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  • 251.
    Symons, N.
    et al.
    Monash Univ, Sch Biol Sci, Melbourne, Vic 3004, Australia .
    Svensson, P. Andreas
    Monash Univ, Sch Biol Sci, Melbourne, Vic 3004, Australia .
    Wong, B. B. M.
    Monash Univ, Sch Biol Sci, Melbourne, Vic 3004, Australia .
    Do Male Desert Gobies Compromise Offspring Care to Attract Additional Mating Opportunities?2011In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, no 6, p. e20576-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Males often play a critical role in offspring care but the time and energy invested in looking after young can potentially limit their ability to seek out additional mating opportunities. Recent studies, however, suggest that a conflict between male parental effort and mating effort may not always be inevitable, especially if breeding occurs near the nest, or if parental behaviours are under sexual selection. Accordingly, we set out to experimentally investigate male care and courtship in the desert goby Chlamydogobius eremius, a nest-guarding fish with exclusive paternal care. Despite courtship occurring near the nest, we found that when egg-tending males were given the opportunity to attract additional females, they fanned their eggs less often, engaged in shorter fanning bouts, and spent more of their time outside their nests courting. Our findings highlight the importance of understanding the circumstances under which reproductive tradeoffs are expected to occur and how these, in turn, operate to influence male reproductive decisions.

  • 252.
    Szorkovszky, Alex
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics and Statistics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology.
    Kotrschal, Alexander
    Stockholm Univ, Zool Dept, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Herbert Read, James E.
    Stockholm Univ, Zool Dept, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sumpter, David J. T.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics and Statistics.
    Kolm, Niclas
    Stockholm Univ, Zool Dept, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pelckmans, Kristiaan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Systems and Control. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Automatic control.
    An efficient method for sorting and quantifying individual social traits based on group-level behaviour2017In: Methods in Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2041-210X, E-ISSN 2041-210X, Vol. 8, no 12, p. 1735-1744Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. In social contexts, animal behaviour is often studied in terms of group-level characteristics. One clear example of this is the collective motion of animals in decentralized structures, such as bird flocks and fish schools. A major goal of research is to identify how group-level behaviours are shaped by the traits of individuals within them. Few methods exist to make these connections. Individual assessment is often limited, forcing alternatives such as fitting agent-based models to experimental data.

    2. We provide a systematic experimental method for sorting animals according to socially relevant traits, without assaying them or even tagging them individually. Instead, they are repeatedly subjected to behavioural assays in groups, between which the group memberships are rearranged, in order to test the effect of many different combinations of individuals on a group-level property or feature. We analyse this method using a general model for the group feature, and simulate a variety of specific cases to track how individuals are sorted in each case.

    3. We find that in the case where the members of a group contribute equally to the group feature, the sorting procedure increases the between-group behavioural variation well above what is expected for groups randomly sampled from a population. For a wide class of group feature models, the individual phenotypes are efficiently sorted across the groups and thus become available for further analysis on how individual properties affect group behaviour. We also show that the experimental data can be used to estimate the individual-level repeatability of the underlying traits.

    4. Our method allows experimenters to find repeatable variation in social behaviours that cannot be assessed in solitary individuals. Furthermore, experiments in animal behaviour often focus on comparisons between groups randomly sampled from a population. Increasing the behavioural variation between groups increases statistical power for testing whether a group feature is related to other properties of groups or to their phenotypic composition. Sorting according to socially relevant traits is also beneficial in artificial selection experiments, and for testing correlations with other traits. Overall, the method provides a useful tool to study how individual properties influence social behaviour.

  • 253.
    Szorkovszky, Alex
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics and Statistics.
    Kotrschal, Alexander
    Stockholm Univ, Zool Dept, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Herbert-Read, James E.
    Univ Bristol, Sch Biol Sci, Bristol, Avon, England;Stockholm Univ, Zool Dept, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Buechel, Severine D.
    Stockholm Univ, Zool Dept, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Romensky, Maxym
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics and Statistics.
    Rosén, Emil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics and Statistics.
    van der Bijl, Wouter
    Stockholm Univ, Zool Dept, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pelckmans, Kristiaan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Automatic control.
    Kolm, Niclas
    Stockholm Univ, Zool Dept, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sumpter, David J. T.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics and Statistics.
    Assortative interactions revealed by sorting of animal groups2018In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 142, p. 165-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Animals living in groups can show substantial variation in social traits and this affects their social organization. However, as the specific mechanisms driving this organization are difficult to identify in already organized groups typically found in the wild, the contribution of interindividual variation to group level behaviour remains enigmatic. Here, we present results of an experiment to create and compare groups that vary in social organization, and study how individual behaviour varies between these groups. We iteratively sorted individuals between groups of guppies, Poecilia reticulata, by ranking the groups according to their directional alignment and then mixing similar groups. Over the rounds of sorting the consistency of the group rankings increased, producing groups that varied significantly in key social behaviours such as collective activity and group cohesion. The repeatability of the underlying individual behaviour was then estimated by comparing the experimental data to simulations. At the level of basic locomotion, individuals in more coordinated groups displayed stronger interactions with the centre of the group, and weaker interactions with their nearest neighbours. We propose that this provides the basis for a passive phenotypic assortment mechanism that may explain the structures of social networks in the wild.

  • 254. Sánchez Cacho, Ester
    et al.
    Granquist, Sandra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Animal Ecology.
    La foca común, idicatora del impacto del turismo en Islandia2011In: Quercus magazineArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 255.
    Sörensen, Ida
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology.
    Meerkats (Suricata suricatta) are able to detect hidden food using olfactory cues2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Meerkats are known to strongly rely on chemical communication in social contexts. However, little is known about their use of the sense of smell in food detection and selection. The aim of the present study was therefore to assess whether meerkats are able to (1) detect hidden food using olfactory cues, (2) distinguish the odour of real food from a single food odour component, and (3) build an association between the odour of real food and a novel odour. I employed the buried food test, widely used with rodents to assess basic olfactory abilities, designed to take advantage of the propensity of meerkats to dig. I found that the meerkats were clearly able to find all four food types tested (mouse, chicken, mealworm, banana) using olfactory cues alone and that they successfully discriminated between the odour of real food and a food odour component. In both tasks, the animals dug in the food-bearing corner of the test arena as the first one significantly more often than in the other three corners, suggesting development of an efficient foraging strategy. No significant association-building between a food odour and a novel odour was found within the 60 trials performed per animal. I conclude that meerkats are able to use olfactory cues when foraging and that their sense of smell is well-adapted for recognizing specific odours of behavioural relevance. To the best of my knowledge, this is the first study to successfully employ the buried food test with a carnivore species.

  • 256.
    Sörensen, Ida
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology.
    Variation in tameness among red junglefowls (Gallus gallus) induces variation in activity related behaviours: Exploring the basis of early domestication2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanisms behind early domestication of animals are still unknown and an important question is how the changes leading to what is called the domesticated phenotype have developed. It has been suggested that the domestication process has been based on tameness of animals, and that tameness is genetically correlated to other traits. This study aimed to assess whether selection based on tameness induces changes in undisturbed behaviours related to general activity in the red junglefowl (Gallus gallus) housed in semi-natural environments. Two strains of red junglefowl, selected for high and low fear of humans respectively, were studied and compared in terms of general activity. It was found that there was a selection effect on exploratory behaviour and activity, with low fear-birds being more explorative and more active, an interaction effect of selection and sex on feather preening, with high fear-males preening more, and no selection effect on comfort behaviour. Results from this study indicate that tameness is genetically correlated to exploratory behaviour, activity and feather preening in the red junglefowl. These results support the suggestion that the early domestication process was based on tameness and that genetic correlations between tameness and other traits led to the phenotypic variation that is today seen in domestic animals.

  • 257.
    Tegelaar, Karolina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Dynamics of the aphid-ant mutualism2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An appreciation of the role of mutualism is essential when studying ecology and evolution in most ecosystems. Information covering aspects of mutualistic interactions can serve as a complement to the somewhat one-sided perspective from the 1950’s and 60’s that is used when teaching biology. In this thesis I applied an in-depth approach in which variation in the interspecific interaction between Aphis fabae aphids and Lasius niger ants was studied both in the field and in the laboratory. An emphasis was put on studies spanning several consecutive aphid generations. This approach revealed important differences between ant tended aphids and those without ants. In the lab, I found an initial decrease in aphid adult size and reproductive investment in the first generations after the start of ant tending, which was followed by a recovery to the pre-tending situation after about four generations. Another laboratory experiment showed an increase in alate (winged aphid) production from exposure to aphid alarm pheromones, and an even stronger decrease in alate production from ant attendance, suggesting that ants have gained the upper hand in an evolutionary conflict over aphid dispersal. Results from a field experiment further emphasized the possibility of negative effects of ants on aphids, showing that ant-tended aphid colonies experienced a higher rate of parasitoid attacks, produced fewer alates and embryos in adult aphids. The thesis highlights the scope for variation in the net effect of the interaction for aphids, and argues that, depending on the environmental circumstances, the interaction may sometimes and perhaps even often not really be a case of mutualism. 

  • 258.
    Tegelaar, Karolina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Leimar, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    The influence of ants and parasitoids on aphid reproduction in the fieldManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]
    1. The aim of this study is to investigate how the availability of attending ants influences aphid reproductive investment and the rate of parasitoid attack.
    2. We conducted a field experiment involving the facultative myrmecophile Aphis fabae and the ant species Lasius niger. The experiment relied on natural aphid colonization of potted plants of scentless mayweed (Tripleurospermum perforatum) placed outdoors. Ants that were naturally present at the field site had access to half of the pots and were excluded from the remainder.
    3. Adults aphids were sampled from plotted plants during the 4th and 5th weeks of the study, preserved in ethanol and then dissected to reveal the numbers and sizes of aphid embryos and the presence of hymenopteran parasitoid larvae.
    4. Ant-tended aphids were more often parasitized and contained fewer embryos, but with a greater proportion of these embryos being large. In conjunction with previous analyses of this interaction, the results indicate that under the conditions of our field experiment the net effect of the presence of ants on aphids is negative, throwing doubt on the mutualistic nature of the interaction. 
  • 259. Teles, Magda C
    et al.
    Dahlbom, S Josefin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Oliveira, Rui F
    Social modulation of brain monoamine levels in zebrafish2013In: Behavioural Brain Research, ISSN 0166-4328, E-ISSN 1872-7549, Vol. 253, p. 17-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In social species animals tend to adjust their social behaviour according to the available social information in the group, in order to optimize and improve their one social status. This changing environment requires for rapid and transient behavioural changes that relies primarily on biochemical switching of existing neural networks. Monoamines and neuropeptides are the two major candidates to mediate these changes in brain states underlying socially behavioural flexibility. In the current study we used zebrafish (Danio rerio) males to study the effects of acute social interactions on rapid regional changes in brain levels of monoamines (serotonin and dopamine). A behavioural paradigm under which male zebrafish consistently express fighting behaviour was used to investigate the effects of different social experiences: winning the interaction, losing the interaction, or fighting an unsolved interaction (mirror image). We found that serotonergic activity is significantly higher in the telencephalon of winners and in the optic tectum of losers, and no significant changes were observed in mirror fighters suggesting that serotonergic activity is differentially regulated in different brain regions by social interactions. Dopaminergic activity it was also significantly higher in the telencephalon of winners which may be representative of social reward. Together our data suggests that acute social interactions elicit rapid and differential changes in serotonergic and dopaminergic activity across different brain regions.

  • 260.
    Thernström, Taina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Maximum price paid in captive bush dogs (Speothos venaticus)2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One way to investigate what animals in captivity   might need is to conduct preference and motivational tests. These types of   tests can help facilitate the animals to express different priorities. The   motivation can be assessed by having the animals “pay an entry cost” (e.g.   push a weighted door) that increases with time to get access to a resource.   The highest price that the animals are willing to pay for this resource is   called “the maximum price paid”. This study intends to test the maximum price   paid to access for food in a group of bush dogs kept at Kolmården Wildlife   Park. A simple choice test consisting of four different food items (meat,   fish, vegetables and fruit) was first conducted to establish which resource   the bush dogs preferred. The results showed that meat and fish were the   preferred food items. Secondly, a push-door test was conducted to measure the   maximum price paid for the preferred food item. At the most, one individual   was willing to lift 11 kg (twice its weight) to get access to meat.

  • 261. Thompson, Pamela G.
    et al.
    Scofield, Douglas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Sork, Victoria
    What seeds tell us about birds: A multi-year analysis of acorn woodpecker foraging movements2014In: Movement Ecology, E-ISSN 2051-3933, Vol. 2, p. 12-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Foraging movements of animals shape their efficiency in finding food and their exposure to the environment while doing so. Our goal was to test the optimal foraging theory prediction that territorial acorn woodpeckers (Melanerpes formicivorus) should forage closer to their ‘central place’ in years of high resource availability and further afield when resources are less available. We used genetic data on acorns stored in caching sites (granaries) and adult trees for two oak species (Quercus lobata and Quercus agrifolia) to track acorn movements across oak savanna habitat in central California. We also compared the patterns of trees these territorial bird groups foraged upon, examining the effective numbers of source trees represented within single granaries (α), the effective number of granaries (β), the diversity across all granaries (γ), and the overlap (ω) in source trees among different granaries, both within and across years.

    Results: In line with optimal foraging theory predictions, most bird groups foraged shorter distances in years with higher acorn abundance, although we found some exceptionally long distance foraging movements in high acorn crop years. The α-diversity values were significantly higher for Quercus lobata, but not for Quercus agrifolia, in years of high acorn production. We also found that different woodpecker family groups visited almost completely non-overlapping sets of source trees, and each particular group visited largely the same set of source trees from year to year, indicating strong territorial site fidelity.

    Conclusions: Acorn woodpeckers forage in a pattern consistent with optimal foraging theory, with a few fascinating exceptions of long distance movement. The number of trees they visit increases in years of high acorn availability, but the extra trees visited are mostly local. The territorial social behavior of the birds also restricts their movement patterns to a minimally overlapping subsets of trees, but the median movement distance appears to be shaped more by the availability of trees with acorns than by rigid territorial boundaries. 

  • 262.
    Thyselius, Malin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Nordström, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology. Flinders Univ S Australia, Ctr Neurosci, Anat & Histol, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia.
    Hoverfly locomotor activity is resilient to external influence and intrinsic factors2016In: Journal of Comparative Physiology A. Sensory, neural, and behavioral physiology, ISSN 0340-7594, E-ISSN 1432-1351, Vol. 202, no 1, p. 45-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hoverflies are found across the globe, with approximately 6000 species described worldwide. Many hoverflies are being used in agriculture and some are emerging as model species for laboratory experiments. As such it is valuable to know more about their activity. Like many other dipteran flies, Eristalis hoverflies have been suggested to be strongly diurnal, but this is based on qualitative visualization by human observers. To quantify how hoverfly activity depends on internal and external factors, we here utilize a locomotor activity monitoring system. We show that Eristalis hoverflies are active during the entire light period when exposed to a 12 h light:12 h dark cycle, with a lower activity if exposed to light during the night. We show that the hoverflies' locomotor activity is stable over their lifetime and that it does not depend on the diet provided. Surprisingly, we find no difference in activity between males and females, but the activity is significantly affected by the sex of an accompanying conspecific. Finally, we show that female hoverflies are more resilient to starvation than males. In summary, Eristalis hoverflies are resilient to a range of internal and external factors, supporting their use in long-term laboratory experiments.

  • 263.
    Ulrich, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Feeding Behaviour in Loggerhead Sea Turtles (Caretta caretta): Collection of Movement Data Representative of Feeding Events2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the different threats sea turtles are currently facing, such as habitat reduction and pollution, increase of fishing and harvesting of aquatic resources by Humans, or invasive species, it is important to learn as much as possible about their biology and behaviour in order to ensure the success of conservation programs. In this study, loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) feeding behaviour duration as well as energy expenditure approximation during a feeding event were tested and compared using two different types of food: green shore crabs (Carcinus maenas) or Japanese clam (Ruditapes phillipinarum) or Venus clams (Chamelea gallina). The data show that the turtles took longer to approach the crabs but took more time to eat the clams. However, comparison of energy expenditure values for the feeding phase showed no significant differences. The turtles were observed to eat the clams’ shell as well as their meat. These shells are rich in calcium, which is one possible explanation for this behaviour. This study shows that data loggers represent a viable tool for studying the behaviours of marine animals.

  • 264. Vallin, Adrian
    et al.
    Dimitrova, Marina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Kodandaramaiah, Ullasa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Merilaita, Sami
    Deflective effect and the effect of prey detectability on anti-predator function of eyespots2011In: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, ISSN 0340-5443, E-ISSN 1432-0762, Vol. 65, no 8, p. 1629-1636Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eyespots (patterns of roughly concentric rings) are often thought to have an anti-predator function. Previous experiments have lent support for the intimidation hypothesis by demonstrating a deterring effect of eyespots, but so far there is little evidence for the deflective effect (direction of attacks toward less vital body parts). We studied predators' responses towards large and small eyespots and towards prey with no, one, or a pair of eyespots and if this response is influenced by whether or not prey blend into background. In two experiments, we used artificial, triangular prey items and blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) as predators. In experiment 1, we found evidence for the deflective effect of small but not large eyespots, independent of whether the prey was presented on a concealing or exposing background. In experiment 2, we found that predators avoided the prey with a pair of small eyespots more than the prey without eyespots, but interestingly, we only found this deterring effect on the concealing background. There was no difference in attacks between the prey with one large and two small or one large and no eyespots. We conclude that deflective function may select for eyespots, and background may influence the deterring function of eyespots.

  • 265.
    Vidström, Arne
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Yllesugning och ylleätning hos katter (Felis silvestris catus)2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wool sucking and wool eating are comparatively unusual behavioral problems in domestic cats. They have not been studied much, despite having been known for a long time. There is a lack of well formulated hypotheses that can explain the results from the only published study about the subject thus far.  Because of that need, an internet-based survey with 205 cats was performed. According to the results, the natural suckling behavior can remain into adulthood when a kitten is taken from its mother before 5-6 weeks of age. The suckling behavior is directed towards fabric in the form of the oral stereotypy wool sucking. Wool eating turned out to be a stereotypic behavior too, but in this case associated with the degree of object play that a cat engages in. The degree of object play is higher in younger cats than in older cats, and also higher in breeds of Southeast Asian origin than in other breeds. The degree of wool eating turned out to follow the same pattern as the degree of object play. Wool eating thus seems to be a misdirected predatory behavior. It is still unclear if there is a connection between wool sucking and wool eating or not.

  • 266.
    Virta, Maarit
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Hiltunen, Seppo
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Mattsson, Markus
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Kallio, Sakari
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Turku, Finland.
    The impact of hypnotic suggestions on reaction times in continuous performance test in adults with ADHD and healthy controls2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 5, article id e0126497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Attention is one of the key factors in both hypnotic processes and patients with ADHD. In addition, the brain areas associated with hypnosis and ADHD overlap in many respects. However, the use of hypnosis in ADHD patients has still received only minor attention in research. The main purpose of the present work was to investigate whether hypnosis and hypnotic suggestions influence the performance of adult ADHD (n = 27) and control participants (n = 31) in the continuous performance test (CPT). The hypnotic susceptibility of the participants was measured by the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility (HGSHS:A) and the attentional task was a three minute long auditory version of the CPT. The CPT task was administered four times: before hypnosis (CPT1), after a hypnotic induction (CPT2), after suggestions about speed and accuracy (CPT3), and after the termination of hypnosis (CPT4). The susceptibility of the groups measured by HGSHS:A did not differ. There was a statistically significant decrease in reaction times in both ADHD and control groups between CPT2 and CPT3. The differences between CPT1 and CPT2, even though non-significant, were different in the two groups: in the ADHD group reaction times decreased whereas in the control group they increased. Both groups made very few errors in the short CPT. This study indicates that hypnotic suggestions have an effect on reaction times in the sustained attention task both in adult ADHD patients and control subjects. The theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.

  • 267.
    Vossen, Laura E.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Jutfelt, Fredrik
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology , Department of Biology, Høgskoleringen 5, Realfagbygget, Trondheim , Norway..
    Thörnqvist, Per-Ove
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) behaviour is largely unaffected by elevated pCO22016In: Conservation Physiology, E-ISSN 2051-1434, Vol. 4, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ocean acidification, the decrease in ocean pH caused by anthropogenic emission of carbon dioxide, can cause behavioural disturbances in marine teleost species. We investigated whether AB-strain zebrafish (Danio rerio) show similar behavioural disturbances in the presence of elevated CO2, because this model species could open up a toolbox to investigate the physiological and neurological mechanisms of CO2 exposure. We found no effect of elevated CO2 (~1600 μatm) on the behaviour of zebrafish in the open field test, indicating that zebrafish are largely insensitive to this elevated CO2 level. In the detour test of lateralization, however, zebrafish exposed to elevated CO2 swam more often to the right, whereas individuals exposed to control CO2 (~400 μatm) had no preference for left or right. This may indicate that some behaviours of some freshwater fishes can be altered by elevated CO2 levels. Given that elevated CO2 levels often occur in recirculating aquaculture and aquarium systems, we recommend that dissolved CO2 levels are measured and, if necessary, the aquarium water should be aerated, in order to exclude CO2 level as a confounding factor in experiments.

  • 268.
    Wang, Junle
    et al.
    Université de Nantes, France.
    Le Callet, Patrick
    Université de Nantes, France.
    Ricordel, Vincent
    Université de Nantes, France.
    Tourancheau, Sylvain
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Quantifying depth bias in free viewing of still stereoscopic synthetic stimuli2011In: Abstracts of the 16th European Conference on Eye Movements: Journal of Eye Movement Research, 4(3)., 2011, p. 92-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In studies of 2D visual attention, eye-tracking data show a so-called “center-bias”, which means that fixationsare biased towards the center of 2D still images. However, in stereoscopic visual attention, depth is anotherfeature having great influence on guiding eye movements. Relatively little is known about the impact of depth.Several studies mentioned that people tend to look at the objects at certain depth planes. Therefore, it isreasonable to suppose the existence of a “depth-bias”. But studies proving or quantifying this depth-bias arestill limited. We conducted a binocular eye-tracking experiment by showing synthetic stimuli on a stereoscopicdisplay. Observers were required to do a free-viewing task through active shutter glasses. Gaze positions ofboth eyes were recorded for obtaining the depth of fixation. Stimuli were well designed in order to let thecenter-bias and depth-bias affect eye movements individually. Results showed that the number of fixationsvaried as a function of depth planes. There was also a relationship between the duration of fixation and thedepth plane where the objects were located.

  • 269.
    Ward, Ashley
    et al.
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Sydney.
    Herbert-Read, James
    Jordan, Lyndon
    BEES, UNSW.
    James, Richard
    Krause, Jens
    Ma, Qi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Analysis and Applied Mathematics.
    Rubenstein, Daniel
    Sumpter, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Analysis and Applied Mathematics.
    Morrell, Lesley
    Initiators, leaders and recruitment mechanisms in the collective movements of damselfish2013In: American Naturalist, ISSN 0003-0147, E-ISSN 1537-5323, Vol. 181, no 6, p. 748-760Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Explaining how individual behavior and social interactions give rise to group-level outcomes and affect issues such as leadership is fundamental to the understanding of collective behavior. Here we examined individual and collective behavioral dynamics in groups of humbug damselfish both before and during a collective movement. During the predeparture phase, group activity increased until the collective movement occurred. Although such movements were precipitated by one individual, the success or failure of any attempt to instigate a collective movement was not solely dependent on this initiator’s behavior but on the behavior of the group as a whole. Specifically, groups were more active and less cohesive before a successful initiation attempt than before a failed attempt. Individuals who made the most attempts to initiate a collective movement during each trial were ultimately most likely to lead the collective movement. Leadership was not related to dominance but was consistent between trials. The probability of fish recruiting to a group movement initiative was an approximately linear function of the number of fish already recruited. Overall, these results are consistent with nonselective local mimetism, with the decision to leave based on a group’s, rather than any particular individual’s, readiness to leave.

  • 270. Wardill, Trevor J
    et al.
    Fabian, Samuel T
    Pettigrew, Ann C
    Stavenga, Doekele G
    Nordström, Karin
    Centre for Neuroscience, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia.
    Gonzalez-Bellido, Paloma T
    A Novel Interception Strategy in a Miniature Robber Fly with Extreme Visual Acuity2017In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 854-859, article id S0960-9822(17)30085-4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our visual system allows us to rapidly identify and intercept a moving object. When this object is far away, we base the trajectory on the target's location relative to an external frame of reference [1]. This process forms the basis for the constant bearing angle (CBA) model, a reactive strategy that ensures interception since the bearing angle, formed between the line joining pursuer and target (called the range vector) and an external reference line, is held constant [2-4]. The CBA model may be a fundamental and widespread strategy, as it is also known to explain the interception trajectories of bats and fish [5, 6]. Here, we show that the aerial attack of the tiny robber fly Holcocephala fusca is consistent with the CBA model. In addition, Holcocephala fusca displays a novel proactive strategy, termed "lock-on" phase, embedded with the later part of the flight. We found the object detection threshold for this species to be 0.13°, enabled by an extremely specialized, forward pointing fovea (∼5 ommatidia wide, interommatidial angle Δφ = 0.28°, photoreceptor acceptance angle Δρ = 0.27°). This study furthers our understanding of the accurate performance that a miniature brain can achieve in highly demanding sensorimotor tasks and suggests the presence of equivalent mechanisms for target interception across a wide range of taxa.

  • 271.
    Watz, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Piccolo, John J.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Winter Behavior of Brown Trout: The Presence of Ice Cover Influences Activity, Stress and Growth2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Predation on fish by mammals and birds may be high during winter in boreal streams, and juvenile salmonids respond by reducing their daytime activity to minimize exposure. Surface ice may offer protection from terrestrial predators, and salmonids under ice cover should spend less time on anti-predator behaviors and increase their activity. Using brown trout as a test species, these predictions were tested in laboratory and field experiments.

    In an artificial laboratory stream, the presence of ice cover reduced stress and increased swimming activity, foraging and aggression. The effect of ice cover on activity was greatest for trout with high resting metabolic rates, suggesting that individual intraspecific differences in metabolism may influence the strategies used to cope with different winter conditions. In a boreal forest stream, we simulated ice by suspending plastic sheeting over five 30-m-long stretches, and trout that spent winter under this simulated ice cover grew better than trout in control stretches. These results may explain why salmonid production is high in rivers with long periods of stable ice cover and should be viewed in light of ongoing global warming.

  • 272. Wilson, Alexander D. M.
    et al.
    Krause, Jens
    Herbert-Read, James E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics.
    Ward, Ashley J. W.
    The Personality Behind Cheating: Behavioural Types and the Feeding Ecology of Cleaner Fish2014In: Ethology, ISSN 0179-1613, E-ISSN 1439-0310, Vol. 120, no 9, p. 904-912Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The complex mutualistic relationship between the cleaner fish (Labroides dimidiatus) and their 'clients' in many reef systems throughout the world has been the subject of debate and research interest for decades. Game-theory models have long struggled with explaining how the mixed strategies of cheating and honesty might have evolved in such a system and while significant efforts have been made theoretically, demonstrating the nature of this relationship empirically remains an important research challenge. Using the experimental framework of behavioural syndromes, we sought to quantitatively assess the relationship between personality and the feeding ecology of cleaner fish to provide novel insights into the underlying mechanistic basis of cheating in cleaner-client interactions. First, we observed and filmed cleaner fish interactions with heterospecifics, movement patterns and general feeding ecology in the wild. We then captured and measured all focal individuals and tested them for individual consistency in measures of activity, exploration and risk taking (boldness) in the laboratory. Our results suggest a syndrome incorporating aspects of personality and foraging effort are central components of the behavioural ecology of L. dimidiatus on the Great Barrier Reef. We found that individuals that exhibited greater feeding effort tended to cheat proportionately less and move over smaller distances relative to bolder more active, exploratory individuals. Our study demonstrates for the first time that individual differences in personality might be mechanistically involved in explaining how the mixed strategies of cheating and honesty persist in cleaner fish mutualisms.

  • 273.
    Winnerhall, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The effect of breed selection on interpreting human directed cues in the domestic dog2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the course of time, artificial selection has given rise to a great diversity among today's dogs. Humans and dogs have evolved side by side and dogs have come to understand human body language relatively well. This study investigates whether selection pressure and domestication could reveal differences in dogs’ skill to interpret human directional cues, such as distal pointing. In this study, 46 pet dogs were tested from 27 breeds and 6 crossbreeds for performance in the two-way object choice task. Breeds that are selected to work with eye contact of humans were compared with breeds that are selected to work more independently. Dogs of different skull shape were also compared, as well as age, sex and previous training on similar tasks. No significant differences in performance were found between dogs of various age, sex or skull shape. There was a tendency for significant difference in performance if the dog had been previously trained on similar tasks. When dogs that made 100% one-sided choices were excluded, a tendency appeared for there to be a difference between the cooperative worker breeds compared to the other breeds for the time it took for dogs to make a choice. There is a correlation between the number of correct choices made and the latency for the dogs from being release to making a choice (choice latency). All groups of dogs, regardless of my categorization, performed above chance level, showing that dogs have a general ability to follow, and understand, human distal pointing.

  • 274.
    Wittmann, Walter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Molecular Medicine (UCMM).
    McLennan, Ian S.
    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis has developmental and adult forms in mice, with the male bias in the developmental form being dependent on testicular AMH2013In: Hormones and Behavior, ISSN 0018-506X, E-ISSN 1095-6867, Vol. 64, no 4, p. 605-610Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Canonically, the sexual dimorphism in the brain develops perinatally, with adult sexuality emerging due to the activating effects of pubescent sexual hormones. This concept does not readily explain why children have a gender identity and exhibit sex-stereotypic behaviours. These phenomena could be explained if some aspects of the sexual brain networks have childhood forms, which are transformed at puberty to generate adult sexuality. The bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST) is a dimorphic nucleus that is sex-reversed in transsexuals but not homosexuals. We report here that the principal nucleus of the BNST (BNSTp) of mice has developmental and adult forms that are differentially regulated. In 20-day-old prepubescent mice, the male bias in the principal nucleus of the BNST (BNSTp) was moderate (360 +/- 6 vs 288 +/- 12 calbindin(+ve) neurons, p < 0.0001), and absent in mice that lacked a gonadal hormone, AMH. After 20 days, the number of BNSTp neurons increased in the male mice by 25% (p < 0.0001) and decreased in female mice by 15% (p = 0.0012), independent of AMH. Adult male AMH-deficient mice had a normal preference for sniffing female pheromones (soiled bedding), but exhibited a relative disinterest in both male and female pheromones. This suggests that male mice require AMH to undergo normal social development. The reported observations provide a rationale for examining AMH levels in children with gender identity disorders and disorders of socialization that involve a male bias.

  • 275. Wong, B. B. M.
    et al.
    Svensson, P. Andreas
    School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, 3800, Australia.
    Strategic male signalling effort in a desert-dwelling fish2009In: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, ISSN 0340-5443, E-ISSN 1432-0762, Vol. 63, no 4, p. 543-549Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Males often use elaborate courtship displays to attract females for mating. Much attention, in this regard, has been focused on trying to understand the causes and consequences of signal variation among males. Far less, by contrast, is known about within-individual variation in signal expression and, in particular, the extent to which males may be able to strategically adjust their signalling output to try to maximise their reproductive returns. Here, we experimentally investigated male courtship effort in a fish, the Australian desert goby, Chlamydogobius eremius. When offered a simultaneous choice between a large and a small female, male gobies spent significantly more time associating with, and courting, the former, probably because larger females are also more fecund. Male signalling patterns were also investigated under a sequential choice scenario, with females presented one at a time. When first offered a female, male courtship was not affected by female size. However, males adjusted their courtship effort towards a second female depending on the size of the female encountered previously. In particular, males that were first offered a large female significantly reduced their courtship effort when presented with a subsequent, smaller, female. Our findings suggest that males may be able to respond adaptively to differences in female quality, and strategically adjust their signalling effort accordingly.

  • 276.
    Zidar, Josefina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The relationship between personality and cognition in the fowl, Gallus gallus2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To cope with a changing environment, animals have traditionally been considered to behave adaptively to each situation faced. Yet, individual behavioural responses can both differ widely within populations, and show between-individual consistency (i.e. describing variation in animal personality). In this thesis, I focus on individual differences in animal personality and cognition (i.e. how animals perceive, process, store and act on environmental stimuli), and explore the possibility that they are interlinked. I use domestic- and red junglefowl (Gallus gallus ssp.), a species that is cognitively, behaviourally and socially complex, to explore these aspects of behaviour, through a series of studies.

    Animal personality and coping styles are frequently used terms to describe within- and between-individual differences in behaviour, which are consistent over time and across various situations. The terms are often used as synonyms, even though they differ in some respects. In paper I, I show that animal personality and coping styles can be measured in red junglefowl, and that behavioural flexibility might be an important aspect for both. Further, I show that the terms should not be used as synonyms since they describe different aspects of behavioural variation.

    In paper II, I observe large individual variation in both personality traits and learning speed in both chicks and adult red junglefowl. Interestingly, learning performance does not correlate across tasks, contrasting what has been found in humans and rodents. Thus, individuals that learn rapidly in one task are not necessarily fast learners in another task. I observe a relationship between personality and cognition that is task- and age-dependent, in which exploration relates to learning speed, but in opposite directions for chicks compared to adult females. In paper III, I show that red junglefowl chicks that are more behaviourally flexible have a stronger preference for new generalised stimuli, than less behaviourally flexible chicks. Behavioural flexibility was associated with fearfulness, indicating variation in reactive-proactive coping styles. In paper IV, I show that early cognitive stimulation to some extent can affect adult personality, thus showing a causal relationship between personality and cognition. Not all personality traits were affected, which might depend on the type of cognitive stimulation chicks were exposed to.

    Important cognitive processes like perception and decision-making, can contain biases. One such bias is called judgment bias, which describes how individuals interpret ambiguous stimuli on a scale from positive to negative (optimism to pessimism). In paper V, I show that alteration of emotional state can influence such biases. Here, unpredictable stress influence judgment bias negatively, when individuals are housed in simpler, but not in complex environments, suggesting that there is an effect of additive stress that lead to reduced optimism. Complexity instead seems to buffer against negative effects of stress, since individuals in complex environments remained optimistic after stress exposure. Furthermore, increased dopamine activity was associated with optimism in chicks. In paper VI, I find that aspects of personality associate with how chicks judge ambiguity. Highly active individuals are more likely to approach cues than less active individuals, and when approaching, individuals that are slow to approach ambiguous cues are more vigilant when assayed in personality assays. Vigilant individuals might be more worried and reactive, which suggest that emotional traits can influence responses in a judgment bias task.

    Taken together, I show consistent behavioural differences among individuals describing personality and coping styles, and variation in cognition. I show that these traits are related, and that there is an interplay between them, in which cognition can influence personality, and vice versa. I further show that judgment may be affected by the individual’s current affective state and personality. Thus, I show a complex relationship between personality and cognition that in combination with environmental effects can help explain behavioural variation.

  • 277.
    Zidar, Josefina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Balogh, Alexandra
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Favati, Anna
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Leimar, Olof
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Lovlie, Hanne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A comparison of animal personality and coping styles in the red junglefowl2017In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 130, p. 209-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increased focus in biology on consistent behavioural variation. Several terms are used to describe this variation, including animal personality and coping style. Both terms describe between individual consistency in behavioural variation; however, they differ in the behavioural assays typically used, the expected distribution of response variables, and whether they incorporate variation in behavioural flexibility. Despite these differences, the terms are often used interchangeably. We conducted experiments using juvenile and adult red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, as subjects to explore the degree to which animal personality and coping styles overlap. We demonstrate that animal personality and coping styles can be described in this species, and that shyer individuals had more flexible responses, as expected for coping styles. Behavioural responses from both personality and coping style assays had continuous distributions, and were not clearly separated into two types. Behavioural traits were not correlated and, hence, there was no evidence of a behavioural syndrome. Further, behavioural responses obtained in personality assays did not correlate with those from coping style tests. Animal personality and coping styles are therefore not synonymous in the red junglefowl. We suggest that the terms animal personality and coping style are not equivalent and should not be used interchangeably. (C) 2017 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 278.
    Zidar, Josefina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Balogh, Alexandra
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Favati, Anna
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Leimar, Olof
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Sorato, Enrico
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lovlie, Hanne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The relationship between learning speed and personality is age- and task-dependent in red junglefowl2018In: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, ISSN 0340-5443, E-ISSN 1432-0762, Vol. 72, no 10, article id UNSP 168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognition is fundamental to animals lives and an important source of phenotypic variation. Nevertheless, research on individual variation in animal cognition is still limited. Further, although individual cognitive abilities have been suggested to be linked to personality (i.e., consistent behavioral differences among individuals), few studies have linked performance across multiple cognitive tasks to personality traits. Thus, the interplays between cognition and personality are still unclear. We therefore investigated the relationships between an important aspect of cognition, learning, and personality, by exposing young and adult red junglefowl (Gallus gallus) to multiple learning tasks (discriminative, reversal, and spatial learning) and personality assays (novel arena, novel object, and tonic immobility). Learning speed was not correlated across learning tasks, and learning speed in discrimination and spatial learning tasks did not co-vary with personality. However, learning speed in reversal tasks was associated with individual variation in exploration, and in an age-dependent manner. More explorative chicks learned the reversal task faster than less explorative ones, while the opposite association was found for adult females (learning speed could not be assayed in adult males). In the same reversal tasks, we also observed a sex difference in learning speed of chicks, with females learning faster than males. Our results suggest that the relationship between cognition and personality is complex, as shown by its task- and age-dependence, and encourage further investigation of the causality and dynamics of this relationship.Significance statementIn the ancestor of todays chickens, the red junglefowl, we explored how personality and cognition relate by exposing both chicks and adults to several learning tasks and personality assays. Our birds differed in personality and learning speed, while fast learners in one task did not necessarily learn fast in another (i.e., there were no overall smarter birds). Exploration correlated with learning speed in the more complex task of reversal learning: faster exploring chicks, but slower exploring adult females, learned faster, compared to less explorative birds. Other aspects of cognition and personality did not correlate. Our results suggest that cognition and personality are related, and that the relationship can differ depending on task and age of the animal.

  • 279. Zidar, Josefina
    et al.
    Balogh, Alexandra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Favati, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Jensen, Per
    Leimar, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Sorato, Enrico
    Løvlie, Hanne
    The relationship between learning speed and personality is age- and task-dependent in red junglefowl2018In: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, ISSN 0340-5443, E-ISSN 1432-0762, Vol. 72, no 10, article id 168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognition is fundamental to animals’ lives and an important source of phenotypic variation. Nevertheless, research on individual variation in animal cognition is still limited. Further, although individual cognitive abilities have been suggested to be linked to personality (i.e., consistent behavioral differences among individuals), few studies have linked performance across multiple cognitive tasks to personality traits. Thus, the interplays between cognition and personality are still unclear. We therefore investigated the relationships between an important aspect of cognition, learning, and personality, by exposing young and adult red junglefowl (Gallus gallus) to multiple learning tasks (discriminative, reversal, and spatial learning) and personality assays (novel arena, novel object, and tonic immobility). Learning speed was not correlated across learning tasks, and learning speed in discrimination and spatial learning tasks did not co-vary with personality. However, learning speed in reversal tasks was associated with individual variation in exploration, and in an age-dependent manner. More explorative chicks learned the reversal task faster than less explorative ones, while the opposite association was found for adult females (learning speed could not be assayed in adult males). In the same reversal tasks, we also observed a sex difference in learning speed of chicks, with females learning faster than males. Our results suggest that the relationship between cognition and personality is complex, as shown by its task- and age-dependence, and encourage further investigation of the causality and dynamics of this relationship.

  • 280.
    Zidar, Josefina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sorato, Enrico
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Malmqvist, Ann-Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jansson, Emelie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rosher, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Favati, Anna
    Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Løvlie, Hanne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Early experience affects adult personality in the red junglefowl: a role for cognitive stimulation?2017In: Behavioural Processes, ISSN 0376-6357, E-ISSN 1872-8308, Vol. 134, p. 78-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite intense research efforts, biologists are still puzzled by the existence of animal personality. While recent studies support a link between cognition and personality, the directionality of this relationship still needs to be clarified. Early-life experiences can affect adult behaviour, and among these, cognitive stimulation has been suggested theoretically to influence personality. Yet, the influence of early cognitive stimulation has rarely been explored in empirical investigations of animal behaviour and personality. We investigated the effect of early cognitive stimulation on adult personality in the red junglefowl (Gallus gallus). To this end, we assessed adult behaviour across a number of personality assays and compared behaviour of individuals previously exposed to a series of learning tasks as chicks, with that of control individuals lacking this experience. We found that individuals exposed to early stimulation as adults were more vigilant and performed fewer escape attempts in personality assays. Other behaviours describing personality traits in the fowl were not affected. We conclude that our results support the hypothesis that early stimulation can affect aspects of adult behaviour and personality, suggesting a hitherto underappreciated causality link between cognition and personality. Future research should aim to confirm these findings and resolve their underlying dynamics and proximate mechanisms.

  • 281.
    Zupan, Manja
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Animal Environment and Health, Box 7068, Uppsala, SE-750 07, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Buskas, Julia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Altimiras, Jordi
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Keeling, Linda J.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Animal Environment and Health, Box 7068, Uppsala, SE-750 07, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Assessing positive emotional states in dogs using heart rate and heartrate variability2016In: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 155, p. 102-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since most animal species have been recognized as sentient beings, emotional state may be a good indicator ofwelfare in animals. The goal of this study was to manipulate the environment of nine beagle research dogs tohighlight physiological responses indicative of different emotional experiences. Stimuli were selected to be amore or a less positive food (meatball or food pellet) or social reward (familiar person or less familiar person).That all the stimuli were positive and of different reward value was confirmed in a runway motivation test.Dogs were tested individually while standing facing a display theatre where the different stimuli could beshown by lifting a shutter. The dogs approached and remained voluntarily in the test system. They were testedin four sessions (of 20 s each) for each of the four stimuli. A test session consisted of four presentation phases(1st exposure to stimulus, post exposure, 2nd exposure, and access to reward). Heart rate (HR) and heart ratevariability (HRV) responses were recorded during testing in the experimental room and also when lying restingin a quiet familiar room. A newmethod of ‘stitching’ short periods of HRV data together was used in the analysis.When testing different stimuli, no significant differenceswere observed in HR and LF:HF ratio (relative power inlow frequency (LF) and the high-frequency (HF) range), implying that the sympathetic tone was activated similarlyfor all the stimuli and may suggest that dogs were in a state of positive arousal. A decrease of HF was associatedwith the meatball stimulus compared to the food pellet and the reward phase (interacting with the personor eating the food) was associated with a decrease in HF and RMSSD (root mean square of successive differencesof inter-beat intervals) compared to the preceding phase (looking at the person or food). This suggests that parasympatheticdeactivation is associated with a more positive emotional state in the dog. A similar reduction in HFandRMSSDwas found in the test situation compared to the resting situation. This is congruentwith the expectedautonomic effects related to postural shift i.e. sympathetic activation and parasympathetic withdrawal, duringstanding versus lying, but it cannot explain the parasympathetic deactivation in response to the more positivestimuli since the dogs were always standing in the test situation.Wediscuss the systematic pattern of responses,which support that increased HRand LF:HF ratio are associatedwithemotional arousal, but add the newproposalthat a combined decrease inRMSSD and HFmay reflect a more positively valencedemotional state evenwhen anindividual is already in a positive psychological state.

  • 282.
    Åman, Isabelle
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Störningar i ledarhundens arbete: Orsak och konsekvenser2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aggression is a common behavior among many species and can be signaled through both vocalization and visual signals. The behavior may be based on dominance, competition for a partner or because the individual defends a resource or a territory. Around 15 000 years ago the wolf Canis lupus was domesticated, which resulted in the subspecies dog Canis familiaris and through an extensive breeding program there are currently over 400 recognized breeds. In Sweden there are about 300 active guide dogs in service and every year around 40 new dogs are trained, that will come to work for a guide dog owner. The aim of this study was to see to which frequency and in what way guide dogs for the visually impaired are disturbed when they are on duty out in public places. In order to collect data a survey was conducted, where 18 guide dog owners described one to two typical situations of disturbance from other dogs, which occurs when the guide dog are on duty. Nearly 90 percent of the guide dog owners reported that one or more disturbance had occurred, where lunges was the most common type of disturbance followed by active play and attack. The majority of the affected guide dogs in this study were males of the breed Labrador retriever. Several of the guide dogs got mental and/or physical injuries due to the disturbance and had to be taken out of duty temporarily. The attacks may have been based on a lack of communication between the dogs. The results are based on a limited sample, therefore they may not be representative of the situation for the entire Swedish guide dog population but it is possible to sense a problem. This study is the first of its kind to be carried out in Sweden and leaves room for further research. 

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