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  • 251.
    Asplund, Matthias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Nordmark, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Gustafsson, Per
    Comparison of TOR lubrication systems on the iron ore line2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Iron Ore Line (IOL) is a 473 km long track section which is located in northern Sweden and northern Norway, and has been in operation since 1903. The northern part is located above the Arctic Circle. The IOL is mainly used to transport iron ore and pellets from the mines in Kiruna and Malmberget to Narvik Harbour (Norway) in the northwest and Luleå Harbour (Sweden) in the southeast. The track section on the Swedish side is owned by the Swedish Government and managed by Trafikverket (the Swedish Transport Administration), while the ore wagons are owned and managed by the freight operator (LKAB).The IOL has seen a considerable increase in the axle load and traffic volume recently. Due to the introduction of new vehicles with a 30-ton axle load, the rails were gradually replaced between 2006 and 2009 with heavier rails, generally with a steel grade of 350LHT. The rail and wheels suffer from rolling contact fatigue (RCF) due to high friction between the rail and wheel. To control the wheel-rail interface, wayside top-of-rail (TOR) lubrication can be used. The reliability of the TOR lubrication equipment and the lubricants in northern conditions has not been investigated, and the long-term maintenance support required for TOR lubrication is unknown to the infrastructure manager. Furthermore, can TOR lubrication reduce the rail and wheel maintenance costs? This project has been conducted through collaboration between the main operator (LKAB) and the infrastructure manager (Trafikverket); the costs have been shared and the results analysed in collaboration. This paper describes the test period of two years, using two different TOR lubrication systems in two different places on the IOL, one situated in the northern loop and one in the southern loop, each with different operational conditions. The paper shows the actual operational conditions for the pilot test locations, the friction value close to the systems, the rail forces during the test period and some results for the noise measurements. Furthermore, the paper includes the improvements of system resulting from the test operation, and ends with recommendations for the continued use of TOR lubrication on the IOL.

  • 252.
    Asplund, Matthias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Nordmark, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Gustafsson, Per
    Pallari, Robert
    Mining Technology R and D, LKAB Kiruna Mine.
    Larsson, Dan
    Damill AB, Luleå, Damill AB.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Slutrapport avseende hjulprofilmätare i Sunderbyn2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrunden till projektets genomförande har varit den ökande mängden rälsbyten och mängden trafik med 30 tons axellast på Malmbanan. Spårunderhållet och hjulunderhållet har idag de överlägset högsta underhållskostnaderna av järnvägens olika system. Hjulprofilmätaren sågs som en möjlighet att kunna plocka ut de hjul som närmade sig underhållsgränserna för slitage, och därigenom kunna styra underhållet mer kostnadseffektivt.LKAB och Trafikverket enades därför att sätta upp ett gemensamt projekt där en ny typ av mätutrustning utprovades. För att få stöd med datalagring, bearbetning av data mm anlitades LTU och eMaintenanceLAB. Syftet med projektet har varit att undersöka och verifiera att en utrustning för automatisk hjulprofilmätning kan klara av att registrera och larma vid hjulpassager som avviker från de säkerhetsgränser och underhållsgränser som definieras i projektet med hänsyn till vårt klimat och våra förhållanden på Malmbanan. Den bärande idén i detta projekt har varit att man genom en kontinuerlig mätning av hjulprofiler ska kunna ta ut fordon ur trafik innan den avvikande hjulprofilen ger upphov till ett accelererande hjul- och rälslitage och därigenom sänka underhållskostnaden och öka livslängden på både hjul och räl. Projektet har även lett till en högre säkerhet på spåret då man kan mäta hjul som passerat säkerhetsgränsen för hjulparametrar och plockar bort dem, detta var inte var möjligt tidigare. De slutsatser som kan dras från detta projekt är följande:• Utvecklingsprojekt kan med fördel genomföras gemensamt mellan industri, infrastrukturförvaltare och akademi. • För att säkerställa ett bra resultat är det viktigt att genomföra alla steg i ett projekt från koncept till överlämnande. Som stöd för detta har V-modellen används som representerar livscykeln för systemet enligt EN-50126.• Val av tekniklösning och leverantör har gjorts utifrån tekniknivå, referensanläggningar samt drift- och supportmöjlighet och inte enbart utifrån pris. Ett utvecklingsprojekt likt detta handlar inte primärt om att få en utrustning i drift utan överföring av ”know how” kring vilka möjligheter och begränsningar det finns med denna teknik.• Resursbehovet för test och utvärdering underskattades och gjorde att projektet försenades ett år jämfört med ursprunglig tidplan. • Informationen som genereras från denna utrustning är mycket användbar för alla parter som arbetar med utveckling av underhåll inom järnvägen. • Utmaningen för att tillgodogöra sig nyttan från mätstationen ligger i att kunna förädla och integrera de genererade tillståndsdata till respektive underhållsorganisation.

  • 253.
    Asplund, Matthias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Nordmark, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Pallari, Robert
    Mining Technology R and D, LKAB Kiruna Mine.
    Gustafsson, Per
    Mining Technology R and D, LKAB Kiruna Mine.
    Larsson, Dan
    Damill AB, Luleå, Damill AB.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    The wheel profile measurement system at Sunderbyn, Sweden: final report2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The background to the realisation of this project comprises an increasing number of rail replacements and an increasing volume of traffic with a 30-tonne axle load on the Swedish Iron Ore Line (IOL). When comparing the maintenance costs of all the different systems in the Swedish railway network, the maintenance costs for the track and wheels are by far the highest at present. The wheel profile measurement system (WPMS) was considered to provide the possibility of picking out wheels approaching the maintenance limits for wear and thereby of controlling maintenance in a more cost-effective way. Accordingly, LKAB and Trafikverket (the Swedish Transport Administration) reached an agreement concerning the initiation of a joint project in which a new type of measurement equipment would be tested. To obtain assistance with data storage and processing, etc., Luleå University of Technology (LTU) and its eMaintenance Lab were engaged in the project. The objective of the project has been to investigate and verify whether equipment for automatic wheel profile measurement is capable of registering wheel data and sending alerts concerning the passage of wheels which deviate from the safety and maintenance limits defined in the project, with regard to the climate and conditions prevailing along the Swedish IOL. The fundamental idea behind this project has been that, through continuous measurement of wheel profiles, one should be able to take vehicles out of service before any deviating wheel profiles give rise to accelerating wheel and rail wear, and that one should thereby be able to reduce the maintenance costs and increase the operational life of both wheels and rails. An additional result of the project has been increased safety on the track, since it is possible to measure wheels that have exceeded the safety limit for wheel parameters and remove them, which was impossible previously. The following conclusions can be drawn from this project.• There are benefits to be derived from development projects conducted jointly between industry, infrastructure managers and academia. • In order to ensure good results, it is important to perform all the steps in a project, from the concept phase to the handing-over phase. In support of this, the V-model was used, which represents the life cycle of the system according to EN 50126. • The selection of a technical solution and a supplier was made on the basis of the technology level, reference installations, and operation and support possibilities, and not merely based on the price. A development project of this nature is not primarily a question of putting equipment into operation, but of transferring knowhow concerning the possibilities and limitations associated with the technology in question. • The resource requirement for testing and evaluation was underestimated, which resulted in the project being delayed by one year compared with the original timetable. • The information generated by the equipment installed is very useful for all parties working with the development of railway maintenance. • The challenge with regard to utilising the benefits afforded by the measurement station at Sunderby lies in the ability to process the generated condition data for the maintenance organisations concerned and integrate these data in the operations of these organisations.

  • 254.
    Asplund, Matthias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Palo, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Famurewa, Stephen Mayowa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Rantatalo, Matti
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    A study of railway wheel profile parameters used as indicators of an increased risk of wheel defects2016In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 230, no 2, p. 323-334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The capacity demands on the railways will increase in the future, as well as the demands for a robust and available system. The availability of the railway system is dependent on the condition of the infrastructure and the rolling stock. To inspect the rolling stock and to prevent damage to the track due to faulty wheels, infrastructure managers normally install wayside monitoring systems along the track. Such systems indicate, for example, wheels that fall outside the defined safety limits and have to be removed from service to prevent further damage to the track. Due to the nature of many wayside monitoring systems, which only monitor vehicles at definite points along the track, damage may be induced on the track prior to fault detection at the location of the system. Such damage can entail capacity-consuming speed reductions and manual track inspections before the track can be opened for traffic again. The number of wheel defects must therefore be kept to a minimum. In this paper wheel profile parameters measured by a wayside wheel profile measurement system, installed along the Swedish Iron Ore Line, are examined and related to warning and alarm indications from a wheel defect detector installed on the same line. The study shows that an increased wheel wear, detectable by changes in the wheel profile parameters could be used to reduce the risk of capacity-consuming wheel defect failure events and its reactive measures.

  • 255.
    Asplund, Matthias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Palo, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Famurewa, Stephen Mayowa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Rantatalo, Matti
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Larsson-Kråik, Per-Olof
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Condition monitoring of rolling stock wheels: approach towards maintenance decision making2014In: 27th International Congress on Condition Monitoring and Diagnostic Engineering (COMADEM 2014): 16 - 18 September 2014, Brisbane Convention and Exhibition Centre, Australia, COMADEM International, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the more or less fixed inherent capacity of a railway system, capacity consuming events like failures within a railway network should be kept to a minimum. This could be achieved by the use of existing and new condition monitoring systems which can detect, report and predict failure events in an early stage. Demands for higher service quality, higher capacity, network availability and track quality together with less human intervention on tracks, drive the development of railway condition monitoring systems.Failure driven capacity consumption due to worn or defected rolling stock wheels have a big impact on the capacity and the infrastructure condition. Wheel defects such as out-of-round wheels, generates high forces, and could result in large capacity consumption especially for areas with cold climate conditions. Bad wheels cause even higher track wear that reduce the life length of the track. Wheels with fatigue defects could also influence the track safety issues. This paper presents how different wheel defects can be monitored; together with a review of the most common wayside condition monitoring systems on the Swedish railway network. The study also describes how the decision making process could take advantage of the condition monitoring data in order to increase the achieved network capacity.

  • 256.
    Asplund, Matthias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Rantatalo, Matti
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Evaluation of wheel profile measurements by means of the contact-point function for the wheel-rail interface2018In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 232, no 4, p. 1225-1239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the accuracy of a wayside train wheel profile measurement system. This was accomplished by an evaluation of the contact-point function for the wheel–rail interface. The wheel profile measurement system in question generates data about the wheel profiles of passing trains. These data are used for improving the wheel maintenance procedures for the rolling stock operator. Recent work shows that there are differences between the data from the two different units in the system, but how this influences further use of the data, e.g. in wheel–rail contact analysis, has not been investigated so far. Accordingly, this article shows how two key wheel measures (the wheel flange thickness and the wheel profile) impact on the contact-point function and which of these measures has the largest impact on the contact-point function. The data used in this study were generated by two different measurement units for the same wheel and with the same wheel status. The results show that the different units produce different results and that these differences are more prominent when a difference in the flange thickness is detected, with a resulting shift of the front side of the flange and of the tread. With no difference in the flange thickness, i.e. no shift of the front side of the flange and of the tread, a difference was still detected in the contact conditions. Furthermore, this investigation shows that the shape of the tread has a greater impact on the contact-point conditions compared to a change in the flange thickness of up to 2.5 mm. This difference in the tread shape could have originated in measurement noise or different wheel measurement positions. The results of the study also show the importance of managing the measurement quality before using the data, for example for maintenance decisions.

  • 257.
    Asplund, Matthias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Rantatalo, Matti
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Johnsson, Roger
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Hiensch, Martin
    Combating curve squeal noise2016In: Combating curve squeal noise, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Society demand for more sustainable transports is increasing, starting a modal shift from road to railway. The resulting increase in railway traffic intensity is leading to more activities on the track, even during the night time. For many years continuous urbanization has been resulting in a higher density of residents in areas close to railway tracks. The combination of these factors is raising the issue of noise disturbances from railway transports, which is forcing infrastructure managers to take action to combat noise from railway traffic systematically. There are different types of noise emanating from railways and one of the most annoying is curve squeal noise. This paper deals with the curve squeal phenomenon, the places where it occurs, and different methods for reducing it. The curving behaviour of a vehicle plays an important role in the generation of curve squeals, and therefore the way in which different rail profiles affect the capability to steer in a sharp curve is dealt within this paper. The paper is based on two case studies with investigated curves in urban regions that suffer from squeal noise, and in which comparisons between measurements and simulations were performed. The outcome of these studies is a workflow for combating squeal noise, results concerning the effects of a top-of-rail friction modifier on noise mitigation, and a proposed rail profiles for improving the steering capability of vehicles.

  • 258.
    Asplund, Matthias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Rantatalo, Matti
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Palo, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Famurewa, Stephen Mayowa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Wandt, Karina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Nordmark, Thomas
    LKAB.
    Gustafsson, Per
    SWECO.
    Automatic laser scanning of wheel profiles: condition monitoring to achieve greater capacity for existing infrastructure in an extreme climate2013In: Automatic laser scanning of wheel profiles: condition monitoring to achieve greater capacity for existing infrastructure in an extreme climate, India: Indian Railways, the host of 10th IHHA Conferance , 2013, p. 445-451Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Iron Ore Line (Malmbanan) is a 473 km long track section located in northern Sweden and has been in operation since 1903. It is mainly used to transport iron ore and pellets from the mines in Kiruna and Malmberget to Narvik Harbour (Norway) in the northwest and Luleå Harbour (Sweden) in the southeast. The track section on the Swedish side is owned by the Swedish Government and managed by Trafikverket (the Swedish Transport Administration), while the ore wagons are owned and managed by the freight operator (LKAB). Due to the high axle load exerted by the iron ore transports, 30 tonnes, and the high demand for a constant ore/pellets flow, the track and wagons must be monitored and maintained on a regular basis. The condition of the wagon wheel profile is one of the most important aspects in this procedure. For this reason an automatic laser-based wheel profile monitoring system has been installed on this line. This system can automatically measure and monitor the wagon wheel profiles at speeds up to 130 km/h. The system was installed and is being operated in a collaboration project between the freight operator and infrastructure manager. The information generated is collected by the e-maintenance personnel at Luleå Railway Research Center (JVTC). The measurements will be used to diagnose the condition of the wheel and rail, and to optimize their maintenance further. This paper presents a study of the selection and the installation of the equipment. Some results from the measurements are shown. The system’s availability during performance in extreme climate conditions, with severe cold and large quantities of snow, is presented. Then the benefits and perceived challenges of the system are discussed. Some potential improvements in rail and wheel maintenance, to achieve more capacity, are analysed.

  • 259.
    Asplund, Matthias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Schoech, Wolfgang
    Speno International.
    Towards perfected rail maintenance: combining routine and long-term research activities2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2007 the new grinding strategy with “Malmbanan”, Europe’s only heavy-haul railway, has been presented at the IHHA-conference in Kiruna. Four years later an update was given, as in between some adaptations concerning the target profiles and the metal removal requirements have been introduced. The monitoring process on selected test sections using MiniProf- and Eddy-current devices never stopped and provided since valuable understanding of the effect of applying optimized specifications. This was particular important in view of the increasing traffic load and the hence required doubling of the yearly grinding campaigns. The combination of the once fixed routine grinding operations with the research activities resulted in a consistently good rail surface situation and revealed further insight in the complex matter of wheel-rail interaction. The latest findings and further development is presented in this article.

  • 260.
    Assefha, Sabina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Sandell, Matilda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Evaluation of digital terrain models created in post processing software for UAS-data: Focused on point clouds created through block adjustment and dense image matching2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Lately Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) are used more frequently in surveying. With broader use comes higher demands on the uncertainty in such measurements. The post processing software is an important factor that affects the uncertainty in the finished product. Therefore it is vital to evaluate how results differentiate in different software and how parameters contribute. In UAS-photogrammetry images are acquired with an overlap which makes it possible to generate point clouds in photogrammetric software. These point clouds are often used to create Digital Terrain Models (DTM). 

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate how the level of uncertainty differentiates when processing the same UAS-data through block adjustment and dense image matching in two different photogrammetric post processing software. The software used are UAS Master and Pix4D. The objective is also to investigate how the level of extraction in UAS Master and the setting for image scale in Pix4D affects the results when generating point clouds. Three terrain models were created in both software using the same set of data, changing only extraction level and image scale in UAS Master and Pix4D respectively. 

    26 control profiles were measured with network-RTK in the area of interest to calculate the root mean square (RMS) and mean deviation in order to verify and compare the uncertainty of the terrain models. The study shows that results vary when processing the same UAS-data in different software. 

    The study also shows that the extraction level in UAS Master and the image scale in Pix4D impacts the results differently. In UAS Master the uncertainty decreases with higher extraction level when generating terrain models. A clear pattern regarding the image scale setting in Pix4D cannot be determined. Both software were able to produce elevation models with a RMS-value of around 0,03 m. The mean deviation in all models created in this study were below 0,02 m, which is the requirement for class 1 in the technical specification SIS-TS 21144:2016. However the mean deviation for the ground type gravel in the terrain model created in UAS Master at a low extraction level exceeds the demands for class 1. This indicates all but one of the created models fulfil the requirements for class 1, which is the class containing the highest requirements.

  • 261.
    Ataei, Mohammad A.
    et al.
    Shahrood University of Technology, Faculty of Mining, Petroleum & Geophysics, Shahrood University of Technology.
    Mikaeil, Reza
    Department of Mining and Metallurgy Engineering, Urmia University of Technology, Faculty of Mining, Petroleum and Geophysics, Shahrood University of Technolog.
    Hoseinie, Hadi
    Faculty of Mining, Petroleum and Geophysics, Shahrood University of Technolog.
    Hosseini, Seyed Mehdi
    Department of Mining, Shahrood Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrood.
    Fuzzy analytical hierarchy process approach for ranking the sawability of carbonate rock2012In: International Journal of Rock Mechanics And Mining Sciences, ISSN 1365-1609, E-ISSN 1873-4545, Vol. 50, p. 83-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new classification system is presented to evaluate and ranking the sawability of carbonate rock. The sawability of carbonate rock is classified into five categories: excellent, good, fair, poor and very poor. The sawability is assumed to depend on the uniaxial compressive strength, Young's modulus, Mohs hardness, and a new abrasivity index. The FAHP approach is used to determine the weights of the above-mentioned parameters by decision makers. Moreover, in this paper, a new classification system was developed to modify Schimazek's F-abrasiveness factor. In this new abrasivity classification, each parameter has a different importance coefficient. The new abrasivity index of carbonate rocks can be obtained from this new abrasivity classification system. The calculated sawability index of developed classification is applied for Iranian carbonate rocks to evaluation the energy consumption in rock sawing process. A variety of two groups of carbonate rocks (seven types) were saw using a fully instrumented laboratory sawing rig at different feed rates, peripheral speeds, and depth of cut. Then, a new statistical model was obtained using multiple regression method based on operating parameters and rock sawability index

  • 262.
    Axelsson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    BIM: Förvaltning, inventering och användningsområden2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Building Information Modeling, BIM is a complex idea which has varying meaning depending on where in the building process it is used. There is no simple definition of how the working with BIM is applied and consists of many areas of activity.  

     

    This report is based upon the study of available literature and interview questions, which both have set the ground for the result and conclusions presented. These have aimed to investigate how digital information processing can be applied in the facility management for a building and furthermore, how inventory of an already built building can be improved by today’s technology.  By studying what´s already have been written on the subject and contacting people who works in the building consulting business or building facility management, a combination of available techniques is presented. The bottom-line is that BIM (Building Information Modeling) is a modern working method which can be used by all disciplines for applying information to a project, and which also can be used progressively into production, facility management, rebuilding and renovation, and finally deconstruction.

     

    Inventorying of an old building which lacks data can be recreated by the use of laser scanner technique and gives a reliable collection of data, which afterwards is processed in a CAD program. Studies have been made in order to find a way for localizing inbuilt material without making any permanent damage to the building construction.

     

  • 263. Axén, Josefin
    et al.
    Hansson, Axel
    Autopia: en undersökning av den kommunala planeringsverksamhetens inställning till autonom mobilitet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 264.
    Azaronak, Natallia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geoinformatics.
    Building 3D models from geotechnical data2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Building Information Modelling (BIM) and Virtual Reality (VR) are two of the main directions in the BIM-strategy of the Swedish Transport Administration. Starting from the year 2015 it is a requirement to use BIM even in tenders.

    In order to meet these requirements WSP developed their own product Open VR - a data platform for visualization, communication, planning, designing as well as a tool for documentation of new and existing environments.

    Geotechnical analysis is an important part in most of the projects and affects the economy, the projects timeframes and further projects design greatly. Availability of good quality basic data is a requirement to succeed in a project.  Inaccurate and late delivered rock and soil 3D models cause the problems at the design stage. A completely or partially automated process for creating 3D soil models using geotechnical database and models presentation in Open VR would provide both economic benefits and reduce the amount of repetitive work in the CAD environment.

    One of the biggest issues is to combine data coming from different sources and therefore clear standards on how different fields of technology should prepare their information are needed. The goal of this master thesis is to develop a guideline how to prepare geotechnical objects for Open-VR.

    Firstly software that could be used for preparing geotechnical data for Open VR were identified and described. Three products were chosen: NovaPoint, Civil3D, Power Civil. After that data were processed using the software chosen for comparison. Geotechnical objects (3D models of soil layers and 3D boreholes) were prepared for Open VR using these three products. The results were evaluated. Finally a guideline for preparing geotechnical data for Open VR was written. This guideline can be used not only for preparing the geotechnical data for Open VR but for any other product which can be used for the model coordination (for example, NavisWorks etc). This guideline can be used in any geotechnical project where geotechnical data of Swedish standard are used. This guideline can be used as it is in order to create 3D models of soil layers and rock surfaces with help of Civil3D. In case that another kind of software should be used, this guideline can be used as a basis, because the workflow is the same, but some correction can be done concerning what “button should be pressed”.

    Recommendations were given depending on the project requirements and application area. Taking into account that WSP decided to not continue with NovaPoint and use Civil 3D and Power Civil instead, then it is recommended to use Civil 3D when it is necessary to create soil layers using field investigations. Results of 3D modelling can be used in NovaPoint, loaded to Open VR and, if necessary, even be imported into Power Civil.

    Power Civil can be used in large-scale projects where advanced 3D modelling is required or when all other area of technology use Power Civil for project design.

    Even though NovaPoint does not have priority at WSP it should not be out of the game, it can be very useful in projects where the usage of BIM is a requirement. Considering that NovaPoint has good communication with GeoSuite and can produce smart 3D models it is recommended to have a license of NovaPoint at WSP in order being able to follow software development.

  • 265.
    Azuma, Chieko
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Coletinha, Elvio
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Villoch, Pablo
    An Exploratory Journey into Sustainability Changemakers Learning Programs2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Humanity is facing highly complex challenges at a global scale. A new sort of conscious sustainability changemakers is needed to face the sustainability challenge. However the mainstream entrepreneurship education tends to focus on business as usual skills, with a significant lack of comprehensive understanding of the whole system and the inner work needed to face the mental barriers to become sustainability changemakers. While the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development was used as a structured approach to the topic, the research design was based on a dynamic research interactive model. Theory U guided the data gathering process that included participatory observation, dialogues with the organizers and participants through the seven progressive schools in Europe. The research aims to identify the common assumptions that guide the design of leading edge learning programs for sustainability changemakers. Building on the findings, the authors present a prototype of a learning tool in a form of self-reflection card game with the intention of helping the next generation of changemakers in their learning journey towards sustainability. Conclusions detail specific guidelines to design a learning program of changemakers towards sustainability.

  • 266.
    Backlund, Fredrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Akersten, Per-Anders
    RCM introduction: process and requirements management aspects2003In: Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, ISSN 1355-2511, E-ISSN 1758-7832, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 250-264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organisations have introduced reliability-centred maintenance (RCM) with a view to changing their overall way of performing maintenance. Many times, however, these organisations have experienced cumbersome or even failed RCM introduction. This is usually because of managerial and organisational obstacles, which more or less unexpectedly turn up during introduction. This paper focuses on managing the introduction of RCM. By applying process and requirement management principles, obstacles that turn up during introduction can be identified early on. As an example of this, we cite the results of a case study of the introduction of RCM in a Swedish hydropower company.

  • 267.
    Backlund, Fredrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Hannu, J.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Can we make maintenance decisions on risk analysis results?2002In: Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, ISSN 1355-2511, E-ISSN 1758-7832, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 77-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For several branches of industry, an increasingly competitive environment has raised important questions concerning maintenance in plant systems. For example, the 1996 deregulation in Sweden's electricity sector has resulted in increased competition among the country's power producers. To survive the competition, suppliers have to reduce maintenance costs, i.e. handle maintenance more efficiently. Risk analysis is one tool decision makers can use to help them prioritise as they plan maintenance actions. There are a number of different approaches to risk analysis. As the results of an analysis must form a reliable basis for decision making, it is important to consider whether the quality of the results will vary significantly with the risk analysis approach chosen. This paper presents a comparative study based on three independent risk analyses performed on a specific hydro-power plant. The comparison and evaluation of the analyses reveal major differences in performance and results, along with various factors that affect the quality of the analyses. The study establishes the importance of a well-planned requirement specification and the need to analyse and interpret risk analysis results, before making maintenance decisions.

  • 268.
    Backlund, Fredrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Holmberg, Rikard
    Vattenfall Vattenkraft.
    Söderholm, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    A 10 years journey introducing RCM within hydropower: a case study at Vattenfall Vattenkraft2008In: EuroMaintenance Papers: Conference and Trade Show on Asset Management & Production Reliability ; Brussels Expo, 8 - 10 April 2008, Belgian Maintenance Association , 2008, p. 21:1-21:10Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 269.
    Backlund, Fredrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Larsson, Dan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Rhen, Mats
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Risk analysis and condition monitoring for efficient maintenance planning at Swedish hydro power plants1998In: Safety and reliability: proceedings of the European Conference on Safety and Reliability, ESREL '98, Trondheim, Norway, 16 - 19 June 1998 / [ed] Stian Lydersen, Amsterdam: Balkema Publishers, A.A. / Taylor & Francis The Netherlands , 1998, p. 247-253Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maintenance issues have in recent years grown in importance. Higher demands on availability and quality of products are some of the reasons. These demands have resulted in an increased use of condition monitoring systems, to support an effective maintenance concept. For a complex system, this technique generates an enormous amount of signals which is difficult to diagnose, and a great amount of information which is difficult to handle and interpret for the operator. Therefore, improved diagnosis and decision support tools are necessary, as a complement to the monitoring systems. This paper presents an ongoing project, trying to find a new approach to condition monitor and diagnose Kaplan hydro-power turbines, where the chain from transducer to decision making is under consideration. Risk analysis is adequate for decision making among alternative maintenance tasks and the ambition is a risk model that can be systematically updated with varying economic data and production requirements. Also, the availability is under consideration for the hydro power plant, as a total system, where the owners of the plant should be able to steer the availability according to demand. Another important aspect is the possibility of the condition monitoring system to test itself, which will prevent false alarms.

  • 270.
    Backström, Martin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Wikström, Ludvig
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Effektivisering av ekologisk dagvattenhantering i stadsmiljö2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the city of Jönköping problems with the irregular flow, erosions and transport of sediment materials are recurring in the brook Strömsbergsbäcken. The problems is somewhat caused by an increased flow of storm water in the brook, which leads to high flow peaks in some parts of the brook since the original furrow is not dimensioned for the increased amount of water. The purpose of this project work is to make ecological drainage management in urban environments with a high amount of storm water discharge more efficient. The objective with the report is to create valuable material of how to accomplish ecological drainage management in urban areas and that the report will be useful for future similar connections. To fulfill the objective, the following three questions have been designed as a significant part of the final project report:

    • How can the load on the general drainage system be reduced?
    • How can the pollution effects of storm water runoff in urban areas be reduced?
    • Which treatments are appropriate to enhance the ecological storm water management in Strömsbergsbäcken ?

    The methods that have been used to solve these questions are document- and literature studies, and also a case study.The thesis results shows that the storm water flows from four of the nine areas that has its outlets in Strömsbergsbäcken, need to be treated through some kind of a solution or method that delays the water flow. The treatment could be performed in the area, before the storm water reaches the storm water network, which leads to Strömsbergsbäcken. The storm water flows can also be reduced by treatments adjacent to the outlets in the brook, where the largest flow peaks occurs. For example an essential solution to decrease the flows in Strömsbergsbäcken is to reconstruct the old dam located near one of the outlets into a basin, which will delay the stormwater flows.

  • 271.
    Bagdadi, Omar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Estimation of the severity of safety critical events2012In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 50, p. 6p. 167-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, various measures are used to estimate the severity of a traffic conflict. However, these measures are all limited to estimating the crash risk and do not include any estimates of the possible consequences of a potential crash. In accident analysis the estimated severity of the event is related to the outcome of the crash, such as injury levels. This article proposes a new method for estimating the severity of safety critical events based on both an estimate of crash risk and an estimate of possible consequence that, in addition to a measure of safety margins, takes vehicle mass as well as the relative speed of the involved road users into consideration. The article compares the estimated severity of 61 conflicts and 9 accidents of the proposed method with the traffic conflict technique.

    The results from the severity estimates of our proposed method show a significant difference in the severity levels of events involving vehicles with similar mass compared to critical events involving vehicles with dissimilar mass and events involving pedestrians. The proposed method gives the possibility to compare different conflicts, with regard to severity, with each other regardless of what type of conflict it is, e.g. intersection or rural road, or what kind of road users that are involved.

    In addition, an event classification, i.e. serious or very serious event, based on the severity estimate of the proposed method, shows promising results indicating that the severities are estimated in a homogenous way. The article concludes that our proposed method of estimating the severity of critical event seems to be able to reflect the dangerousness in a more realistic way than the traffic conflict technique and should facilitate the development of traffic safety analysis methods.

  • 272.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geodesy and Geoinformatics.
    Eshagh, Mehdi
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geodesy and Geoinformatics.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geodesy and Geoinformatics.
    Multi-objective versus single-objective models in geodetic network optimization2009In: Nordic Journal of Surveying and Real Estate Research, ISSN 1459-5877, E-ISSN 2341-6599, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 7-20Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 273.
    Baglee, David
    et al.
    Institute for Automotive Manufacturing and Advanced Practices, University of Sunderland, Department of Computing, Engineering and Technology, Institute for Automotive and Manufacturing Advanced Practise, University of Sunderland, School of Computing and Technology, University of Sunderland.
    Knowles, Michael
    Institute for Automotive Manufacturing and Advanced Practices, University of Sunderland, University of Sunderland.
    Kinnunen, Sini Kaisu
    School of Business and Management, Lappeenranta University of Technology.
    Galar, Diego
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    A proposed maintenance strategy for a wind turbine gearbox using condition monitoring techniques2016In: International Journal of Process Management and Benchmarking, ISSN 1460-6739, E-ISSN 1741-816X, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 386-403Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Renewable energy sources such as wind are available without limitations, but reliability is critical if pay back periods are to be met. The current reliability and failure modes of offshore wind turbines are known and have been used to develop preventive and corrective maintenance strategies but have done little to improve reliability. The analysis of gear lubricants can detect early signs of failure. Reliability centred maintenance (RCM) approach offers considerable benefit to the management of wind turbine operation, as it includes an appreciation of the impact of faults. This paper provides an overview of the application of RCM and condition monitoring techniques, to support the development of a maintenance strategy. It discusses the development of a sensor-based processing unit that can continuously monitor the lubricated systems and provide, real-time data enabling onshore staff to predict degradation anticipate problems and take remedial action before damage and failure occur

  • 274.
    Baglee, David
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Knowles, Michael
    University of Sunderland.
    Morris, Adrian
    University of Sunderland.
    O´Hagan, Geraldine
    Glenmorangie Company.
    Galar, Diego
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Optimisation of food and engineering supply chain technology (OPTFEST): a case study2013In: International Congress of Condition Monitoring and Diagnostic Engineering Management: Comadem 2013 / [ed] Antti Heijo, Helsinki: KP-Media Oy Messuaukio 1 00520 Helsinki Finland , 2013, p. 498-503Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Predictive maintenance attempts to detect theonset of a degradation mechanism with thegoal of correcting that degradation prior tosignificant deterioration in the component orequipment. The diagnostic capabilities ofpredictive maintenance technologies haveincreased in recent years. The advances insensor technologies, component sensitivities,size reductions, and most importantly, cost,has allowed manufacturing processes,especially where once this technology was‘missing’, the opportunity to enter a new andnecessary area of diagnostics. One area inparticular is the food and drink industry.However, with the introduction of any newtechnology, proper application and training isof critical importance. In addition, theimplementation of any new maintenancestrategy should be supported by a welldeveloped information system. This paper willpresent the development and implementation,through case study analysis, of a newmaintenance strategy using predictivemaintenance strategies and an informationsystem designed to support staff training. Thisproject has resulted in the transfer of modernmaintenance technologies, alreadysuccessfully implemented in other industrysectors to the food processing sector. This hasbeen achieved through the transfer andimplementation of structured maintenancemethods and the introduction of monitoringtools for processing equipment. Significantbenefits include the ability to predict equipmentfailure, the development of best practice andcompliance with supplier audits. Theinformation interchange systems developed inthe project allow both users and suppliers todevelop and improve engineering andmaintenance guidelines, thus enabling theuser to improve plant and production efficiencyand determine the correct mix of technologies.

  • 275.
    Balazs, Peter
    et al.
    Försvarets Forskningsanstalt.
    Hallgren, Mikael
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Balkar av höghållfast betong belastade med impulslast: Brottmekanisk provning av RILEM-balkar1996Report (Other academic)
  • 276.
    Balazs, Peter
    et al.
    Försvarets Forskningsanstalt.
    Hallgren, Mikael
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Brotmekanisk provning av Ballistocrete-, Densit-, och Finpartikelbetongbalkar med impulslast och statisk last1997Report (Other academic)
  • 277.
    Balindres, Anecito Reyes
    et al.
    University of Stavanger.
    Kumar, Rupesh
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Markeset, Tore
    Centre for Industrial Asset Management, University of Stavanger, School of Science and Technology, Stavanger University College, Tromsø University, Center for Safe Operation in HIGH North, University of Tromsø.
    Effects of Arctic Conditions on Human Performance2016In: Advances in Physical Ergonomics and Human Factors: Proceedings of the AHFE 2016 International Conference on Physical Ergonomics and Human Factors, July 27-31, 2016, Walt Disney World®, Florida, USA / [ed] Ravindra Goonetilleke; Waldemar Karwowski, London: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2016, p. 657-663Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern technologies are used to create competitive performance in industry, and highly specialized personnel are often needed to operate and maintain the technology. However, both the technology and the personnel are influenced by the environment in which the technologies are operated. In this paper we study how human performance is influenced by an Arctic environment in conjunction with a remote location. Based on a literature study, we map Arctic factors and study how they affect human performance in remote locations. The results show that operational and maintenance personnel may be significantly affected by the Arctic conditions. If not taken into consideration during the design phase, human and organizational performance may be significantly affected. Examples are discussed in relation to petroleum production in Arctic locations north of Norway

  • 278.
    Banda, Sraj U.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Rock Mass Characterization of the Printzsköld and Fabian Orebodies at the Malmberget Mine2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Rock mass characterization is usually the first practice required when investigating rock mass responses in mining areas. The ground surface in the Malmberget mine has been affected by subsidence and formation of sinkholes, which have affected many residential areas. As mining progresses to lower levels, caving is expected to occur in the cap rocks of the Printzsköld and Fabian. For optimal planning and operations in the mine, it is therefore necessary to understand the caving mechanism of this area and to investigate the controlling factors in the deformations. This report is a summary of a preliminary rock mass characterization of the Malmberget Mine area, which was aimed at investigating rock mass parameters that will help in the understanding of the caving mechanisms. Diamond core drilling was conducted to obtain rock core for logging. Rock core logging was conducted as well as borehole photography, in which various rock joint orientations were determined. Rock core investigations also revealed zones of weakness due to various phenomena such as weathering, shearing, etc. Laboratory testing of the core samples revealed strength isotropy and high rock mass quality in many areas along the boreholes. Tunnel mapping was carried out only on two production levels of 945 and 970 meters of the Printzsköld orebody. The rock mass has been characterized using the Bieniawski 1989 system of Rock Mass Classification (RMR). The Geological Strength Index was also used to characterize the rock mass in the areas where tunnel mapping took place.

  • 279.
    Barabadi, A.
    et al.
    Iran Itok, Engineering, Procurement and General Contracting.
    Barabady, Javad
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Slope stability analysis using probabilistic method: a case study2008In: MassMin 2008: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference and Exhibition on Mass Mining, Lulea, Sweden 9-11 June 2008 / [ed] Håkan Schunnesson; Erling Nordlund, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2008, p. 887-896Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 280.
    Barabadi, Abbas
    et al.
    University of Tromsø - The Arctic University of Norway.
    Garmabaki, Amir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics. Islamic Azad University.
    Fuqing, Yuan
    Tromsø University.
    Lu, J.
    University of Tromsø - The Arctic University of Norway.
    Maintainability analysis of equipment using point process models2015In: 2015 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management (IEEM): Singapore, 6-9 Dec. 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, p. 797-801, article id 7385757Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The maintenance cost can be reduced significantly by applying the maintainability principle in the design and operation phase. An effective maintainability prediction can help the designer to improve performance and safety of equipment. The analysis of historical repair by an affective statistical approach provides essential information for decision-making regarding the planning of operation and maintenance activities of the plant. However, the literature on field repair data is quite scarce and they are not detailed. This paper will try to provide step by step guideline for field repair data using point process models by a case study.

  • 281.
    Barabadi, Abbas
    et al.
    Tromsø University, Department of Engineering and Safety, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø.
    Garmabaki, Amir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Zaki, Rezgar
    Department of Engineering and Safety, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø.
    Designing for performability: An icing risk index for Arctic Offshore2016In: Cold Regions Science and Technology, ISSN 0165-232X, E-ISSN 1872-7441, Vol. 124, p. 77-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ice accretion affects the performability of offshore production facilities in various ways, including repair time and failure rate. It can increase power losses, life cycle costs and safety hazards. There are few studies and limited systematically collected information about the impact of ice accretion on performability and its attributes (reliability, maintainability, quality, safety and sustainability) for Arctic offshore production facilities. This paper will discuss the effects of different types of ice accretion on the performability of Arctic offshore production facilities. Then, to quantify their effect on the performability of offshore production facilities, an icing risk index is developed; its application is then shown by means of a case study.

  • 282.
    Barabadi, Abbas
    et al.
    Tromsø University.
    Ghodrati, Behzad
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Barabady, Javad
    Tromsø University.
    Markeset, Tore
    University of Stavanger.
    Reliability and spare parts estimation considering operational environments: a case study2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spare parts provision is a complex problem andrequires an accurate model to analysis all factors that mayaffect the required number of spare parts. The number ofspare parts required can be effectively estimated based onthe reliability performance of the item. The reliabilitycharacteristics of an item are influenced not only by theoperating time, but also by factors such as the operationalenvironment. Therefore, for spare parts provisioning to beeffective, the impact of these influence factors on thereliability performance of the item should be quantified.Hence, the statistical approach selected for reliabilityperformance analysis must be able to handle the effect ofthese factors. One of the important models for reliabilityperformance analysis that takes influence factors intoaccount is the proportional hazard model (PHM), which hasreceived less attention in the field of spare partsprovisioning. In this paper the application of PHM to spareparts provision is discussed and demonstrated by a casestudy.

  • 283.
    Barabady, Javad
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Improvement of system availability using reliability and maintainability analysis2005Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    System reliability, maintainability and availability have assumed great significance in recent years due to a competitive environment and overall operating and production costs. Performance of equipment depends on reliability and availability of the equipment used, operating environment, maintenance efficiency, operation process and technical expertise of operators, etc. When the reliability and availability of system are low, efforts are needed to improve them by reducing the failure rate or increasing the repair rate for each component or subsystem. The aim of this research study is to analyse operating reliability and availability for a system with periodically inspected and maintained components subjected to some maintenance strategy and find some importance measures that show the criticality of the components or subsystems. This analysis has helped to identify the critical and sensitive subsystems or components of the system that need more attention for improvement. In this research study we suggest a methodology for improving the availability of a repairable system. In the methodology, the concept of importance measures must be used to prioritize the components or subsystems for availability improvement processes. Availability importance measures show the criticality of each component based on different points of view such as availability, repair rate, and failure rate of each component. The reliability and availability of repairable systems can be improved by applying appropriate maintenance strategies; therefore a model is developed for selecting the most suitable maintenance strategies on based of analysis of reliability and maintainability characteristic of the operating system. The empirical data of two crushing plants at the Jajarm bauxite mine of Iran are used as a case study for reliability and availability analysis. The study shows that the reliability and maintainability analysis is very useful for deciding maintenance intervals, planning and organizing maintenance. The results show that availability and reliability importance measures can be used as a guideline for managing the efforts for reliability and availability improvement of a system.

  • 284.
    Barabady, Javad
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Production assurance: concept, implementation and improvement2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The dynamic business environment is characterized by short-term and long- term uncertainties in the business processes, combined with a short-term focus on meeting customers' and share-holders' requirements. Therefore, making correct decisions in a dynamic business environ-ment is a major challenge for production plant engineers and managers all over the world. Such a situation necessitates the successful application of tools and engineering solutions to minimize the total business risk and reduce uncertainties through assurance of world-class production plant performance, which can ensure that the right level of production can be ob- tained in order to meet customer demands. To meet these challenges, many approaches such as reliability analysis techniques have proved an effective solution during both design and operation of a production plant, and have been implemented by production engineers and managers. The main focus of reliability is on the process of ensuring a reliable product and/or system as well as reducing system uncer- tainty. However, these are not discussing the issues of production availability which are criti-cal for meeting customer requirements and market demands and may increase risk and uncer-tainties in decision-making. However, production assurance (PA) plays a significant role in supporting the decision-making process by production managers and engineers deal with the above mentioned challenges. The main focus of existing research on the area of PA is on the models and methodologies for data analysis and prediction of future system performance. Fur-thermore, existing models and methodologies supporting PA analysis and management have been primarily developed for the planning phases, specifically for the petroleum sector, but have not yet been sufficiently developed for general use. In many cases, the engineers and managers may face many problems in the process of implementing and executing the PA con-cept. The purpose of this research is to study, analyze and evaluate the application and implementa-tion of Production Assurance Programs (PAP) in production plants, and find some importance measures that show the criticality of the components or subsystems. To fulfill the stated pur- pose, an explorative literature study combined with a case study of a process plant has been performed. Various examples and data from the oil and gas industry are also used to support the thesis. In this study, firstly the concept of production assurance is discussed and Overall Production Assurance Effectiveness (OPaE) is suggested as a developed metrics for measuring the per-formance of a production plant which is considered internal effectiveness of production plant as well as external effectiveness as it considered customer requirement and demand. This thesis present and discusses a methodology that facilitates implementation of PAPs in a production plant. Such a methodology would support production engineers and managers in reducing or eliminating uncertainties and risks in their day to day operation and maintenance decisions. In this research study, some availability importance measures are defined. Thereafter, it a methodology is suggested to improve the production assurance effectiveness through im-provement of reliability, maintainability, and availability of production plant. In the method-ology, the concept of importance measures is used to prioritize the components or subsystems. This analysis of importance measures has helped to identify the critical and sensitive subsys-tems or components that need more attention for improvement. The research study shows that in order to measure the performance of a production plant, the PA provides a more comprehensive measure of a production plant's real performance com-pared to system availability performance as the production assurance provides information about the production plant's delivery capacity, production rate and ability to deliver according to design or customer demands. The study also indicates that availability importance measures can serve as a guideline for developing a strategy for improvement of production assurance.

  • 285.
    Barabady, Javad
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Reliability and maintainability analysis of crushing plants in Jajarm bauxite mine of Iran2005In: 2005 proceedings: Annual Reliability and Maintainability Symposium, International Symposium on Product Quality and Integrity : Alexandria, Virginia, USA, 2005, January 24 - 27, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2005, p. 109-115Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reliability is an important consideration in the planning, design and operation of engineering systems. As the size and complexity of mining equipment continue to increase, the implications of equipment failure become ever more critical. An unplanned failure can result in significantly higher repair costs than a planned maintenance or repair. Of even more importance is the loss of production associated with larger equipment failures. One method to mitigate the impact of failures is to improve the reliability of the equipment. Reliability is a performance indicator of overall equipment condition. A first step in reliability improvement is collection and analysis of the appropriate data.This paper presents a case study describing reliability analysis of crushing plants in Jajarm bauxite mine. In this study crushing plants are divided into seven subsystems. Reliability analysis has been done for each subsystem by using failures data. The parameters of some idealized probability distributions, such as Weibull, Exponential, Lognormal distributions, have been estimated by using ReliaSoft's Weibull++ 6 software. An investigation has also been made to determine which of these distributions provide the best fit for characterizing the failure pattern of the two crushing plants and their subsystems. Some aspects of system failure behavior are analyzed briefly for ongoing machine improvement. Reliability of both crushing plants and its subsystems has been estimated at different mission times with their best fit distribution. Analysis of the total downtime, breakdown frequency, reliability, and maintainability characteristics of different subsystems shows that the reliability of crushing plant 1 and crushing plant 2 after 10 hour reduce to about 64% and 35% respectively. The study shows that reliability and maintainability analysis is very useful for deciding maintenance intervals. It is also useful for planning and organizing maintenance.

  • 286.
    Barabady, Javad
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Aven, T.
    University of Stavanger.
    A methodology for the implementation of production assurance programmes in production plants2008In: Journal of Risk and Reliability, ISSN 1748-006X, E-ISSN 1748-0078, Vol. 222, no 3, p. 283-290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increased use of production assurance programmes in various industries, especially in the petroleum sector. The programme describes the production assurance activities necessary to fulfil the objectives, how they will be carried out, by whom, and when. The activities provide input to decisions regarding concept, design, manufacturing, construction, installation, operation, and maintenance. However, production assurance programmes have not yet been sufficiently developed for general use. It is a challenge to implement and apply such programmes in a practical setting. There is a lack of implementation guidelines. The purpose of the current paper is to meet these challenges; the paper describes and discusses a methodology that facilitates implementation of production assurance programmes in a production plant. The starting point is the offshore oil and gas industry, but the methodology and discussion are to a large extent general and could also be applied in other industries.

  • 287.
    Barabady, Javad
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Aven, Terje
    University of Stavanger.
    Implementation of production availability programmes in engineering projects2007In: Risk, Reliability and Societal Safety: proceedings of the European Safety and Reliability Conference 2007 (ESREL 2007), Stavanger, Norway, 25 - 27 June 2007 / [ed] Terje Aven; Jan Erik Vinnem, London: Taylor and Francis Group , 2007, p. 487-494Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to present and discuss a methodology for implementing production availability programmes in engineering projects. The programmes are to ensure that the project goals will be met. The programme describes the production availability activities necessary to fulfil the objectives, how they will be carried out, by whom and when. The activities provide input to decisions regarding concept, design, manufacturing, construction, installation, operation and maintenance. The proposed methodology consists of three primary tasks and decisions. The three primary tasks are i) establish production availability requirements; ii) provide input to the design process and to operations; and iii) monitor production availability achievement and publish periodic report. Establishing the proposed methodology will help ensure that the project has a cohesive and cost-effective production availability programme, reflecting a production availability process and activities defined in view of the actual needs, available personnel resources, budget framework, interfaces, milestones, and access to data and general information.

  • 288. Barabady, Javad
    et al.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    A method for managing the availability improvement efforts2006In: Engineering Asset Management: Proceedings of the First World Congress on Engineering Asset Management (WCEAM), London: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2006, p. 445-451Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Availability is an important characteristic of a repairable system. When the availability of system is low, efforts are needed to improve it. Any improvement in the availability of a system is associated with the requirement of additional effort and cost. Therefore, it is essential to use methods or techniques for availability allocation amongst various components/subsystems of a system with the minimum effort and cost. The concept of importance measures could be used to prioritize the components or subsystems for the availability improvement process. The study shows, it is useful to obtain the availability importance measures value of each component in the system prior to deploying resources towards improving the specific components. With the assistance of importance measures one can identify the components/subsystems that merit additional research and development to improve their availabilities, so that the greatest gain is achieved in the system availability. Each component should be assigned a value and the component with a greater value will have a greater influence on the availability of the system. Generally, the importance of components should be used during the design or evaluation of systems to determine which components or subsystems have the greatest importance for the availability of the system.

  • 289. Barabady, Javad
    et al.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Availability alocation through importance measures2007In: International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, ISSN 0265-671X, E-ISSN 1758-6682, Vol. 24, no 6, p. 643-657Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - To define availability importance measures in order to calculate the criticality of each component or subsystem from availability point of view and also to demonstrate the application of such importance measures for achieving optimal resource allocation to arrive at the best possible availability. Design/methodology/approach - In this study the availability importance measures of a component are defined as a partial derivative of the system availability with respect to the component availability, failure rate, and repair rate. Analyses of these measures for a crushing plant are performed and the results are presented. Furthermore, a methodology aimed at improving the availability of a system using the concept of importance measures is identified and demonstrated by use of a numerical example.Findings - The availability importance measure of a component/subsystem is an index which shows how far an individual component contributes to the overall system availability. The research study indicates that the availability importance measures could be applied in developing a strategy for availability improvement. The subsystem/component with the largest value of importance measure has the greatest effect on the system availability. Research limitations/implications -The result of availability improvement strategy is demonstrated using only a hypothetical example.Practical implications - Using of availability importance measures will help managers and engineers to identify weaknesses and indicate modifications which will improve the system availability.Originality/value - This paper presents the concept of availability importance measure for a component/subsystem. It also introduces some availability importance measures based on failure rate, mean time between failures (MTBF), and repair rate/mean time to repair (MTTR) of a component /subsystem. The concept of importance measures are used to prioritize the components or subsystems for the availability improvement process.

  • 290. Barabady, Javad
    et al.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Maintenance schedule by using reliability analysis: a case study at Jajarm bauxite mine of Iran2005In: 20th World Mining Congress, November 7-11, 2005, Tehran, Iran: mining and sustainable development, Teheran: Geological Survey of Iran , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maintenance represents a significant proportion of the overall operating costs in the mining industry. The optimal maintenance scheduling can reduce the cost of maintenance and extend equipment lifetime. Since the cost of maintenance is very high, therefore, mining industry need to reduce maintenance cost reasonably meanwhile keeping system reliability and availability high. Despite the large cost of maintenance, mine management has only given passing attention to the optimization of the maintenance process. Performance of a mine production system depends on reliability and effectiveness of maintenance strategy of the equipment. An unplanned failure can result in significantly higher repair costs than a planned maintenance or repair. Of even more important is the loss of production associated with larger equipment failures. This paper is divided into two parts. First part introduces a methodology for optimal maintenance scheduling using reliability analysis and maintenance data analysis, in the form of time between failure and time to repair distributions. In the second part we present a case study from Jajarm bauxite mine of Iran to illustrate the effectiveness of the maintenance scheduling model.

  • 291. Barabady, Javad
    et al.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Production assurance concept for a mine production system2008In: Mine planning and equipment selection: proceedings of seventeenth International Symposium on Mine Planning and Equipment Selection (MPES 2008), held in Beijing, China October 20-22, 2008 / [ed] Raj K Singhal, Bejing: Conference Division, Metallurgical Council of CCPIT , 2008, p. 379-387Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 292. Barabady, Javad
    et al.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Reliability analysis of mining equipment: a case study of a crushing plant at Jajarm Bauxite Mine in Iran2008In: Reliability Engineering & System Safety, ISSN 0951-8320, E-ISSN 1879-0836, Vol. 93, no 4, p. 647-653Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of mining machines depends on the reliability of the equipment used, the operating environment, the maintenance efficiency, the operation process, the technical expertise of the miners, etc. As the size and complexity of mining equipments continue to increase, the implications of equipment failure become ever more critical. Therefore, reliability analysis is required to identify the bottlenecks in the system and to find the components or subsystems with low reliability for a given designed performance. It is important to select a suitable method for data collection as well as for reliability analysis. This paper presents a case study describing reliability and availability analysis of the crushing plant number 3 at Jajarm Bauxite Mine in Iran. In this study, the crushing plant number 3 is divided into six subsystems. The parameters of some probability distributions, such as Weibull, Exponential, and Lognormal distributions have been estimated by using ReliaSoft's Weibull++6 software. The results of the analysis show that the conveyer subsystem and secondary screen subsystem are critical from a reliability point of view, and the secondary crusher subsystem and conveyer subsystem are critical from an availability point of view. The study also shows that the reliability analysis is very useful for deciding maintenance intervals.

  • 293. Barabady, Javad
    et al.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Reliability charecteristic based maintenance scheduling: a case study of a crushing plant2007In: International Journal of Pedagogy, Innovation and New Technologies, ISSN 0973-1318, E-ISSN 2392-0092, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 319-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The cost of maintenance is too high in mining industry to ignore. This is mainly due to poor understanding of the maintenance process which is greatly influenced by the reliability characteristics of the operating system. The paper introduces an approach for maintenance scheduling of a mining system based on reliability analysis which is divided into two parts. The first part introduces a methodology for optimal maintenance scheduling based on analysis of maintenance data in the form of time-between-failure and time-to-repair distributions. In the second part, we present a case study from Jajarm Bauxite Mine in Iran to illustrate the applicability of the maintenance scheduling model.

  • 294. Barabady, Javad
    et al.
    Markeset, T.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Overall production assurance effectiveness2008In: Proceedings of the 3rd World Congress on Engineering Asset Management and Intelligent Maintenance Systems: WCEAM-IMS 2008 : Engineering Asset Management - A Foundation for Sustainable Development, 27 - 30 October 2008, Beijing, China, 2008, p. 202-206Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 295. Barabady, Javad
    et al.
    Markeset, Tore
    University of Stavanger.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    A framework for improvement of production plant performance using production assurance programs2010In: International Journal of Systems Assurance Engineering and Management, ISSN 0975-6809, E-ISSN 0976-4348, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 59-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of a production assurance program (PAP) for a production plant is to ensure that the planned production capacity is achieved. The assurance programs describe the activities necessary to fulfil the objectives, how they will be carried out, by whom, and when. These activities also provide input to decisions-making regarding design, manufacturing, construction, installation, operation, and maintenance of plants. It is a challenge to manage and improve production assurance. The aim of this paper is to present and discuss a methodology for improvement of production assurance performance through PAP, organized into four steps, namely data collection and information management, modeling and data analysis, generation of improvement alternatives and evaluation and decision-making.

  • 296. Barabady, Javad
    et al.
    Markeset, Tore
    University of Stavanger.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Improvement of production plant performance using production assurance programs2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increased use of production assurance programmes in Oil and Gas industries. The programme describes the production assurance activities necessary to fulfill the objectives, how they will be carried out, by whom and when. The activities provide input to decisions regarding concept, design, manufacturing, construction, installation, operation and maintenance. It is a challenge to manage and improve production assurance. The aim of this paper is to present and discuss a methodology for improvement of production assurance performance. The proposed methodology consists of four steps. These steps are i) data collection and information management; ii) modeling and data analysis; and iii) generate improvement alternatives; and iv) evaluation alternatives and decision making.

  • 297. Barabady, Javad
    et al.
    Markeset, Tore
    University of Stavanger.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Review and discussion of production assurance program2010In: International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, ISSN 0265-671X, E-ISSN 1758-6682, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 702-720Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to review, discuss and further develop the production assurance (PA) concept; and to define and describe a typical production assurance program (PAP) and its elements. Design/methodology/approach - An explorative literature study covering PA and dependability concept was carried out on contemporary literature. During the course of the study, meetings and discussions with a number of experts in Sweden and Norway were performed. Different types of data and examples from the oil and gas industries are used to illustrate and support the discussions. Findings - This paper indicates that the concept of PA helps the decision maker to estimate whether a production plant is able to meet customer requirements, as it provides information about the production plant's delivery capacity, production rate and ability to deliver according to design or customer demands. PAP can provide a basis for effective production control. Research limitations/implications - The material analysed was mainly related to the oil and gas industry. However, the findings and discussion can be transferred to other areas of application, such as mine production plants and chemical process plants. Practical implications - A PAP is a valuable tool for production plant managers and engineers, not only for documenting a production plant's performance, but also for providing decision support for the development and optimization of the production plant to improve the plant's performance and reduce risk and uncertainties. Originality/value - In this paper the concept of dependability is extended to include capacity performance and customer requirements or market demand, which provides a measure for delivery assurance or plant production performance in relation to customer requirements. This paper also develops a generic PAP to achieve a high level of delivery assurance.

  • 298.
    Barba, Tomas Villegas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Nordlund, Erling
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Numerical analyses of the hangingwall failure due to sublevel caving: study case2013In: International Journal of Mining and Mineral Engineering, ISSN 1754-890X, E-ISSN 1754-8918, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 201-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sublevel caving used in Kiirunavaara mine induces failure and subsidence of the hangingwall. Two sections of the mine were studied by means of numerical analyses. Numerical models were developed using finite element and discrete element codes. The former was applied to calculate the location of new failure surfaces in the hangingwall and to estimate the break angle when mining advances downwards. The latter was used to analyse the displacement path of the caved rock during draw and to determine its effect on the stability of the hangingwall and footwall. The models were calibrated using displacement monitoring data. The finite element analyses indicated that the break angle is almost constant for deeper mining levels but may change if the geometry of the orebody changes. The discrete element model showed the formation of a stationary zone along the footwall that reduces the magnitude of the shear forces during draw, increasing its stability.

  • 299.
    Barbens, P.T.
    et al.
    Aalto University, Espoo.
    Uotinen, L.
    Aalto University, Espoo.
    Toivanen, T.L.
    Aalto University, Espoo.
    Edelbro, Catrin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Improving teaching methods of rock mass classification parameters2014In: Rock Engineering and Rock Mechanics: Structures in and on Rock Masses / [ed] R. Alejano, CRC Press, 2014, p. 451-455Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To promote knowledge in rock mass classification methods, a short course was arranged in research tunnels beneath Aalto University in Espoo, Finland. After the course, the participants had a short (45+45 min) hands-on tunnel mapping exercise where they logged 12 core boxes and one 10 m tunnel wall section. The attendees were asked to submit their mapping sheets for a post-study. The objective of the study was to discover which parameters show most scatter and to develop suggestions to improve the teaching methods. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out and RQD parameter was analyzed in more detail as it had the largest amount of data. Insufficient logging time may be one of the causes for the lack of data for other parameters. Significant scatter was observed in the RQD parameter and the comparison between inexperienced and experienced mappers show no clear difference. The teaching arrangements and problems faced are stated and recommendations on how to improve the situation are presented

  • 300.
    Barrefjord, Madelene
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Delin, Hanne-Marie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Förrättningslantmätarens hantering av stiftelser utifrån Kammarkollegiets och tillsynsmyndigheternas prövningar2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Huvudsyftet med studien var att utreda och klargöra hur förrättningslantmätaren bör handla när en stiftelse blir sakägare i en lantmäteriförrättning och hur stiftelsen ska behandlas utifrån förrättningslantmätarens undersökningsplikt. Studien hade även två delsyften där det första skulle beskriva och analysera hur stiftelsers föreskrifter kan ändras, medan de andra skulle utreda hur tillsynsmyndigheternas registrering av stiftelser genomförs. Förrättningslantmätare är en yrkesroll inom lantmäterimyndigheten och har till uppgift att handlägga samt besluta i fastighetsbildnings-ärenden. Lantmäterimyndigheten är den myndighet som har till uppgift att ansvara för att en effektiv och rättssäker fastighetsindelning genomförs. En stiftelse är en typ av juridisk person som bildas av en eller flera personer för att verka för ett bestämt ändamål. Stiftelsen ska förvalta en ekonomisk förmögenhet som har avsatts för ett bestämt ändamål, där förvaltningen ska ske över en längre tid. Förmögenheten kan bestå av fast egendom i form av fastigheter.

    Metoder som använts för att besvara studiens syften och forskningsfrågor var en litteraturstudie, en intervjustudie och en fallstudie. Litteraturstudien granskade tidigare forskning inom ämnes-området, lagstiftningen och facklitteratur för att ge en vetenskaplig grund. Intervjustudien genom-fördes för att få en grundlig förståelse för hur tillsynsmyndigheternas och Kammarkollegiets prövningar går till vid ändring av stiftelsers föreskrifter. Fallstudien granskade och jämförde tillsynsmyndigheternas och Kammarkollegiets prövningar vid ändring av stiftelsers föreskrifter, men fallstudien jämförde även vilka dokument tillsynsmyndigheterna kräver in av en stiftelse när den ska registreras. Intervjuer gjordes i fallstudien med samtliga tillsynsmyndigheter för att samla information om hur deras prövningar går till när stiftelser ska registreras i stiftelseregistren.

    Resultatet av litteraturstudien bestod av beskrivningar av förrättningslantmätarens yrkesroll, fastighets-, ägande- och stiftelsebegreppet. Resultatet av intervjustudien visade att de intervjuade tillsynsmyndigheterna och Kammarkollegiet har olika grundliga prövningar vid ändring av stiftelsers föreskrifter. Detta visade även fallstudien samt att tillsynsmyndigheternas prövningar skiljer sig åt vid registrering av en stiftelse. Slutsatsen beskriver hur förrättningslantmätaren ska handla när en stiftelse blir sakägare i en lantmäteriförrättning och hur stiftelsen ska behandlas utifrån förrättningslantmätarens undersökningsplikt. Två mallar finns i slutsatsen som innehåller riktlinjer för hur en kontroll av stiftelsens föreskrifter kan göras för att vara säker på att fastighets-bildningen inte strider mot stiftelsens föreskrifter.

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