesper
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics.
    Identifying and analyzing digital payment flows regarding illegal purposes on the Internet: I samarbete med CGI och Finanskoalitionen2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to illustrate an unexplored illegal exploitation of legal businesses, with the purpose of limiting this market and especially the related transactions. The issue of transactions regarding illegal material executed with credit cards was solved through involving the companies who issues the credit cards, making the market more transparent and thus preventing this kind of transactions. The thesis will illustrate how cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin, are being exploited regarding illegal transactions and more specifically, transactions regarding selling and purchasing Child Abusive Material within file hosting services (cyberlockers). The analyzed data was gathered using a webcrawler and different methods for analyzing correlation were implemented on the data to find relationships between different data points. The data points were then clustered, using an algorithm to create a relationship network. The developed model analyzed the data to identify trends and patterns regarding the illegal transactions and the results can be used to find the most prominent users who are potential perpetrators that actively distributes illegal material. A deeper analysis is then performed on the, according to the model, most interesting users in an attempt to identify their underlying identity.

    When cryptocurrencies are used by perpetrators to pay and get paid for illegal material, the transaction flows cannot immediately be connected to specific identities and therefore it is required to first identify potential perpetrators and track their transactions, to later compare them with the transactions that has already been identified as payments for illegal material. Apart from this model, a framework has been created to identify certain patterns and trends regarding the cyberlockers’ transaction flows. This was performed through analysis of the transaction flows connected to cyberlockers that were suspected to contain Child Abusive Material or other illegal material.

    With the results from the first and second model, the most interesting cyberlockers for future investigations were discovered, according to the trends and patterns in their surrounding transaction flows. When that analysis was performed and the first model was implemented, potential perpetrators was identified through collaborations between the investigating unit, the Police, the cyberlockers in question and the relevant exchange services. Through this collaboration the identities of the perpetrators are revealed and the transaction flows can then be analyzed to limit further distribution of Child Abusive Material within cyberlockers and consequently limit the illegal transactions with cryptocurrencies.

    Keywords: Bitcoin, Child Abusive Material, Cyberlockers, Illegal payments, Cryptocurrency, Webcrawler, Correlation, Relationship network.

  • 265.
    Berggren, Peter
    et al.
    Totalförsvarets Forskningsinstitut, Sweden.
    Johansson, Björn
    Totalförsvarets Forskningsinstitut, Sweden.
    Developing an instrument for measuring shared understanding2010In: Proceedings of the 7th International ISCRAM Conference: Defining Crisis Management 3.0 / [ed] Simon French Brian Tomaszewski Christopher Zobel, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper discusses the need for an easy-to-use, easy-to-administer measure that can capture shared understanding in a team of professionals working together towards a successful performance. In the paper the development of such a measure is described using two empirical studies. Command-and-Control tasks are complex and often dynamic, and a way of capturing the degree of which a team of individuals have a common understanding of priorities in such a task is imperative.

    Two studies are presented. In the first study students participated in a microworld experiment where they tried to rank order pre-determined factors in order to measure shared understanding. In the second study officers from the Swedish Armed Forces participated in an exercise where they rank ordered self-generated factors. 

  • 266.
    Berggren, Tommy
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Denham-Smith, Adam
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Automated Live Acquisition of Volatile Data: Through the use of a programmable HID control chip2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This research lays a foundation for automated acquisition of volatile data by presenting a prototype device which carries out the deeds of a forensic investigator, essentially making it a “forensic investigator on a stick”. The Teensy 3.0 device is programmed to interact with an external USB device for storage purposes. All interaction with a live target system must be documented thoroughly according to forensic best practices. Therefore quantitative measurements of system contamination related to the device actions are presented. The device is conclusively able to perform a memory dump and provide a warning of the existence of Truecrypt encrypted containers.

  • 267. Bergh, Pontus
    et al.
    Johansson-Lindfors, Maj-Britt
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Lonely rangers together: the development of trust among entrepreneurs in learning networks2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 268.
    Bergh, Pontus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Thorgren, Sara
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Entrepreneurs learning together: the importance of building trust for learning and exploiting business opportunities2011In: The International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, ISSN 1554-7191, E-ISSN 1555-1938, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 17-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This longitudinal, qualitative case study examines trust-building processes and learning outcomes among entrepreneurs who participated in formal networks designed to develop competence and knowledge. This study is built on rich data collected through observation and video recordings made during network meetings and get-togethers. Additional data was gleaned from personal interviews with participating entrepreneurs. All data sources reveal on how trust develops and how entrepreneurs can use networks to learn and improve their capacity to exploit business opportunities. Studying how trust is built over time among entrepreneurs who demonstrate a low level of trust when they join the network, this study provides insights into micro-processes and important components of building trust. Findings suggest three processes that build commitment, companionship, and competence trust. Moreover, acknowledging the notion of social learning, the findings suggest that when entrepreneurs build trust with one another they can experience cognitive, emotional, and social changes by participating in a network. This may bring potential consequences for their exploiting opportunies. Implications for academics and managers are discussed.

  • 269.
    Bergh, Pontus
    et al.
    Umeå School of Business and Economics, Umeå University.
    Thorgren, Sara
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Trust and self-efficacy in formal learning networks: the effects on entrepreneurs' capacity to act upon business opportunities2012In: International Journal of Innovation and Learning, ISSN 1471-8197, E-ISSN 1741-8089, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 197-216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In efforts to promote better realisation of business opportunities, government support of formal policy led learning networks among entrepreneurs has been a popular approach worldwide. This article uses survey data from 109 entrepreneurs who took part in formal learning networks to examine how trust in network partners influences the capacity to act upon business opportunities for entrepreneurs. Further, we examine how this influence is moderated by the entrepreneurs' own self-efficacy. Our results support a positive relationship between developing trust in other networking entrepreneurs and the capacity to act upon business opportunities. Self-efficacy was found to moderate this relationship. For entrepreneurs with low self-efficacy, results support an inverted U-shaped relationship, with the greatest outcomes reached with an intermediate level of trust. For entrepreneurs with high self-efficacy, a positive linear relationship is supported. We discuss implications for further research on trust and realisation of opportunities, and for learning network policy.

  • 270.
    Bergkvist Bäcklin, Martin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Johansson, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Belastningsergonomi och arbetsmiljörisker vid maskinrumsarbete på fartyg: Riskbedömning av underhållsarbete på separatorer2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to identify work hazards by analyzing the work activities and work environment during a separator overhaul onboard a ship. To identify risks the study used the Swedish Work Environment Authority´s regulation AFS 2012:02, the assessment form KIM 1 and a biomechanical program ALBA. The results show that there are risks for stress load on the body and that there is room for improvements. An example of an improvement is to design an additional workbench to allow proper work postures and decrease the number of lifts. The results also show the importance of using the right technique while lifting to reduce the chance of stress load. The study can be used for further studies on the work environment hazards onboard ships.

  • 271.
    Bergkvist, Mikael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Roos, Arne
    Ribbing, Carl G
    Anomalies in integrating sphere measurements on structured samples1988In: Applied Optics, ISSN 0003-6935, E-ISSN 1539-4522, Vol. 27, no 18Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 272.
    Berglund, Anders
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Sturm, Dennis
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Embracing entrepreneurial behavior in a research school2009In: Design has never been this cool: ICED 09, the 17th International Conference on Engineering Design ; 24 - 27 August 2009, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA ; proceedings volume / [ed] Magareta Norell Bergendahl; Martin Grimheden; Larry Leifer, Design Research Society, 2009, Vol. 1: Design processes, p. 245-256Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PIEp (Product Innovation Engineering programme) is a newly established research school in product development engineering with the aim to increase innovation capabilities in the Swedish industries and to promote entrepreneurial behavior. By following a bottom-up approach PIEp has been able to embrace and foster entrepreneurial behavior. As an outcome the young research school has been able to change preexisting mindsets and to encourage the PIEp PhD students to be more proactive, risk-taking and innovative. This paper presents the chain of events that have happened since the establishment of the PIEp research school. In an action research approach the authors additionally state their own perceptions. Providing rich, descriptive examples and explaining certain cases in detail it is outlined how the transformation of the initial idea has been pursued until today. The insights provided are made public for future research, comparison to other research schools, and to policy makers interested in founding new research schools.

  • 273.
    Berglund, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Development of the systematic grading procedure2011In: Design education for creativity and business innovation: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Engineering and Product Design Education / [ed] Ahmed Kovacevic, Glasgow: Design Research Society, 2011, p. 293-298Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A challenge in design education is the grading of students work when the task is based upon the student’s ability to show applied knowledge. Due to this difficulty the grading criteria needs to be and is most often subjectively focused. As previous research has shown the assessments can vary between teachers, thus, increasing the chance for varied and possibly improper scores. Much has to do with the level of experience and knowledge a particular teacher has and the individual preferences to which parameters make a good picture or animation. The Systematic Grading Procedure (SGP) is a method in which an assignment is broken down and the task is graded depending upon the assessment areas. The aim of this paper is to validate the SGP as a grading method for teachers in 3D modeling and 3D-visualisation and further develop the SGP as an assessment tool for lesser-experienced teachers. The SGP has previously shown to be helpful in giving and receiving feedback. Previous work did not show significant differences between SGP and the commonly used methods but this more extensive study did show that the SGP did significantly help reduce the variation in grading for both experienced 3D teachers and inexperienced 3D teachers but not for non-teachers. There seems to be a good potential for the SGP method to help teachers give more consistent grades and at the same time help students through feedback which helps both by helping them with a better understanding of the grading methods and measures.

  • 274.
    Berglund, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Systematic grading procedure based on subjective values2010In: When design education and design research meet-: proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Engineering and Product Design Education, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) Trondheim, Norway, 2nd-3rd September 2010 / [ed] Casper Boks, Glasgow: Design Research Society, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Design education there can be a challenge in grading students when the task is based upon the student's ability to learn new knowledge and apply it. Thus the grading criteria needs to be and is most often subjectively focused. For example, one requirement is that, "the object should have realistic lighting". Since there is no way to, with absolute values, measure whether an image has realistic lighting, the teacher's subjective values are the base for assessment and the student's score. An observed result is that these types of assessments can vary between teachers, thus, increasing the chance for varied and possibly improper scores. Much has to do with the level of experience and knowledge a particular teacher has and the individual differences to which parameters make a good picture or animation. It is also true that two different teachers can find separate items in student's work that are praiseworthy. This paper proposes that it is possible to systematize the evaluation process with a weighting method. A Systematic Grading Procedure (SGP) can be used in design projects to separate and weigh design criteria against each other without losing the overall picture of the work. This method will be tested to see if it can help teachers in grading students more accurately.In Design education there can be a challenge in grading students when the task is based upon the student's ability to learn new knowledge and apply it. Thus the grading criteria needs to be and is most often subjectively focused. For example, one requirement is that, "the object should have realistic lighting". Since there is no way to, with absolute values, measure whether an image has realistic lighting, the teacher's subjective values are the base for assessment and the student's score. An observed result is that these types of assessments can vary between teachers, thus, increasing the chance for varied and possibly improper scores. Much has to do with the level of experience and knowledge a particular teacher has and the individual differences to which parameters make a good picture or animation. It is also true that two different teachers can find separate items in student's work that are praiseworthy. This paper proposes that it is possible to systematize the evaluation process with a weighting method. A Systematic Grading Procedure (SGP) can be used in design projects to separate and weigh design criteria against each other without losing the overall picture of the work. This method will be tested to see if it can help teachers in grading students more accurately.

  • 275.
    Berglund, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Who wins from academic consulting2013In: Design Education-Growing Our Future: Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Engineering and Product Design Education (E&pde13, Glasgow: The Design Society Institution of Engineering Designers , 2013, p. 82-87Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    University teachers who start teaching right after graduation have not used and developed their knowledge professionally thus they have never had the opportunity to test their acquired knowledge in practice. This results in teaching that tends to be heavily theoretical because the teacher teaches what he/she has learned in studies, instead of teaching the knowledge gained through professional experience. Unfortunately a teacher can feel insecure when not knowing if their teaching reflects currently used methods and/or appropriate tools. An effect of this can be that teachers who feel insufficient in their role as teachers. The aim of this paper is to see if academic consulting not only increases the practical experience of the teacher, but also helps the teacher in their role and gives them a better understanding of what the state of the art is. While some schools have some cooperation with the business community, both in student projects and research projects, although it is not common with external non-research consultation projects, which are conducted by the university teachers. A questionnaire was sent to both teachers and students’ asking them of their experience of academic consulting’s benefits to the classroom experience. As a follow-up were several interviewed, along with clients to gain more insight. The results showed that teachers, students and the clients benefited from these types of projects.

  • 276.
    Berglund, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Håkansson, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    A systematic self-assessment tool2012In: Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Engineering and Product Design Education: Design Education for Future Wellbeing, EPDE 2012, 2012, p. 311-316Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Bologna Process has led to fundamental changes in the way students are taught. This in turn has led to new quality assurance systems for teaching. For good outcomes to occur both the teachers and students need to be aware of the intended learning outcome (ILO) and this is made clearer by well defined Teacher/Learner Activities (TLAs). The Systematic Grading Procedure (SGP) has been shown to assist teachers grading student’s 3D-image work, fulfilling a need for assistance in subjects requiring grading of subjective nature. With the application of this method have both teachers and students been given a tool that helps them better understand the grading process and the level of importance of different parts of the 3D work. The aim of this study was to assess students’ learning outcomes. The SGP was used and compared by both teachers and students in assessing their own work. This study used four students who were introduced to the SGP at the introduction of the course. This was done to give then an idea how they are to understand the ILOs. After one of their assignments was graded the students were given an opportunity to improve their work using the SPG. Three of the four choose to improve their work. The ensuing interview and results showed that the SGP could be used as a tool to help students and teachers with the ILO and TLAs. In addition to that the SGP should further be tested for verification.

  • 277.
    Berglund, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Högström, Per
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Is video feedback in higher education worth a byte?2015In: Great Expectations: Design Teaching, Research & Enterprise: Design Teaching, Research & Enterprise - Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Engineering and Product Design Education (E&PDE15) / [ed] Ahmed Kovacevic ; Guy Bingham; Brian Parkinsson, Glasgow: The Design Society Institution of Engineering Designers , 2015, p. 258-263Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Feedback can be given in various situations, like after examinations, project work, and course completion. It is widely accepted that feedback is important for students’ learning, and it can be used in various ways, such as, written, face-to-face, and with the assistance of video recordings. This study focuses on the use of video recorded feedback to gather knowledge on how video recorded feedback can enhance the students learning. Since feedback in the study was given in video recordings, an alternate way was introduced, which add further insights for teaching and learning at university levels. The results showed that 94% preferred video recorded feedback over written feedback and they, in general, preferred face to face feedback (59%). Although, follow-up questions showed that the students found the recorded option beneficial since they could review the video several times in order to see and hear exactly what was stated and what part of their work it related to. In conclusion, video feedback of student work was perceived to be beneficial and the students and the teacher positively accepted it.

  • 278.
    Berglund, Andreas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Falk, Anton
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Färm, Felix
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Gerhardsson, Linn
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Göransson, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Higberg, Ronny
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Jäderblom, Niklas
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Muhl, Christoffer
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Nilsson, Joel
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Petäjävaara, Ellen
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Roos, Elin
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Uttberg, Julia
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Vedin, Elin
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Vikström, Fanny
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Vo, Vivi
    Luleå University of Technology.
    15 koncept för bättre ergonomi: Inom äldreomsorg, fysioterapi, däckmontering och varuhantering2015Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här boken är resultatet av en kurs i ergonomi vid Teknisk design, Luleå tekniska universitet, våren 2015. 15 kursdeltagare har under 10 veckor använt designmetodik och ergonomiska teorier och metoder för att utveckla 15 konceptuella förbättringsförslag baserade på de 4 undersökta kontexterna äldreomsorg, fysioterapi, däckmontering och varuhantering. Fokus för ergonomi inom området teknisk design är att se till att all design, oavsett vilket system det avser, kompletterar människans styrkor och förmågor. Vi ska kort och gott se till att arbetsuppgifter, utrustning, apparater, processer, miljöer och organisationer utformas med människan som utgångspunkt, istället för att tvinga människan att anpassa sig med olika former av överbelastning som möjlig påföljd. För att uppnå detta behöver vi förstå och designa för den variabilitet som är representerad bland oss människor: vi är olika, har olika åldrar, storlek, styrka, kognitiv förmåga, erfarenheter, förväntningar och mål. Att tillämpa ergonomi betyder att studera hur människor interagerar med produkter, processer, miljöer och system för att förbättra dem, dvs. göra dem enklare, säkrare, bekvämare och effektivare att använda. För att kunna göra det behöver vi kunskap om människans förutsättningar och behov. Teknisk design med utgångspunkt och mål i god ergonomi innebär att exempelvis: Att designa produkter och utrustning som är enkla och tillförlitliga att använda med utgångspunkt i kunskap om kognitiv ergonomi, antropometri och belastningsergonomiska och biomekaniska analyserAtt designa säkra och effektiva tillverkningsprocesser med utgångspunkt i kunskap om kognitiv ergonomi och belastningsergonomiska analyserAtt designa organisationer utifrån kunskap om arbetslivsfysiologi och organisationsergonomiAtt designa arbetsuppgifter utifrån kunskap om kognitiv ergonomi, biomekanik och belastningsergonomiska analyserAtt designa enkla och användarvänliga gränssnitt med utgångspunkt i kognitiv ergonomiErgonomisk anpassning av en produkt eller en arbetsmiljö kan exempelvis handla om att se till att människan inte använder kroppen felaktigt. Det kan handla om fysisk belastning när en uppgift utförs, såväl som sensorisk input från olika system eller psykosocial belastning i form av stress. Det handlar om att utveckla kunskaper om människans begränsningar och förmågor, vilket ger bättre förutsättningar att bidra till användarvänliga lösningar. Det i sin tur bidrar till säkerhet och användarvänlighet och i slutändan att alla produkter, system och miljöer i vår omvärld fungerar väl för människan – det är hållbar utveckling om något. I kursen Ergonomi 2 vid civilingenjörsutbildningen Teknisk design, Luleå tekniska universitet, ingår en projektuppgift. Den syftar till att få fördjupad förståelse inom ergonomi genom att tillämpa kunskap och metoder i ett designprojekt för en verklig situation. Våren 2015 omfattade projektuppgiften att enanalys av valfri kontext, med syfte att förstå problem och utmaningar i den miljö, det sammanhang, den situation och för de personer som var berörda. Inledningsvis arbetade kursdeltagarna i grupper bestående av 3-4 personer, för att sedan gå in i en konceptutvecklingsfas individuellt. Det innebar att kursdeltagarna kunde genomföra ergonomiska analyser gemensamt och sedan utveckla konceptuella lösningar på egen hand. Det resulterade i att kursdeltagarna utvecklade tämligen olika lösningar, även om de haft en gemensam utgångspunkt. Bokens kapitel omfattar en beskrivning av respektive kontext följt av de konceptförslag som kursdeltagarna utvecklade. Som lärare är det alltid extra roligt när kursdeltagare är motiverade och engagerade inför projektuppgifter. Vår förhoppning är att det engagemanget ska framgå på följande sidor och att koncepten ska ge inspiration till att förbättra ergonomin i våra vardagsliv. Åsa Wikberg Nilsson, Therese Öhrling, Lars Sundström, Agneta Larsson och Ulrik RöijezonTeknisk design Luleå tekniska universitet, Augusti 2015

  • 279.
    Berglund, Jonny
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Gredmar, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    En riskanalys av ECDIS Simulatorerna vid Sjöfartshögskolan i Kalmar2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Modern ships have the ability to navigate with the use of ECDIS only. ECDIS is dependent on many subsystems to function optimally. Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) is a tool with which you can examine a specific system to detect potential construction errors and deficiencies in the production design. This thesis has used a FMEA to investigate ECDIS simulators at Sjöfartshögskolan in Kalmar to examine how ECDIS was affected when one or more of the subsystems connected to ECDIS have failed. The purpose of this study was to detect design errors, deficiencies and limitations of the ECDIS simulators at Sjöfartshögskolan in Kalmar. It could be demonstrated that some of the alarms in ECDIS that should alert the navigator that a subsystem has failed not has worked according to the manufacturer´s instructions. Additionally has some features of ECDIS not operated according to the manufacturer's instructions and some simulator functions which should test a specific situation in a safe environment have not worked.

  • 280.
    Berglund, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Persson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Thornell, Greger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    A High-Performance Microplasma Source for Highly Sensitive and Robust Gas Analysis2014In: Proc. of Micronano System Workshop 2014, Uppsala, Sweden, May 15-16, 2014, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 281.
    Berglund, Martina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karltun, Johan
    Tekniska Högskolan i Jönköping.
    Human, technological and organizational aspects influencing the production scheduling process2007In: International Journal of Production Economics, ISSN 0925-5273, E-ISSN 1873-7579, Vol. 110, no 1-2, p. 160-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study of scheduling work in practice addresses how the production-scheduling processes in four companies are influenced by human, technological, and organizational aspects. A conclusion is that the outcome of the scheduling process is influenced by the scheduler adding human capabilities that cannot be automated, by technical constraints in the scheduled production system and by the available scheduling software tools. Furthermore, the outcome is influenced not only by how the scheduling process is formally organized, but also by the scheduler's informal authority and the role taken to interconnect activities between different organizational groups. The findings from the study support a number of previous studies done on scheduling in practice whilst giving new insights into their interpretation.

  • 282.
    Bergman, Camilla
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Nilsson, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Utveckling av sängarmatur för hotellmiljö: ett projekt i samarbete med LuxoSverige AB2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main goal was to develop an armature with the new Light Emitting Diode technique. During the process different solutions for flexibility of placement and light adjustment were created. Two concepts were developed, one with the armature placed on the wall and one placed on the night stand, both with telescopic function and a flexible tube arm.

    The result of this project was an armature intended to be placed on the night stand. This product could be the first in Sweden to be environmental labeled with the Swan label. The armature has the typical shape of Luxos products. The form follows the function with decorative details and unusual functions, as for example a USB-contact

  • 283.
    Bergman, Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Evaluation of ventilation for an office building: Situated in Gävle, Sweden2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since the CO

    2-emissions and electricity prices are ever increasing many companies have tried to reduce their energy consumption in order to reduce both CO2-emissions and the cost of using energy. Therefore, in this article an office building situated in Sweden have been investigated with its current ventilation flow and what saving poten-tials can be made from heat recovery and a different ventilation flow in regards to health, energy and cost. Empirical data have been collected to be able to calculate ener-gy savings made by heat recovery and new ventilation flow. A ventilation flow of 25 l/s per office were chosen and that the conference room should have at least 3 l/s per m² the dining room and locker was not investigated thoroughly and therefore a ventilation flow from the recommendations of Sweden was followed. The total flows became, 530 l/s respectively 630 l/s for the top and bottom floor. A rotating heat exchanger with an es-timated efficiency of 80% was used for heat recovery and through the two methods combined an energy reduction up to 96,4 % for heating and 83,4 % from the electricity could be reduced.

  • 284.
    Bergman, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Larsén, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Terminal Gothenburg North - A posssible dry port?2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Green Cargo driver idag ett antal terminaler i Sverige i syfte att främja transporter på järnväg och ser möjligheter i att utveckla en av sina terminaler i Göteborg, Göteborg Norra, till en så kallad dry port, alltså en intermodal terminal i inlandet. Detta gav upphov till projektet Terminal Göteborg Norra – en möjlig dry port? med målet att undersöka potentialen och omställningarna med att utveckla befintligt kunderbjudande på Göteborg Norra genom att utreda konceptet dry port samt undersöka efterfrågan på marknaden. Syftet med en dry port är att fungera som en förlängning av hamnen och bör enligt forskare erbjuda samma servicetjänster som en hamn, det vill säga förtullning, säker lagring av både lastade och tomma containrar samt underhåll och städning av containrar. En dry port kan ses som ett bra komplement till hamnar som ligger inne i städer och har problem med begränsade utrymmen i hamnområdet och svårt att expandera då ytan inte längre räcker till. Dessutom kan man minska utsläppen av CO2 genom att få mer gods transporterat på järnvägen. Att utveckla Göteborg Norra, som Green Cargo idag driver i egen regi, skulle innebära att befintliga tjänster behöver kompletteras med de tjänster som fullbordar en dry port. Projektet resulterade i en utredning med potentiella intäkter och kostnader som förväntas uppstå vid ett utvecklande av Göteborg Norra till en dry port. Det visade sig att kostnaderna med att utveckla Göteborg Norra till en dry port är fullt möjliga att tjäna in inom den bestämda tidsramen på två år. Trots det så anser projektet att det finns många delar i utvecklandet som talar emot ett fulländat dry port koncept på Göteborg Norra. Då projektet anser att terminalens läge inte är optimalt för en dry port och att det finns begränsade lagringmöjligheter, oklarheter gällande tulltjänster samt att hamnen inte visar något intresse för att utnyttja tjänsten så är det svårt att motivera omställningen till en fulländad dry port. Däremot finns det en del i dry port konceptet som projektet ser positivt till och det skulle innebära att Göteborg Norra tar emot lastade containrar för transport till hamnen. Då projektets marknadsundersökning visade att många speditörer anser att det är problem med långa köer för att hämta och lämna gods i Göteborgs hamn så skulle Green Cargo kunna erbjuda en tjänst där dessa kunder kan åka till Göteborg Norra och lämna eller hämta sitt gods. Detta under förutsättning att Green Cargo kan erbjuda en billigare lösning och att det inte uppstår köer i trafiken runt terminalen. Klarar Green Cargo detta har de ett bra argument som borde locka både speditörer och Göteborgs hamn att nappa på lösningen.

  • 285.
    Bergmark, Ulrika
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Ekberg, Niclas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Leonardson, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Westman, Susanne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Developing teachers for the 21st century by focusing on professional competences2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 286.
    Bergquist, Bjarne
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Garvare, Rickard
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Hallencreutz, Jacob
    Högskolan på Gotland.
    Langstrand, Jostein
    Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Vanhatalo, Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Zobel, Thomas
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Alive and kicking – but will quality management be around tomorrow?: A Swedish academia perspective2012In: Quality Innovation Prosperity, ISSN 1335-1745, E-ISSN 1338-984X, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to describe how Quality Management (QM) is perceived today by scholars at three Swedish universities, and into what QM is expected to develop into in twenty years. Data were collected through structured workshops using affinity diagrams with scholars teaching and performing research in the QM field. The results show that QM currently is perceived as consisting of a set of core of principles, methods and tools. The future outlook includes three possible development directions for QM are seen: [1] searching for a “discipline X” where QM can contribute while keeping its toolbox, [2] focus on a core based on the traditional quality technology toolbox with methods and tools, and [3] a risk that QM, as it is today, may seize to exist and be diffused into other disciplines.

  • 287.
    Bergquist, Bjarne
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Söderholm, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Karrbom Gustavsson, Tina
    Arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad, KTH, Sverige.
    Projekt: Offentlig upphandling av järnvägsunderhåll2015Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 288.
    Bergquist, Bjarne
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Networking to boost lean six sigma potential2008In: Third international Conference on Sex Sigma / [ed] Jiju Antony; Maneesh Kumar; Chidebere Ogbu, Glasgow: University of Strathclyde, 2008, p. 488-500Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At the beginning of 2008 three SMEs in a small town in Sweden started a network project inspired by the Six Sigma programme, and hired a full-time Black Belt to lead the improvement activities. Three months into the project, we interviewed the top management of the participating companies and the Black Belt, to pinpoint success factors as well as risks of the cooperation project. Results show that statistical methods were unused in favour of methods associated with lean manufacturing such as 5S. Accordingly, the expectations of the CEOs were related to production improvements and flow rather than quality. Both the Black Belt and the CEOs stated that management commitment was vital for the success of the partnership, but also that the visibility of this commitment could be improved. Despite this, all interviewees agreed that the project had gotten a good start and the managers had high expectations for its progress.

  • 289.
    Bergquist, Bjarne
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Networking to make improvements sustainable: an SME success factor?2009In: Proceedings 7th ANQ Congress Tokyo 2009, 2009, p. 522-531Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I mars 2008 beslutade tre svenska mindre företag att öka takten i sitt förbättringsarbete och anställde gemensamt en förbättringskonsult på heltid. Detta dokument beskriver företagens arbete och presenterar resultat från en undersökning baserad på Ajzen's teori om planerat beteende, riktad till samtliga anställda och genomförd efter nio månader. Resultaten visar att arbetstagarnas avsikt att genomföra förbättringsarbete var korrelerade med tron på den egna förmågan att utföra förbättringsarbete, och med ledningens normer. Således kan nyckeln till ett framgångsrikt förbättringsarbete för dessa företag ses ligga i att ha en engagerad ledning och erbjuda anställda utbildning och handledning.

  • 290.
    Bergquist, Bjarne
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Testing for motivation to engage in improvements: a conceptual framework and an initial empirical test2014In: Total quality management and business excellence (Online), ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 25, no 11-12, p. 1224-1235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to develop a conceptual framework for testing the motivation to engage in improvement work. The framework is based on Ajzen's theory of planned behavior (TPB), that we suggest can be used to facilitate the implementation of improvement programmes. By using the model and probing intentions, attitudes, norms and perceived ability related to improvement work, we believe hindrances for implementation of improvement programmes will be exposed. When operationalising the framework we developed a survey instrument based on TPB and then made an initial empirical test by distributing it to 124 employees (response rate 67%) of three manufacturing small- and medium-sized enterprises. Factor analysis and regression were used to analyse the survey and follow-up interviews with employees and managers were used to validate the results. This initial test of the instrument showed that it has sound measurement properties, indicated by clear factor structure and good internal consistency. Interview data also validated that the instrument was able to capture important aspects related to implementation of improvement work. Based on the result, we conclude that TPB may be useful for guiding management actions. However, since our study only draws on a limited empirical sample, future research is needed to test the contextual validity.

  • 291.
    Bergquist, Bjarne
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Testing for willingness to engage in improvement work2011In: Quality Innovation Knowledge: 10th International Research Conference on Quality, Innovation and Knowledge, Monash University , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 292.
    Bergquist, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nytt logistikkoncept för inflöde och lager på Volvo CE, Eskilstuna2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Lean Production har blivit det produktionskoncept som många av dagens företag har som modell när de utformar sina produktionssystem. De första stegen mot ett flödesinriktat ”lean” produktionssystem tas ofta genom att transformera produktionen. Detta i sin tur ställer ökade krav på materialleveranser Just-In-Time, materialpresentation och låga lager. För den interna logistiken innebär inte sällan dessa krav betydande merarbete i form av t.ex. omplock av material från större till mindre emballge och kittning av materialsatser. Ska företagen kunna dra full nytta av sitt flödesinriktade produktionssystem måste det även omfatta försöjningskedjan och den interna logistiken. Det är idag en utmaning för den interna logistiken att anpassa sig till de variationer och förändringar som finns i den produktion som den är satt att försörja med material.

    Volvo CE OpESK står inför utmaningen att hantera kraftigt ökande volymer under åren fram till 2015. Dagens internlogistiska upplägg uppvisar begränsningar med avseende på bland annat inflöde och förråd. Dessutom saknas en långsiktig plan för internlogistiken. Detta examensarbete syftar till ta fram ett nytt internlogistiskt upplägg för komponentfabriken i Eskilstuna. Målet är att utifrån det befintliga internlogistiska upplägget, det framtida produktionsupplägget och andra företags logistiklösningar utveckla minst två logistikkoncept för inflöde och förråd som täcker de krav som ställs.

    I examensarbetet har Volvo CE OpESK:s befintliga logistikkoncept, alternativa logistiklösningar och de förväntade volymförändringarnas påverkan på inflöde och lager kartlagts, utvärderats och analyserats. Resultatet av arbetet har gett en beskrivning av hur den interna logistiken kommer att påverkas och vilka möjliga lösningar som finns för att möta detta. Med detta som utgångspunkt har ett antal koncept arbetats fram varav två har rekommenderats.

    Det första konceptet omfattar en logistiklösning för inflödet i godsmottagningen och logistikcentret. Rekommendationen från författaren är att Volvo CE OpESK i första hand ändrar arbetssätt vid inflödet för att öka kapaciteten, samt anpassar förråden i logistikcentret både till layout och storlek för att passa volym och materialmix år 2015. Nästa steg innebär att komplettera nuvarande bansystem med ytterligare banor för att öka flexibiliteten, minska sårbarheten och förbättra ergonomin för logistikpersonalen. Målet är att reducera mängden onödigt arbete även i godsmottagningen.

    Det andra konceptet omfattar höglagret. Här rekommenderas att stapelkranar och bansystemet för material in och ut ut höglagret renoveras för att reducera antal stopp och störningar. Vidare bör en strategi fastställs för höglagrets fortsatta användning. I ett andra steg rekommenderas att banor ersätter den befintliga transfervagnen vid in- och utleveranser av material för att minska sårbarheten.

    Under arbetet med konceptstudien har även arbetsprocessen utvärderats. Syftet har varit att ta fram riktlinjer för hur företaget kan arbeta med att utveckla koncept för internlogistik. Slutsatserna från utvärderingen är att använda en utvecklingsmodell, gå igenom grundförutsättningar innan arbetet startar, ta reda på fakta, inget system är för enkelt för att behandlas, ifrågasätt varför nya lösningar ska användas och bestäm principer och metoder innan tekniken väljs.

  • 293.
    Bergquist, Robin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Stenbeck, Nicholas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Using Augmented Reality to Measure Vertical Surfaces2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Augmented Reality is commonly used for entertainment purposes on today’s smartphones. We intend to aid the evolution of Augmented Reality as a tool as opposed to a toy. With the use of Apple’s ARKit 1.5 release, which features vertical surface recognition, we implement and evaluate a solution to a target problem which aims to contribute to the knowledge of Augmented Reality’s strength and weaknesses. The implementation allows an iPhone user to measure surface areas by placing anchors to mark an area to be measured. We find that our Augmented Reality tool does not provide the same precision as manual measurements but is still reasonably within boundaries if an estimation is acceptable.

  • 294.
    Bergqvist, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Trädslagsval och trädslagsförändring i Krånge mellan åren 1864 – 2010/20112013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet var att beskriva trädslagsförändringen i Krånge skog under perioden 1864 – 2010/2011. Vidare att reda ut var utvecklingen leder, - hur resonerar dagens skogsägare vid trädslagsval och vad styr dem? För att besvara frågorna jämfördes en Laga skifteskarta från år 1864 med ett ortofoto från 2010/2011. Vidare skickades en enkät ut till 18 skogsägare i Krånge.

    Resultatet visade att många avdelningar bevuxna med gran i mitten av 1800-  talet har ersatts med tall. Skogsägarna valde trädslag främst utifrån ståndortens egenskaper och tidigare trädslag på platsen. Valet påverkades inte av eventuella skaderisker eller andra orsaker. 

  • 295.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Eklund, Gunnar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Comparison between GaAs and graphene QHR standards for resistance realisation at SP2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the first precision QHR measurements at SP using a graphene chip. We compare the results of a resistance calibration using GaAs based chips with the results using a graphene chip. The results agree within a few parts in 109 for calibrations of 100 Ω and 10 kΩ resistors. Consistency checks indicate that the uncertainty is lower with the graphene chip, and the noise level is slightly lower. The measurements with the graphene chip were performed exclusively at 4.2 K, which simplifies the calibration procedure considerably compared with GaAs chips.

  • 296.
    Bergström, Mattias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Getting physical: tangibles in a distributed virtual environment2006Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The design of products is an increasingly complex task, where companies do not have and do not want the in-house competence to manage the development of entire products. Consequently, companies outsource parts of product development projects to other companies or join in partnerships. There is also an industrial shift of focus towards offering a total offer, i.e. selling functions instead of products. The function provider will have the responsibility of the physical artefact throughout the lifecycle and also have the capacity to continually improve the customer value through innovations. Hence, the provider will be able to reengineer, reuse and recycle the physical artefact. This puts new demands on the product development process, in which the total offer is not being offered by a single company because there is simply too much risk in such a commitment. To supply a total offer companies must collaborate closer than before, by exchanging among other things, intellectual properties in new temporary organizations (i.e. extended enterprise), permitting each partner to thus focus on their core competence. The total offer commitment promotes intense collaboration. Partners in the extended enterprise will most likely be geographically dispersed; therefore, tools and methods for distributed collaborative work are becoming increasingly important. Physical artefacts still play a predominant role in the product development process, even though virtual prototyping is used in everyday operations. The tangibility of physical artefacts makes them easy to use in design discourse (e.g. in design reviews, prototype evaluation). When performing design in distributed teams, a need to share physical objects will inevitably occur. This thesis presents the development of a new solution for distributed collaborative work that focuses on physical objects instead of person to person video conferencing. The author studied a design team at a leading industrial company in Sweden that used mock-ups as an integral part of their design process. Insights of their interaction with physical artefacts provided the requirements for a new type of collaborative tool for distributed work. The presented system allows remote collaborators a first- person view of physical artefacts or environments, e.g. mock-ups. This licentiate thesis also presents how the design process changed with the introduction of the new tool, i.e. remote engineers can share their "virtual" CAD data simultaneously with the technician situated at the prototype, who shares his "physical" data with the engineers. The new tools also provided unexpected support for co-located meetings, enabling users to look behind panels and view items that were normally hidden from their sight.

  • 297.
    Bergström, Mattias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Probing for innovation: how small design teams collaborate2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ongoing globalization is placing greater demands on industry. One strategy to stay competitive is to move from supplying only hardware to supplying total offers, e.g. thrust on wings or power by the hour. The total offer is a combination of a product and service, a product service system. This approach to the product development process focuses on the function of the offered system, i.e. functional product development. The function provider retains the ownership and responsibility of the function carrier, i.e. the hardware. This makes for greater risk, but also greater revenue. To deal with this new reality companies are collaborating to supply these types of total offer. Another aspect of retaining ownership of the function carrier is that through continuous innovations, companies can improve the product over the life cycle of the offer. In an industrial context, and often in a global setting, designing is primarily performed through collaboration in teams, e.g. a group of people possessing distinct competences respectively contributing to the task. Hence, with the deployment of a functional product development strategy, the team is given the challenge to collaborate as a global team, i.e. the individuals of the team are spread over a number of companies, sites and countries. Yet another challenge is to increase the innovation in the team. Consequently, with these diverse teams the ability to express thoughts, ideas and different point of views is important for team-based design. The team must not only solve a design task, but also understand and define the task. This kind of design is by default ill-defined and thus referred to as a ‘wicked problem’. However, it is in these wicked design tasks that new and breakthrough products are most likely to be found. But to reach the goal of innovation, the team must allow and embrace ambiguity, as well as act in a supportive environment. The purpose in this thesis is to illustrate activities in design teams when confronted with wicked design tasks. The focus is on how the team explores and communicates problems. The thesis also addresses how physical spaces affect the creative process. Insight into these issues will deepen the understanding of the design processes and enable development of new tools, models and methods, and thus improve the performance of team-based innovation. The cases are studied primarily through observations of small engineering design teams engaged in distributed and co-located collaborative work in early development. The research indicates that designers experience difficulties in communicating notions, such as ideas or thoughts, by solely relying on the usual approach of using sketches, writings and mere utterances. In team-based innovation, designers tend to use their own body, forming embodied representations, to fill in the blanks. Designers embody the future product, e.g. by envisioning themselves as the proposed product, or putting themselves in the users’ position to interact with a future product or both. Hence, the embodied representation becomes a form of prototyping. The designer occasionally incorporates an everyday object to add another dimension to this kind of prototyping activity. Normally, in the manufacturing industry, prototypes are refined and in a state of pre-production. Thus, they limit ambiguity and do not lend themselves to prompt designers to add new ideas. To support the team’s communication of ideas, the prototyping process has to allow the designers to explore the problem, change and propose new ideas, and aid their communicative and collaborative efforts. From the studies, a model derived for an iterative prototyping process in the early design phases is proposed. The model has its starting point in probing, which allows both the problem and the solution to be explored. Probing can incorporate a question, an idea, a concept, or an embodied representation. The design team acknowledges and interprets the probe, creating a shared or contrasted understanding. Still, it is in the differentiated and contrasted understanding that team members find the inspiration to ideate and create additional probing activities that provide for innovations. By looping this process numerous times, the understanding becomes shared and the product concept becomes more refined. However, the main value of the prototyping process is not the prototype per se, but rather the value in the process as such, since it allows the team to reflect in practice and experience through prototyping. The activities of a design team may be supported or hampered by the environment where the activities occur. A room and furniture, specifically designed to prompt a collaborative and creative mode, are suggested and demonstrated in this thesis. Insight from observing design activities in these creative environments provides a basis for further research.

  • 298.
    Bergström, Mattias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Ericson, Åsa
    Prototyping – a way to think together2009In: Research into Design: Supporting multiple facets of product development / [ed] Amaresh Chakrabarti, Singapore: Research Publishing Services, 2009, p. 450-457Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The descriptive study presented in this paper is based on the empirical data generated by observing a global student design team. Their prototyping process are described and discussed to feed input to the facilitation of team based innovation. The emerging of a shared design vision as early as possible is vital for the subsequent design activities, in particular for innovation projects. Every day items, body language and simple rough prototypes are used by the student team to communicate their ideas, to generate feedback on the ideas and to put forward new ideas. The study indicates that the process of doing rough prototypes enables designers to make their implicit understandings visible in such cases when the development starts from scratch, e.g., innovations. Thus, prototyping, i.e., the use of rough prototypes and body language etc, assist designers to collaborate and share experiences in early phases when no agreed upon design vision exists.

  • 299.
    Bergström, Mattias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Ericson, Åsa
    Larsson, Madelene
    Nergård, Henrik
    Larsson, Tobias
    Renström, Boo
    Voxit.
    Needs as a basis for design rationale2008In: Design 2008: 10th International Design Conference, May 19-22, 2008, Dubrovnik, Croatia / [ed] Dorian Marjanovic; Mario Storga; Neven Pavkovic; Nenad Bojcetic, Zagreb: University of Zagreb , 2008, p. 281-288Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is based on data from a Swedish real-life industrial product development project for e-health care of elderly. The purpose in the paper is to discuss identification of user needs. Information about the elderly is transferred in recurrent meetings. Besides the perception that these meetings occupy time which could be spent giving care, the nurses find it problematic to convey such information to substitutes, as well as they have to rely on their memory. In this case, a Dictaphone device was a solution. Reports on practical activities of identifying user needs and how they affect decisions in product development are limited; one contribution of this paper is insights into such a case

  • 300.
    Bergström, Mattias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Ericson, Åsa
    Matzen, Detlef
    Technical University of Denmark, Engineering Design and Product Development.
    Tan, Adrian
    Technical University of Denmark, Engineering Design and Product Development.
    Educating engineering designers for a multidisciplinary future2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary companies on a global market are experiencing constantly changing business demands and increased competition. Increasing focus in product development is now put on issues like understanding users and their needs, the context where users’ activities take place and creating sustainable solutions (McAloone, et.al., 2007). In manufacturing companies, engineering designers play a significant role in realising what is captured in these words.Future engineering designers will hold wider responsibilities for such tasks (McAloone, et.al., 2007; Larsson, et.al., 2005), thus challenging current engineering design education. Educating engineering designers today significantly differs from traditional engineering education (McAloone, et.al., 2007). However, a broader view of design activities gains little attention. The project course Product/Service-Systems, which is coupled to the lecture based course Product life and Environmental issues at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) and the master programme in Product Development at the Luleå University of Technology (LTU), Sweden, are both curriculums with a broader view than traditional (mechanical) engineering design. Based on these two representatives of a Scandinavian approach, the purpose in this presentation is to describe two ways of educating engineering designers to enable them to develop these broader competencies of socio-technical aspects of engineering design. Product Development at LTU A process, called Participatory Product Innovation (P2I) underpins the master programme Product Development and originates from the Design for Wellbeing (DfW) framework (Larsson, et.al., 2005). This is an inclusive framework which seeks to bring together business, human issues and technology in a comprehensive approach to support the creation of tomorrow’s innovations. A main principle is that many different disciplines should contribute to spur innovation by collaboration across disciplines (Larsson, et.al., 2007). The P2I process starting position is in Needfinding (Patnaik and Becker, 1999), were the students conduct observations and interviews to gain access to ualities in the users’ context. An identified challenge here is to keep people in view and not jump into conclusions, i.e., to understand a situation perceived by its actors as problematic and to widen the design space. Product/Service-Systems at DTU Besides the teaching of traditional engineering skills, the curriculum for the project course aims to build up multidisciplinary competences such as understanding the socio technical aspects of product design and synthesis of products and delivery systems. The students are assigned to redesign an existing physical product, such as a washing machine, and turn it into a product/service-system. The main objective for the project is that the resulting solution should have a substantially lower environmental impact whilst maintaining a similar functional performance as the initial product. The student teams are first guided through an analysis of the initial product’s product life cycle, yielding insights into four aspects of product design:1. indentification of current environmental impacts, 2. life phase systems the product encounters, 3. activities that involve the human actor (i.e. customer) and the product, 4. actor-network that support and supply these activities throughout the product’s life. Based on the analysis, goals are set for the improved solution and concepts are developed for a new product/service-system. This way the students are lead through engineering and socio-technical analysis tasks and thereby laying the foundation for their synthesis work in the concept development phase of the project. Concluding Remark By emphasising socio technical aspects in a process model or in a project course, the students are more likely to consider users, their context and sustainable solutions. This we see as essential competencies in product/service-system design and functional product development. References Larsson, A., Larsson, T., Leifer, L., Van der Loos, M., Feland, J. (2005), Design for Wellbeing: Innovations for People, In proceedings of 15th International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED 05, August 15-18, Melbourne, Australia.McAloone, T.C., Andreasen, M.M., Boelskifte, P. (2007), A Scandinavian Model of Innovative Product Development, In Proccedings of the 17th CIRP Design Conference, Springer-Verlag, Berlin. Patnaik, D., Becker, R. (1999), Needfinding: The Why and How of Uncovering People’s Needs, Design Management Journal, 10 (2), 37-43.

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